Beyond Good and Evil with English-German Dictionary by Friedrich Nietzsche (online free books)

Jenseits von Gut und Böse  mit einem zweisprachigen Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch (best ebooks to read)

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Beyond Good and Evil Text

beyond - darüber hinaus; jenseits

evil - böse; Sünde, übel, üblen, Ăśbel


preface - Vorwort, Vorrede

SUPPOSING that Truth is a woman"what then? Is there not ground for suspecting that all philosophers, in so far as they have been dogmatists, have failed to understand women"that the terrible seriousness and clumsy importunity with which they have usually paid their addresses to Truth, have been unskilled and unseemly methods for winning a woman? Certainly she has never allowed herself to be won; and at present every kind of dogma stands with sad and discouraged mien"IF, indeed, it stands at all! For there are scoffers who maintain that it has fallen, that all dogma lies on the ground"nay more, that it is at its last gasp. But to speak seriously, there are good grounds for hoping that all dogmatizing in philosophy, whatever solemn, whatever conclusive and decided airs it has assumed, may have been only a noble puerilism and tyronism; and probably the time is at hand when it will be once and again understood WHAT has actually sufficed for the basis of such imposing and absolute philosophical edifices as the dogmatists have hitherto reared: perhaps some popular superstition of immemorial time (such as the soul-superstition, which, in the form of subject- and ego-superstition, has not yet ceased doing mischief): perhaps some play upon words, a deception on the part of grammar, or an audacious generalization of very restricted, very personal, very human"all-too-human facts. The philosophy of the dogmatists, it is to be hoped, was only a promise for thousands of years afterwards, as was astrology in still earlier times, in the service of which probably more labour, gold, acuteness, and patience have been spent than on any actual science hitherto: we owe to it, and to its "super-terrestrial" pretensions in Asia and Egypt, the grand style of architecture. It seems that in order to inscribe themselves upon the heart of humanity with everlasting claims, all great things have first to wander about the earth as enormous and awe-inspiring caricatures: dogmatic philosophy has been a caricature of this kind"for instance, the Vedanta doctrine in Asia, and Platonism in Europe.

suspecting - vermuten, misstrauen, verdächtigen, einen Verdacht haben

philosophers - Philosophen; Philosoph, Philosophin

dogmatists - Dogmatiker

seriousness - Ernsthaftigkeit

clumsy - tollpatschig, ungeschickt, unbeholfen, schwerfällig

importunity - Aufdringlichkeit, ständiges Bedrängen, Ungelegenheit

unskilled - ungelernt

unseemly - ungehörig; unpassend, unangebracht, unschicklich

discouraged - entmutigt; entmutigen, abschrecken, abraten, abraten von

mien - Miene

scoffers - Spötter

maintain - unterhalten, warten, beibehalten, aufrechterhalten

Nay - Nein; oder sogar

gasp - keuchen; japsen, prusten, Atemzug, Luftholen

Philosophy - Philosophie

solemn - feierlich; ernst

conclusive - schlüssig

assumed - angenommen; annehmen, voraussetzen, vermuten, unterstellen

noble - edel; Adeliger, Adliger, Adelige, Adlige

puerilism - Puerilismus

tyronism - Tyrannei

sufficed - genügte; ausreichen, genügen, genug sein, reichen

imposing - imposant; auferlegen, aufzwingen, auferlegen

absolute - absolut; rein

philosophical - philosophisch

edifices - Bauten; Bauwerk

hitherto - bis zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt, bis jetzt, bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt

reared - aufgezogen; Hinter.., hinterster, Heck, Rück..

superstition - Aberglaube

immemorial - seit Menschengedenken

soul - Inbrunst, Seele, Gefühl, Herz

ego - Ich, Ego

ceased - eingestellt; aufhören, aufhören, einstellen

mischief - Unfug, Unheil, Querulantentum

deception - Betrug, Betrügerei, Täuschung

Grammar - Grammatik, Sprachlehre, Grammatiktheorie

audacious - kühn

generalization - Verallgemeinerung, Generalisierung, Bedeutungserweiterung

restricted - eingeschränkt; beschränken, begrenzen

astrology - Astrologie

labour - Arbeit; Arbeiter; gebären; arbeiten

acuteness - Schärfe; Akuität

patience - Geduld

actual - tatsächlich, konkret, gegenwärtig, aktuell

owe - schulden, schuldig sein

terrestrial - irdisch, terrestrisch, Erde

pretensions - Anmaßungen; Anspruch, Ăśberheblichkeit, Anmaßung

Asia - Asien

grand - großartig, prächtig, groß, bedeutend

inscribe - einschreiben; beschriften

humanity - die Menschheit; Menschheit; Humanität, Menschlichkeit

everlasting - ewig; endlos

wander about - herumwandern, herumziehen, umherirren

awe - Ehrfurcht; Staunen; einschüchtern

inspiring - inspirierend; inspirieren, inspirieren, beatmen, einhauchen

caricatures - Karikaturen; Karikatur, Karikatur, Zerrbild

dogmatic - dogmatisch

instance - Beispiel, Fall, Instanz

doctrine - Doktrin; Lehre

Platonism - Platonismus

Let us not be ungrateful to it, although it must certainly be confessed that the worst, the most tiresome, and the most dangerous of errors hitherto has been a dogmatist error"namely, Plato's invention of Pure Spirit and the Good in Itself. But now when it has been surmounted, when Europe, rid of this nightmare, can again draw breath freely and at least enjoy a healthier"sleep, we, WHOSE DUTY IS WAKEFULNESS ITSELF, are the heirs of all the strength which the struggle against this error has fostered. It amounted to the very inversion of truth, and the denial of the PERSPECTIVE"the fundamental condition"of life, to speak of Spirit and the Good as Plato spoke of them; indeed one might ask, as a physician: "How did such a malady attack that finest product of antiquity, Plato? Had the wicked Socrates really corrupted him? Was Socrates after all a corrupter of youths, and deserved his hemlock?" But the struggle against Plato, or"to speak plainer, and for the "people""the struggle against the ecclesiastical oppression of millenniums of Christianity (FOR CHRISTIANITY IS PLATONISM FOR THE "PEOPLE"), produced in Europe a magnificent tension of soul, such as had not existed anywhere previously; with such a tensely strained bow one can now aim at the furthest goals. As a matter of fact, the European feels this tension as a state of distress, and twice attempts have been made in grand style to unbend the bow: once by means of Jesuitism, and the second time by means of democratic enlightenment"which, with the aid of liberty of the press and newspaper-reading, might, in fact, bring it about that the spirit would not so easily find itself in "distress"! (The Germans invented gunpowder"all credit to them! but they again made things square"they invented printing.) But we, who are neither Jesuits, nor democrats, nor even sufficiently Germans, we GOOD EUROPEANS, and free, VERY free spirits"we have it still, all the distress of spirit and all the tension of its bow! And perhaps also the arrow, the duty, and, who knows? THE GOAL TO AIM AT....

ungrateful to - undankbar gegen

confessed - gestanden; gestehen, bekennen, verraten, beichten

tiresome - lästig

dogmatist - Dogmatiker

namely - und zwar, nämlich

Plato - Plato, Platon

pure - bloß, rein

surmounted - Überwunden; überwinden

rid - loswerden; befreien

nightmare - Albtraum, Alptraum

freely - frei

wakefulness - Wachsamkeit, Aufmerksamkeit, Schlaflosigkeit, Wachheit

heirs - Erben; Erbe, Erbin, Thronerbe

Struggle - Kämpfen; Kampf, Gefecht, sich durchbeißen, sich schwer tun

fostered - aufgezogen; aufziehen, pflegen

inversion of truth - Verkehrung der Wahrheit

denial - Verweigerung; Leugnung, Dementi, Bestreitung, Abstreitung

perspective - Aussicht; Perspektive

fundamental - Grundlage; grundlegend, fundamental, grundsätzlich

physician - Arzt, Ärztin, Mediziner, Medizinerin

malady - Krankheit, Übel

antiquity - der Antike; Antike, Altertum

wicked - verrucht; böse; (wick) verrucht; böse

Socrates - Sokrates

corrupted - korrumpiert; korrupt, verderben, korrumpieren

corrupter - Verderber; (corrupt); korrupt; verderben, korrumpieren

deserved - Verdient; verdienen

hemlock - Schierling

plainer - schlichter; unscheinbar, einfach, vollständige, ehrlich

Ecclesiastical - kirchlich, sakral, Sakral-

oppression - Unterdrückung

millenniums - Jahrtausenden; Jahrtausend

Christianity - Christentum

magnificent - großartig; prächtig; ausgezeichnet

tension - Spannung

tensely - angespannt

strained - angespannt; Spannung, starke Inanspruchnahme, Zug; anstrengen

bow - verbeugen; Verneigung (vor), Verbeugung; Bogen, Bug (Schiff)

distress - Kummer, Bedrängnis, Drangsal, Bekümmerung, Not

attempts - versuchen, Versuch, Bestreben

unbend - aufklappen

Jesuitism - Jesuitismus

democratic - demokratisch

enlightenment - Erleuchtung; Aufklärung

aid - Hilfsmittel, Hilfe, Mithilfe; helfen, beispringen

liberty - Freiheit

Germans - Deutscher, Deutscher, Deutsche, Germane, Germanin, Achtelcicero

gunpowder - Schießpulver

Jesuits - Jesuiten; Jesuit

democrats - Demokraten; Demokrat, Demokratin, Demokrat, Demokratin

sufficiently - ausreichend; hinreichend, genügend, zureichende

arrow - Richtungspfeil, Pfeil

Sils Maria Upper Engadine, JUNE, 1885.


prejudices - Vorurteile; Vorurteil

1. The Will to Truth, which is to tempt us to many a hazardous enterprise, the famous Truthfulness of which all philosophers have hitherto spoken with respect, what questions has this Will to Truth not laid before us! What strange, perplexing, questionable questions! It is already a long story; yet it seems as if it were hardly commenced. Is it any wonder if we at last grow distrustful, lose patience, and turn impatiently away? That this Sphinx teaches us at last to ask questions ourselves? WHO is it really that puts questions to us here? WHAT really is this "Will to Truth" in us? In fact we made a long halt at the question as to the origin of this Will"until at last we came to an absolute standstill before a yet more fundamental question.

tempt - in Versuchung führen, versuchen, locken

hazardous - gefährlich

enterprise - Unternehmen; Unterfangen, Vorhaben, Unternehmungsgeist

truthfulness - Wahrhaftigkeit

perplexing - verwirrend; verwirren

questionable - fragwürdig

commenced - begonnen; anfangen, beginnen

distrustful - misstrauisch

impatiently - Ungeduldig

sphinx - Sphinx

halt - anhalten; unterbrechen, halten; Halt

origin - Ursprung, Anfang, Entstehung, Quelle, Herkunft

standstill - Stillstand

We inquired about the VALUE of this Will. Granted that we want the truth: WHY NOT RATHER untruth? And uncertainty? Even ignorance? The problem of the value of truth presented itself before us"or was it we who presented ourselves before the problem? Which of us is the Oedipus here? Which the Sphinx? It would seem to be a rendezvous of questions and notes of interrogation. And could it be believed that it at last seems to us as if the problem had never been propounded before, as if we were the first to discern it, get a sight of it, and RISK RAISING it? For there is risk in raising it, perhaps there is no greater risk.

inquired - nachgefragt; erkundigen

granted - gewährt; gewähren, erteilen, bewilligen

untruth - Unwahrheit

uncertainty - Unsicherheit, Ungewissheit

ignorance - Unwissenheit, Unwissen, Nichtwissen

Oedipus - Ödipus

rendezvous - Rendezvous; erman: sich treffen

interrogation - Verhör; Befragung

propounded - vorgebracht; vorlegen, vorschlagen

discern - erkennen, wahrnehmen, bemerken, feststellen

2. "HOW COULD anything originate out of its opposite? For example, truth out of error? or the Will to Truth out of the will to deception? or the generous deed out of selfishness? or the pure sun-bright vision of the wise man out of covetousness? Such genesis is impossible; whoever dreams of it is a fool, nay, worse than a fool; things of the highest value must have a different origin, an origin of THEIR own"in this transitory, seductive, illusory, paltry world, in this turmoil of delusion and cupidity, they cannot have their source. But rather in the lap of Being, in the intransitory, in the concealed God, in the 'Thing-in-itself"THERE must be their source, and nowhere else!""This mode of reasoning discloses the typical prejudice by which metaphysicians of all times can be recognized, this mode of valuation is at the back of all their logical procedure; through this "belief" of theirs, they exert themselves for their "knowledge," for something that is in the end solemnly christened "the Truth." The fundamental belief of metaphysicians is THE BELIEF IN ANTITHESES OF VALUES. It never occurred even to the wariest of them to doubt here on the very threshold (where doubt, however, was most necessary); though they had made a solemn vow, "DE OMNIBUS DUBITANDUM." For it may be doubted, firstly, whether antitheses exist at all; and secondly, whether the popular valuations and antitheses of value upon which metaphysicians have set their seal, are not perhaps merely superficial estimates, merely provisional perspectives, besides being probably made from some corner, perhaps from below""frog perspectives," as it were, to borrow an expression current among painters. In spite of all the value which may belong to the true, the positive, and the unselfish, it might be possible that a higher and more fundamental value for life generally should be assigned to pretence, to the will to delusion, to selfishness, and cupidity.

originate - entwickeln, erzeugen, entstehen, entspringen

deed - Tat, Akt, Werk, Urkunde, urkundlich übertragen; (dee); Tat, Akt

selfishness - Egoismus, Selbstsucht

wise - weise; klug, vernünftig

covetousness - Begehrlichkeit; Habsucht, Gier

Genesis - Genese, Genesis

Whoever - wer immer, wer auch immer

fool - dumme Gans, Dummkopf, Narr, Närrin

seductive - verführerisch

illusory - illusorisch

paltry - geringfügig, dürftig, mager, armselig, schäbig

turmoil - Aufruhr, Tumult, Unruhe, Unordnung

delusion - Täuschung, Irreführung, Wahn, Wahnvorstellung

cupidity - Habgier

lap - Schoß

intransitory - unüberwindbar

concealed - versteckt; verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen

mode - Betriebsart, Betrieb, Modus, Art

discloses - offenbart; enthüllen, veröffentlichen, bekanntgeben

prejudice - Vorurteile; Vorurteil, Voreingenommenheit, vorgefasste Meinung

metaphysicians - Metaphysiker, Metaphysikerin

valuation - Bewertung

logical - logisch

procedure - Verfahren, Verfahrensweise, [medizinischer] Eingriff, Prozess

exert - anstrengen; ausüben

solemnly - feierlich, festlich, ernst

christened - getauft; taufen, taufen

antitheses - Antithesen; Antithese

wariest - am gefährlichsten; achtsam, umsichtig, vorsichtig, wachsam

threshold - Schwelle, Türschwelle

vow - Gelübde, Schwur, Eid, Gelöbnis, schwören

omnibus - Omnibus

seal - versiegeln;Siegel , Stempel , Seehund , Robbe ;sich etw. sichern;Plombe

merely - bloß, lediglich, nur, schier

superficial - oberflächlich

Estimates - Schätzungen; Schätzung, Abschätzung, Kostenvoranschlag

provisional - provisorisch, vorläufig

perspectives - Perspektiven; Aussicht, Perspektive, Perspektive, Perspektive

besides - Außerdem; neben, neben

spite - Bosheit; trotz

unselfish - selbstlos

assigned - zugewiesen; zuweisen, zuteilen, zuweisen

pretence - Vortäuschung; Vorwand

It might even be possible that WHAT constitutes the value of those good and respected things, consists precisely in their being insidiously related, knotted, and crocheted to these evil and apparently opposed things"perhaps even in being essentially identical with them. Perhaps! But who wishes to concern himself with such dangerous "Perhapses"! For that investigation one must await the advent of a new order of philosophers, such as will have other tastes and inclinations, the reverse of those hitherto prevalent"philosophers of the dangerous "Perhaps" in every sense of the term. And to speak in all seriousness, I see such new philosophers beginning to appear.

constitutes - ausmacht; gründen, begründen, bilden, einrichten

precisely - genau; präzise

insidiously - heimtückisch

knotted - verknotet; Knoten, Knäuel

crocheted - gehäkelt; Häkelarbeit, Häkeln

apparently - offensichtlich, offenbar, scheinbar, anscheinend

opposed - gegen; ablehnen, widersprechen

essentially - im Wesentlichen

identical - identisch; eineiig

concern - Bedenken; Sorge, Anliegen, Betroffenheit, Besorgnis, Konzern

investigation - Untersuchung

await - abwarten; erwarten, harren, warten

advent - Ankunft

inclinations - Neigungen; Neigung, Neigung

reverse - umkehren; invers, umgedreht, Kehrseite

prevalent - vorherrschend

3. Having kept a sharp eye on philosophers, and having read between their lines long enough, I now say to myself that the greater part of conscious thinking must be counted among the instinctive functions, and it is so even in the case of philosophical thinking; one has here to learn anew, as one learned anew about heredity and "innateness." As little as the act of birth comes into consideration in the whole process and procedure of heredity, just as little is "being-conscious" OPPOSED to the instinctive in any decisive sense; the greater part of the conscious thinking of a philosopher is secretly influenced by his instincts, and forced into definite channels.

sharp eye - Scharfblick

conscious - bei Bewusstsein, wach, aufmerksam

instinctive - instinktiv

anew - von neuem; erneut, abermals, neuerlich

heredity - Vererbung, Erblichkeit

innateness - Angeborenheit

consideration - Berücksichtigung; Erwägung, Überlegung, Rücksicht, Vergütung

decisive - entscheidend

philosopher - Philosophen; Philosoph, Philosophin

secretly - heimlich, insgeheim

instincts - Instinkte; Instinkt

And behind all logic and its seeming sovereignty of movement, there are valuations, or to speak more plainly, physiological demands, for the maintenance of a definite mode of life For example, that the certain is worth more than the uncertain, that illusion is less valuable than "truth" such valuations, in spite of their regulative importance for US, might notwithstanding be only superficial valuations, special kinds of niaiserie, such as may be necessary for the maintenance of beings such as ourselves. Supposing, in effect, that man is not just the "measure of things."

sovereignty - Souveränität, Hoheit, Eigenständigkeit, Landeshoheit

plainly - klar und deutlich; klar

physiological - physiologisch

demands - Forderungen; Nachfrage, Bedarf, Nachfrage, Anspruch, verlangen

maintenance - Instandhaltung, Wartung, Unterhalt

uncertain - unsicher

illusion - Illusion, Wahnvorstellung, Sinnestäuschung

regulative - regulativ

notwithstanding - ungeachtet dessen

beings - Wesen

4. The falseness of an opinion is not for us any objection to it: it is here, perhaps, that our new language sounds most strangely. The question is, how far an opinion is life-furthering, life-preserving, species-preserving, perhaps species-rearing, and we are fundamentally inclined to maintain that the falsest opinions (to which the synthetic judgments a priori belong), are the most indispensable to us, that without a recognition of logical fictions, without a comparison of reality with the purely IMAGINED world of the absolute and immutable, without a constant counterfeiting of the world by means of numbers, man could not live"that the renunciation of false opinions would be a renunciation of life, a negation of life.

falseness - Falschheit

objection - Beanstandung; Einwand, Widerspruch, Einspruch

strangely - seltsame, merkwürdige

preserving - Konservieren; Konserve, Eingemachtes

species - Arten; Hartgeld

rearing - Aufzucht; Hinter.., hinterster, Heck, Rück..

fundamentally - grundlegend

inclined - geneigt; neigen, neigen, neigen, Neigung, Anstieg, Gefälle

synthetic - synthetisch

judgments - Urteile; Urteil

most indispensable - unabkömmlichste

recognition - Erkennen, Wiedererkennen, Erkennung, Anerkennung

purely - rein, bloß

immutable - unveränderlich

constant - beständig, konstant, regelmäßig, stetig

counterfeiting - Fälschungen; gefälscht, nachgemacht, unecht, Falsch-, falsch

renunciation - Entsagung; Verzicht

negation - Verneinung, Negierung, Negation

TO RECOGNISE UNTRUTH AS A CONDITION OF LIFE; that is certainly to impugn the traditional ideas of value in a dangerous manner, and a philosophy which ventures to do so, has thereby alone placed itself beyond good and evil.

recognise - anerkennen

impugn - anklagen; angreifen; widersprechen, bestreiten, anfechten

ventures - Unternehmungen; Wagnis

thereby - dabei; dadurch, damit, deswegen, darum

5. That which causes philosophers to be regarded half-distrustfully and half-mockingly, is not the oft-repeated discovery how innocent they are"how often and easily they make mistakes and lose their way, in short, how childish and childlike they are,"but that there is not enough honest dealing with them, whereas they all raise a loud and virtuous outcry when the problem of truthfulness is even hinted at in the remotest manner. They all pose as though their real opinions had been discovered and attained through the self-evolving of a cold, pure, divinely indifferent dialectic (in contrast to all sorts of mystics, who, fairer and foolisher, talk of "inspiration"), whereas, in fact, a prejudiced proposition, idea, or "suggestion," which is generally their heart's desire abstracted and refined, is defended by them with arguments sought out after the event. They are all advocates who do not wish to be regarded as such, generally astute defenders, also, of their prejudices, which they dub "truths,""and VERY far from having the conscience which bravely admits this to itself, very far from having the good taste of the courage which goes so far as to let this be understood, perhaps to warn friend or foe, or in cheerful confidence and self-ridicule. The spectacle of the Tartuffery of old Kant, equally stiff and decent, with which he entices us into the dialectic by-ways that lead (more correctly mislead) to his "categorical imperative""makes us fastidious ones smile, we who find no small amusement in spying out the subtle tricks of old moralists and ethical preachers.

regarded - betrachtet; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

distrustfully - misstrauisch

mockingly - spöttisch

childish - kindgerecht; kindisch

childlike - kindlich

whereas - wohingegen, wogegen, während, wobei

virtuous - züchtig, tugendhaft, tugendsam

outcry - Schrei; Aufschrei, Sturm der Entrüstung

hinted - angedeutet; Hinweis, Tipp, Wink, Fingerzeig, Anleitung

pose - Pose; aufwerfen, posieren, posen

attained - erlangt; erreichen, erlangen

self - Selbst

evolving - sich entwickeln; andauern, fortdauern, verändern, entwickeln

divinely - göttlich

indifferent - gleichgültig

Dialectic - Dialektik; dialektisch

mystics - mystisch, mystisch, Mystiker, Mystikerin

foolisher - Dummkopf; dumm, närrisch, töricht, dumm, töricht, q

inspiration - Einatmung, Einatmen, Einschnaufen, göttliche Eingebung

prejudiced - Vorurteil

proposition - Vorschlag; Satz

desire - begehren; Begehren, Wunsch

abstracted - abstrahiert; Auszug, Zusammenfassung, abstrakt, abstrakt

refined - verfeinert; verfeinern

defended - verteidigt; verteidigen

sought - gesucht; suchen

advocates - Befürworter; Rechtsanwalt, Rechtsanwältin, Verteidiger

astute - gerissen, listig, scharfsinnig

defenders - Verteidiger, Verteidigerin, Verteidiger

Dub - titulieren

conscience - Gewissen

bravely - mutig; tapfer, artig

courage - Courage, Herz, Mut, Tapferkeit

foe - Feind

confidence - Selbstgewissheit; Zuversicht; Vertrauen, Zutrauen

ridicule - lächerlich machen; verhöhnen, verspotten; Spott

spectacle - Spektakel, Schauspiel

stiff - steif, starr, Steifer, Zechpreller, prellen, abspeisen

decent - anständig, sittsam, (ganz) anständig

entices - verlockt; locken, verführen

mislead - in die Irre führen, irreführen

categorical - kategorisch

imperative - zwingend erforderlich; essenziell, essentiell, notwendig

fastidious - Anspruchsvoll; pedantisch, manisch

amusement - Belustigung; Amüsement

spying out - (spy out) ausspionieren, ausspähen, auskundschaften

subtle - subtil, fast unmerklich, haarfein, dezent

Moralists - Moralisten; Moralist, Moralistin

ethical - ethisch

preachers - Prediger

Or, still more so, the hocus-pocus in mathematical form, by means of which Spinoza has, as it were, clad his philosophy in mail and mask"in fact, the "love of HIS wisdom," to translate the term fairly and squarely"in order thereby to strike terror at once into the heart of the assailant who should dare to cast a glance on that invincible maiden, that Pallas Athene:"how much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray!

hocus - Hokuspokus; hocus

mathematical - mathematisch; rechnerisch

mask - Maske; abkleben (zum Schutz); abdecken, maskieren

wisdom - Weisheit

squarely - quadratisch, rechteckig, fest, felsenfest, direkt

strike - streichen; schlagen; prägen; streiken; scheinen; die Fahne streichen; Strike; Streik; Schlag

terror - Schrecken, Grauen, schreckliche Furcht, Terror

assailant - Angreifer

dare - sich getrauen, wagen, jemanden herausfordern

cast - werfen; wegwerfen, hinwerfen, gießen, Cast, Besetzung, Ensemble

glance - blicken; Blick, Streifblick, Glanz, Steinkohle

invincible - unbesiegbar

maiden - Jungfrau

Athene - Athen

timidity - Schüchternheit; Furchtsamkeit

vulnerability - Verwundbarkeit, Verletzbarkeit, Verletzlichkeit, Vulnerabilität

masquerade - Maskenspiel, Maskerade

sickly - kränklich

recluse - Zurückgezogen; Einsiedler

betray - verraten; im Stich lassen, von etwas zeugen, verleiten

6. It has gradually become clear to me what every great philosophy up till now has consisted of"namely, the confession of its originator, and a species of involuntary and unconscious auto-biography; and moreover that the moral (or immoral) purpose in every philosophy has constituted the true vital germ out of which the entire plant has always grown. Indeed, to understand how the abstrusest metaphysical assertions of a philosopher have been arrived at, it is always well (and wise) to first ask oneself: "What morality do they (or does he) aim at?" Accordingly, I do not believe that an "impulse to knowledge" is the father of philosophy; but that another impulse, here as elsewhere, has only made use of knowledge (and mistaken knowledge!) as an instrument. But whoever considers the fundamental impulses of man with a view to determining how far they may have here acted as INSPIRING GENII (or as demons and cobolds), will find that they have all practiced philosophy at one time or another, and that each one of them would have been only too glad to look upon itself as the ultimate end of existence and the legitimate LORD over all the other impulses.

gradually - nach und nach, allmählich, stufenweise, schrittweise

till now - bis jetzt

confession - Bekenntnis, Eingeständnis, Beichte

originator - der Urheber; Verursacher, Urheber

involuntary - unabsichtlich, unwillkürlich, ungewollt, unfreiwillig

unconscious - bewusstlos; spontan, unbewusst, unterbewusst, Unbewusstes

Auto - Personenkraftwagen (PKW), Personenwagen

biography - Biografie

Moreover - außerdem, überdies, des Weiteren, obendrein

immoral - unmoralisch

constituted - konstituiert; gründen, begründen, bilden, einrichten

vital - Leben

germ - Keim

entire - vollständig; ganz, gesamt

abstrusest - am abstrusesten; abstrus, unfassbar

metaphysical - metaphysisch

assertions - Behauptungen; Versicherung, Zusicherung, Behauptung, Beteuerung

oneself - sich selbst; selbst, sich

morality - Moral, Moralität

accordingly - dementsprechend; logischerweise

elsewhere - anderswo

impulses - Impulsen; Impuls, Triebkraft, Drang, innerer Antrieb, Kraftstoß

genii - Genie

demons - Dämonen; Dämon, Teufel, Dämon

ultimate - letzter, ultimativ, äußerster

existence - Existenz, Dasein

legitimate - rechtmäßig; gültig; legitim

Lord - Gebieter; Herr; herrschen

For every impulse is imperious, and as SUCH, attempts to philosophize. To be sure, in the case of scholars, in the case of really scientific men, it may be otherwise""better," if you will; there there may really be such a thing as an "impulse to knowledge," some kind of small, independent clock-work, which, when well wound up, works away industriously to that end, WITHOUT the rest of the scholarly impulses taking any material part therein. The actual "interests" of the scholar, therefore, are generally in quite another direction"in the family, perhaps, or in money-making, or in politics; it is, in fact, almost indifferent at what point of research his little machine is placed, and whether the hopeful young worker becomes a good philologist, a mushroom specialist, or a chemist; he is not CHARACTERISED by becoming this or that. In the philosopher, on the contrary, there is absolutely nothing impersonal; and above all, his morality furnishes a decided and decisive testimony as to WHO HE IS,"that is to say, in what order the deepest impulses of his nature stand to each other.

impulse - Anstoß; Impuls, Triebkraft, Drang, innerer Antrieb, Kraftstoß

imperious - Herrschsüchtig

philosophize - philosophieren

scholars - Student, Schüler, Schülerin, Studentin, Gelehrter, Gelehrter

otherwise - sonst

wound - anschießen, verwunden

industriously - fleißig

scholarly - gelehrt, wissenschaftlich

Therein - darin

hopeful - hoffnungsvoll

philologist - Philologe, Philologin

mushroom - Pilz, Schwamm, wuchern, Pilze ernten, Pilze sammeln

chemist - Chemiker, Chemikerin

characterised - charakterisiert; charakterisieren

contrary - entgegengesetzt, gegenläufig, entgegenstehend, ungünstig

impersonal - unpersönlich

furnishes - einrichtet; möblieren, einrichten, ausrüsten

testimony - Zeugenaussagen; Zeugnis, Zeugenaussage, Testimonium

7. How malicious philosophers can be! I know of nothing more stinging than the joke Epicurus took the liberty of making on Plato and the Platonists; he called them Dionysiokolakes. In its original sense, and on the face of it, the word signifies "Flatterers of Dionysius""consequently, tyrants'accessories and lick-spittles; besides this, however, it is as much as to say, "They are all ACTORS, there is nothing genuine about them" (for Dionysiokolax was a popular name for an actor). And the latter is really the malignant reproach that Epicurus cast upon Plato: he was annoyed by the grandiose manner, the mise en scene style of which Plato and his scholars were masters"of which Epicurus was not a master!

malicious - bösartig

stinging - stechend; (sting) Stachel, brennender Schmerz

Epicurus - Epikur

signifies - bedeutet; bedeuten

flatterers - Schmeichler, Schmeichlerin

consequently - folglich

tyrants - Tyrannen; Tyrann, Tyrannin, Tyrann, Tyrannin, Tyrann, de

accessories - Zubehörsatz, zusätzlich, Zusatz

lick - schlecken, lecken; flitzen

spittles - Spucknäpfe; Speichel

genuine - echt, original, genuin

malignant - bösartig, malign

reproach - Vorwürfe; Vorwurf; Schande; vorwerfen

grandiose - grandios; großartig, bombastisch

masters - Haupt.., Grund, Meister, führend, leitend; bewältigen, meistern

He, the old school-teacher of Samos, who sat concealed in his little garden at Athens, and wrote three hundred books, perhaps out of rage and ambitious envy of Plato, who knows! Greece took a hundred years to find out who the garden-god Epicurus really was. Did she ever find out?

Athens - Athen

rage - Wut, Zorn, Raserei, Rage, wüten

envy - Neid; beneiden

Greece - Griechenland

8. There is a point in every philosophy at which the "conviction" of the philosopher appears on the scene; or, to put it in the words of an ancient mystery:

conviction - Überzeugung; Verurteilung

Adventavit asinus, Pulcher et fortissimus.

et - und

9. You desire to LIVE "according to Nature"? Oh, you noble Stoics, what fraud of words! Imagine to yourselves a being like Nature, boundlessly extravagant, boundlessly indifferent, without purpose or consideration, without pity or justice, at once fruitful and barren and uncertain: imagine to yourselves INDIFFERENCE as a power"how COULD you live in accordance with such indifference? To live"is not that just endeavouring to be otherwise than this Nature? Is not living valuing, preferring, being unjust, being limited, endeavouring to be different? And granted that your imperative, "living according to Nature," means actually the same as "living according to life""how could you do DIFFERENTLY? Why should you make a principle out of what you yourselves are, and must be? In reality, however, it is quite otherwise with you: while you pretend to read with rapture the canon of your law in Nature, you want something quite the contrary, you extraordinary stage-players and self-deluders! In your pride you wish to dictate your morals and ideals to Nature, to Nature herself, and to incorporate them therein; you insist that it shall be Nature "according to the Stoa," and would like everything to be made after your own image, as a vast, eternal glorification and generalism of Stoicism!

Stoics - Stoiker, Stoiker, stoisch, stoisch, stoisch

fraud - Betrug, Schwindel, Hochstapelei, Betrüger, Betrügerin

boundlessly - grenzenlose, grenzenlos

pity - Mitleid; schade; bemitleiden, Mitleid haben mit

justice - Gerechtigkeit, Genugtuung, Justiz

fruitful - fruchtbar

barren - steril, unfruchtbar, dürr, karg, ausgetrocknet

indifference - Gleichgültigkeit

accordance - Übereinstimmung

endeavouring - anstreben; sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung

unjust - ungerecht

principle - Grundsatz, Prinzip, Naturgesetz

rapture - Entrückung; Ekstase, Taumel, Verzückung, Entzücken

Canon - Kanon; Stiftsherr, Domherr (kirchlich)

extraordinary - außerordentlich, außergewöhnlich

players - Spieler, Spielerin, Schauspieler, Spieler, Spieler, Spieler

deluders - Täuscher; Vormacher

pride - Hochmut; Stolz, Trotz, Dünkel, Machtbewusstsein, Rudel

dictate - Diktat, Gebot, diktieren, bestimmen, vorschreiben

morals - moralisch, moralisch, sittlich, moralisch, moralisch, Moral

incorporate - einbeziehen; zusammenschließen, vereinigen, aufnehmen

insist - darauf bestehen; auf , bestehen

vast - riesig; beträchtlich, weit, ausgedehnt, enorm

eternal - ewig

glorification - Verherrlichung; Glorifizierung

generalism - Generalismus

stoicism - Stoizismus

With all your love for truth, you have forced yourselves so long, so persistently, and with such hypnotic rigidity to see Nature FALSELY, that is to say, Stoically, that you are no longer able to see it otherwise"and to crown all, some unfathomable superciliousness gives you the Bedlamite hope that BECAUSE you are able to tyrannize over yourselves"Stoicism is self-tyranny"Nature will also allow herself to be tyrannized over: is not the Stoic a PART of Nature?... But this is an old and everlasting story: what happened in old times with the Stoics still happens today, as soon as ever a philosophy begins to believe in itself. It always creates the world in its own image; it cannot do otherwise; philosophy is this tyrannical impulse itself, the most spiritual Will to Power, the will to "creation of the world," the will to the causa prima.

persistently - beharrliche, beharrlich

hypnotic - hypnotisch; einschläfernd, Schlaf

rigidity - Starrheit; Festigkeit

falsely - fälschlicherweise, falsch

stoically - stoisch

crown - Zenit; krönen; Bombage (ballige Fläche), Zahnkrone; Baumkrone

unfathomable - undurchschaubar

superciliousness - Hochmütigkeit

tyranny - Tyrannenherrschaft, Tyrannei

tyrannized - tyrannisiert; tyrannisieren

tyrannical - tyrannisch

spiritual - spirituell; geistig

creation - Erfindung, Werk, Kreation, Schöpfung

Prima - die Primaballerina

10. The eagerness and subtlety, I should even say craftiness, with which the problem of "the real and the apparent world" is dealt with at present throughout Europe, furnishes food for thought and attention; and he who hears only a "Will to Truth" in the background, and nothing else, cannot certainly boast of the sharpest ears. In rare and isolated cases, it may really have happened that such a Will to Truth"a certain extravagant and adventurous pluck, a metaphysician's ambition of the forlorn hope"has participated therein: that which in the end always prefers a handful of "certainty" to a whole cartload of beautiful possibilities; there may even be puritanical fanatics of conscience, who prefer to put their last trust in a sure nothing, rather than in an uncertain something. But that is Nihilism, and the sign of a despairing, mortally wearied soul, notwithstanding the courageous bearing such a virtue may display. It seems, however, to be otherwise with stronger and livelier thinkers who are still eager for life. In that they side AGAINST appearance, and speak superciliously of "perspective," in that they rank the credibility of their own bodies about as low as the credibility of the ocular evidence that "the earth stands still," and thus, apparently, allowing with complacency their securest possession to escape (for what does one at present believe in more firmly than in one's body?

eagerness - Ungeduld; Eifer

subtlety - Geschicklichkeit, Feinheit, Feinsinn, Feinsinnigkeit

craftiness - Schlauheit; List

apparent - offensichtlich; offenbar

boast - rühmen; stolz sein auf etw

isolated - isoliert; isolieren, absondern, abdichten

adventurous - abenteuerlich

pluck - pflücken, abrupfen, zupfen, schlagen, ausrupfen

metaphysician - Metaphysiker, Metaphysikerin

forlorn - verloren; verlassen; aussichtslos, hoffnungslos

handful - Handvoll; Handbreite

certainty - Gewissheit

cartload - Wagenladung; Fuhre, Ladung

puritanical - puritanisch

fanatics - fanatisch, Fanatiker, Fanatikerin

trust - Vertrauen, Hoffnung, Trust, anschreiben

nihilism - Nihilismus

despairing - verzweifelt; verzweifeln, Verzweiflung

mortally - tödlich; sterbliche

wearied - müde, müde

courageous - mutig

virtue - Tugend; Keuschheit

display - Anzeige; Vorführung, Vorstellung, Display, Monitor, Bildschirm

livelier - lebhafter; lebendig, munter (lebhaft), lebhaft, quirlig

thinkers - Denker, Denkerin, Denker, Denkerin

superciliously - hochmütig

rank - (sozialer) Stand, Rang, Dienstgrad

credibility - Glaubwürdigkeit

ocular - okulär; Auge

thus - also; auf diese Weise, so, demnach, folglich, dieses

complacency - Selbstgefälligkeit, Selbstzufriedenheit, Bequemlichkeit

securest - am sichersten; sicher, geschützt, beschützt, sicher, geschützt

firmly - sicher, fest

,"who knows if they are not really trying to win back something which was formerly an even securer possession, something of the old domain of the faith of former times, perhaps the "immortal soul," perhaps "the old God," in short, ideas by which they could live better, that is to say, more vigorously and more joyously, than by "modern ideas"? There is DISTRUST of these modern ideas in this mode of looking at things, a disbelief in all that has been constructed yesterday and today; there is perhaps some slight admixture of satiety and scorn, which can no longer endure the BRIC-A-BRAC of ideas of the most varied origin, such as so-called Positivism at present throws on the market; a disgust of the more refined taste at the village-fair motleyness and patchiness of all these reality-philosophasters, in whom there is nothing either new or true, except this motleyness. Therein it seems to me that we should agree with those skeptical anti-realists and knowledge-microscopists of the present day; their instinct, which repels them from MODERN reality, is unrefuted... what do their retrograde by-paths concern us! The main thing about them is NOT that they wish to go "back," but that they wish to get AWAY therefrom. A little MORE strength, swing, courage, and artistic power, and they would be OFF"and not back!

Formerly - früher, ehemals

securer - sicherer; (secure); sicher, geschützt, beschützt, zuverlässig

domain - Bereich; Domäne, Gebiet, Bezirk

Faith - Glaube; Vertrauen

immortal - unsterblich; unvergesslich

vigorously - mit Nachdruck; kräftig, ordentlich, heftig, tüchtig

joyously - freudig

distrust - Misstrauen, Argwohn

disbelief - Unglauben; Unglaube

constructed - konstruiert; bauen, konstruieren

Slight - geringfügig, leicht, unbedeutend

admixture - Vermischung; Beimischung

satiety - Sattheit, Sättigung, Befriedigung

scorn - verachten; verschmähen; verspotten; Verachtung

endure - ertragen, aushalten, dulden, von Bestand sein

varied - abwechslungsreich; variieren, verändern, sich ändern, de

Positivism - Positivismus

disgust - Abscheu; ekeln; Ekel

more refined - gewähltere

patchiness - Lückenhaftigkeit

philosophasters - Philosophen; Philosophaster

skeptical - skeptisch

anti - gegen; anti

realists - Realisten; Realist, Realistin, Realist, Realistin

instinct - Instinkt

repels - abstößt; zurückweisen, abweisen, abwehren, zurückdrängen

unrefuted - unwiderlegt

retrograde - zurückgehen; rückläufig

therefrom - davon ab

swing - schwingen, schaukeln, schwanken, baumeln, Schaukel, Hutsche

artistic - künstlerisch, gestalterisch, kunstvoll

11. It seems to me that there is everywhere an attempt at present to divert attention from the actual influence which Kant exercised on German philosophy, and especially to ignore prudently the value which he set upon himself. Kant was first and foremost proud of his Table of Categories; with it in his hand he said: "This is the most difficult thing that could ever be undertaken on behalf of metaphysics." Let us only understand this "could be"! He was proud of having DISCOVERED a new faculty in man, the faculty of synthetic judgment a priori. Granting that he deceived himself in this matter; the development and rapid flourishing of German philosophy depended nevertheless on his pride, and on the eager rivalry of the younger generation to discover if possible something"at all events "new faculties""of which to be still prouder!"But let us reflect for a moment"it is high time to do so. "How are synthetic judgments a priori POSSIBLE?" Kant asks himself"and what is really his answer? "BY MEANS OF A MEANS (faculty)""but unfortunately not in five words, but so circumstantially, imposingly, and with such display of German profundity and verbal flourishes, that one altogether loses sight of the comical niaiserie allemande involved in such an answer. People were beside themselves with delight over this new faculty, and the jubilation reached its climax when Kant further discovered a moral faculty in man"for at that time Germans were still moral, not yet dabbling in the "Politics of hard fact.

attempt - versuchen; Versuch, Bestreben, Bestrebung, Anschlag, Attentat

divert - umlenken, umleiten, ablenken, unterhalten

German - Deutscher, Deutsche, Germane, Germanin, Achtelcicero, Deutsch

prudently - mit Bedacht; klug, kluge

foremost - vor allem

undertaken - unternommen; unternehmen, ausführen, verpflichten

behalf - für; Vorteil, Nutzen, Interesse

faculty - der Fakultät; Kollegium, Lehrpersonal, Fakultät, Vermögen

judgment - Urteil; Urteilsvermögen; Beurteilung; Richtspruch

granting - Gewährung; gewähren, erteilen, bewilligen

deceived - getäuscht; betrügen, täuschen

rapid - schnell; Stromschnelle

flourishing - gedeihen, blühen, spriessen, grünen, sich gut entwickeln

nevertheless - nichtsdestoweniger, trotzdem, lauch wenn, dennoch

eager - eifrig, erwartungsvoll, begierig

rivalry - Rivalität

faculties - Fakultäten; Kollegium

circumstantially - umständehalber

imposingly - imposant

profundity - Tiefgründigkeit, Tiefe

verbal - wörtlich, verbal, mündlich, zeitwörtlich

flourishes - blüht; gedeihen, blühen, spriessen, grünen, sich gut entwickeln

altogether - ganz und gar, ohne Ausnahme, ausnahmslos, insgesamt

comical - komisch

beside - daneben; neben

delight - Freude, Entzückung, Wohlgefallen, Lust

jubilation - Jubel

climax - Höhepunkt, Orgasmus

moral - moralisch, sittlich, Moral

dabbling - Dilettantismus; bespritzend; (dabble); platschen; ein wenig befassen

Then came the honeymoon of German philosophy. All the young theologians of the Tubingen institution went immediately into the groves"all seeking for "faculties." And what did they not find"in that innocent, rich, and still youthful period of the German spirit, to which Romanticism, the malicious fairy, piped and sang, when one could not yet distinguish between "finding" and "inventing"! Above all a faculty for the "transcendental"; Schelling christened it, intellectual intuition, and thereby gratified the most earnest longings of the naturally pious-inclined Germans. One can do no greater wrong to the whole of this exuberant and eccentric movement (which was really youthfulness, notwithstanding that it disguised itself so boldly, in hoary and senile conceptions), than to take it seriously, or even treat it with moral indignation. Enough, however"the world grew older, and the dream vanished. A time came when people rubbed their foreheads, and they still rub them today. People had been dreaming, and first and foremost"old Kant. "By means of a means (faculty)""he had said, or at least meant to say. But, is that"an answer? An explanation? Or is it not rather merely a repetition of the question? How does opium induce sleep? "By means of a means (faculty)," namely the virtus dormitiva, replies the doctor in Moliere,

honeymoon - Flitterwochen; Hochzeitsreise, flittern

theologians - Theologen; Theologe, Theologin

Institution - Institution

groves - Hainen; Hain, Gehölz

seeking - suchen

romanticism - Romantik

fairy - Fee, Elfe, Feenwesen, Naturgeister

distinguish - unterscheiden; erkennen; auszeichnen

transcendental - transzendental; transzendent

intellectual - intellektuell; Intellektueller, Intellektuelle

intuition - Ahnung, Anschauung, Eingebung, Einfühlungsvermögen

gratified - befriedigt; befriedigen, erfreuen

longings - Sehnsüchte; sehnsüchtig, Sehnsucht, sehnend

pious - fromm, pietätvoll, scheinheilig

exuberant - überschwänglich

eccentric - exzentrisch, elliptisch, eiernd, außermittig, schrullig

youthfulness - Jugendlichkeit

disguised - getarnt; Verkleidung, Tarnung, verstellen

boldly - kühn, tapfer

hoary - altmodisch; altersgrau, asbach, uralt, ergraut

senile - senil

conceptions - Konzeptionen; Empfängnis, Vorstellung, Konzeption

indignation - Empörung, Entrüstung

vanished - verschwunden; verschwinden, vergehen, sich verflüchtigen

rubbed - gerieben; reiben, reiben, abreiben, sich abreiben

foreheads - Stirnen; Stirn

repetition - Wiederholung, Wdh(lg). Wiederholung

opium - Opium

induce - einleiten; dazu bringen, anstacheln, bewirken, verursachen

Quia est in eo virtus dormitiva,

Cujus est natura sensus assoupire.

But such replies belong to the realm of comedy, and it is high time to replace the Kantian question, "How are synthetic judgments a PRIORI possible?" by another question, "Why is belief in such judgments necessary?""in effect, it is high time that we should understand that such judgments must be believed to be true, for the sake of the preservation of creatures like ourselves; though they still might naturally be false judgments! Or, more plainly spoken, and roughly and readily"synthetic judgments a priori should not "be possible" at all; we have no right to them; in our mouths they are nothing but false judgments. Only, of course, the belief in their truth is necessary, as plausible belief and ocular evidence belonging to the perspective view of life.

realm - Bereich; Reich, Königreich

Kantian - kantianisch

sake - (for your sake) deinetwegen, euretwegen, Ihretwegen, dir zuliebe

preservation - Erhaltung

creatures - Kreaturen; Wesen

plainly spoken - geradeheraus gesagt

roughly - ungefähr; grob; uneben

readily - bereitwillig

plausible - plausibel, glaubhaft

And finally, to call to mind the enormous influence which "German philosophy""I hope you understand its right to inverted commas (goosefeet)?"has exercised throughout the whole of Europe, there is no doubt that a certain VIRTUS DORMITIVA had a share in it; thanks to German philosophy, it was a delight to the noble idlers, the virtuous, the mystics, the artiste, the three-fourths Christians, and the political obscurantists of all nations, to find an antidote to the still overwhelming sensualism which overflowed from the last century into this, in short""sensus assoupire."...

inverted commas - Gänsefüßchen

goosefeet - Gänsefüßchen

idlers - Müßiggänger; untätiger Mitarbeiter, untätige Mitarbeiterin

artiste - Künstlerin; Künstler (Zirkus)

Christians - Christen; Christ, Christin, Christian, christlich

obscurantists - Obskurantisten; obskurantistisch

antidote - Gegenmittel, Gegengift

overwhelming - überwältigend; überwältigen, übermannen, überrumpeln, de

sensualism - Sensualismus; Sinnlichkeit

overflowed - übergelaufen; überfließen, überlaufen, überfließen, de

12. As regards materialistic atomism, it is one of the best-refuted theories that have been advanced, and in Europe there is now perhaps no one in the learned world so unscholarly as to attach serious signification to it, except for convenient everyday use (as an abbreviation of the means of expression)"thanks chiefly to the Pole Boscovich: he and the Pole Copernicus have hitherto been the greatest and most successful opponents of ocular evidence. For while Copernicus has persuaded us to believe, contrary to all the senses, that the earth does NOT stand fast, Boscovich has taught us to abjure the belief in the last thing that "stood fast" of the earth"the belief in "substance," in "matter," in the earth-residuum, and particle-atom: it is the greatest triumph over the senses that has hitherto been gained on earth. One must, however, go still further, and also declare war, relentless war to the knife, against the "atomistic requirements" which still lead a dangerous after-life in places where no one suspects them, like the more celebrated "metaphysical requirements": one must also above all give the finishing stroke to that other and more portentous atomism which Christianity has taught best and longest, the SOUL-ATOMISM.

regards - Grüße; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

materialistic - materialistisch

atomism - Atomismus

refuted - widerlegt; widerlegen, entkräften, anfechten, widersprechen

unscholarly - unwissenschaftlich

signification - Sinn, Bedeutung

abbreviation - Abkürzung, Kurzbezeichnung, Kürzel, Kurzform

chiefly - hauptsächlich

pole - Pfahl; (North Pole) Nordpol

Copernicus - Copernicus, Kopernikus, Koppernick

opponents - Gegner, Gegnerin, Gegner (1, 2, 3), Gegenspieler

abjure - abschwören

particle - Teilchen, Partikel, Partikel, Redeteilchen

triumph - Sieg, Erfolg

Gained - Gewonnen; Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen

declare - bekanntmachen, bekanntgeben, deklarieren, ausrufen, aussagen

relentless - unnachgiebig, unbarmherzig, unnachsichtig, unerbittlich

atomistic - atomistisch

requirements - Anforderungen; Anforderung, Anforderung, Anforderung

suspects - vermuten, misstrauen, verdächtigen, einen Verdacht haben

stroke - Schlaganfall; streicheln; Stoß, Schlag, Streich, Hub

portentous - bezeichnend

Let it be permitted to designate by this expression the belief which regards the soul as something indestructible, eternal, indivisible, as a monad, as an atomon: this belief ought to be expelled from science! Between ourselves, it is not at all necessary to get rid of "the soul" thereby, and thus renounce one of the oldest and most venerated hypotheses"as happens frequently to the clumsiness of naturalists, who can hardly touch on the soul without immediately losing it. But the way is open for new acceptations and refinements of the soul-hypothesis; and such conceptions as "mortal soul," and "soul of subjective multiplicity," and "soul as social structure of the instincts and passions," want henceforth to have legitimate rights in science. In that the NEW psychologist is about to put an end to the superstitions which have hitherto flourished with almost tropical luxuriance around the idea of the soul, he is really, as it were, thrusting himself into a new desert and a new distrust"it is possible that the older psychologists had a merrier and more comfortable time of it; eventually, however, he finds that precisely thereby he is also condemned to INVENT"and, who knows? perhaps to DISCOVER the new.

permitted - erlaubt; zulassen, erlauben; Erlaubnis, Erlaubnisschein

designate - bestimmen, kennzeichnen, markieren, benennen

indestructible - unzerstörbar

Indivisible - unteilbar

monad - Monade

expelled - vertrieben; verjagen, ausweisen, abschieben, deportieren

renounce - sich distanzieren, sich verleugnen, verzichten;einer Sache abschwören

venerated - verehrt; anhimmeln, anbeten

hypotheses - Hypothesen; Hypothese, Hypothese, Hypothese

clumsiness - Ungeschicklichkeit, Plumpheit, Unbeholfenheit

naturalists - Naturforscher, Naturforscherin, Naturalist, Naturalistin

acceptations - Annahmen; Sinn

refinements - Verfeinerungen; Verbesserung, Veredelung, Veredeln

hypothesis - Hypothese

mortal - sterblich; tödlich; Sterblicher, Sterbliche

subjective - subjektiv

multiplicity - Multiplizität

superstitions - Aberglauben; Aberglaube

flourished - floriert; gedeihen, blühen, spriessen, grünen

tropical - tropisch

luxuriance - Luxus; Ăśppigkeit

thrusting - schubsen; stoßend, Stichwaffe, drängend; (thrust); Stoß, Stich

psychologists - Psychologen; Psychologe, Psychologin

merrier - fröhlicher; fröhlich, heiter

condemned - Verurteilt; verurteilen, verurteilen, verdammen, verurteilen

13. Psychologists should bethink themselves before putting down the instinct of self-preservation as the cardinal instinct of an organic being. A living thing seeks above all to DISCHARGE its strength"life itself is WILL TO POWER; self-preservation is only one of the indirect and most frequent RESULTS thereof.

bethink - bedenken; besinnen

cardinal - grundsätzlich; kardinalrot; Grundzahl, Kardinalzahl, Kardinal

organic - biologisch, organisch, Organ

seeks - sucht; suchen

discharge - entladen; entlassen; Ablauf; Befreiung; Entladung; Entlassung

frequent - häufig; aufsuchen

thereof - davon

In short, here, as everywhere else, let us beware of SUPERFLUOUS teleological principles!"one of which is the instinct of self-preservation (we owe it to Spinoza's inconsistency). It is thus, in effect, that method ordains, which must be essentially economy of principles.

Beware - Aufpassen; sich hüten (vor)

superfluous - überflüssig

teleological - teleologisch

principles - Grundsätze; Grundsatz, Prinzip

inconsistency - Inkonsistenz; Unvereinbarkeit, Folgewidrigkeit

ordains - ordiniert; festlegen, weihen

14. It is perhaps just dawning on five or six minds that natural philosophy is only a world-exposition and world-arrangement (according to us, if I may say so!) and NOT a world-explanation; but in so far as it is based on belief in the senses, it is regarded as more, and for a long time to come must be regarded as more"namely, as an explanation. It has eyes and fingers of its own, it has ocular evidence and palpableness of its own: this operates fascinatingly, persuasively, and CONVINCINGLY upon an age with fundamentally plebeian tastes"in fact, it follows instinctively the canon of truth of eternal popular sensualism. What is clear, what is "explained"? Only that which can be seen and felt"one must pursue every problem thus far. Obversely, however, the charm of the Platonic mode of thought, which was an ARISTOCRATIC mode, consisted precisely in RESISTANCE to obvious sense-evidence"perhaps among men who enjoyed even stronger and more fastidious senses than our contemporaries, but who knew how to find a higher triumph in remaining masters of them: and this by means of pale, cold, grey conceptional networks which they threw over the motley whirl of the senses"the mob of the senses, as Plato said.

dawning - Dämmerung; dämmernd; (dawn); dämmern; Morgendämmerung

exposition - Ausstellung, Exposition, Einführung

palpableness - Spürbarkeit; Greifbarkeit

operates - betreibt; operieren, betreiben, bedienen, operieren

fascinatingly - faszinierend

persuasively - überzeugend

convincingly - überzeugend

plebeian - Plebejer; plebejisch

instinctively - instinktiv; unwillkürlich

pursue - verfolgen, beschreiten, nachjagen, nachgehen

charm - Talisman; Charme, Zauberformel, Lieblichkeit; bezaubern

aristocratic - aristokratisch

resistance - Widerstand

contemporaries - Zeitgenossen; zeitgenössisch, zeitgenössisch, modern, zeitnah

conceptional - konzeptionell

motley - kunterbunt; zusammengewürfelt, bunt zusammengeworfen

whirl - wirbeln, lschnell, Wirbeln, Wirbel, Trubel, Durcheinander

mob - Meute, Pöbel

In this overcoming of the world, and interpreting of the world in the manner of Plato, there was an ENJOYMENT different from that which the physicists of today offer us"and likewise the Darwinists and anti-teleologists among the physiological workers, with their principle of the "smallest possible effort," and the greatest possible blunder. "Where there is nothing more to see or to grasp, there is also nothing more for men to do""that is certainly an imperative different from the Platonic one, but it may notwithstanding be the right imperative for a hardy, laborious race of machinists and bridge-builders of the future, who have nothing but ROUGH work to perform.

Overcoming - Überwindung; überwinden

interpreting - interpretieren, interpretieren, dolmetschen, übersetzen

enjoyment - Genuss, Vergnügen

physicists - Physiker, Physikerin

likewise - ebenfalls

Darwinists - Darwinisten; Darwinist, Darwinistin

Workers - Arbeitskräfte; Arbeiter, Arbeiterin, Angestellter, Angestellte

smallest possible - kleinstmöglich

blunder - Patzer, Schnitzer, Fehler, Fehlgriff

grasp - greifen, erfassen, begreifen, verstehen, Griff, Verständnis

hardy - abgehärtet, widerstandsfähig

laborious - mühsam

machinists - Maschinisten; Schlosser

builders - Bauherren; Bauarbeiter

15. To study physiology with a clear conscience, one must insist on the fact that the sense-organs are not phenomena in the sense of the idealistic philosophy; as such they certainly could not be causes! Sensualism, therefore, at least as regulative hypothesis, if not as heuristic principle. What? And others say even that the external world is the work of our organs?

physiology - Physiologie

organs - Organe; Organ

phenomena - Phänomene

idealistic - idealistisch

heuristic - heuristisch; Heuristik

external - außen-, extern, äußerlich

But then our body, as a part of this external world, would be the work of our organs! But then our organs themselves would be the work of our organs! It seems to me that this is a complete REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM, if the conception CAUSA SUI is something fundamentally absurd. Consequently, the external world is NOT the work of our organs"?

conception - Empfängnis; Vorstellung, Konzeption

absurd - absurd

16. There are still harmless self-observers who believe that there are "immediate certainties"; for instance, "I think," or as the superstition of Schopenhauer puts it, "I will"; as though cognition here got hold of its object purely and simply as "the thing in itself," without any falsification taking place either on the part of the subject or the object. I would repeat it, however, a hundred times, that "immediate certainty," as well as "absolute knowledge" and the "thing in itself," involve a CONTRADICTIO IN ADJECTO; we really ought to free ourselves from the misleading significance of words! The people on their part may think that cognition is knowing all about things, but the philosopher must say to himself: "When I analyze the process that is expressed in the sentence, 'I think,'I find a whole series of daring assertions, the argumentative proof of which would be difficult, perhaps impossible: for instance, that it is I who think, that there must necessarily be something that thinks, that thinking is an activity and operation on the part of a being who is thought of as a cause, that there is an 'ego,'and finally, that it is already determined what is to be designated by thinking"that I KNOW what thinking is. For if I had not already decided within myself what it is, by what standard could I determine whether that which is just happening is not perhaps 'willing'or 'feeling'?

harmless - harmlos, unschädlich, ungefährlich

observers - Beobachter, Beobachterin

certainties - Gewissheiten; Gewissheit

cognition - Kognition, Erkenntnis

falsification - Fälschung, Falsifikation

misleading - Irreführend; in die Irre führen, irreführen, in die Irre führen

significance - Bedeutung, Signifikanz (1)

analyze - untersuchen; analysieren

daring - gewagt; mutig; Wagemut, Kühnheit; (dare) gewagt; mutig; Wagemut

argumentative - streitlustig

Proof - Beweise; Beweis; polierte Platte; aufgehen lassen

designated - bezeichnet; bestimmen, kennzeichnen, markieren, benennen

In short, the assertion 'I think,'assumes that I COMPARE my state at the present moment with other states of myself which I know, in order to determine what it is; on account of this retrospective connection with further 'knowledge,'it has, at any rate, no immediate certainty for me.""In place of the "immediate certainty" in which the people may believe in the special case, the philosopher thus finds a series of metaphysical questions presented to him, veritable conscience questions of the intellect, to wit: "Whence did I get the notion of 'thinking'? Why do I believe in cause and effect? What gives me the right to speak of an 'ego,'and even of an 'ego'as cause, and finally of an 'ego'as cause of thought?" He who ventures to answer these metaphysical questions at once by an appeal to a sort of INTUITIVE perception, like the person who says, "I think, and know that this, at least, is true, actual, and certain""will encounter a smile and two notes of interrogation in a philosopher nowadays. "Sir," the philosopher will perhaps give him to understand, "it is improbable that you are not mistaken, but why should it be the truth?"

assertion - Versicherung, Zusicherung, Behauptung, Beteuerung

assumes - vermutet; annehmen, voraussetzen, vermuten, unterstellen

retrospective - rückblickend, rückschauend, zurückblickend, rückwirkend

wit - Witz; nämlich, und zwar

special case - Sonderfall

veritable - wahrhaftig

intellect - Intellekt

whence - woher; von daher

notion - Ahnung, Ansicht, Auffassung, Begriff

appeal - Berufung; Revision, Wirkung, Anziehungskraft; reizen, zusagen

intuitive - intuitiv

perception - Wahrnehmung

encounter - mit etw. in Berührung kommen;entgegentreten, sich begegnen, treffen auf;Begegnung , Treffen , Zusammenstoß

nowadays - Heutzutage; gegenwärtig, zur Zeit, derzeitig, jetzt

improbable - unwahrscheinlich

17. With regard to the superstitions of logicians, I shall never tire of emphasizing a small, terse fact, which is unwillingly recognized by these credulous minds"namely, that a thought comes when "it" wishes, and not when "I" wish; so that it is a PERVERSION of the facts of the case to say that the subject "I" is the condition of the predicate "think." ONE thinks; but that this "one" is precisely the famous old "ego," is, to put it mildly, only a supposition, an assertion, and assuredly not an "immediate certainty." After all, one has even gone too far with this "one thinks""even the "one" contains an INTERPRETATION of the process, and does not belong to the process itself. One infers here according to the usual grammatical formula""To think is an activity; every activity requires an agency that is active; consequently"..

regard - schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen, achten; Aufmerksamkeit

logicians - Logiker, Logikerin

tire - Reifen, Pneu (schweiz.); ermüden

emphasizing - betonen, unterstreichen, hervorheben, akzentuieren

Terse - knapp, markig, prägnant, kurz angebunden, wortkarg

unwillingly - unfreiwillig

credulous - leichtgläubig

perversion - Verdrehung, Perversion

predicate - aussagen, behaupten; Aussage, beigelegte Bezeichnung, Prädikat

mildly - sanft, mild

supposition - Vermutung; Annahme, Supposition, Annehmen

assuredly - Sicherlich

interpretation - Interpretation, Auslegung, Deutung, Dolmetschen

infers - folgert; schlussfolgern, folgern, schließen, Schlüsse ziehen

grammatical - grammatikalisch

formula - Formel; Rezept; Rezeptur, Zusammensetzung, Bestandteile

agency - Wille; Agency; Agentur; Behörde

It was pretty much on the same lines that the older atomism sought, besides the operating "power," the material particle wherein it resides and out of which it operates"the atom. More rigorous minds, however, learnt at last to get along without this "earth-residuum," and perhaps some day we shall accustom ourselves, even from the logician's point of view, to get along without the little "one" (to which the worthy old "ego" has refined itself).

operating - Betrieb; operieren, betreiben, bedienen, operieren

wherein - worin

resides - wohnt; wohnen

atom - Atom

rigorous - rigoros

accustom - gewöhnen; gewöhnen

logician - Logiker, Logikerin

worthy - würdig

18. It is certainly not the least charm of a theory that it is refutable; it is precisely thereby that it attracts the more subtle minds. It seems that the hundred-times-refuted theory of the "free will" owes its persistence to this charm alone; some one is always appearing who feels himself strong enough to refute it.

refutable - widerlegbar

owes - schuldet; schulden, schuldig sein, schulden, schuldig sein

persistence - Beharrlichkeit; Ausdauer, Bestand, Beständigkeit

refute - widerlegen, entkräften, anfechten, widersprechen

19. Philosophers are accustomed to speak of the will as though it were the best-known thing in the world; indeed, Schopenhauer has given us to understand that the will alone is really known to us, absolutely and completely known, without deduction or addition. But it again and again seems to me that in this case Schopenhauer also only did what philosophers are in the habit of doing"he seems to have adopted a POPULAR PREJUDICE and exaggerated it. Willing seems to me to be above all something COMPLICATED, something that is a unity only in name"and it is precisely in a name that popular prejudice lurks, which has got the mastery over the inadequate precautions of philosophers in all ages. So let us for once be more cautious, let us be "unphilosophical": let us say that in all willing there is firstly a plurality of sensations, namely, the sensation of the condition "AWAY FROM WHICH we go," the sensation of the condition "TOWARDS WHICH we go," the sensation of this "FROM" and "TOWARDS" itself, and then besides, an accompanying muscular sensation, which, even without our putting in motion "arms and legs," commences its action by force of habit, directly we "will" anything. Therefore, just as sensations (and indeed many kinds of sensations) are to be recognized as ingredients of the will, so, in the second place, thinking is also to be recognized; in every act of the will there is a ruling thought;"and let us not imagine it possible to sever this thought from the "willing," as if the will would then remain over! In the third place, the will is not only a complex of sensation and thinking, but it is above all an EMOTION, and in fact the emotion of the command. That which is termed "freedom of the will" is essentially the emotion of supremacy in respect to him who must obey: "I am free, 'he'must obey""this consciousness is inherent in every will; and equally so the straining of the attention, the straight look which fixes itself exclusively on one thing, the unconditional judgment that "this and nothing else is necessary now," the inward certainty that obedience will be rendered"and whatever else pertains to the position of the commander. A man who WILLS commands something within himself which renders obedience, or which he believes renders obedience. But now let us notice what is the strangest thing about the will,"this affair so extremely complex, for which the people have only one name.

accustomed - Gewöhnt; gewöhnen, gewöhnen

deduction - Abzug; Ableitung; Schlussfolgerung

adopted - angenommen; adoptieren, annehmen, übernehmen

exaggerated - Übertrieben; übertreiben

complicated - kompliziert; komplizieren

unity - Einigkeit; Einheit; Identität

lurks - lauert; lauern, lauern

mastery - Beherrschung; Meisterschaft

inadequate - unzureichend, unzulänglich, unangemessen, ungeeignet

precautions - Vorsichtsmaßnahmen; Vorsorge, Vorsichtsmaßnahme

cautious - zurückhaltend; vorsichtig, zaghaft, behutsam

unphilosophical - unphilosophisch

plurality - Pluralität

sensations - Empfindungen; Gefühl

accompanying - begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, geleiten, beiliegen

muscular - muskulär, Muskel

motion - Bewegung

commences - beginnt; anfangen, beginnen

sever - abtrennen, durchtrennen, abbrechen

freedom - Freiheit

supremacy - Vorherrschaft

obey - gehorchen; befolgen

consciousness - Bewusstsein, Gewahrsein, Erkenntnis, Bewusstheit

inherent - inhärent

straining - anspannend, anstrengend; (strain) anspannend, anstrengend

exclusively - ausschließlich, exklusiv, allein, alleinig

unconditional - bedingungslos

inward - innere; innen

obedience - Gehorsam, Folgsamkeit, Gehorsamkeit

rendered - erbracht; leisten, wiedergeben

pertains - betrifft; gehören, verbunden, betreffen, sich beziehen auf

commander - Befehlshaber, Kommandant, Kommandeur, Kommandör

commands - Befehl, Kommando

renders - rendern; leisten, wiedergeben

affair - Angelegenheit; Scharmützel; Ding; Beziehung, Affäre

Inasmuch as in the given circumstances we are at the same time the commanding AND the obeying parties, and as the obeying party we know the sensations of constraint, impulsion, pressure, resistance, and motion, which usually commence immediately after the act of will; inasmuch as, on the other hand, we are accustomed to disregard this duality, and to deceive ourselves about it by means of the synthetic term "I": a whole series of erroneous conclusions, and consequently of false judgments about the will itself, has become attached to the act of willing"to such a degree that he who wills believes firmly that willing SUFFICES for action. Since in the majority of cases there has only been exercise of will when the effect of the command"consequently obedience, and therefore action"was to be EXPECTED, the APPEARANCE has translated itself into the sentiment, as if there were a NECESSITY OF EFFECT; in a word, he who wills believes with a fair amount of certainty that will and action are somehow one; he ascribes the success, the carrying out of the willing, to the will itself, and thereby enjoys an increase of the sensation of power which accompanies all success. "Freedom of Will""that is the expression for the complex state of delight of the person exercising volition, who commands and at the same time identifies himself with the executor of the order"who, as such, enjoys also the triumph over obstacles, but thinks within himself that it was really his own will that overcame them. In this way the person exercising volition adds the feelings of delight of his successful executive instruments, the useful "underwills" or under-souls"indeed, our body is but a social structure composed of many souls"to his feelings of delight as commander. L'EFFET C'EST MOI. what happens here is what happens in every well-constructed and happy commonwealth, namely, that the governing class identifies itself with the successes of the commonwealth. In all willing it is absolutely a question of commanding and obeying, on the basis, as already said, of a social structure composed of many "souls", on which account a philosopher should claim the right to include willing-as-such within the sphere of morals"regarded as the doctrine of the relations of supremacy under which the phenomenon of "life" manifests itself.

circumstances - Umstände; Umstand, Umstand

commanding - Befehl, Kommando

obeying - gehorchen, befolgen

constraint - Einschränkung, Beschränkung, Restriktion, Zwang

impulsion - Antrieb, Anstoß

commence - anfangen, beginnen

disregard - missachten; Gleichgültigkeit, Nichtbeachten, Nichtbeachtung

duality - Dualität

deceive - betrügen, täuschen

erroneous - irrtümlich

suffices - ausreicht; ausreichen, genügen, genug sein, reichen

majority - Mehrheit, Majorität, Erwachsenenalter

sentiment - Gefühlen; Gefühl

necessity - Notwendigkeit, Nezessität, Not, Bedürfnis

somehow - irgendwie

ascribes - zuschreibt; zurückführen, zuschreiben, zuschreiben

sensation - Gefühl, Empfindung, Sensation

accompanies - begleitet; begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, geleiten

volition - Vorsatz; Wille, Willenskraft

executor - Testamentsvollstrecker, Testamentsvollstreckerin

obstacles - Hindernisse; Hindernis

overcame - überwunden; überwinden

feelings - Gefühle; Gefühl, Eindruck

executive - Führungskraft; exekutiv; Exekutive

underwills - unterschreibt

souls - Seelen; Inbrunst, Seele, Gefühl, Herz

composed - komponiert; zusammenstellen, zusammensetzen, komponieren

moi - Ich

Commonwealth - Staatenbund

governing - regieren, steuern, regulieren, lenken, regeln, regieren, regeln

sphere - Kugel; Sphäre, Bereich

phenomenon - Phänomen, Erscheinung

manifests - Manifeste; manifest, Ladungsliste, Manifest, manifestieren

20. That the separate philosophical ideas are not anything optional or autonomously evolving, but grow up in connection and relationship with each other, that, however suddenly and arbitrarily they seem to appear in the history of thought, they nevertheless belong just as much to a system as the collective members of the fauna of a Continent"is betrayed in the end by the circumstance: how unfailingly the most diverse philosophers always fill in again a definite fundamental scheme of POSSIBLE philosophies. Under an invisible spell, they always revolve once more in the same orbit, however independent of each other they may feel themselves with their critical or systematic wills, something within them leads them, something impels them in definite order the one after the other"to wit, the innate methodology and relationship of their ideas. Their thinking is, in fact, far less a discovery than a re-recognizing, a remembering, a return and a home-coming to a far-off, ancient common-household of the soul, out of which those ideas formerly grew: philosophizing is so far a kind of atavism of the highest order.

optional - freiwillig, optional, wahlfrei, fakultativ

autonomously - selbständig

arbitrarily - willkürlich

collective - Verbands.., gesammelt, Kollektiv; Sammelname

fauna - Fauna, Tierreich, Tierwelt

betrayed - verraten, im Stich lassen, verraten, verraten, verraten

circumstance - Umstand

unfailingly - unfehlbar

diverse - mannigfaltig, divers, abwechslungsreich, verschieden

scheme - Schema; Programm, Plan, Projekt, Intrige, Komplott

philosophies - Philosophien; Philosophie, Philosophie

invisible - unsichtbar; versteckt

revolve - drehen

orbit - Umlaufbahn, Orbit, umkreisen, in, umschwirren

critical - kritisch

systematic - systematisch; System

impels - antreibt; antreiben, vorantreiben, treiben, nötigen

innate - angeboren, checkeigen, checkimmanent

methodology - Methodologie, Methodik

household - Haushalt

philosophizing - philosophieren

atavism - Atavismus (1)

The wonderful family resemblance of all Indian, Greek, and German philosophizing is easily enough explained. In fact, where there is affinity of language, owing to the common philosophy of grammar"I mean owing to the unconscious domination and guidance of similar grammatical functions"it cannot but be that everything is prepared at the outset for a similar development and succession of philosophical systems, just as the way seems barred against certain other possibilities of world-interpretation. It is highly probable that philosophers within the domain of the Ural-Altaic languages (where the conception of the subject is least developed) look otherwise "into the world," and will be found on paths of thought different from those of the Indo-Germans and Mussulmans, the spell of certain grammatical functions is ultimately also the spell of PHYSIOLOGICAL valuations and racial conditions."So much by way of rejecting Locke's superficiality with regard to the origin of ideas.

resemblance - Ähnlichkeit

Indian - indisch, indianisch, Inder, Inderin, Indianer, Indianerin

Greek - griechisch; Griechisch, griechische Sprache, Grieche, Griechin

affinity - Affinität; Verwandtschaft, Schwägerschaft

owing - geschuldet; schulden, schuldig sein, schulden, schuldig sein

domination - Beherrschung, Vorherrschaft

guidance - Anleitung, Richtungsweisung, Handlungsempfehlung

outset - Anfang an; negative Einpresstiefe, Anfang

succession - Nachfolge; Abfolge; Thronfolge

probable - glaubhaft, wahrscheinlich

Altaic - altaisch

Mussulmans - Moslems; Muselmane

ultimately - letztendlich

racial - rassistisch; rassisch, Rasse

superficiality - Oberflächlichkeit

21. The CAUSA SUI is the best self-contradiction that has yet been conceived, it is a sort of logical violation and unnaturalness; but the extravagant pride of man has managed to entangle itself profoundly and frightfully with this very folly. The desire for "freedom of will" in the superlative, metaphysical sense, such as still holds sway, unfortunately, in the minds of the half-educated, the desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society therefrom, involves nothing less than to be precisely this CAUSA SUI, and, with more than Munchausen daring, to pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the slough of nothingness. If any one should find out in this manner the crass stupidity of the celebrated conception of "free will" and put it out of his head altogether, I beg of him to carry his "enlightenment" a step further, and also put out of his head the contrary of this monstrous conception of "free will": I mean "non-free will," which is tantamount to a misuse of cause and effect. One should not wrongly MATERIALISE "cause" and "effect," as the natural philosophers do (and whoever like them naturalize in thinking at present), according to the prevailing mechanical doltishness which makes the cause press and push until it "effects" its end; one should use "cause" and "effect" only as pure CONCEPTIONS, that is to say, as conventional fictions for the purpose of designation and mutual understanding,"NOT for explanation. In "being-in-itself" there is nothing of "casual-connection," of "necessity," or of "psychological non-freedom"; there the effect does NOT follow the cause, there "law" does not obtain.

contradiction - Widerspruch; Gegensatz

conceived - erdacht; konzipieren, erdenken, ersinnen, empfangen, verstehen

violation - Verstoß; Verletzung

unnaturalness - Unnatürlichkeit

entangle - verwickeln

profoundly - zutiefst; tief

frightfully - furchtbar; schrecklich, schreckliche

folly - Wahnsinn; Torheit, Narrheit, Dummheit, Tollheit

superlative - Superlativ, Höchststufe, Meiststufe, hervorragend

sway - schwanken; Schwingen, Schwenken, Hin- und Herschwingen

absolve - entbinden, befreien, entlassen, freisprechen

ancestors - Vorfahren; Vorfahr, Vorfahrin, Ahn, Ahne, Ahne, Ahnin, Urahn

Munchausen - Münchhausen

slough - Sumpf

nothingness - Nichtigkeit; Nichtvorhandensein, Nichts, Leere

crass - krass; dicht

stupidity - Dummheit

beg - Männchen machen; etwas erbitten (von jemandem); bitten (um)

monstrous - ungeheuerlich, monströs, grotesk, monsterhaft, monsterartig

non - nicht..

tantamount - gleichbedeutend

misuse - missbrauchen; Missbrauch

wrongly - zu Unrecht; fälschlicherweise

materialise - zustande kommen

naturalize - einbürgern

prevailing - vorherrschend; erman: die Vorherrschaft erringen (''over'' über)

mechanical - mechanisch

doltishness - Tölpelhaftigkeit

conventional - konventionell

designation - Bezeichnung; Benennung

mutual - wechselseitig, gegenseitig, beiderseitig, gemeinsam

casual - lässig; zufällig, beiläufig, gelegentlich, gleichgültig

psychological - psychologisch

obtain - erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

It is WE alone who have devised cause, sequence, reciprocity, relativity, constraint, number, law, freedom, motive, and purpose; and when we interpret and intermix this symbol-world, as "being-in-itself," with things, we act once more as we have always acted"MYTHOLOGICALLY. The "non-free will" is mythology; in real life it is only a question of STRONG and WEAK wills."It is almost always a symptom of what is lacking in himself, when a thinker, in every "causal-connection" and "psychological necessity," manifests something of compulsion, indigence, obsequiousness, oppression, and non-freedom; it is suspicious to have such feelings"the person betrays himself. And in general, if I have observed correctly, the "non-freedom of the will" is regarded as a problem from two entirely opposite standpoints, but always in a profoundly PERSONAL manner: some will not give up their "responsibility," their belief in THEMSELVES, the personal right to THEIR merits, at any price (the vain races belong to this class); others on the contrary, do not wish to be answerable for anything, or blamed for anything, and owing to an inward self-contempt, seek to GET OUT OF THE BUSINESS, no matter how. The latter, when they write books, are in the habit at present of taking the side of criminals; a sort of socialistic sympathy is their favourite disguise. And as a matter of fact, the fatalism of the weak-willed embellishes itself surprisingly when it can pose as "la religion de la souffrance humaine"; that is ITS "good taste."

devised - erdacht; ausdenken, entwerfen, erdenken, planen

sequence - Reihenfolge; Sequenz

reciprocity - Gegenseitigkeit, Reziprozität, Umkehrbarkeit

relativity - Relativität

motive - Motiv, Beweggrund

Interpret - interpretieren; dolmetschen, übersetzen

intermix - durchmischen; vermischen

mythology - Mythologie, Sagenwelt, Götterlehre

thinker - Denker, Denkerin

causal - kausal, ursächlich

compulsion - Zwang, Zwangneurose

indigence - Bedürftigkeit; Armut, Dürftigkeit

obsequiousness - Unterwürfigkeit

suspicious - verdächtig; misstrauisch, argwöhnisch

Betrays - verraten, im Stich lassen, verraten, verraten, verraten

observed - beobachtet; beobachten, beachten, halten, bemerken

entirely - vollständig; ganz, total, entirely

standpoints - Standpunkte; Standpunkt, Sichtweise

merits - Verdienste; Verdienst

vain - eitel; unnützlich

answerable - verantworten

blamed - beschuldigt; jemadem die Schuld zuweisen

self-contempt - (self-contempt) Selbstverachtung

seek - suchen

socialistic - sozialistisch

sympathy - Mitleid, Mitgefühl, Empathie, Einfühlungsvermögen, Sympathie

disguise - Verkleidung; Tarnung; verstellen

fatalism - Fatalismus

embellishes - verschönert; bereichern, schmücken, verschönern, ausschmücken

surprisingly - überraschenderweise

22. Let me be pardoned, as an old philologist who cannot desist from the mischief of putting his finger on bad modes of interpretation, but "Nature's conformity to law," of which you physicists talk so proudly, as though"why, it exists only owing to your interpretation and bad "philology." It is no matter of fact, no "text," but rather just a naively humanitarian adjustment and perversion of meaning, with which you make abundant concessions to the democratic instincts of the modern soul! "Everywhere equality before the law"Nature is not different in that respect, nor better than we": a fine instance of secret motive, in which the vulgar antagonism to everything privileged and autocratic"likewise a second and more refined atheism"is once more disguised. "Ni dieu, ni maitre""that, also, is what you want; and therefore "Cheers for natural law!""is it not so? But, as has been said, that is interpretation, not text; and somebody might come along, who, with opposite intentions and modes of interpretation, could read out of the same "Nature," and with regard to the same phenomena, just the tyrannically inconsiderate and relentless enforcement of the claims of power"an interpreter who should so place the unexceptionalness and unconditionalness of all "Will to Power" before your eyes, that almost every word, and the word "tyranny" itself, would eventually seem unsuitable, or like a weakening and softening metaphor"as being too human; and who should, nevertheless, end by asserting the same about this world as you do, namely, that it has a "necessary" and "calculable" course, NOT, however, because laws obtain in it, but because they are absolutely LACKING, and every power effects its ultimate consequences every moment.

desist - unterlassen; aufhören

modes - Modi; Betriebsart, Betrieb, Modus, Art

conformity - Konformität

proudly - stolze, stolz

philology - Philologie

naively - naiv

humanitarian - humanitär

adjustment - Anpassen, geringfügiges Ändern, Anpassung, Regulierung

abundant - im Überfluss

concessions - Zugeständnisse; gewährtes Grundstück

equality - Gleichheit; Gleichberechtigung

vulgar - vulgär, unfein, ungebildet, unanständig

antagonism - Antagonismus, Gegensatz

privileged - privilegiert; Privileg

autocratic - autokratisch

atheism - Atheismus, Gottesleugnung, Gottlosigkeit

Cheers - prost, zum Wohl, tschüss, danke; (cheer); prost, zum Wohl

read out - herauslesen, ausspeichern, vorlesen, ablesen

tyrannically - tyrannisch

inconsiderate - rücksichtslos

enforcement - Vollstreckung, Durchsetzung

interpreter - Dolmetscher, Dolmetscherin, Dolmetsch, Interpreter

unexceptionalness - Unauffälligkeit

unconditionalness - Bedingungslosigkeit

unsuitable - ungeeignet

weakening - Schwächung; schwächen, abschwächen, schwächeln

softening - Erweichung; weich werdend, aufweichend; (soften); aufweichen

metaphor - Metapher

asserting - Behaupten; versichern, zusichern, beteuern, beteuern, beteuern

calculable - berechenbar

Granted that this also is only interpretation"and you will be eager enough to make this objection?"well, so much the better.

23. All psychology hitherto has run aground on moral prejudices and timidities, it has not dared to launch out into the depths. In so far as it is allowable to recognize in that which has hitherto been written, evidence of that which has hitherto been kept silent, it seems as if nobody had yet harboured the notion of psychology as the Morphology and DEVELOPMENT-DOCTRINE OF THE WILL TO POWER, as I conceive of it. The power of moral prejudices has penetrated deeply into the most intellectual world, the world apparently most indifferent and unprejudiced, and has obviously operated in an injurious, obstructive, blinding, and distorting manner. A proper physio-psychology has to contend with unconscious antagonism in the heart of the investigator, it has "the heart" against it even a doctrine of the reciprocal conditionalness of the "good" and the "bad" impulses, causes (as refined immorality) distress and aversion in a still strong and manly conscience"still more so, a doctrine of the derivation of all good impulses from bad ones. If, however, a person should regard even the emotions of hatred, envy, covetousness, and imperiousness as life-conditioning emotions, as factors which must be present, fundamentally and essentially, in the general economy of life (which must, therefore, be further developed if life is to be further developed), he will suffer from such a view of things as from sea-sickness.

psychology - Psychologie

run aground - aufgelaufen

timidities - Schüchternheiten; Furchtsamkeit

dared - gewagt; sich getrauen, wagen, jemanden herausfordern

launch - Markteinführung; anstoßen, starten (Rakete), abschießen, gründen

depths - Untiefen; Tiefe

allowable - Erlaubt

kept silent - geschwiegen

harboured - beherbergt; Hafen, Zufluchtsort

Morphology - Morphologie, Formenlehre, Wortbildung

conceive - schwanger werden; konzipieren, erdenken, ersinnen, empfangen

penetrated - durchdrungen; eindringen, penetrieren, penetrieren

deeply - tief; zutiefst

most indifferent - abgestumpfteste

unprejudiced - unvoreingenommen

operated - bedient; operieren, betreiben, bedienen, operieren

injurious - schädlich

obstructive - widersetzlich, hinderlich, obstruktiv

blinding - geblendet; blendend, grell; (blind); blind, unkritisch

distorting - verzerren, verzerren

physio - Betreuer (im Sport)

contend - bestreiten; streiten, sich auseinandersetzen, ringen mit

investigator - Ermittler, Ermittlerin

reciprocal - wechselseitig; gegenseitig, reziprok, entgegengesetzt

conditionalness - Bedingtheit

immorality - Unmoral; Immoralität, Sittenlosigkeit, Unsittlichkeit

aversion - Abneigung, Vorbehalt, Widerwillen, Aversion

manly - männlich

derivation - Ableitung; Derivation

hatred - Hass

imperiousness - Herrschsucht

sickness - Krankheit; Übelkeit

And yet this hypothesis is far from being the strangest and most painful in this immense and almost new domain of dangerous knowledge, and there are in fact a hundred good reasons why every one should keep away from it who CAN do so! On the other hand, if one has once drifted hither with one's bark, well! very good! now let us set our teeth firmly! let us open our eyes and keep our hand fast on the helm! We sail away right OVER morality, we crush out, we destroy perhaps the remains of our own morality by daring to make our voyage thither"but what do WE matter. Never yet did a PROFOUNDER world of insight reveal itself to daring travelers and adventurers, and the psychologist who thus "makes a sacrifice""it is not the sacrifizio dell'intelletto, on the contrary!"will at least be entitled to demand in return that psychology shall once more be recognized as the queen of the sciences, for whose service and equipment the other sciences exist. For psychology is once more the path to the fundamental problems.

most painful - qualvollste

immense - immens

keep away - abhalten, fernhalten

drifted - abgetrieben; Drift, driften, treiben, irren, ziellos ziehen

bark - Bellen

helm - Pinne, Ruder, Steuer, Steuerruder

crush - verknallt; Schwarm; zerdrücken

thither - dorthin, dahin

profounder - Profiler; tiefgehend, tiefgehend, tief, profund

insight - Einblick; Einsicht; Gespür, Kundenverständnis, Ahnung, Eingebung

reveal - enthüllen; offenbaren

travelers - der/die Reisende

adventurers - Abenteurer, Abenteurerin, Thronbewerber, Thronbewerberin

Psychologist - Psychologe, Psychologin

sacrifice - opfern; Opfer

Dell - enges Tal

entitled - berechtigt; betiteln, benennen, den Titel verleihen

demand - Nachfrage, Bedarf, Anspruch, verlangen, bestehen


24. O sancta simplicitas! In what strange simplification and falsification man lives! One can never cease wondering when once one has got eyes for beholding this marvel! How we have made everything around us clear and free and easy and simple! how we have been able to give our senses a passport to everything superficial, our thoughts a godlike desire for wanton pranks and wrong inferences!"how from the beginning, we have contrived to retain our ignorance in order to enjoy an almost inconceivable freedom, thoughtlessness, imprudence, heartiness, and gaiety"in order to enjoy life! And only on this solidified, granite-like foundation of ignorance could knowledge rear itself hitherto, the will to knowledge on the foundation of a far more powerful will, the will to ignorance, to the uncertain, to the untrue!

simplification - Vereinfachung

cease - aufhören, einstellen

beholding - betrachten, sehen, schauen, anschauen, ansehen

marvel - bewundern; wundern

thoughts - Gedanken; Gedanke

godlike - gottgleich, göttlich

wanton - mutwillig; wild, unkontrolliert, unbeherrscht, unberechenbar

pranks - Streiche; Streich, Schabernack, veralbern, veräppeln

inferences - Schlussfolgerungen; Schlussfolgern

contrived - ausgeklügelt; ersinnen, entwerfen, bewerkstelligen

retain - beibehalten; behalten; festhalten

inconceivable - unvorstellbar

thoughtlessness - Sorglosigkeit; Gedankenlosigkeit

imprudence - Unvorsichtigkeit; Leichtsinn, Nachlässigkeit

heartiness - Herzlichkeit; Herzhaftigkeit

gaiety - Fröhlichkeit; Frohsinn, Glücklichsein

enjoy life - sich ausleben

solidified - verfestigt; erstarren

granite - Granit

foundation - Gründung; Grundlage; Fundament, Stiftung, Foundation

rear - hinten; Hinter.., hinterster, Heck, Rück..

untrue - unwahr

Not as its opposite, but"as its refinement! It is to be hoped, indeed, that LANGUAGE, here as elsewhere, will not get over its awkwardness, and that it will continue to talk of opposites where there are only degrees and many refinements of gradation; it is equally to be hoped that the incarnated Tartuffery of morals, which now belongs to our unconquerable "flesh and blood," will turn the words round in the mouths of us discerning ones. Here and there we understand it, and laugh at the way in which precisely the best knowledge seeks most to retain us in this SIMPLIFIED, thoroughly artificial, suitably imagined, and suitably falsified world: at the way in which, whether it will or not, it loves error, because, as living itself, it loves life!

refinement - Verfeinerung; Verbesserung, Veredelung, Veredeln

awkwardness - Unbeholfenheit, Umständlichkeit, Ungeschicklichkeit, Plumpheit

gradation - Abstufung

incarnated - inkarniert; verkörpern; leibhaftig, in Menschengestalt

unconquerable - unbesiegbar

flesh - Fleisch; Haut, Leib, Fruchtfleisch, Fleischfarbe, zunehmen

discerning - Einsichtsfähig; erkennen, wahrnehmen, bemerken, feststellen

simplified - vereinfacht; vereinfachen, sich vereinfachen, einfacher werden

thoroughly - gründlich, vollkommen, total, durch und durch

artificial - künstlich

suitably - angemessen; geeignet, passend

falsified - gefälscht; falsifizieren, widerlegen

25. After such a cheerful commencement, a serious word would fain be heard; it appeals to the most serious minds. Take care, ye philosophers and friends of knowledge, and beware of martyrdom! Of suffering "for the truth's sake"! even in your own defense! It spoils all the innocence and fine neutrality of your conscience; it makes you headstrong against objections and red rags; it stupefies, animalizes, and brutalizes, when in the struggle with danger, slander, suspicion, expulsion, and even worse consequences of enmity, ye have at last to play your last card as protectors of truth upon earth"as though "the Truth" were such an innocent and incompetent creature as to require protectors! and you of all people, ye knights of the sorrowful countenance, Messrs Loafers and Cobweb-spinners of the spirit! Finally, ye know sufficiently well that it cannot be of any consequence if YE just carry your point; ye know that hitherto no philosopher has carried his point, and that there might be a more laudable truthfulness in every little interrogative mark which you place after your special words and favourite doctrines (and occasionally after yourselves) than in all the solemn pantomime and trumping games before accusers and law-courts! Rather go out of the way! Flee into concealment! And have your masks and your ruses, that ye may be mistaken for what you are, or somewhat feared! And pray, don't forget the garden, the garden with golden trellis-work! And have people around you who are as a garden"or as music on the waters at eventide, when already the day becomes a memory. Choose the GOOD solitude, the free, wanton, lightsome solitude, which also gives you the right still to remain good in any sense whatsoever!

commencement - Beginn; Anfang

fain - zögern; gern

appeals - Berufungen; Revision, Wirkung, Anziehungskraft; reizen, zusagen

ye - ja; euch, ihr, dir, du

martyrdom - Märtyrertum; Märtyrertod; Martyrium

defense - Verteidigung, Wehr

spoils - plündern, ruinieren, verderben, kaputtmachen, verwöhnen

innocence - Unschuld; Harmlosigkeit

neutrality - Neutralität

headstrong - eigenwillig; eigensinnig

objections - Einwände; Beanstandung, Einwand, Widerspruch, Einspruch

rags - Fummel, Lumpen, Putzlappen, Unfug

Stupefies - Verblüfft; betäuben

Slander - (mündliche) Verleumdung, Lästerung, mündlich verleumden

suspicion - Verdacht, Argwohn, Verdächtigung

expulsion - Entfernung, Vertreibung, Ausweisung

enmity - Feindschaft

protectors - Beschützer

incompetent - inkompetent, unfähig

creature - Wesen, Lebewesen, Fabelwesen

Knights - Springer (Schach), Ritter, Pferd

sorrowful - Traurig

countenance - Antlitz, Gesichtsausdruck, Miene, Unterstützung, Fassung

loafers - Faulenzer; Gammler, Slipper, Bummler

cobweb - Spinnengewebe, Spinnwebe, Spinnennetz

spinners - Spinner, Spinnerin, Spinner

laudable - lobenswert, löblich

interrogative - Frage

doctrines - Doktrinen; Doktrin, Lehre, Doktrin

Occasionally - gelegentlich

pantomime - Pantomime; pantomimisieren

trumping - trumpfen; Trumpf

accusers - Ankläger, Ankläger

law-courts - (law-courts) Justizpalast

flee - fliehen, flüchten, entfliehen

concealment - Verheimlichung; Verborgenheit, Geborgenheit

masks - Masken; Maske; abkleben (zum Schutz); abdecken, maskieren

ruses - Tricks; Kniff, List, Finte, Betrügerei, Trick, Ablenkungsmanöver

somewhat - etwas, einigermaßen

Golden - golden, goldgelb

trellis - Spalier stehen; Gatter, Schmuckgitter, Ziergitter

eventide - Abendzeit; Lebensabend

solitude - Einsamkeit, Alleinsein

lightsome - leichtfüßig

whatsoever - wie auch immer; überhaupt

How poisonous, how crafty, how bad, does every long war make one, which cannot be waged openly by means of force! How PERSONAL does a long fear make one, a long watching of enemies, of possible enemies! These pariahs of society, these long-pursued, badly-persecuted ones"also the compulsory recluses, the Spinozas or Giordano Brunos"always become in the end, even under the most intellectual masquerade, and perhaps without being themselves aware of it, refined vengeance-seekers and poison-Brewers (just lay bare the foundation of Spinoza's ethics and theology!), not to speak of the stupidity of moral indignation, which is the unfailing sign in a philosopher that the sense of philosophical humour has left him. The martyrdom of the philosopher, his "sacrifice for the sake of truth," forces into the light whatever of the agitator and actor lurks in him; and if one has hitherto contemplated him only with artistic curiosity, with regard to many a philosopher it is easy to understand the dangerous desire to see him also in his deterioration (deteriorated into a "martyr," into a stage-and-tribune-bawler). Only, that it is necessary with such a desire to be clear WHAT spectacle one will see in any case"merely a satyric play, merely an epilogue farce, merely the continued proof that the long, real tragedy IS AT AN END, supposing that every philosophy has been a long tragedy in its origin.

crafty - raffiniert; geschickt; gerissen, schlau, listig

waged - geführt; wedeln, schwänzen, Wedeln

openly - offen, öffentlich

pariahs - Parias; Paria

pursued - Verfolgt; verfolgen, folgen, beschreiten, nachjagen, nachgehen

Persecuted - Verfolgt; verfolgen, schikanieren, bedrängen, peinigen, plagen

compulsory - obligatorisch, pflichtmäßig, gesetzlich, verpflichtend

recluses - Einsiedler

vengeance - Rache, Vergeltung

seekers - Suchender, Sucher, Sucherin

Brewers - Brauer, Brauerin, Bierbrauer

bare - knapp, kahl, nackt, bloß; entblößen, abnehmen, freimachen

ethics - Ethik; ethisch

theology - Theologie

unfailing - unfehlbar

humour - Humor; Laune, Stimmung, Körpersaft

agitator - Aufwiegler; Agitator, Agitatorin

contemplated - in Erwägung gezogen; nachsinnen

curiosity - Neugier, Neugierde, Kuriosität, Kuriosum

deterioration - Verschlimmerung, Verschlechterung, Verschärfung, Abgrund

deteriorated - verschlechtert; verschlechtern, verschlechtern

martyr - Märtyrer, Märtyrerin

Tribune - Tribüne

bawler - Schreihals; Schreier

satyric - satyrisch; satyrartig

Epilogue - Epilog, Nachwort

farce - eine Farce; Posse

tragedy - Tragödie

26. Every select man strives instinctively for a citadel and a privacy, where he is FREE from the crowd, the many, the majority"where he may forget "men who are the rule," as their exception;"exclusive only of the case in which he is pushed straight to such men by a still stronger instinct, as a discerner in the great and exceptional sense. Whoever, in intercourse with men, does not occasionally glisten in all the green and grey colours of distress, owing to disgust, satiety, sympathy, gloominess, and solitariness, is assuredly not a man of elevated tastes; supposing, however, that he does not voluntarily take all this burden and disgust upon himself, that he persistently avoids it, and remains, as I said, quietly and proudly hidden in his citadel, one thing is then certain: he was not made, he was not predestined for knowledge. For as such, he would one day have to say to himself: "The devil take my good taste! but 'the rule'is more interesting than the exception"than myself, the exception!" And he would go DOWN, and above all, he would go "inside." The long and serious study of the AVERAGE man"and consequently much disguise, self-overcoming, familiarity, and bad intercourse (all intercourse is bad intercourse except with one's equals):"that constitutes a necessary part of the life-history of every philosopher; perhaps the most disagreeable, odious, and disappointing part. If he is fortunate, however, as a favourite child of knowledge should be, he will meet with suitable auxiliaries who will shorten and lighten his task; I mean so-called cynics, those who simply recognize the animal, the commonplace and "the rule" in themselves, and at the same time have so much spirituality and ticklishness as to make them talk of themselves and their like BEFORE WITNESSES"sometimes they wallow, even in books, as on their own dung-hill.

select - auswählen

strives - strebt; erstreben, bestreben

citadel - Zitadelle

privacy - Zurückgezogenheit, Privatsphäre, Privatheit

exclusive - ausschließlich; exklusiv

discerner - Unterscheider

exceptional - außergewöhnlich

intercourse - Beziehungen, Umgang, Verkehr, Geschlechtsverkehr

glisten - glitzern, glänzen, gleißen

gloominess - Trübsinn; Düsterheit, Finsternis, Dunkelheit

solitariness - Einsamkeit, Einsiedlerdasein

elevated - erhöht; gehoben; (elevate); erhöhen, anheben

voluntarily - Freiwillig

burden - Belastung; Refrain, Last, Möller (Hüttenwesen); belasten

predestined - prädestiniert; prädestinieren

devil - dem Teufel; Teufel, Satan, Teufelin, reizen, ärgern

familiarity - Vertrautheit

disagreeable - unangenehm, unsympathisch

odious - abscheulich, scheußlich, abstoßend, widerlich

fortunate - glücklich; günstig, verheißungsvoll

auxiliaries - Hilfskräfte; helfend, unterstützend, hilfs-, subsidiär

shorten - verkürzen; kürzer werden

lighten - aufhellen; erleuchten, erhellen

cynics - Zyniker, Zynikerin, Zyniker, Zynikerin

commonplace - alltäglich, banal, gang und gäbe, gewöhnlich, Gemeinplatz

spirituality - Geistigkeit, Spiritualität

ticklishness - Kitzeligkeit

witnesses - Zeugnis

wallow - sich suhlen; im Schmutz wälzen

dung - düngen; Dung

Cynicism is the only form in which base souls approach what is called honesty; and the higher man must open his ears to all the coarser or finer cynicism, and congratulate himself when the clown becomes shameless right before him, or the scientific satyr speaks out. There are even cases where enchantment mixes with the disgust"namely, where by a freak of nature, genius is bound to some such indiscreet billy-goat and ape, as in the case of the Abbe Galiani, the profoundest, acutest, and perhaps also filthiest man of his century"he was far profounder than Voltaire, and consequently also, a good deal more silent. It happens more frequently, as has been hinted, that a scientific head is placed on an ape's body, a fine exceptional understanding in a base soul, an occurrence by no means rare, especially among doctors and moral physiologists. And whenever anyone speaks without bitterness, or rather quite innocently, of man as a belly with two requirements, and a head with one; whenever any one sees, seeks, and WANTS to see only hunger, sexual instinct, and vanity as the real and only motives of human actions; in short, when any one speaks "badly""and not even "ill""of man, then ought the lover of knowledge to hearken attentively and diligently; he ought, in general, to have an open ear wherever there is talk without indignation. For the indignant man, and he who perpetually tears and lacerates himself with his own teeth (or, in place of himself, the world, God, or society), may indeed, morally speaking, stand higher than the laughing and self-satisfied satyr, but in every other sense he is the more ordinary, more indifferent, and less instructive case. And no one is such a LIAR as the indignant man.

cynicism - Zynismus

approach - sich nähern, nahekommen, ähnlich sein

honesty - Ehrlichkeit; Mondviole, Silberblatt

coarser - gröber; grob, grobkörnig, grob, grob, derb, primitiv

congratulate - gratulieren, beglückwünschen

clown - Clown, Clownin, Trottel

shameless - schamlos, unverschämt

satyr - Satyr

enchantment - Verzauberung, Bezauberung

freak - ausflippen; Begeisterte, Missgeburt, irrer Typ

genius - Genie; Genialität

bound - gebunden; Sprung; (bind); binden; verbinden, konnektieren

indiscreet - indiskret

goat - Ziege, Geiß, Bock

ape - nachäffen, Affe

Abbe - Abbe, Abbé

profoundest - am tiefsten; tiefgehend, tiefgehend, tief, profund

acutest - scharf, spitz, akut

filthiest - schmutzigste; dreckig, verdreckt, versifft, dreckig, schmutzig

more silent - wortkargere

Occurrence - Vorkommen; Vorfall

physiologists - Physiologen; Physiologe, Physiologin

bitterness - Bitterkeit, Bitternis

innocently - unschuldig

belly - Bauch, Magen

hunger - hungern; Hunger

sexual instinct - Geschlechtstrieb

vanity - Vergänglichkeit; Eitelkeit; Leere

motives - Motiven; Motiv

lover - Geliebte, Liebhaber, Liebhaberin

hearken - zuhören; horchen, hören, lauschen

attentively - aufmerksam zuhören; aufmerksam

diligently - fleißig

wherever - wo auch immer

indignant - entrüstet

perpetually - auf Dauer

lacerates - zerschneidet; zerfleischen

morally - moralisch

satisfied - befriedigen, zufriedenstellen

more ordinary - gewöhnlichere

more indifferent - abgestumpftere

instructive - lehrreich

liar - Lügner, Lügnerin

27. It is difficult to be understood, especially when one thinks and lives gangasrotogati [Footnote: Like the river Ganges: presto.] among those only who think and live otherwise"namely, kurmagati [Footnote: Like the tortoise: lento.], or at best "froglike," mandeikagati [Footnote: Like the frog: staccato.] (I do everything to be "difficultly understood" myself!

Footnote - Fußnote

Ganges - Ganges

Tortoise - Schildkröte, Landschildkröte

lento - lento

froglike - froschähnlich

staccato - Stakkato; abgehackt

difficultly - Schwierig

"and one should be heartily grateful for the good will to some refinement of interpretation. As regards "the good friends," however, who are always too easy-going, and think that as friends they have a right to ease, one does well at the very first to grant them a play-ground and romping-place for misunderstanding"one can thus laugh still; or get rid of them altogether, these good friends"and laugh then also!

heartily - von Herzen; herzlich

ease - Leichtigkeit, Mühelosigkeit, Behaglichkeit, Bequemlichkeit

Grant - gewähren; erteilen; bewilligen

romping - raufen, Balgerei, Tollerei, Toben

misunderstanding - Missverständnis; (misunderstand); missverstehen

28. What is most difficult to render from one language into another is the TEMPO of its style, which has its basis in the character of the race, or to speak more physiologically, in the average TEMPO of the assimilation of its nutriment. There are honestly meant translations, which, as involuntary vulgarizations, are almost falsifications of the original, merely because its lively and merry TEMPO (which overleaps and obviates all dangers in word and expression) could not also be rendered. A German is almost incapacitated for PRESTO in his language; consequently also, as may be reasonably inferred, for many of the most delightful and daring NUANCES of free, free-spirited thought. And just as the buffoon and satyr are foreign to him in body and conscience, so Aristophanes and Petronius are untranslatable for him. Everything ponderous, viscous, and pompously clumsy, all long-winded and wearying species of style, are developed in profuse variety among Germans"pardon me for stating the fact that even Goethe's prose, in its mixture of stiffness and elegance, is no exception, as a reflection of the "good old time" to which it belongs, and as an expression of German taste at a time when there was still a "German taste," which was a rococo-taste in moribus et artibus. Lessing is an exception, owing to his histrionic nature, which understood much, and was versed in many things; he who was not the translator of Bayle to no purpose, who took refuge willingly in the shadow of Diderot and Voltaire, and still more willingly among the Roman comedy-writers"Lessing loved also free-spiritism in the TEMPO, and flight out of Germany.

render - leisten, wiedergeben

tempo - Tempo

physiologically - physiologisch

assimilation - Angleichung, Assimilation

nutriment - Nährstoff; Nahrung

honestly - ehrlich

falsifications - Fälschungen; Fälschung, Falsifikation

lively - lebendig, munter (lebhaft), lebhaft, quirlig

merry - fröhlich, heiter

overleaps - überspringt; überspringen

obviates - entlastet; überflüssig machen, umgehen

incapacitated - entmündigt; unfähig machen; kampfunfähig, hindern

reasonably - vernünftig

inferred - abgeleitet; schlussfolgern, folgern, schließen, Schlüsse ziehen

most delightful - entzückendste

Nuances - Nuance, Nuance

buffoon - Possenreißer; Hanswurst, Kasper, Narr, Närrin, kaspern

Aristophanes - Aristophanes

untranslatable - unübersetzbar

ponderous - schwerfällig

viscous - zähflüssig, viskos, dickflüssig

pompously - pompös; prunkvoll, prunkvolle

winded - verschnupft; (wind) aufspulen, rollen, blasen, aufwickeln

wearying - Ermüdend; müde, müde

profuse - übermäßig, enorm, reichlich, üppig

Goethe - Goethe

prose - Prosa

stiffness - Steifheit; Erstarrung, Starre, Steife, Steifigkeit

elegance - Eleganz

exception - Ausnahme, Ausnahmebedingung, Exception

reflection - Reflexion, Abbild, Reflektion, Abwägung

Rococo - Rokoko; Rokoko

histrionic - Schauspiel

versed - versiert; Strophe

Translator - Übersetzer, Übersetzerin

no purpose - umsonst

refuge - Zuflucht; Herberge

willingly - bereitwillig; gern, gerne

shadow - Schatten; beschatten

Roman - Römer; röm. römisch, römisch

spiritism - Spiritismus

But how could the German language, even in the prose of Lessing, imitate the TEMPO of Machiavelli, who in his "Principe" makes us breathe the dry, fine air of Florence, and cannot help presenting the most serious events in a boisterous allegrissimo, perhaps not without a malicious artistic sense of the contrast he ventures to present"long, heavy, difficult, dangerous thoughts, and a TEMPO of the gallop, and of the best, wantonest humour? Finally, who would venture on a German translation of Petronius, who, more than any great musician hitherto, was a master of PRESTO in invention, ideas, and words? What matter in the end about the swamps of the sick, evil world, or of the "ancient world," when like him, one has the feet of a wind, the rush, the breath, the emancipating scorn of a wind, which makes everything healthy, by making everything RUN! And with regard to Aristophanes"that transfiguring, complementary genius, for whose sake one PARDONS all Hellenism for having existed, provided one has understood in its full profundity ALL that there requires pardon and transfiguration; there is nothing that has caused me to meditate more on PLATO'S secrecy and sphinx-like nature, than the happily preserved petit fait that under the pillow of his death-bed there was found no "Bible," nor anything Egyptian, Pythagorean, or Platonic"but a book of Aristophanes. How could even Plato have endured life"a Greek life which he repudiated"without an Aristophanes!

imitate - imitieren

Florence - Florenz

boisterous - ungestüm, ausgelassen, lebendig, lebhaft

gallop - Galopp; galoppieren

wantonest - schamlos; wild, unkontrolliert, unbeherrscht, unberechenbar

Venture - Wagnis

Master - Haupt.., Grund, Meister, führend, leitend; bewältigen, meistern

swamps - Sümpfe; Sumpf, Moor

wind - aufspulen, rollen, blasen, aufwickeln, abspulen

rush - stürzen, drängen, hetzen, rasen; Eile, Andrang

emancipating - emanzipierend; emanzipieren

transfiguring - verklären; umgestalten

complementary - komplementär, ergänzend, sich ergänzend

Hellenism - Hellenismus

transfiguration - Verklärung; Umgestaltung

meditate - meditieren

secrecy - Geheimhaltung; Geheimniskrämerei, Geheimnistuerei

preserved - Konserve, Eingemachtes

pillow - Kopfkissen, Kissen; Ruhekissen

Bible - Bibel

Pythagorean - Pythagoras; Pythagoreer, Pythagoreerin

endured - ertragen, aushalten, dulden, von Bestand sein

repudiated - abgelehnt; verleugnen (sb./sth.), abstreiten, leugnen

29. It is the business of the very few to be independent; it is a privilege of the strong. And whoever attempts it, even with the best right, but without being OBLIGED to do so, proves that he is probably not only strong, but also daring beyond measure. He enters into a labyrinth, he multiplies a thousandfold the dangers which life in itself already brings with it; not the least of which is that no one can see how and where he loses his way, becomes isolated, and is torn piecemeal by some minotaur of conscience. Supposing such a one comes to grief, it is so far from the comprehension of men that they neither feel it, nor sympathize with it.

privilege - Privileg, Vergünstigung, privilegieren

obliged - verpflichtet; verpflichten, einen Gefallen tun

enters into - (enter into) einspringen

labyrinth - Labyrinth

multiplies - multipliziert; multiplizieren

thousandfold - tausendfache

piecemeal - stückweise

Minotaur - Minotaur, Minotaure, Minotaurus, Minotauros

grief - Kummer, Gram, Leid

comprehension - Verständnis, Verstehen

sympathize - mitfühlen

And he cannot any longer go back! He cannot even go back again to the sympathy of men!

30. Our deepest insights must"and should"appear as follies, and under certain circumstances as crimes, when they come unauthorizedly to the ears of those who are not disposed and predestined for them. The exoteric and the esoteric, as they were formerly distinguished by philosophers"among the Indians, as among the Greeks, Persians, and Mussulmans, in short, wherever people believed in gradations of rank and NOT in equality and equal rights"are not so much in contradistinction to one another in respect to the exoteric class, standing without, and viewing, estimating, measuring, and judging from the outside, and not from the inside; the more essential distinction is that the class in question views things from below upwards"while the esoteric class views things FROM ABOVE DOWNWARDS. There are heights of the soul from which tragedy itself no longer appears to operate tragically; and if all the woe in the world were taken together, who would dare to decide whether the sight of it would NECESSARILY seduce and constrain to sympathy, and thus to a doubling of the woe?

insights - Erkenntnisse; Einblick, Einsicht, Gespür

follies - Verrücktheiten; Torheit, Narrheit, Dummheit, Tollheit, Aberwitz

unauthorizedly - unbefugt

disposed - entsorgt; beseitigen, entsorgen, ordnen

exoteric - exoterisch

esoteric - esoterisch

distinguished - ausgezeichnet; unterscheiden, erkennen, auszeichnen

Indians - indisch, indianisch, Inder, Inderin, Indianer, Indianerin

Greeks - Griechen; griechisch, Griechisch

Persians - persisch; Perser

gradations - Abstufungen; Abstufung

contradistinction - Widersprüchlichkeit; Gegensatz

Estimating - Schätzung, Abschätzung, Kostenvoranschlag, abschätzen, schätzen

more essential - wesentlichere

upwards - nach oben; ansteigend, aufwärts

downwards - abwärts, nach unten, runter, nach unten gehend, absteigend

operate - operieren; betreiben, bedienen

tragically - tragisch

woe - wehe; Weh, Jammer, Kummer, Leid

seduce - verführen, verleiten

constrain - zwingen;etw. einschränken

.. That which serves the higher class of men for nourishment or refreshment, must be almost poison to an entirely different and lower order of human beings. The virtues of the common man would perhaps mean vice and weakness in a philosopher; it might be possible for a highly developed man, supposing him to degenerate and go to ruin, to acquire qualities thereby alone, for the sake of which he would have to be honoured as a saint in the lower world into which he had sunk. There are books which have an inverse value for the soul and the health according as the inferior soul and the lower vitality, or the higher and more powerful, make use of them. In the former case they are dangerous, disturbing, unsettling books, in the latter case they are herald-calls which summon the bravest to THEIR bravery. Books for the general reader are always ill-smelling books, the odour of paltry people clings to them. Where the populace eat and drink, and even where they reverence, it is accustomed to stink. One should not go into churches if one wishes to breathe PURE air.

nourishment - Ernährung; Nahrung

refreshment - Erfrischung

virtues - Tugenden; Tugend, Tugend, Keuschheit, Tugend

vice - Laster; der Schraubstock

weakness - Schwäche, Faible

highly developed - hochentwickelt

degenerate - entartet; widernatürlich, dekadent, degeneriert, Asozialer

ruin - Ruine, Ruin, Ruin, ruinieren, auf die Knie zwingen, vernichten

acquire - erwerben, akquirieren

honoured - geehrt; Ehrung, Ehre; ehren; beehren, akzeptieren, annehmen

saint - St. Sankt ...;Heilige {m,f}

inverse - entgegengesetzt; umgekehrt

inferior - untergeordnet, nachgeordnet, unterlegen, tiefer, minderwertig

vitality - Vitalität, Lebenskraft

former - erstgenannt, ehem. ehemalig, frühere, früher

disturbing - beunruhigend; stören

unsettling - beunruhigend; verwirren, beunruhigen

Herald - Herold, Bote, Vorbote

summon - beschwören; auffordern, vorladen

bravery - Tapferkeit

odour - Geruch

clings to - klammert

populace - der Bevölkerung; gemeine Volk, breite Masse, Pöbel

reverence - Ehrfurcht, Bewunderung, Verehrung, Hochachtung, Ehrerbietung

stink - stinken, riechen, müffeln, Gestank

31. In our youthful years we still venerate and despise without the art of NUANCE, which is the best gain of life, and we have rightly to do hard penance for having fallen upon men and things with Yea and Nay. Everything is so arranged that the worst of all tastes, THE TASTE FOR THE UNCONDITIONAL, is cruelly befooled and abused, until a man learns to introduce a little art into his sentiments, and prefers to try conclusions with the artificial, as do the real artists of life. The angry and reverent spirit peculiar to youth appears to allow itself no peace, until it has suitably falsified men and things, to be able to vent its passion upon them: youth in itself even, is something falsifying and deceptive. Later on, when the young soul, tortured by continual disillusions, finally turns suspiciously against itself"still ardent and savage even in its suspicion and remorse of conscience: how it upbraids itself, how impatiently it tears itself, how it revenges itself for its long self-blinding, as though it had been a voluntary blindness!

youthful - jugendlich, jung

venerate - verehren; anhimmeln, anbeten

despise - verachten

nuance - Nuance

gain - Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen, erlangen

rightly - zurecht, zu Recht, richtig

penance - Buße, Bußleistung, Bußübung, Bußwerk

Yea - Ja

cruelly - grausam

abused - missbraucht; missbrauchen, beschimpfen; Missbrauch, Schmähung

sentiments - Empfindungen; Gefühl

reverent - pietätvoll

peculiar - eigentümlich; merkwürdig, seltsam

vent - Entlüftung; entlüften

falsifying - fälschend; falsifizieren, widerlegen

deceptive - trügerisch

tortured - gefoltert; Folter, Tortur, foltern

continual - fortlaufend

disillusions - Desillusionierungen; desillusionieren, Desillusion

ardent - leidenschaftlich; feurig

savage - Wilde; wild, wüst, unbebaut, unbändig, rasend

remorse - Reue, Gewissensbisse

upbraids - Schimpfwörter; Vorwürfe machen; schimpfen

revenges - Rache, rächen

voluntary - freiwillig; ohne Bezahlung

blindness - Blindheit

In this transition one punishes oneself by distrust of one's sentiments; one tortures one's enthusiasm with doubt, one feels even the good conscience to be a danger, as if it were the self-concealment and lassitude of a more refined uprightness; and above all, one espouses upon principle the cause AGAINST "youth.""A decade later, and one comprehends that all this was also still"youth!

transition - Übergang

tortures - foltert; Folter, Tortur, foltern

enthusiasm - Begeisterung, Enthusiasmus, Schwärmerei

lassitude - Abgeschlagenheit; Mattigkeit

uprightness - Aufrichtigkeit; Geradheit

espouses - befürwortet; heiraten, ehelichen, sich vermählen mit

comprehends - begreift; umfassen, verstehen, begreifen, erfassen, einsehen

32. Throughout the longest period of human history"one calls it the prehistoric period"the value or non-value of an action was inferred from its CONSEQUENCES; the action in itself was not taken into consideration, any more than its origin; but pretty much as in China at present, where the distinction or disgrace of a child redounds to its parents, the retro-operating power of success or failure was what induced men to think well or ill of an action. Let us call this period the PRE-MORAL period of mankind; the imperative, "Know thyself!" was then still unknown."In the last ten thousand years, on the other hand, on certain large portions of the earth, one has gradually got so far, that one no longer lets the consequences of an action, but its origin, decide with regard to its worth: a great achievement as a whole, an important refinement of vision and of criterion, the unconscious effect of the supremacy of aristocratic values and of the belief in "origin," the mark of a period which may be designated in the narrower sense as the MORAL one: the first attempt at self-knowledge is thereby made. Instead of the consequences, the origin"what an inversion of perspective! And assuredly an inversion effected only after long struggle and wavering! To be sure, an ominous new superstition, a peculiar narrowness of interpretation, attained supremacy precisely thereby: the origin of an action was interpreted in the most definite sense possible, as origin out of an INTENTION; people were agreed in the belief that the value of an action lay in the value of its intention. The intention as the sole origin and antecedent history of an action: under the influence of this prejudice moral praise and blame have been bestowed, and men have judged and even philosophized almost up to the present day.

prehistoric - prähistorisch

distinction - Unterscheidung; Unterschied; Auszeichnung

disgrace - Ungnade, Schande, Schmach

redounds - führen, zu etw. beitragen, , zurückfallen, einholen

failure - Versagen; Misserfolg, Ausfall, Verschlechterung, Misslingen

induced - veranlasst; dazu bringen, anstacheln, bewirken, verursachen

mankind - die Menschheit; Menschheit, Menschengeschlecht, Mann

thyself - Sie selbst; selbst

unknown - unbekannt; Unbekannte; Unbekannter

portions - Portionen; Teil

vision - Sicht, Sehvermögen, Sehkraft, Augenlicht, Trugbild

criterion - Kriterium

self-knowledge - (self-knowledge) Selbsterkenntnisse , Selbsterkenntnis

inversion - Inversion

wavering - schwankend; wankelmütig

ominous - ominös

narrowness - Engstirnigkeit; Enge, Beschränktheit

interpreted - gedeutet; interpretieren, interpretieren, dolmetschen

sole - Seezunge, Sohle, einzig

antecedent - Vorläufer; früher, vorausgehend, vorgängig, voriger

Praise - Gelobt; Lob; loben, preisen

blame - jemadem die Schuld zuweisen

bestowed - verliehen; verstauen, einlagern, unterbringen, schenken

philosophized - philosophiert; philosophieren

Is it not possible, however, that the necessity may now have arisen of again making up our minds with regard to the reversing and fundamental shifting of values, owing to a new self-consciousness and acuteness in man"is it not possible that we may be standing on the threshold of a period which to begin with, would be distinguished negatively as ULTRA-MORAL: nowadays when, at least among us immoralists, the suspicion arises that the decisive value of an action lies precisely in that which is NOT INTENTIONAL, and that all its intentionalness, all that is seen, sensible, or "sensed" in it, belongs to its surface or skin"which, like every skin, betrays something, but CONCEALS still more? In short, we believe that the intention is only a sign or symptom, which first requires an explanation"a sign, moreover, which has too many interpretations, and consequently hardly any meaning in itself alone: that morality, in the sense in which it has been understood hitherto, as intention-morality, has been a prejudice, perhaps a prematureness or preliminariness, probably something of the same rank as astrology and alchemy, but in any case something which must be surmounted. The surmounting of morality, in a certain sense even the self-mounting of morality"let that be the name for the long-secret labour which has been reserved for the most refined, the most upright, and also the most wicked consciences of today, as the living touchstones of the soul.

arisen - entstanden ist; sich erheben, aufstehen, entstehen, auftreten

reversing - Rückwärtsfahren; umkehrend, Umsteuerung

negatively - Negativ

ultra - radikal, Ultra..

immoralists - Immoralisten; Immoralist

arises - entsteht; sich erheben, aufstehen, entstehen, auftreten

intentionalness - Vorsätzlichkeit

conceals - verbirgt; verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen

interpretations - Interpretationen; Interpretation, Auslegung, Interpretation

prematureness - Voreiligkeit; Frühreife

preliminariness - Vorläufigkeit

alchemy - Alchemie

surmounting - Überwinden; übersteigend; (surmount); überwinden

reserved - Reservieren

most refined - gewählteste

upright - aufrecht; hochkant

consciences - Gewissen

touchstones - Prüfsteine; Prüfstein, Prüfstein

33. It cannot be helped: the sentiment of surrender, of sacrifice for one's neighbour, and all self-renunciation-morality, must be mercilessly called to account, and brought to judgment; just as the aesthetics of "disinterested contemplation," under which the emasculation of art nowadays seeks insidiously enough to create itself a good conscience. There is far too much witchery and sugar in the sentiments "for others" and "NOT for myself," for one not needing to be doubly distrustful here, and for one asking promptly: "Are they not perhaps"DECEPTIONS?

surrender - kapitulieren, ergeben

mercilessly - erbarmungslos

aesthetics - ästhetisch, Ästhetik, (stilvolle) Schönheit

disinterested - desinteressiert; Desinteresse

contemplation - Kontemplation; Betrachtung; Meditation; Erwarten

emasculation - Entmannung

witchery - Geisterbeschwörung

doubly - zweifach; doppelt

promptly - unverzüglich; bereit

deceptions - Täuschungen; Betrug, Betrügerei, Täuschung

"That they PLEASE"him who has them, and him who enjoys their fruit, and also the mere spectator"that is still no argument in their FAVOUR, but just calls for caution. Let us therefore be cautious!

mere - einfach; nur, schier, bloß

spectator - Betrachter; Zuschauer, Zuschauerin, Schaulustiger

caution - Warnung, Vorsicht, Achtsamkeit, Behutsamkeit, Kaution, warnen

34. At whatever standpoint of philosophy one may place oneself nowadays, seen from every position, the ERRONEOUSNESS of the world in which we think we live is the surest and most certain thing our eyes can light upon: we find proof after proof thereof, which would fain allure us into surmises concerning a deceptive principle in the "nature of things." He, however, who makes thinking itself, and consequently "the spirit," responsible for the falseness of the world"an honourable exit, which every conscious or unconscious advocatus dei avails himself of"he who regards this world, including space, time, form, and movement, as falsely DEDUCED, would have at least good reason in the end to become distrustful also of all thinking; has it not hitherto been playing upon us the worst of scurvy tricks? and what guarantee would it give that it would not continue to do what it has always been doing? In all seriousness, the innocence of thinkers has something touching and respect-inspiring in it, which even nowadays permits them to wait upon consciousness with the request that it will give them HONEST answers: for example, whether it be "real" or not, and why it keeps the outer world so resolutely at a distance, and other questions of the same description. The belief in "immediate certainties" is a MORAL NAIVETE which does honour to us philosophers; but"we have now to cease being "MERELY moral" men! Apart from morality, such belief is a folly which does little honour to us! If in middle-class life an ever-ready distrust is regarded as the sign of a "bad character," and consequently as an imprudence, here among us, beyond the middle-class world and its Yeas and Nays, what should prevent our being imprudent and saying: the philosopher has at length a RIGHT to "bad character," as the being who has hitherto been most befooled on earth"he is now under OBLIGATION to distrustfulness, to the wickedest squinting out of every abyss of suspicion."Forgive me the joke of this gloomy grimace and turn of expression; for I myself have long ago learned to think and estimate differently with regard to deceiving and being deceived, and I keep at least a couple of pokes in the ribs ready for the blind rage with which philosophers struggle against being deceived.

standpoint - Standpunkt, Sichtweise

erroneousness - Irrtum

allure - Anziehungskraft; verlocken

surmises - Vermutungen; Vermutung, Mutmaßung, vermuten, mutmaßen, annehmen

concerning - Was bedeutet das; Sorge, Anliegen

honourable - ehrenhaft

exit - aussteigen, Ausgang; Abgang, Ausgang, Ausstieg, Ende

avails - zur Verfügung; ausnutzen, helfen, nützen, Erfolg

deduced - abgeleitet; folgern, ableiten, herleiten, deduzieren

scurvy - Skorbut, Scharbock

guarantee - Garantie; Garant; garantieren, versichern

permits - Genehmigungen; zulassen, erlauben; Erlaubnis, Erlaubnisschein

wait upon - jdm. seine Aufwartung machen

resolutely - Entschlossenheit

naivete - Naivität

Nays - Nein; oder sogar

imprudent - unvorsichtig; unklug, unbedacht

obligation - Verpflichtung, Pflicht

distrustfulness - Misstrauen; Argwohn

wickedest - am verruchtesten; böse

squinting - Blinzeln; schielend; (squint); blinzeln; schielen; Schielen; Strabismus

abyss - Abgrund, Hölle

forgive - vergeben, verzeihen, entschuldigen

gloomy - düster, finster, trübe, dunkel

grimace - Grimasse; Grimassen schneiden

estimate - Schätzung, Abschätzung, Kostenvoranschlag, abschätzen

deceiving - betrügen, täuschen

pokes - stößt; stoßen, stecken, stöbern

ribs - Rippen; Rippe (Profil); Drehschiene, Spant, Rippe, Lamelle

blind - blind, unkritisch, ignorant, Jalousie, Blind, Blinder, Blinde

Why NOT? It is nothing more than a moral prejudice that truth is worth more than semblance; it is, in fact, the worst proved supposition in the world. So much must be conceded: there could have been no life at all except upon the basis of perspective estimates and semblances; and if, with the virtuous enthusiasm and stupidity of many philosophers, one wished to do away altogether with the "seeming world""well, granted that YOU could do that,"at least nothing of your "truth" would thereby remain! Indeed, what is it that forces us in general to the supposition that there is an essential opposition of "true" and "false"? Is it not enough to suppose degrees of seemingness, and as it were lighter and darker shades and tones of semblance"different valeurs, as the painters say? Why might not the world WHICH CONCERNS US"be a fiction? And to any one who suggested: "But to a fiction belongs an originator?""might it not be bluntly replied: WHY? May not this "belong" also belong to the fiction? Is it not at length permitted to be a little ironical towards the subject, just as towards the predicate and object? Might not the philosopher elevate himself above faith in grammar? All respect to governesses, but is it not time that philosophy should renounce governess-faith?

conceded - zugestanden; zugeben, zugestehen, einräumen, zugestehen

semblances - Ähnlichkeiten; Anschein

opposition - Opposition

seemingness - Anmutung

shades - Schattierungen; Maifisch

tones - Töne; Farbton, Klang, Umgangston, Ton

concerns - Bedenken; Sorge, Anliegen

bluntly - unverblümt; grob, frei heraus, stumpf

ironical - ironisch

elevate - erheben; erhöhen, anheben

governesses - Erzieherinnen; Hauslehrerin, Erzieherin, Gouvernante

renounce - sich distanzieren, sich verleugnen

35. O Voltaire! O humanity! O idiocy! There is something ticklish in "the truth," and in the SEARCH for the truth; and if man goes about it too humanely""il ne cherche le vrai que pour faire le bien""I wager he finds nothing!

idiocy - Idiotie

ticklish - kitzlig, kitzelig, brenzlig, heikel

humanely - menschenwürdig

vrai - Wirklich

faire - Jahrmarkt

wager - Wetteinsatz; die Wette

36. Supposing that nothing else is "given" as real but our world of desires and passions, that we cannot sink or rise to any other "reality" but just that of our impulses"for thinking is only a relation of these impulses to one another:"are we not permitted to make the attempt and to ask the question whether this which is "given" does not SUFFICE, by means of our counterparts, for the understanding even of the so-called mechanical (or "material") world? I do not mean as an illusion, a "semblance," a "representation" (in the Berkeleyan and Schopenhauerian sense), but as possessing the same degree of reality as our emotions themselves"as a more primitive form of the world of emotions, in which everything still lies locked in a mighty unity, which afterwards branches off and develops itself in organic processes (naturally also, refines and debilitates)"as a kind of instinctive life in which all organic functions, including self-regulation, assimilation, nutrition, secretion, and change of matter, are still synthetically united with one another"as a PRIMARY FORM of life?"In the end, it is not only permitted to make this attempt, it is commanded by the conscience of LOGICAL METHOD. Not to assume several kinds of causality, so long as the attempt to get along with a single one has not been pushed to its furthest extent (to absurdity, if I may be allowed to say so): that is a morality of method which one may not repudiate nowadays"it follows "from its definition," as mathematicians say.

desires - Sehnsüchte; begehren, begehren, Begehren

suffice - ausreichen, genügen, genug sein, zufriedenstellen

counterparts - Kontrahenten; Gegenstück

semblance - Anschein

representation - Vertretung; Repräsentation, Abzeichen, Darstellung

Berkeleyan - Berkeleyisch

possessing - zu besitzen; besitzen, besitzen

more primitive - primitivere

mighty - gewaltig, mächtig

refines - verfeinert; verfeinern

debilitates - schwächt; an den Kräften zehren, schwächen, entkräften

regulation - Regeln; Regelung, Regulativ, Bestimmung, Verordnung

Nutrition - Ernährung, Nahrung, Nutrition

secretion - Sekretion; Absonderung, Sekret

synthetically - synthetisch

commanded - befohlen; Befehl, Kommando

assume - annehmen, voraussetzen, vermuten, unterstellen

causality - Kausalität; Ursache und Wirkung

extent - Umfang, Ausdehnung, Ausmaß, Größe

absurdity - Absurdität

repudiate - ablehnen; verleugnen (sb./sth.); abstreiten, zurückweisen

mathematicians - Mathematiker, Mathematikerin

The question is ultimately whether we really recognize the will as OPERATING, whether we believe in the causality of the will; if we do so"and fundamentally our belief IN THIS is just our belief in causality itself"we MUST make the attempt to posit hypothetically the causality of the will as the only causality. "Will" can naturally only operate on "will""and not on "matter" (not on "nerves," for instance): in short, the hypothesis must be hazarded, whether will does not operate on will wherever "effects" are recognized"and whether all mechanical action, inasmuch as a power operates therein, is not just the power of will, the effect of will. Granted, finally, that we succeeded in explaining our entire instinctive life as the development and ramification of one fundamental form of will"namely, the Will to Power, as my thesis puts it; granted that all organic functions could be traced back to this Will to Power, and that the solution of the problem of generation and nutrition"it is one problem"could also be found therein: one would thus have acquired the right to define ALL active force unequivocally as WILL TO POWER. The world seen from within, the world defined and designated according to its "intelligible character""it would simply be "Will to Power," and nothing else.

posit - positiv; Postulat; postulieren; aufstellen gloss heory

hypothetically - hypothetisch

nerves - Nerven; Nerv, Nerv, Nerv, Nerv, Nerv

thesis - These; Abschlussarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Masterarbeit

hazarded - riskiert; Zufall, Gefahr, Hindernis

ramification - Verästelung, Verzweigung, Ramifikation, Verwicklung; q

traced - zurückverfolgt; Zeichen, Spur

acquired - erworben; erwerben, erwerben, akquirieren

unequivocally - unzweideutig

intelligible - Verständlich

37. "What? Does not that mean in popular language: God is disproved, but not the devil?""On the contrary! On the contrary, my friends! And who the devil also compels you to speak popularly!

disproved - widerlegt; widerlegen

compels - zwingt; zwingen, zwingen, nötigen, zwingen

popularly - populär

38. As happened finally in all the enlightenment of modern times with the French Revolution (that terrible farce, quite superfluous when judged close at hand, into which, however, the noble and visionary spectators of all Europe have interpreted from a distance their own indignation and enthusiasm so long and passionately, UNTIL THE TEXT HAS DISAPPEARED UNDER THE INTERPRETATION), so a noble posterity might once more misunderstand the whole of the past, and perhaps only thereby make ITS aspect endurable.

revolution - Revolution; Umdrehung

visionary - visionär; unwirklich; seherisch, hellseherisch, ideal, Visionär

spectators - Zuschauer, Zuschauerin, Schaulustiger

passionately - leidenschaftlich

posterity - Nachwelt

misunderstand - missverstehen, falsch verstehen

aspect - Aspekt, Aktionsart

endurable - erträglich

Or rather, has not this already happened? Have not we ourselves been"that "noble posterity"? And, in so far as we now comprehend this, is it not"thereby already past?

comprehend - umfassen; verstehen, begreifen, erfassen, einsehen

39. Nobody will very readily regard a doctrine as true merely because it makes people happy or virtuous"excepting, perhaps, the amiable "Idealists," who are enthusiastic about the good, true, and beautiful, and let all kinds of motley, coarse, and good-natured desirabilities swim about promiscuously in their pond. Happiness and virtue are no arguments. It is willingly forgotten, however, even on the part of thoughtful minds, that to make unhappy and to make bad are just as little counter-arguments. A thing could be TRUE, although it were in the highest degree injurious and dangerous; indeed, the fundamental constitution of existence might be such that one succumbed by a full knowledge of it"so that the strength of a mind might be measured by the amount of "truth" it could endure"or to speak more plainly, by the extent to which it REQUIRED truth attenuated, veiled, sweetened, damped, and falsified. But there is no doubt that for the discovery of certain PORTIONS of truth the wicked and unfortunate are more favourably situated and have a greater likelihood of success; not to speak of the wicked who are happy"a species about whom moralists are silent.

amiable - liebenswürdig, liebenswert, gutmütig

Idealists - Idealisten; Idealist, Idealistin, Idealist, Idealistin

enthusiastic - enthusiastisch, begeistert

coarse - grob, grobkörnig, derb, primitiv

good-natured - (good-natured) gutartig

desirabilities - Erwünschtheit, wünschenswerterweise

promiscuously - promiskuitiv

pond - Weiher, Teich

thoughtful - nachdenklich, bedächtig, aufmerksam

counter - Zähler, Ladentisch; kontern

constitution - Verfassen, Verfassung, Konstitution, Grundgesetz

succumbed - erlegen; erliegen, nachgeben, unterwerfen, nachgeben

attenuated - abgeschwächt; verringern, vermindern, abschwächen, reduzieren

veiled - verschleiert; Vorhang, Schleier, verschleiern, verhüllen

sweetened - gesüßt; süßen, versüßen, süß werden

damped - gedämpft; feucht, Feuchtigkeit, ersticken, dämpfen, dämpfen

unfortunate - unglücklich, unglückselig

favourably - günstig

situated - gelegen; aufstellen, unterbringen

likelihood - Wahrscheinlichkeit

Perhaps severity and craft are more favourable conditions for the development of strong, independent spirits and philosophers than the gentle, refined, yielding good-nature, and habit of taking things easily, which are prized, and rightly prized in a learned man. Presupposing always, to begin with, that the term "philosopher" be not confined to the philosopher who writes books, or even introduces HIS philosophy into books!"Stendhal furnishes a last feature of the portrait of the free-spirited philosopher, which for the sake of German taste I will not omit to underline"for it is OPPOSED to German taste. "Pour etre bon philosophe," says this last great psychologist, "il faut etre sec, clair, sans illusion. Un banquier, qui a fait fortune, a une partie du caractere requis pour faire des decouvertes en philosophie, c'est-a-dire pour voir clair dans ce qui est."

severity - Schweregrad; Härte, Stärke, Gewichtung

craft - Handwerk; Schlauheit, Durchtriebenheit, Gerissenheit, Gilde

more favourable - günstigere

yielding - nachgeben; (yield) hervorbringen, er/sie hat/hatte ergeben

good-nature - (good-nature) Gutartigkeit

presupposing - erfordern, voraussetzen

philosophe - Philosophen

confined - eingesperrt; beschränken, Begrenzung

omit - weglassen, auslassen

Underline - Unterstreichung; Unterstrich; unterstreichen

sans - Speichernetzwerk

Fortune - Fortuna; Schicksal, Glück, Vermögen

requis - Requisiten

des - Verschlüsselungsstandard

dire - schrecklich; düster, böse, fatal, verzweifelt, händeringend

dans - Dan

ce - n. Chr. (''nach Christus; nach Christo''); n. Chr. Geb

40. Everything that is profound loves the mask: the profoundest things have a hatred even of figure and likeness. Should not the CONTRARY only be the right disguise for the shame of a God to go about in? A question worth asking!"it would be strange if some mystic has not already ventured on the same kind of thing. There are proceedings of such a delicate nature that it is well to overwhelm them with coarseness and make them unrecognizable; there are actions of love and of an extravagant magnanimity after which nothing can be wiser than to take a stick and thrash the witness soundly: one thereby obscures his recollection. Many a one is able to obscure and abuse his own memory, in order at least to have vengeance on this sole party in the secret: shame is inventive. They are not the worst things of which one is most ashamed: there is not only deceit behind a mask"there is so much goodness in craft. I could imagine that a man with something costly and fragile to conceal, would roll through life clumsily and rotundly like an old, green, heavily-hooped wine-cask: the refinement of his shame requiring it to be so. A man who has depths in his shame meets his destiny and his delicate decisions upon paths which few ever reach, and with regard to the existence of which his nearest and most intimate friends may be ignorant; his mortal danger conceals itself from their eyes, and equally so his regained security. Such a hidden nature, which instinctively employs speech for silence and concealment, and is inexhaustible in evasion of communication, DESIRES and insists that a mask of himself shall occupy his place in the hearts and heads of his friends; and supposing he does not desire it, his eyes will some day be opened to the fact that there is nevertheless a mask of him there"and that it is well to be so.

profound - tiefgründig; tiefgehend, profund

likeness - Ähnlichkeit; Gestalt; Abbild

mystic - mystisch; Mystiker, Mystikerin

ventured - gewagt; Wagnis

proceedings - fortsetzend, verfahrend

delicate - empfindlich, heikel, schwierig, feingliedrig, filigran

overwhelm - überwältigen, übermannen, überrumpeln, checküberwältigen (2)

coarseness - Grobheit; Unebenheit, Ungeschliffenheit

unrecognizable - unerkennbar

magnanimity - Großherzigkeit; Großmut, Großzügigkeit, Seelengröße

wiser - weiser; klug, vernünftig

thrash - verprügeln; schlagen, dreschen, zusammenschlagen, eindreschen

witness - etw. miterleben;erleben, bezeugen, Zeuge sein bei; miterleben

soundly - solide; gründlich, ordentlich

obscures - verdunkelt; obskur, dunkel, vernebelt, finster, düster

recollection - Erinnern Sie sich; Erinnerung

abuse - missbrauchen, beschimpfen; Missbrauch, Schmähung

inventive - erfinderisch

ashamed - schämen

deceit - Betrügerei, Betrug, Täuschung, Falschheit

goodness - Güte, Gütigkeit

costly - teuer, kostspielig

fragile - fragil, zerbrechlich

conceal - verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen

clumsily - unbeholfen; plump

rotundly - rundlich; runde

hooped - Reifen

cask - Fass, Tonne

destiny - das Schicksal; Los, Geschick, Schicksal

most intimate - innigst

ignorant - unwissend; ignorant

mortal danger - Todesgefahr

regained - wiedergewonnen; wiedergewinnen

silence - Stille, Schweigen, zum Schweigen bringen, Ruhe

inexhaustible - unerschöpflich

evasion - Umgehung, Ausweichen, Hinterziehung, Vermeidung

insists - darauf besteht; auf , bestehen

occupy - in Anspruch nehmen, belegen, bewohnen, besetzen, okkupieren

Every profound spirit needs a mask; nay, more, around every profound spirit there continually grows a mask, owing to the constantly false, that is to say, SUPERFICIAL interpretation of every word he utters, every step he takes, every sign of life he manifests.

continually - ständig, andauernd, immer wieder, immerzu

constantly - ständig; regelmäßig; konstant

utters - äußerst

41. One must subject oneself to one's own tests that one is destined for independence and command, and do so at the right time. One must not avoid one's tests, although they constitute perhaps the most dangerous game one can play, and are in the end tests made only before ourselves and before no other judge. Not to cleave to any person, be it even the dearest"every person is a prison and also a recess. Not to cleave to a fatherland, be it even the most suffering and necessitous"it is even less difficult to detach one's heart from a victorious fatherland. Not to cleave to a sympathy, be it even for higher men, into whose peculiar torture and helplessness chance has given us an insight. Not to cleave to a science, though it tempt one with the most valuable discoveries, apparently specially reserved for us. Not to cleave to one's own liberation, to the voluptuous distance and remoteness of the bird, which always flies further aloft in order always to see more under it"the danger of the flier.

destined - bestimmt; bestimmen, vorbestimmen

Independence - Unabhängigkeit, checkSelbständigkeit

Command - Befehl, Kommando, befehlen, kommandieren, gebieten, beherrschen

constitute - gründen, begründen, bilden, einrichten

cleave - spalten

recess - Pause; Vertiefung, Winkel, Aushöhlung

fatherland - Vaterland

necessitous - Notwendig

detach - abtrennen; entfernen, ablösen, loslösen

victorious - siegreich, obsiegend, triumphierend, triumphal, siegesstrahlend

torture - Folter; Tortur; foltern

helplessness - Hilflosigkeit

specially - speziell

liberation - Befreiung

voluptuous - üppig

remoteness - Abgeschiedenheit; Abgelegenheit

aloft - in der Luft; oben, droben

Not to cleave to our own virtues, nor become as a whole a victim to any of our specialties, to our "hospitality" for instance, which is the danger of dangers for highly developed and wealthy souls, who deal prodigally, almost indifferently with themselves, and push the virtue of liberality so far that it becomes a vice. One must know how TO CONSERVE ONESELF"the best test of independence.

specialties - Spezialitäten; Spezialität

hospitality - Gastfreundlichkeit, Gastfreundschaft, Gastlichkeit, Gastgewerbe

wealthy - wohlhabend, reich

prodigally - verschwenderisch

indifferently - gleichgültig

liberality - Liberalität, Freizügigkeit

conserve - konservieren; erhalten

43. Will they be new friends of "truth," these coming philosophers? Very probably, for all philosophers hitherto have loved their truths. But assuredly they will not be dogmatists. It must be contrary to their pride, and also contrary to their taste, that their truth should still be truth for every one"that which has hitherto been the secret wish and ultimate purpose of all dogmatic efforts. "My opinion is MY opinion: another person has not easily a right to it""such a philosopher of the future will say, perhaps.

One must renounce the bad taste of wishing to agree with many people. "Good" is no longer good when one's neighbour takes it into his mouth. And how could there be a "common good"! The expression contradicts itself; that which can be common is always of small value. In the end things must be as they are and have always been"the great things remain for the great, the abysses for the profound, the delicacies and thrills for the refined, and, to sum up shortly, everything rare for the rare.

contradicts - widerspricht; widersprechen, widersprechen

abysses - Abgründe; Abgrund, Hölle, Abgrund, Abgrund

delicacies - Köstlichkeiten; Feinheit, Zartheit, Delikatesse, Leckerbissen

thrills - Nervenkitzel; erregen, erschauern, durchdringen

sum - Betrag, Summe, Geldbetrag

shortly - in Kürze; bald

44. Need I say expressly after all this that they will be free, VERY free spirits, these philosophers of the future"as certainly also they will not be merely free spirits, but something more, higher, greater, and fundamentally different, which does not wish to be misunderstood and mistaken? But while I say this, I feel under OBLIGATION almost as much to them as to ourselves (we free spirits who are their heralds and forerunners), to sweep away from ourselves altogether a stupid old prejudice and misunderstanding, which, like a fog, has too long made the conception of "free spirit" obscure. In every country of Europe, and the same in America, there is at present something which makes an abuse of this name a very narrow, prepossessed, enchained class of spirits, who desire almost the opposite of what our intentions and instincts prompt"not to mention that in respect to the NEW philosophers who are appearing, they must still more be closed windows and bolted doors. Briefly and regrettably, they belong to the LEVELLERS, these wrongly named "free spirits""as glib-tongued and scribe-fingered slaves of the democratic taste and its "modern ideas" all of them men without solitude, without personal solitude, blunt honest fellows to whom neither courage nor honourable conduct ought to be denied, only, they are not free, and are ludicrously superficial, especially in their innate partiality for seeing the cause of almost ALL human misery and failure in the old forms in which society has hitherto existed"a notion which happily inverts the truth entirely! What they would fain attain with all their strength, is the universal, green-meadow happiness of the herd, together with security, safety, comfort, and alleviation of life for every one, their two most frequently chanted songs and doctrines are called "Equality of Rights" and "Sympathy with All Sufferers""and suffering itself is looked upon by them as something which must be DONE AWAY WITH. We opposite ones, however, who have opened our eye and conscience to the question how and where the plant "man" has hitherto grown most vigorously, believe that this has always taken place under the opposite conditions, that for this end the dangerousness of his situation had to be increased enormously, his inventive faculty and dissembling power (his "spirit") had to develop into subtlety and daring under long oppression and compulsion, and his Will to Life had to be increased to the unconditioned Will to Power"we believe that severity, violence, slavery, danger in the street and in the heart, secrecy, stoicism, tempter's art and devilry of every kind,"that everything wicked, terrible, tyrannical, predatory, and serpentine in man, serves as well for the elevation of the human species as its opposite"we do not even say enough when we only say THIS MUCH, and in any case we find ourselves here, both with our speech and our silence, at the OTHER extreme of all modern ideology and gregarious desirability, as their antipodes perhaps?

expressly - ausdrücklich

misunderstood - missverstanden; missverstehen, falsch verstehen

Heralds - Herolde; Herold, Bote, Vorbote

forerunners - Vornewegläufer, Frontläufer, Vorbote, Vorzeichen

sweep away - wegfegen

Fog - umnebeln, verschleiern; (dicker) Nebel, Nebel

obscure - obskur, dunkel, vernebelt, finster

prepossessed - vorbereitet; erfüllen

enchained - gefesselt; fesseln

prompt - Eingabeaufforderung; anleiten, antreiben, anstacheln

bolted - verriegelt; Riegel, Ballen, Blitz, Bolzen; durchgehen (Pferd)

briefly - kurz

regrettably - Bedauerlicherweise

levellers - Nivellierer; Ausgleichstreffer; Ackerschleppe

glib - schlagfertig, wortgewandt

scribe - Schreiber, Kopist, Schriftgelehrter, Reißnadel, schreiben

slaves - Sklaven; Sklave, t+Sklavin, Sklave, t+Sklavin, Sklave

blunt - schonungslos, offen, ungehobelt, sehr deutlich; abstumpfen

fellows - Kameraden; Stipendiat, Typ, Kerl, Bursche; Gefährte, Kerl

conduct - Leitung, Führung, leiten, führen, sich verhalten, sich benehmen

denied - verweigert; leugnen, bestreiten, dementieren

ludicrously - lächerlich

partiality - Parteilichkeit, Befangenheit

misery - Misere, Elend

inverts - umkehren, invertieren

attain - erreichen, erlangen

universal - allgemein, Allgemein-, universell, weltweit, Welt-

meadow - Wiese, Weide, Aue

herd - Herde

comfort - Behaglichkeit, Bequemlichkeit, Komfort, Trost, Tröstung

alleviation - Erleichterung, Linderung, Milderung

chanted - gesungen; Kirchenlied, Gesang

sufferers - Leidende; Leider

dangerousness - Gefährlichkeit

enormously - enorm

dissembling - Verheimlichung; verbergen, vortäuschen, verbergen, verhehlen

unconditioned - unkonditioniert

violence - Gewalt, Gewalttaten, Gewalttätigkeiten

slavery - Sklaverei, Knechtschaft

tempter - Verführer, Versucher

devilry - Unfug, böser, Quälerei, Hexerei, Teufelei

predatory - räuberisch

Serpentine - gewunden, Serpentine

elevation - Höhenlage; Hebung, Erheben, Anhebung, Anheben

ideology - Ideologie

gregarious - gesellig

desirability - Erwünschtheit, wünschenswerterweise

Antipodes - Antipoden; Antipode

What wonder that we "free spirits" are not exactly the most communicative spirits? that we do not wish to betray in every respect WHAT a spirit can free itself from, and WHERE perhaps it will then be driven? And as to the import of the dangerous formula, "Beyond Good and Evil," with which we at least avoid confusion, we ARE something else than "libres-penseurs," "liben pensatori" "free-thinkers," and whatever these honest advocates of "modern ideas" like to call themselves. Having been at home, or at least guests, in many realms of the spirit, having escaped again and again from the gloomy, agreeable nooks in which preferences and prejudices, youth, origin, the accident of men and books, or even the weariness of travel seemed to confine us, full of malice against the seductions of dependency which he concealed in honours, money, positions, or exaltation of the senses, grateful even for distress and the vicissitudes of illness, because they always free us from some rule, and its "prejudice," grateful to the God, devil, sheep, and worm in us, inquisitive to a fault, investigators to the point of cruelty, with unhesitating fingers for the intangible, with teeth and stomachs for the most indigestible, ready for any business that requires sagacity and acute senses, ready for every adventure, owing to an excess of "free will", with anterior and posterior souls, into the ultimate intentions of which it is difficult to pry, with foregrounds and backgrounds to the end of which no foot may run, hidden ones under the mantles of light, appropriators, although we resemble heirs and spendthrifts, arrangers and collectors from morning till night, misers of our wealth and our full-crammed drawers, economical in learning and forgetting, inventive in scheming, sometimes proud of tables of categories, sometimes pedants, sometimes night-owls of work even in full day, yea, if necessary, even scarecrows"and it is necessary nowadays, that is to say, inasmuch as we are the born, sworn, jealous friends of SOLITUDE, of our own profoundest midnight and midday solitude"such kind of men are we, we free spirits! And perhaps ye are also something of the same kind, ye coming ones? ye NEW philosophers?

communicative - kommunikativ

confusion - Verwirrung, Durcheinander, Konfusion, Verwechslung

realms - Reiche; Reich

agreeable - angenehm; verträglich, liebenswürdig, gefällig

nooks - Schlupfwinkel; Nische, Alkoven, stiller Winkel, Rückzugsort

preferences - Vorlieben; Präferenz, Bevorzugung, Vorliebe; Einstellung

weariness - Müdigkeit

confine - einschränken; beschränken; Begrenzung

malice - Boshaftigkeit, Böse, Bosheit, Bösartigkeit

seductions - Verführungen; Verführung

dependency - Abhängigkeit; Kolonie, Schutzgebiet, Dependency

honours - Ehrung, Ehre; ehren; beehren, akzeptieren, annehmen, honorieren

exaltation - Erhöhen, Erhöhung

vicissitudes - Wechselfälle; Unbeständigkeit, Wandel, Wandel, Wechsel

worm - Wurm; elender Wurm

inquisitive - neugierig

fault - Fehler; Schuld; Fehler, Charakterschwäche, Verfehlung

investigators - Ermittler, Ermittlerin

cruelty - Grausamkeit, Quälerei

unhesitating - ohne zu zögern

intangible - abstrakt, ungreifbar, immateriell, vage

most indigestible - unverdaulichste

sagacity - Klugheit; Weisheit

acute - scharf; spitz; akut

excess - Exzess; Überfluss; Überschuss, Übermaß, Völlerei

anterior - frontal; früher, vorherig

posterior - Hinterteil; hinterer, rück-

pry - ausspähen; neugierig sein

foregrounds - Vordergründe; Vordergrund

mantles - Mäntel; Mantel, Mantel, Hülle, Umhüllung, Mantel, Glühstrumpf

resemble - ähneln, gleichen

Spendthrifts - verschwenderisch, Verschwender, Verschwenderin, Prasser

arrangers - Arrangeure; Bearbeiter

collectors - Sammler, Sammlerin, Kassierer, Kollektor

misers - Geizhals, Geizkragen, Geiziger, Geizige, Pfennigfuchser

wealth - Reichtum, Vermögen, Fülle

crammed - vollgestopft; stopfen, vollpacken, mästen, vollstopfen, büffeln

drawers - Schubladen; Zeichner, Schublade, Aussteller

economical - sparsam, wirtschaftlich, ökonomisch

scheming - intrigieren; ränkevoll; (scheme); Programm, Plan, Projekt

pedants - Pedanten; Pedant, Pedantin

owls - Eule, Uhu, Eulenvogel

scarecrows - Vogelscheuchen; Vogelscheuche

sworn - geschworen; schwören

jealous - eifersüchtig; eifrig, eifernd, neidisch

midday - mittags; Mittag, mittägig


45. The human soul and its limits, the range of man's inner experiences hitherto attained, the heights, depths, and distances of these experiences, the entire history of the soul UP TO THE PRESENT TIME, and its still unexhausted possibilities: this is the preordained hunting-domain for a born psychologist and lover of a "big hunt". But how often must he say despairingly to himself: "A single individual! alas, only a single individual! and this great forest, this virgin forest!" So he would like to have some hundreds of hunting assistants, and fine trained hounds, that he could send into the history of the human soul, to drive HIS game together. In vain: again and again he experiences, profoundly and bitterly, how difficult it is to find assistants and dogs for all the things that directly excite his curiosity. The evil of sending scholars into new and dangerous hunting-domains, where courage, sagacity, and subtlety in every sense are required, is that they are no longer serviceable just when the "BIG hunt," and also the great danger commences,"it is precisely then that they lose their keen eye and nose.

human soul - Menschenseele

unexhausted - unerschöpft

preordained - vorherbestimmt; vorherbestimmen

despairingly - verzweifelt

Alas - leider [Gottes]; (ala) leider [Gottes]

Virgin - Jungfrau; jungfräulich; nativ

hounds - Jagdhunde; Hund, Jagdhund, Laufhund

bitterly - verbittert; bitterlich

domains - Domäne, Gebiet

serviceable - brauchbar, nutzerfreundlich, praktisch, reparierbar

In order, for instance, to divine and determine what sort of history the problem of KNOWLEDGE AND CONSCIENCE has hitherto had in the souls of homines religiosi, a person would perhaps himself have to possess as profound, as bruised, as immense an experience as the intellectual conscience of Pascal; and then he would still require that wide-spread heaven of clear, wicked spirituality, which, from above, would be able to oversee, arrange, and effectively formulize this mass of dangerous and painful experiences."But who could do me this service! And who would have time to wait for such servants!"they evidently appear too rarely, they are so improbable at all times! Eventually one must do everything ONESELF in order to know something; which means that one has MUCH to do!"But a curiosity like mine is once for all the most agreeable of vices"pardon me! I mean to say that the love of truth has its reward in heaven, and already upon earth.

divine - göttlich

possess - besitzen

bruised - geprellt; Prellung, Bluterguss, blauer Fleck, Druckstelle

Pascal - Pascal

Heaven - Der Himmel; Himmel, Firmament, Paradies

oversee - übersehen; überblicken; beaufsichtigen, überwachen, leiten

formulize - formulieren

mass - Masse; Messe (kirchlich), Gottesdienst, Menge

evidently - offensichtlich

vices - Laster; der Schraubstock

Reward - Belohnung, Lohn

46. Faith, such as early Christianity desired, and not infrequently achieved in the midst of a skeptical and southernly free-spirited world, which had centuries of struggle between philosophical schools behind it and in it, counting besides the education in tolerance which the Imperium Romanum gave"this faith is NOT that sincere, austere slave-faith by which perhaps a Luther or a Cromwell, or some other northern barbarian of the spirit remained attached to his God and Christianity, it is much rather the faith of Pascal, which resembles in a terrible manner a continuous suicide of reason"a tough, long-lived, worm-like reason, which is not to be slain at once and with a single blow. The Christian faith from the beginning, is sacrifice the sacrifice of all freedom, all pride, all self-confidence of spirit, it is at the same time subjection, self-derision, and self-mutilation. There is cruelty and religious Phoenicianism in this faith, which is adapted to a tender, many-sided, and very fastidious conscience, it takes for granted that the subjection of the spirit is indescribably PAINFUL, that all the past and all the habits of such a spirit resist the absurdissimum, in the form of which "faith" comes to it. Modern men, with their obtuseness as regards all Christian nomenclature, have no longer the sense for the terribly superlative conception which was implied to an antique taste by the paradox of the formula, "God on the Cross". Hitherto there had never and nowhere been such boldness in inversion, nor anything at once so dreadful, questioning, and questionable as this formula: it promised a transvaluation of all ancient values"It was the Orient, the PROFOUND Orient, it was the Oriental slave who thus took revenge on Rome and its noble, light-minded toleration, on the Roman "Catholicism" of non-faith, and it was always not the faith, but the freedom from the faith, the half-stoical and smiling indifference to the seriousness of the faith, which made the slaves indignant at their masters and revolt against them.

desired - gewünscht; begehren, begehren, Begehren

infrequently - unregelmäßig

midst - mittendrin; Mitten, Mitte, inmitten

southernly - südländisch

tolerance - Toleranz

sincere - aufrichtig

austere - Streng; schlicht, genügsam

slave - Sklave, Sklavin, Sexsklave

barbarian - barbarisch; Barbar, Barbarin

Christian - Christ, Christin, Christian, christlich

resembles - ähnelt; ähneln, gleichen

suicide - Selbstmord; Suizid, Freitod, Selbstmörder, Selbstmörderin

tough - hart; zäh; widerstandsfähig; knifflig, schwierig, Pech

slain - erschlagen

subjection - Unterwerfung

Derision - Hohn, Spott, Verhöhnung, Verspottung

mutilation - Verstümmelung

adapted - angepasst; anpassen, angleichen, anwenden, einrichten, anpassen

tender - zärtlich; empfindlich, Ausschreibung, Angebot, zart; andienen

indescribably - Unbeschreiblich

resist - widerstehen, erwehren;gegen etw. bestehen

obtuseness - Unbelehrbarkeit; Stumpfheit

nomenclature - Nomenklatur

Terribly - Schrecklich; furchtbar

implied - angedeutet; implizieren, zur Folge haben, implizieren, bedeuten

antique - antik; Antiquität

paradox - Paradoxon, Paradox

boldness - Kühnheit; Verwegenheit, Dreistigkeit, Mut

dreadful - furchtbar, schrecklich

transvaluation - Umwertung

Oriental - orientalisch, Orientale, östlich

revenge - Rache; rächen

Rome - Rom

toleration - Duldung

Catholicism - Katholizismus

stoical - stoische

revolt - revoltieren; Revolte

"Enlightenment" causes revolt, for the slave desires the unconditioned, he understands nothing but the tyrannous, even in morals, he loves as he hates, without NUANCE, to the very depths, to the point of pain, to the point of sickness"his many HIDDEN sufferings make him revolt against the noble taste which seems to deny suffering. The skepticism with regard to suffering, fundamentally only an attitude of aristocratic morality, was not the least of the causes, also, of the last great slave-insurrection which began with the French Revolution.

tyrannous - tyrannisch

sufferings - leidend, Leiden

deny - verweigern, leugnen;gegen jdn. retten

skepticism - Skeptizismus, Skepsis

insurrection - Aufruhr; Aufstand

47. Wherever the religious neurosis has appeared on the earth so far, we find it connected with three dangerous prescriptions as to regimen: solitude, fasting, and sexual abstinence"but without its being possible to determine with certainty which is cause and which is effect, or IF any relation at all of cause and effect exists there. This latter doubt is justified by the fact that one of the most regular symptoms among savage as well as among civilized peoples is the most sudden and excessive sensuality, which then with equal suddenness transforms into penitential paroxysms, world-renunciation, and will-renunciation, both symptoms perhaps explainable as disguised epilepsy? But nowhere is it MORE obligatory to put aside explanations around no other type has there grown such a mass of absurdity and superstition, no other type seems to have been more interesting to men and even to philosophers"perhaps it is time to become just a little indifferent here, to learn caution, or, better still, to look AWAY, TO GO AWAY"Yet in the background of the most recent philosophy, that of Schopenhauer, we find almost as the problem in itself, this terrible note of interrogation of the religious crisis and awakening. How is the negation of will POSSIBLE? how is the saint possible?"that seems to have been the very question with which Schopenhauer made a start and became a philosopher. And thus it was a genuine Schopenhauerian consequence, that his most convinced adherent (perhaps also his last, as far as Germany is concerned), namely, Richard Wagner, should bring his own life-work to an end just here, and should finally put that terrible and eternal type upon the stage as Kundry, type vecu, and as it loved and lived, at the very time that the mad-doctors in almost all European countries had an opportunity to study the type close at hand, wherever the religious neurosis"or as I call it, "the religious mood""made its latest epidemical outbreak and display as the "Salvation Army""If it be a question, however, as to what has been so extremely interesting to men of all sorts in all ages, and even to philosophers, in the whole phenomenon of the saint, it is undoubtedly the appearance of the miraculous therein"namely, the immediate SUCCESSION OF OPPOSITES, of states of the soul regarded as morally antithetical: it was believed here to be self-evident that a "bad man" was all at once turned into a "saint," a good man.

neurosis - Neurose

prescriptions - Verschreibungen; Rezept

regimen - Regime; Diät, Regierung, Rektion (Linguistik)

abstinence - Enthaltsamkeit, Abstinenz, Keuschheit

justified - gerechtfertigt; rechtfertigen, rechtfertigen, ausrichten

most regular - gleichmäßigste

civilized - zivilisiert; zivilisieren

most sudden - schlagartigste

excessive - übertrieben; übermäßig, exzessiv

sensuality - Sinnlichkeit

suddenness - Plötzlichkeit

transforms - verwandelt; verwandeln, transformieren, umwandeln

penitential - bußfertig

paroxysms - Paroxysmen; Paroxysmus, Paroxysmus

explainable - erklärbar

epilepsy - Epilepsie

obligatory - obligatorisch

aside - beiseite, zur Seite

crisis - Krise

awakening - Erwachen; (awaken); aufwecken, aufwachen, erwachen, wach werden

Saint - Heiliger; Sankt

adherent - klebend, anhaftend, anhängend, Mitglied, Anhänger

concerned - besorgt; Sorge, Anliegen

Richard - Richard, Rikard

Wagner - Wagner

epidemical - epidemisch

outbreak - Ausbruch, Auftreten, Entfesselung, sprunghafter Anstieg

Salvation - Erlösung, Rettung

Undoubtedly - Zweifelsohne; zweifellos

miraculous - wundersam; wundertätig, mirakulös, Wunder

antithetical - gegensätzlich

evident - offensichtlich; offenkundig

The hitherto existing psychology was wrecked at this point, is it not possible it may have happened principally because psychology had placed itself under the dominion of morals, because it BELIEVED in oppositions of moral values, and saw, read, and INTERPRETED these oppositions into the text and facts of the case? What? "Miracle" only an error of interpretation? A lack of philology?

wrecked - ruiniert; Wrack

principally - grundsätzlich, im Prinzip, hauptsächlich

dominion - Herrschaft, Oberherrschaft, Vorherrschaft, Herrschaftsgebiet

oppositions - Widersprüche; Opposition, Opposition

miracle - ein Wunder; Wunder, Mirakel

48. It seems that the Latin races are far more deeply attached to their Catholicism than we Northerners are to Christianity generally, and that consequently unbelief in Catholic countries means something quite different from what it does among Protestants"namely, a sort of revolt against the spirit of the race, while with us it is rather a return to the spirit (or non-spirit) of the race.

Latin - lateinisch, Latein

Northerners - Bewohner des Norden

unbelief - Unglaube

Catholic - Katholisch; umfassend, allumfassend, universal

Protestants - Protestanten; Protestant, Protestantin, protestantisch

We Northerners undoubtedly derive our origin from barbarous races, even as regards our talents for religion"we have POOR talents for it. One may make an exception in the case of the Celts, who have theretofore furnished also the best soil for Christian infection in the North: the Christian ideal blossomed forth in France as much as ever the pale sun of the north would allow it. How strangely pious for our taste are still these later French skeptics, whenever there is any Celtic blood in their origin! How Catholic, how un-German does Auguste Comte's Sociology seem to us, with the Roman logic of its instincts! How Jesuitical, that amiable and shrewd cicerone of Port Royal, Sainte-Beuve, in spite of all his hostility to Jesuits! And even Ernest Renan: how inaccessible to us Northerners does the language of such a Renan appear, in whom every instant the merest touch of religious thrill throws his refined voluptuous and comfortably couching soul off its balance! Let us repeat after him these fine sentences"and what wickedness and haughtiness is immediately aroused by way of answer in our probably less beautiful but harder souls, that is to say, in our more German souls!

derive - erlangen; herleiten, ableiten, abstammen, kommen von

barbarous - barbarisch, grausam

Celts - Kelten; Kelte

theretofore - bis dahin

furnished - eingerichtet; möblieren, einrichten, ausrüsten

infection - Ansteckung, Infektion

blossomed - erblüht; Blüte, Blüte, Blütezeit, blühen, erblühen, blühen

forth - weiter; heraus, hervor

un - VN, UN, UNO

skeptics - Skeptiker, Skeptikerin

Celtic - Keltisch

sociology - Soziologie, Gesellschaftskunde

logic - Logik, logische

shrewd - klug, clever, gewitzt, schlau, listig

cicerone - Cicerone

hostility - Feindseligkeit, Feindschaft

inaccessible - unzugänglich; unerreichbar

instant - sofort; augenblicklich, tafelfertig, Moment

merest - nur, schier, bloß

thrill - Aufregung; Nervenkitzel; erregen, erschauern, durchdringen

comfortably - bequem, komfortabel

couching - liegend; (couch) liegend

wickedness - Bösartigkeit; Bosheit

haughtiness - Hochmut; Hoffart

aroused - erregt; reizen, aufreizen, anregen, erregen, entfachen

"DISONS DONC HARDIMENT QUE LA RELIGION EST UN PRODUIT DE L'HOMME NORMAL, QUE L'HOMME EST LE PLUS DANS LE VRAI QUANT IL EST LE PLUS RELIGIEUX ET LE PLUS ASSURE D'UNE DESTINEE INFINIE.... C'EST QUAND IL EST BON QU'IL VEUT QUE LA VIRTU CORRESPONDE A UN ORDER ETERNAL, C'EST QUAND IL CONTEMPLE LES CHOSES D'UNE MANIERE DESINTERESSEE QU'IL TROUVE LA MORT REVOLTANTE ET ABSURDE. COMMENT NE PAS SUPPOSER QUE C'EST DANS CES MOMENTS-LA, QUE L'HOMME VOIT LE MIEUX?"... These sentences are so extremely ANTIPODAL to my ears and habits of thought, that in my first impulse of rage on finding them, I wrote on the margin, "LA NIAISERIE RELIGIEUSE PAR EXCELLENCE!""until in my later rage I even took a fancy to them, these sentences with their truth absolutely inverted! It is so nice and such a distinction to have one's own antipodes!

la - US-Bundesstaat

plus - plus; positiv

Quant - Bootsstange

assure - sichern; versichern

une - nicht

choses - wählt; auswählen, wählen

pas - Schritt; (PA) Schritt

Supposer - Angenommen

ces - n. Chr. (''nach Christus, nach Christo''), n. Chr. Geb

Antipodal - antipodisch

margin - Seitenrand; Gewinnspanne, Gewinnmarge, Einschuss

par - Pari

excellence - Exzellenz; Vortrefflichkeit

inverted - invertiert; umkehren, invertieren

49. That which is so astonishing in the religious life of the ancient Greeks is the irrestrainable stream of GRATITUDE which it pours forth"it is a very superior kind of man who takes SUCH an attitude towards nature and life."Later on, when the populace got the upper hand in Greece, FEAR became rampant also in religion; and Christianity was preparing itself.

astonishing - Erstaunlich; erstaunen

irrestrainable - unbeherrschbar

stream - Bach; Strom; Datenstrom; strömen; streamen

gratitude - Dankbarkeit

superior - überlegen, höher, höherstehend, übergeordnet, Vorgesetzter

rampant - sich aufbäumend; zügellos; ungezügelt

50. The passion for God: there are churlish, honest-hearted, and importunate kinds of it, like that of Luther"the whole of Protestantism lacks the southern DELICATEZZA. There is an Oriental exaltation of the mind in it, like that of an undeservedly favoured or elevated slave, as in the case of St. Augustine, for instance, who lacks in an offensive manner, all nobility in bearing and desires.

churlish - unhöflich; ungehobelt, unfreundlich, mürrisch, griesgrämig

importunate - zudringlich, aufdringlich, lästig

Protestantism - Protestantismus

undeservedly - unverdientermaßen

Augustine - Augustinus; Augustin

offensive - beleidigend; offensiv; Offensive, Angriff

nobility - Adel, Aristokratie, Nobilität, Adeligkeit, Blaublütigkeit

There is a feminine tenderness and sensuality in it, which modestly and unconsciously longs for a UNIO MYSTICA ET PHYSICA, as in the case of Madame de Guyon. In many cases it appears, curiously enough, as the disguise of a girl's or youth's puberty; here and there even as the hysteria of an old maid, also as her last ambition. The Church has frequently canonized the woman in such a case.

feminine - feminin, weiblich

tenderness - Zärtlichkeit

modestly - bescheidene, züchtig, bescheiden

unconsciously - unbewusst

longs for - ersehnt

curiously - neugierige

puberty - Pubertät, Geschlechtsreife

hysteria - Hysterie

old maid - alte Jungfer

canonized - kanonisiert; heiligsprechen

51. The mightiest men have hitherto always bowed reverently before the saint, as the enigma of self-subjugation and utter voluntary privation"why did they thus bow? They divined in him"and as it were behind the questionableness of his frail and wretched appearance"the superior force which wished to test itself by such a subjugation; the strength of will, in which they recognized their own strength and love of power, and knew how to honour it: they honoured something in themselves when they honoured the saint. In addition to this, the contemplation of the saint suggested to them a suspicion: such an enormity of self-negation and anti-naturalness will not have been coveted for nothing"they have said, inquiringly.

mightiest - mächtigste; gewaltig, mächtig

bowed - gebeugt; Verneigung (vor), Verbeugung; Bogen, Bug (Schiff)

reverently - ehrfürchtig

enigma - rätselhaft; Rätsel, Mysterium, Knobelei, Rateaufgabe

subjugation - Unterwerfung

utter - Äußerlich; äußerst

privation - Entbehrung, Einschränkung, Mangel, Armut, Not

divined - geahnt; göttlich

questionableness - Fragwürdigkeiten

frail - zerbrechlich, schwächliche, gebrechlich

wretched - unglücklich; sehr schlecht, miserabel, wertlos

honour - Ehrung, Ehre; ehren; beehren, akzeptieren, annehmen, honorieren

enormity - Ungeheuerlichkeit

naturalness - Natürlichkeit

coveted - begehrt; begehren, sehnen, begehren, de

inquiringly - neugierig

There is perhaps a reason for it, some very great danger, about which the ascetic might wish to be more accurately informed through his secret interlocutors and visitors? In a word, the mighty ones of the world learned to have a new fear before him, they divined a new power, a strange, still unconquered enemy:"it was the "Will to Power" which obliged them to halt before the saint. They had to question him.

ascetic - asketisch; Asket, Asketin

accurately - genau

informed - informiert; benachrichtigen, mitteilen, informieren

interlocutors - Gesprächspartnern; Gesprächspartner

unconquered - unbesiegt

52. In the Jewish "Old Testament," the book of divine justice, there are men, things, and sayings on such an immense scale, that Greek and Indian literature has nothing to compare with it. One stands with fear and reverence before those stupendous remains of what man was formerly, and one has sad thoughts about old Asia and its little out-pushed peninsula Europe, which would like, by all means, to figure before Asia as the "Progress of Mankind." To be sure, he who is himself only a slender, tame house-animal, and knows only the wants of a house-animal (like our cultured people of today, including the Christians of "cultured" Christianity), need neither be amazed nor even sad amid those ruins"the taste for the Old Testament is a touchstone with respect to "great" and "small": perhaps he will find that the New Testament, the book of grace, still appeals more to his heart (there is much of the odour of the genuine, tender, stupid beadsman and petty soul in it).

Jewish - jüdisch; Jüdisch

Testament - Testament, Letzter Wille

sayings - Sprüche; Sprichwort

scale - Maßstab; Skala, Kesselsteine, Schuppe; ersteigen, erklettern

stupendous - überwältigend

Peninsula - Halbinsel

slender - schlank

amid - inmitten; mitten unter

ruins - Ruinen; Ruine, Ruin, Ruin, ruinieren, auf die Knie zwingen

touchstone - Prüfstein

grace - Tischgebet; Anmut, Grazie, Aufschub, Fristverlängerung

beadsman - Perlenmacher

petty - gering, geringfügig, klein, kleinlich

To have bound up this New Testament (a kind of ROCOCO of taste in every respect) along with the Old Testament into one book, as the "Bible," as "The Book in Itself," is perhaps the greatest audacity and "sin against the Spirit" which literary Europe has upon its conscience.

audacity - Kühnheit, Verwegenheit, Frechheit, Wagemut

sin - Sünde, sündigen; eine Sünde begehen

literary - literarisch

53. Why Atheism nowadays? "The father" in God is thoroughly refuted; equally so "the judge," "the rewarder." Also his "free will": he does not hear"and even if he did, he would not know how to help. The worst is that he seems incapable of communicating himself clearly; is he uncertain?

rewarder - Belohner

incapable - nicht fähig; unfähig

This is what I have made out (by questioning and listening at a variety of conversations) to be the cause of the decline of European theism; it appears to me that though the religious instinct is in vigorous growth,"it rejects the theistic satisfaction with profound distrust.

decline - Sinken, Fall, Gefälle, Abnahme, Rückgang, Schwächung

theism - Theismus

vigorous - kräftig, stark, energisch, lebhaft

theistic - theistisch

satisfaction - Befriedigung; Zufriedenheit; Satisfaktion, Genugtuung

54. What does all modern philosophy mainly do? Since Descartes"and indeed more in defiance of him than on the basis of his procedure"an ATTENTAT has been made on the part of all philosophers on the old conception of the soul, under the guise of a criticism of the subject and predicate conception"that is to say, an ATTENTAT on the fundamental presupposition of Christian doctrine. Modern philosophy, as epistemological skepticism, is secretly or openly ANTI-CHRISTIAN, although (for keener ears, be it said) by no means anti-religious. Formerly, in effect, one believed in "the soul" as one believed in grammar and the grammatical subject: one said, "I" is the condition, "think" is the predicate and is conditioned"to think is an activity for which one MUST suppose a subject as cause.

defiance - Trotzigkeit; Trotz, Auflehnung, Widerstand, offener Ungehorsam

guise - Aufmachung; Gewand (fig.), Erscheinung, Gestalt

criticism - Kritik, Tadel

presupposition - voraussetzen; Annahme

epistemological - erkenntnistheoretisch

The attempt was then made, with marvelous tenacity and subtlety, to see if one could not get out of this net,"to see if the opposite was not perhaps true: "think" the condition, and "I" the conditioned; "I," therefore, only a synthesis which has been MADE by thinking itself. KANT really wished to prove that, starting from the subject, the subject could not be proved"nor the object either: the possibility of an APPARENT EXISTENCE of the subject, and therefore of "the soul," may not always have been strange to him,"the thought which once had an immense power on earth as the Vedanta philosophy.

marvelous - Wunderbar

tenacity - Hartnäckigkeit; Zähigkeit, Beharrlichkeit

synthesis - Synthese

55. There is a great ladder of religious cruelty, with many rounds; but three of these are the most important. Once on a time men sacrificed human beings to their God, and perhaps just those they loved the best"to this category belong the firstling sacrifices of all primitive religions, and also the sacrifice of the Emperor Tiberius in the Mithra-Grotto on the Island of Capri, that most terrible of all Roman anachronisms. Then, during the moral epoch of mankind, they sacrificed to their God the strongest instincts they possessed, their "nature"; THIS festal joy shines in the cruel glances of ascetics and "anti-natural" fanatics.

ladder - Leiter; Laufmasche

sacrificed - geopfert; opfern, opfern, Opfer

firstling - Erstling

sacrifices - opfern, opfern, Opfer

primitive - primitiv; Wortstamm & Stamm, Stammwort, Urwort

Emperor - Der Kaiser; Kaiser, Imperator

grotto - Grotte

most terrible - furchtbarste

anachronisms - Anachronismen; Anachronismus, Anachronismus

epoch - Epoche, Ära

possessed - besessen; besitzen, besitzen

festal - festlich

joy - Wonne (Freude, Vergnügen); Freude (über)

glances - blicken, Blick, Streifblick, Glanz, Steinkohle

ascetics - Asketen; asketisch, Asket, Asketin

Finally, what still remained to be sacrificed? Was it not necessary in the end for men to sacrifice everything comforting, holy, healing, all hope, all faith in hidden harmonies, in future blessedness and justice? Was it not necessary to sacrifice God himself, and out of cruelty to themselves to worship stone, stupidity, gravity, fate, nothingness? To sacrifice God for nothingness"this paradoxical mystery of the ultimate cruelty has been reserved for the rising generation; we all know something thereof already.

comforting - tröstlich; Behaglichkeit, Bequemlichkeit, Komfort, Trost

holy - heilig

healing - Heilung; heilend, verheilend

harmonies - Harmonien; Harmonie, Einklang, Harmonie, Wohlklang, Harmonie

blessedness - Glückseligkeit; Seligkeit

worship - Verehrung, Anbetung, Gottesdienst

gravity - Bedenklichkeit, Ernst, Erdanziehung, Gravitation, Schwerkraft

fate - Schicksal, Los, Geschick

paradoxical - paradox

57. The distance, and as it were the space around man, grows with the strength of his intellectual vision and insight: his world becomes profounder; new stars, new enigmas, and notions are ever coming into view. Perhaps everything on which the intellectual eye has exercised its acuteness and profundity has just been an occasion for its exercise, something of a game, something for children and childish minds.

enigmas - Rätseln; Rätsel

notions - Vorstellungen; Ahnung, Ansicht, Auffassung, Begriff, Denkbild

Perhaps the most solemn conceptions that have caused the most fighting and suffering, the conceptions "God" and "sin," will one day seem to us of no more importance than a child's plaything or a child's pain seems to an old man;"and perhaps another plaything and another pain will then be necessary once more for "the old man""always childish enough, an eternal child!

most solemn - feierlichste

plaything - Spielzeug

58. Has it been observed to what extent outward idleness, or semi-idleness, is necessary to a real religious life (alike for its favourite microscopic labour of self-examination, and for its soft placidity called "prayer," the state of perpetual readiness for the "coming of God"), I mean the idleness with a good conscience, the idleness of olden times and of blood, to which the aristocratic sentiment that work is DISHONOURING"that it vulgarizes body and soul"is not quite unfamiliar? And that consequently the modern, noisy, time-engrossing, conceited, foolishly proud laboriousness educates and prepares for "unbelief" more than anything else? Among these, for instance, who are at present living apart from religion in Germany, I find "free-thinkers" of diversified species and origin, but above all a majority of those in whom laboriousness from generation to generation has dissolved the religious instincts; so that they no longer know what purpose religions serve, and only note their existence in the world with a kind of dull astonishment. They feel themselves already fully occupied, these good people, be it by their business or by their pleasures, not to mention the "Fatherland," and the newspapers, and their "family duties"; it seems that they have no time whatever left for religion; and above all, it is not obvious to them whether it is a question of a new business or a new pleasure"for it is impossible, they say to themselves, that people should go to church merely to spoil their tempers. They are by no means enemies of religious customs; should certain circumstances, state affairs perhaps, require their participation in such customs, they do what is required, as so many things are done"with a patient and unassuming seriousness, and without much curiosity or discomfort;"they live too much apart and outside to feel even the necessity for a FOR or AGAINST in such matters. Among those indifferent persons may be reckoned nowadays the majority of German Protestants of the middle classes, especially in the great laborious centres of trade and commerce; also the majority of laborious scholars, and the entire University personnel (with the exception of the theologians, whose existence and possibility there always gives psychologists new and more subtle puzzles to solve). On the part of pious, or merely church-going people, there is seldom any idea of HOW MUCH good-will, one might say arbitrary will, is now necessary for a German scholar to take the problem of religion seriously; his whole profession (and as I have said, his whole workmanlike laboriousness, to which he is compelled by his modern conscience) inclines him to a lofty and almost charitable serenity as regards religion, with which is occasionally mingled a slight disdain for the "uncleanliness" of spirit which he takes for granted wherever any one still professes to belong to the Church.

outward - nach außen; äußerlich, auswärts

idleness - Untätigkeit, Stillstand, Müßiggang, Trägheit

semi - halb..

alike - ähneln; gleich; gleichermaßen

microscopic - mikroskopisch klein

examination - Prüfung, Untersuchung, Test, Überprüfung

placidity - Gemütsruhe, Gelassenheit

perpetual - unbefristet, ewig, immerwährend, unaufhörlich

readiness - Bereitschaft

olden - altern

dishonouring - Entehrend; Schande, schänden

vulgarizes - vulgarisiert; verbreiten, erniedrigen

unfamiliar - ungewohnt

engrossing - fesselnd; beschlagnahmen, beanspruchen

conceited - Eingebildet; Eingebung, Einbildung, Konzept

foolishly - töricht; dummerweise (aus Dummheit), albernes

laboriousness - Mühsamkeit; Mühseligkeit

diversified - diversifiziert; diversifizieren, variieren

Dissolved - AUFLÖSUNG; auflösen, auflösen, auflösen

dull - stumpf; fad, langweilig, matt, blöd, blöde

astonishment - Staunen, Erstaunen, Verwunderung

fully occupied - vollbesetzt

spoil - plündern; ruinieren, verderben, kaputtmachen, verwöhnen

tempers - Temperamente; Gereiztheit, Laune, Temperament

state affairs - Staatsangelegenheiten

participation - Partizipation, Beteiligung, Teilnahme

unassuming - bescheiden

discomfort - Unbehagen

reckoned - gerechnet; rechnen, damit rechnen, zählen

middle classes - Mittelstand , Bürgertum

commerce - Handel, Kommerz

personnel - Personal

puzzles - Rätsel

church-going - (church-going) Kirchgang

seldom - selten

arbitrary - willkürlich, nach Ermessen, in freiem Ermessen

scholar - Student, Schüler, Schülerin, Studentin, Gelehrter

workmanlike - fachmännisch

compelled - gezwungen; zwingen, zwingen, nötigen, zwingen

inclines - Steigungen; neigen, neigen, neigen, Neigung, Anstieg, Gefälle

lofty - erhaben; hoch

charitable - wohltätig

serenity - Gelassenheit, Gleichmut, Klarheit, Heiterkeit, Abgeklärtheit

mingled - vermengt; vermischen, vermengen, untermischen

disdain - Verachtung, Geringschätzung (disrespect)

uncleanliness - Unsauberkeit; Unreinlichkeit

professes - bekennt; bekennen

It is only with the help of history (NOT through his own personal experience, therefore) that the scholar succeeds in bringing himself to a respectful seriousness, and to a certain timid deference in presence of religions; but even when his sentiments have reached the stage of gratitude towards them, he has not personally advanced one step nearer to that which still maintains itself as Church or as piety; perhaps even the contrary. The practical indifference to religious matters in the midst of which he has been born and brought up, usually sublimates itself in his case into circumspection and cleanliness, which shuns contact with religious men and things; and it may be just the depth of his tolerance and humanity which prompts him to avoid the delicate trouble which tolerance itself brings with it."Every age has its own divine type of naivete, for the discovery of which other ages may envy it: and how much naivete"adorable, childlike, and boundlessly foolish naivete is involved in this belief of the scholar in his superiority, in the good conscience of his tolerance, in the unsuspecting, simple certainty with which his instinct treats the religious man as a lower and less valuable type, beyond, before, and ABOVE which he himself has developed"he, the little arrogant dwarf and mob-man, the sedulously alert, head-and-hand drudge of "ideas," of "modern ideas"!

respectful - respektvoll

timid - furchtsam, zaghaft, zögerlich, schüchtern

deference - Ehrerbietung, Respekt, Achtung

presence - Anwesenheit

maintains - unterhält; unterhalten, warten, beibehalten, aufrechterhalten

piety - Frömmigkeit; Pietät

sublimates - sublimiert; sublimieren, sublimieren

circumspection - Vorsichtsmaßnahmen; Umsicht

cleanliness - Sauberkeit, Reinlichkeit

shuns - scheut; aus dem Weg gehen, ausweichen, meiden, scheuen

depth - Tiefe

prompts - Aufforderungen; Eingabeaufforderung, anleiten, antreiben

adorable - bezaubernd

foolish - dumm, närrisch, töricht

superiority - Überlegenheit

unsuspecting - ahnungslos

dwarf - Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwergstern

sedulously - eifrig

alert - alarmiert; alarmieren; Alarm, Warnton, Alarmruf, wachsam

drudge - Hiwi

59. Whoever has seen deeply into the world has doubtless divined what wisdom there is in the fact that men are superficial. It is their preservative instinct which teaches them to be flighty, lightsome, and false. Here and there one finds a passionate and exaggerated adoration of "pure forms" in philosophers as well as in artists: it is not to be doubted that whoever has NEED of the cult of the superficial to that extent, has at one time or another made an unlucky dive BENEATH it. Perhaps there is even an order of rank with respect to those burnt children, the born artists who find the enjoyment of life only in trying to FALSIFY its image (as if taking wearisome revenge on it), one might guess to what degree life has disgusted them, by the extent to which they wish to see its image falsified, attenuated, ultrified, and deified,"one might reckon the homines religiosi among the artists, as their HIGHEST rank.

doubtless - zweifelsfrei, zweifellos

preservative - Konservierungsmittel; Konservierungmittel

flighty - flatterhaft, schrullig, albern

passionate - leidenschaftlich

adoration - Anbetung

cult - Sekte; Kult, Kultus, Kult-, kultig

unlucky - Pech gehabt; unglücklich; unglückbringend; ''usually expressed verbally:'' es bringen

dive - tauchen

beneath - unter

falsify - fälschen; falsifizieren, widerlegen

wearisome - ermüdend, langweilig, lästig

disgusted - angewidert; ekeln, Ekel

ultrified - ultrifiziert

deified - vergöttert; vergöttern

reckon - meinen Sie; rechnen, damit rechnen, zählen

It is the profound, suspicious fear of an incurable pessimism which compels whole centuries to fasten their teeth into a religious interpretation of existence: the fear of the instinct which divines that truth might be attained TOO soon, before man has become strong enough, hard enough, artist enough.... Piety, the "Life in God," regarded in this light, would appear as the most elaborate and ultimate product of the FEAR of truth, as artist-adoration and artist-intoxication in presence of the most logical of all falsifications, as the will to the inversion of truth, to untruth at any price. Perhaps there has hitherto been no more effective means of beautifying man than piety, by means of it man can become so artful, so superficial, so iridescent, and so good, that his appearance no longer offends.

incurable - unheilbar

pessimism - Pessimismus

divines - Götter; göttlich

elaborate - ausarbeiten; ausführlich, durchdacht, ausführen

intoxication - Rauschzustände; Vergiftung, Intoxikation, Trunkenheit, Rausch

beautifying - verschönern, ausschmücken

artful - kunstvoll; geschickt, trickreich

iridescent - schillernd

offends - beleidigt; beleidigen, beleidigen, de

61. The philosopher, as WE free spirits understand him"as the man of the greatest responsibility, who has the conscience for the general development of mankind,"will use religion for his disciplining and educating work, just as he will use the contemporary political and economic conditions. The selecting and disciplining influence"destructive, as well as creative and fashioning"which can be exercised by means of religion is manifold and varied, according to the sort of people placed under its spell and protection. For those who are strong and independent, destined and trained to command, in whom the judgment and skill of a ruling race is incorporated, religion is an additional means for overcoming resistance in the exercise of authority"as a bond which binds rulers and subjects in common, betraying and surrendering to the former the conscience of the latter, their inmost heart, which would fain escape obedience. And in the case of the unique natures of noble origin, if by virtue of superior spirituality they should incline to a more retired and contemplative life, reserving to themselves only the more refined forms of government (over chosen disciples or members of an order), religion itself may be used as a means for obtaining peace from the noise and trouble of managing GROSSER affairs, and for securing immunity from the UNAVOIDABLE filth of all political agitation. The Brahmins, for instance, understood this fact. With the help of a religious organization, they secured to themselves the power of nominating kings for the people, while their sentiments prompted them to keep apart and outside, as men with a higher and super-regal mission. At the same time religion gives inducement and opportunity to some of the subjects to qualify themselves for future ruling and commanding the slowly ascending ranks and classes, in which, through fortunate marriage customs, volitional power and delight in self-control are on the increase.

disciplining - Disziplinierung; Disziplin, Strafe, Bestrafung, Disziplin

contemporary - zeitgemäß; zeitgenössisch, modern, zeitnah, Zeitgenosse

selecting - auswählen

destructive - zerstörerisch

manifold - Krümmer; vervielfältigen; Sammelrohr, mehrfach, vielfältig

protection - Schutz

Incorporated - Eingegliedert; zusammenschließen, vereinigen, aufnehmen

additional - zusätzlich

bond - Anleihe; Bindung, Obligation, Pfandbrief; binden

binds - bindet; binden, verbinden, konnektieren, verbinden, binden

rulers - Lineal

betraying - verraten, im Stich lassen, verraten, verraten, verraten

surrendering - aufgeben; kapitulieren, ergeben

inmost - innerst

unique - einzigartig, unikal

incline - neigen; Neigung, Anstieg, Gefälle

more retired - zurückgezogenere

contemplative - nachdenklich, kontemplativ

Reserving - Reservieren

disciples - Jünger, Jüngerin, Jünger, Jüngerin

obtaining - zu erhalten; erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

grosser - gröber; (gross) Brutto, dick, Br. Brutto

affairs - Angelegenheiten; Angelegenheit, Angelegenheit, Scharmützel

securing - sicher, geschützt, beschützt, sicher, geschützt, sicher, sicher

immunity - Immunität; Freistellung

unavoidable - unvermeidlich

filth - Schmutz, Dreck

agitation - Aufregung; Aufwühlung, Agitation

Brahmins - Brahmanen; Brahmane

secured - gesichert; sicher, geschützt, beschützt, sicher, geschützt

nominating - nominieren

prompted - veranlasst; Eingabeaufforderung, anleiten, antreiben

keep apart - auseinander halten, auseinanderhalten [alt]

super - todschick; bombig (ugs.)

regal - königlich

mission - Auftrag; Mission

inducement - Ansporn; Veranlassung

ascending - aufsteigend; steigen, aufsteigen

ranks - Dienstgrade; (sozialer) Stand, Rang, Dienstgrad

volitional - gewollt

self-control - (self-control) Selbstbeherrschung

To them religion offers sufficient incentives and temptations to aspire to higher intellectuality, and to experience the sentiments of authoritative self-control, of silence, and of solitude. Asceticism and Puritanism are almost indispensable means of educating and ennobling a race which seeks to rise above its hereditary baseness and work itself upwards to future supremacy. And finally, to ordinary men, to the majority of the people, who exist for service and general utility, and are only so far entitled to exist, religion gives invaluable contentedness with their lot and condition, peace of heart, ennoblement of obedience, additional social happiness and sympathy, with something of transfiguration and embellishment, something of justification of all the commonplaceness, all the meanness, all the semi-animal poverty of their souls. Religion, together with the religious significance of life, sheds sunshine over such perpetually harassed men, and makes even their own aspect endurable to them, it operates upon them as the Epicurean philosophy usually operates upon sufferers of a higher order, in a refreshing and refining manner, almost TURNING suffering TO ACCOUNT, and in the end even hallowing and vindicating it. There is perhaps nothing so admirable in Christianity and Buddhism as their art of teaching even the lowest to elevate themselves by piety to a seemingly higher order of things, and thereby to retain their satisfaction with the actual world in which they find it difficult enough to live"this very difficulty being necessary.

offers - Angebote; offerieren, anbieten, bieten, zeigen; Antrag, Offerte

sufficient - genügend, ausreichend, hinreichend

incentives - Anreize; Anreiz, Ansporn, Incentive

temptations - Versuchungen; Versuchung, Verführung, Versuchung

aspire - anstreben; streben, hoffen

intellectuality - Intellektualität; Geistigkeit, Geisteskraft

authoritative - maßgebend

asceticism - Asketentum; Askese

puritanism - Puritanismus

indispensable - unverzichtbar; ausnahmlos, grundsätzlich, unabdingbar

ennobling - adeln, veredeln

hereditary - vererbt

baseness - Niedertracht; Gemeinheit, Falschheit

utility - Nutzen; Nützlichkeit

invaluable - unbezahlbar

contentedness - Genügsamkeit; Zufriedenheit

ennoblement - Veredelung; Adelung

embellishment - Verschönerung; Ausschmückung, Beschönigung, Fioritur, Gerank

justification - Rechtfertigung, Begründung, Ausrichtung, Blocksatz

commonplaceness - Alltäglichkeiten

meanness - Gemeinheit, Fiesheit, gemeines Benehmen

sheds - Schuppen; (to shed) vergießen, abstoßen, lsowerden

sunshine - Sonnenschein

harassed - belästigt; belästigen, quälen, verfolgen

epicurean - Feinschmecker; genusssüchtig

refreshing - erfrischend; erfrischen, erquicken, auffrischen, aktualisieren

refining - Veredelung; verfeinernd; (refine); verfeinern

hallowing - anbeten, heiligen

vindicating - rechtfertigen, verteidigen, reinwaschen, rehabilitieren

admirable - bewundernswert

Buddhism - Buddhismus

seemingly - scheinbar; anscheinende

62. To be sure"to make also the bad counter-reckoning against such religions, and to bring to light their secret dangers"the cost is always excessive and terrible when religions do NOT operate as an educational and disciplinary medium in the hands of the philosopher, but rule voluntarily and PARAMOUNTLY, when they wish to be the final end, and not a means along with other means. Among men, as among all other animals, there is a surplus of defective, diseased, degenerating, infirm, and necessarily suffering individuals; the successful cases, among men also, are always the exception; and in view of the fact that man is THE ANIMAL NOT YET PROPERLY ADAPTED TO HIS ENVIRONMENT, the rare exception. But worse still. The higher the type a man represents, the greater is the improbability that he will SUCCEED; the accidental, the law of irrationality in the general constitution of mankind, manifests itself most terribly in its destructive effect on the higher orders of men, the conditions of whose lives are delicate, diverse, and difficult to determine. What, then, is the attitude of the two greatest religions above-mentioned to the SURPLUS of failures in life? They endeavour to preserve and keep alive whatever can be preserved; in fact, as the religions FOR SUFFERERS, they take the part of these upon principle; they are always in favour of those who suffer from life as from a disease, and they would fain treat every other experience of life as false and impossible. However highly we may esteem this indulgent and preservative care (inasmuch as in applying to others, it has applied, and applies also to the highest and usually the most suffering type of man), the hitherto PARAMOUNT religions"to give a general appreciation of them"are among the principal causes which have kept the type of "man" upon a lower level"they have preserved too much THAT WHICH SHOULD HAVE PERISHED. One has to thank them for invaluable services; and who is sufficiently rich in gratitude not to feel poor at the contemplation of all that the "spiritual men" of Christianity have done for Europe hitherto! But when they had given comfort to the sufferers, courage to the oppressed and despairing, a staff and support to the helpless, and when they had allured from society into convents and spiritual penitentiaries the broken-hearted and distracted: what else had they to do in order to work systematically in that fashion, and with a good conscience, for the preservation of all the sick and suffering, which means, in deed and in truth, to work for the DETERIORATION OF THE EUROPEAN RACE?

reckoning - Rechenschaft ablegen; Abrechnung; (reckon) Rechenschaft ablegen; Abrechnung

disciplinary - disziplinarisch

surplus - Überschuss, Rest

defective - fehlerhaft, defekt, mangelhaft, unvollständig

degenerating - degenerieren; entartet, widernatürlich, dekadent, degeneriert

infirm - schwach, schwächlich, kränklich, gebrechlich

improbability - Unwahrscheinlichkeit

accidental - versehentlich, zufällig, Zufall, Versehen

irrationality - Unvernunft, Irrationalität

above-mentioned - (above-mentioned) obenerwähnt, oben erwähnt

failures - Misserfolge; Misserfolg, Ausfall, Verschlechterung, Misslingen

endeavour - sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung, Bestreben; Bemühung

preserve - Konserve, Eingemachtes, Naturschutzgebiet, Naturreservat

keep alive - am Leben bleiben

esteem - Achtung, Ansehen, Wertschätzung, schätzen

indulgent - Nachsichtig

paramount - hervorragend, höchst, überragend, vorrangig

appreciation - Anerkennung, Würdigung, Dankbarkeit, Wertschätzung

principal - Auftraggeber; hauptsächlich, Haupt-, wesentlich, Rektor

perished - umgekommen; verderben, schlecht werden, umkommen

oppressed - unterdrückt; unterdrücken

helpless - hilflos

allured - gelockt; verlocken

convents - Klöster; Kloster

penitentiaries - Strafvollzugsanstalten; Gefängnis

distracted - Abgelenkt; ablenken

systematically - systematisch

To REVERSE all estimates of value"THAT is what they had to do! And to shatter the strong, to spoil great hopes, to cast suspicion on the delight in beauty, to break down everything autonomous, manly, conquering, and imperious"all instincts which are natural to the highest and most successful type of "man""into uncertainty, distress of conscience, and self-destruction; forsooth, to invert all love of the earthly and of supremacy over the earth, into hatred of the earth and earthly things"THAT is the task the Church imposed on itself, and was obliged to impose, until, according to its standard of value, "unworldliness," "unsensuousness," and "higher man" fused into one sentiment. If one could observe the strangely painful, equally coarse and refined comedy of European Christianity with the derisive and impartial eye of an Epicurean god, I should think one would never cease marvelling and laughing; does it not actually seem that some single will has ruled over Europe for eighteen centuries in order to make a SUBLIME ABORTION of man? He, however, who, with opposite requirements (no longer Epicurean) and with some divine hammer in his hand, could approach this almost voluntary degeneration and stunting of mankind, as exemplified in the European Christian (Pascal, for instance), would he not have to cry aloud with rage, pity, and horror: "Oh, you bunglers, presumptuous pitiful bunglers, what have you done! Was that a work for your hands? How you have hacked and botched my finest stone! What have you presumed to do!""I should say that Christianity has hitherto been the most portentous of presumptions. Men, not great enough, nor hard enough, to be entitled as artists to take part in fashioning MAN; men, not sufficiently strong and far-sighted to ALLOW, with sublime self-constraint, the obvious law of the thousandfold failures and perishings to prevail; men, not sufficiently noble to see the radically different grades of rank and intervals of rank that separate man from man:"SUCH men, with their "equality before God," have hitherto swayed the destiny of Europe; until at last a dwarfed, almost ludicrous species has been produced, a gregarious animal, something obliging, sickly, mediocre, the European of the present day.

shatter - zerbrechen; zum Zerspringen bringen, zerschmettern

autonomous - Autonom

conquering - Eroberung; erobern

destruction - Zerstörung, Vernichtung

forsooth - wahrhaftig; fürwahr

invert - umkehren, invertieren

earthly - irdisch; weltlich

imposed - auferlegt; auferlegen, aufzwingen, auferlegen

unworldliness - Weltabgewandtheit

unsensuousness - Unbedeutsamkeit

fused - verschmolzen; Sicherung, elektrische Sicherung

observe - beobachten; beachten, halten, bemerken

derisive - spöttisch

impartial - unparteiisch

marvelling - Staunen; (marvel) Wunderding, Wunder; (marvel); wundern

sublime - sublimierens, erhaben

abortion - Fehlgeburt; Abtreibung, Schwangerschaftsabbruch

hammer - Hammer; Schlagstück, Hahn, Schlaghebel, tMalleus

degeneration - Entartung; Degeneration

stunting - Verkümmerung; verkrüppeln; Kunststück

exemplified - veranschaulicht; exemplifizieren, veranschaulichen

aloud - laut

bunglers - Pfuscher, Pfuscherin, Stümper

presumptuous - anmaßend

pitiful - Mitleid erregend; erbärmlich, kläglich, jämmerlich

hacked - gehackt; hacken; Hacke, Hieb, Hack

botched - verpfuscht; verpfuschen, flicken, sudeln

presumed - vermutet; annehmen, mutmaßen, vermuten

presumptions - Annahmen; Annahme, Überheblichkeit, Vermutung

perishings - Verderben

prevail - erman: die Vorherrschaft erringen (''over'' über); sich durchsetzen (''against'' gegen); vorherrschen; überzeugen können

radically - radikal

intervals - Intervalle; Abstand, Zwischenraum, Intervall

swayed - schwankte; Schwingen

dwarfed - Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwerg, Zwergstern, Zwerg

ludicrous - lächerlich

gregarious animal - Herdentier

obliging - zuvorkommend; verpflichten, einen Gefallen tun

mediocre - mittelmäßig; Mittelmäßige


Interludes - Zwischenspiel

63. He who is a thorough teacher takes things seriously"and even himself"only in relation to his pupils.

thorough - gründlich

pupils - Schulkind, Pupille, Schüler

64. "Knowledge for its own sake""that is the last snare laid by morality: we are thereby completely entangled in morals once more.

snare - Schlinge, Falle

entangled - verwickelt; verwickeln

65. The charm of knowledge would be small, were it not so much shame has to be overcome on the way to it.

shame - Schamgefühl; Scham, Schande

overcome - überwunden; überwinden

65A. We are most dishonourable towards our God: he is not PERMITTED to sin.

most dishonourable - unehrenhafteste

66. The tendency of a person to allow himself to be degraded, robbed, deceived, and exploited might be the diffidence of a God among men.

tendency - Tendenz (''not often used in this sense; one would rather use a verb such as " zu (...) neigen" or tendieren'')

degraded - verschlechtert; degradieren, herabstufen, herunterstufen

robbed - ausgeraubt; rauben, berauben, Raubbau treiben, ausrauben

exploited - ausgenutzt; Heldentat, Exploit

diffidence - Scheu; Zurückhaltung, Verlegenheit, Schüchternheit

67. Love to one only is a barbarity, for it is exercised at the expense of all others. Love to God also!

barbarity - Barbarei

expense - Kosten; Ausgabe, Aufwand, Verlust

68. "I did that," says my memory. "I could not have done that," says my pride, and remains inexorable. Eventually"the memory yields.

inexorable - unaufhaltsam

yields - Renditen; hervorbringen, er/sie hat/hatte ergeben, weichen

69. One has regarded life carelessly, if one has failed to see the hand that"kills with leniency.

carelessly - unachtsam

leniency - Kronzeugenregelung; Milde, Nachsicht

70. If a man has character, he has also his typical experience, which always recurs.

recurs - wiederkehrt; wiederkehren

71. THE SAGE AS ASTRONOMER."So long as thou feelest the stars as an "above thee," thou lackest the eye of the discerning one.

sage - weise, klug, Weise

astronomer - Astronomen; Astronom, Astronomus, Himmelskundler

thou - du

feelest - fühlen

thee - dich, dir

lackest - am meisten fehlt

72. It is not the strength, but the duration of great sentiments that makes great men.

duration - Dauer

73. He who attains his ideal, precisely thereby surpasses it.

attains - erlangt; erreichen, erlangen

surpasses - übertrifft; übersteigen, übertreffen, überschreiten, überbieten

73A. Many a peacock hides his tail from every eye"and calls it his pride.

peacock - Pfau

74. A man of genius is unbearable, unless he possess at least two things besides: gratitude and purity.

unbearable - unerträglich

purity - Reinheit

75. The degree and nature of a man's sensuality extends to the highest altitudes of his spirit.

extends - verlängert; erweitern, ausdehnen, erweitern, ausdehnen

altitudes - Höhenlagen; Höhe, Höhe, Höhe

76. Under peaceful conditions the militant man attacks himself.

militant - militant, kämpferisch

77. With his principles a man seeks either to dominate, or justify, or honour, or reproach, or conceal his habits: two men with the same principles probably seek fundamentally different ends therewith.

dominate - herrschen (über), emporragen (über); beherrschen, dominieren

justify - rechtfertigen; ausrichten, justieren

therewith - damit

78. He who despises himself, nevertheless esteems himself thereby, as a despiser.

despises - verachtet; verachten

esteems - schätzt; Achtung, Ansehen

despiser - Verächter

79. A soul which knows that it is loved, but does not itself love, betrays its sediment: its dregs come up.

sediment - Sediment, Satz, Bodensatz

dregs - Abschaum; Sediment

80. A thing that is explained ceases to concern us"What did the God mean who gave the advice, "Know thyself!" Did it perhaps imply "Cease to be concerned about thyself! become objective!""And Socrates?"And the "scientific man"?

ceases - aufhört; aufhören, aufhören, einstellen

imply - implizieren, zur Folge haben, bedeuten

objective - objektiv; Gegenstand, Objekt, Ziel, Objektiv

81. It is terrible to die of thirst at sea. Is it necessary that you should so salt your truth that it will no longer"quench thirst?

thirst - Durst; dürsten

quench - Abschrecken; stillen, löschen, ablöschen, verlöschen

82. "Sympathy for all""would be harshness and tyranny for THEE, my good neighbour.

harshness - Strenge; Härte, Rauheit

83. INSTINCT"When the house is on fire one forgets even the dinner"Yes, but one recovers it from among the ashes.

recovers - erholt sich; wiederfinden, sich erholen, beikommen

ashes - Esche, Asche

84. Woman learns how to hate in proportion as she"forgets how to charm.

proportion - Verhältnis; Teil, Proportion, Anteil

85. The same emotions are in man and woman, but in different TEMPO, on that account man and woman never cease to misunderstand each other.

86. In the background of all their personal vanity, women themselves have still their impersonal scorn"for "woman".

87. FETTERED HEART, FREE SPIRIT"When one firmly fetters one's heart and keeps it prisoner, one can allow one's spirit many liberties: I said this once before But people do not believe it when I say so, unless they know it already.

fettered - gefesselt; Fessel; q

fetters - Fesseln; Fessel; q

liberties - Freiheiten; Freiheit

88. One begins to distrust very clever persons when they become embarrassed.

89. Dreadful experiences raise the question whether he who experiences them is not something dreadful also.

90. Heavy, melancholy men turn lighter, and come temporarily to their surface, precisely by that which makes others heavy"by hatred and love.

melancholy - Melancholie, Schwermut, Wehmut

temporarily - vorübergehend

91. So cold, so icy, that one burns one's finger at the touch of him! Every hand that lays hold of him shrinks back!"And for that very reason many think him red-hot.

icy - eisig, Eis

shrinks - schrumpft; schrumpfen, schrumpfen, abnehmen, drücken

92. Who has not, at one time or another"sacrificed himself for the sake of his good name?

93. In affability there is no hatred of men, but precisely on that account a great deal too much contempt of men.

affability - Freundlichkeit, Umgänglichkeit, Leutseligkeit

contempt - Verachtung; Schande, Blamage, Mißachtung, Beamtenbeleidigung

94. The maturity of man"that means, to have reacquired the seriousness that one had as a child at play.

maturity - Reife

95. To be ashamed of one's immorality is a step on the ladder at the end of which one is ashamed also of one's morality.

96. One should part from life as Ulysses parted from Nausicaa"blessing it rather than in love with it.

blessing - Segen, Segnung, Segnen, Segnen; (bless); Segen, Segnung, Segnen

97. What? A great man? I always see merely the play-actor of his own ideal.

98. When one trains one's conscience, it kisses one while it bites.

99. THE DISAPPOINTED ONE SPEAKS""I listened for the echo and I heard only praise."

Echo - Echo, Widerhall, Tastaturecho, Bildschirmecho, widerhallen

100. We all feign to ourselves that we are simpler than we are, we thus relax ourselves away from our fellows.

feign - vorgeben, vortäuschen, vormachen, fingieren, ausdenken

101. A discerning one might easily regard himself at present as the animalization of God.

animalization - Animalisierung

102. Discovering reciprocal love should really disenchant the lover with regard to the beloved. "What! She is modest enough to love even you? Or stupid enough? Or"or"-"

disenchant - desillusionieren; enttäuschen; entzaubern

beloved - beliebt, geliebt, Liebe, Liebchen, Liebling; (belove); beliebt

modest - bescheiden, maßvoll, klein, gering; (mod); bescheiden, maßvoll

103. THE DANGER IN HAPPINESS.""Everything now turns out best for me, I now love every fate:"who would like to be my fate?"

104. Not their love of humanity, but the impotence of their love, prevents the Christians of today"burning us.

impotence - Machtlosigkeit; Impotenz, Zeugungsunfähigkeit

105. The pia fraus is still more repugnant to the taste (the "piety") of the free spirit (the "pious man of knowledge") than the impia fraus. Hence the profound lack of judgment, in comparison with the Church, characteristic of the type "free spirit""as ITS non-freedom.

repugnant - widerwärtig

hence - von hier, fort, von dannen, daher, deshalb

characteristic - charakteristisch, bezeichnend, kennzeichnend, typisch, Merkmal

106. By means of music the very passions enjoy themselves.

107. A sign of strong character, when once the resolution has been taken, to shut the ear even to the best counter-arguments. Occasionally, therefore, a will to stupidity.

resolution - Entschlossenheit, Standfestigkeit, Vorsatz, Auflösung

108. There is no such thing as moral phenomena, but only a moral interpretation of phenomena.

109. The criminal is often enough not equal to his deed: he extenuates and maligns it.

extenuates - mildert; dämpfen, abschwächen

maligns - böse, böswillig, übel, schlimm, schlecht, böse, bösartig

110. The advocates of a criminal are seldom artists enough to turn the beautiful terribleness of the deed to the advantage of the doer.

terribleness - Schrecklichkeit

doer - Macher, Macherin; (doe); Macher, Macherin

111. Our vanity is most difficult to wound just when our pride has been wounded.

wounded - verwundet; anschießen, verwunden

112. To him who feels himself preordained to contemplation and not to belief, all believers are too noisy and obtrusive; he guards against them.

believers - Gläubiger, Gläubige

obtrusive - aufdringlich

113. "You want to prepossess him in your favour? Then you must be embarrassed before him."

prepossess - präparieren; erfüllen

114. The immense expectation with regard to sexual love, and the coyness in this expectation, spoils all the perspectives of women at the outset.

expectation - Erwartung

coyness - Schüchternheit; Scheuheit

115. Where there is neither love nor hatred in the game, woman's play is mediocre.

116. The great epochs of our life are at the points when we gain courage to rebaptize our badness as the best in us.

epochs - Epochen; Epoche, Ära, Epoche

rebaptize - wieder taufen; umtaufen, umbenennen, neu benennen

badness - Schlechtigkeit

117. The will to overcome an emotion, is ultimately only the will of another, or of several other, emotions.

118. There is an innocence of admiration: it is possessed by him to whom it has not yet occurred that he himself may be admired some day.

admiration - Bewunderung

possessed - besessen; Schutzpolizeiaufgebote

119. Our loathing of dirt may be so great as to prevent our cleaning ourselves""justifying" ourselves.

loathing - Hass, Ekel, Abscheu; (loathe); verabscheuen, ablehnen, hassen

justifying - rechtfertigen, rechtfertigen, ausrichten, justieren

120. Sensuality often forces the growth of love too much, so that its root remains weak, and is easily torn up.

root - wurzeln; Haupt, Wurzel, Nullstelle [math.]

torn up - zerfetzt

121. It is a curious thing that God learned Greek when he wished to turn author"and that he did not learn it better.

Curious - neugierig, sonderbar, merkwürdig

122. To rejoice on account of praise is in many cases merely politeness of heart"and the very opposite of vanity of spirit.

rejoice - freuen

politeness - Höflichkeit

123. Even concubinage has been corrupted"by marriage.

concubinage - Konkubinat; wilde Ehe

124. He who exults at the stake, does not triumph over pain, but because of the fact that he does not feel pain where he expected it. A parable.

exults - jubelt; jubeln, jauchzen

stake - Pfahl, Pflock, Marterpfahl, Scheiterhaufen, Anteil, Einsatz

parable - Parabel, Gleichnis

125. When we have to change an opinion about any one, we charge heavily to his account the inconvenience he thereby causes us.

inconvenience - Unannehmlichkeit; lästig sein, stören

126. A nation is a detour of nature to arrive at six or seven great men."Yes, and then to get round them.

detour - Umleitung (diversion); Umweg (deviation); Umweg

127. In the eyes of all true women science is hostile to the sense of shame. They feel as if one wished to peep under their skin with it"or worse still! under their dress and finery.

hostile - feindlich, feindselig, gegnerisch, unversöhnlich, antagonistisch

peep - piepsen; (peep hole) Schauloch; (to peep through) durchgucken

finery - Prachtstücke; Putz, Glanz, Aufputz

128. The more abstract the truth you wish to teach, the more must you allure the senses to it.

abstract - Auszug, Zusammenfassung, abstrakt, trennen, entziehen

129. The devil has the most extensive perspectives for God; on that account he keeps so far away from him:"the devil, in effect, as the oldest friend of knowledge.

most extensive - umfangreichst

130. What a person IS begins to betray itself when his talent decreases,"when he ceases to show what he CAN do. Talent is also an adornment; an adornment is also a concealment.

decreases - abnimmt; abnehmen, verringern, Verringerung

adornment - Verzierung

131. The sexes deceive themselves about each other: the reason is that in reality they honour and love only themselves (or their own ideal, to express it more agreeably). Thus man wishes woman to be peaceable: but in fact woman is ESSENTIALLY unpeaceable, like the cat, however well she may have assumed the peaceable demeanour.

agreeably - zustimmen; angenehm

unpeaceable - unversöhnlich

demeanour - Auftreten; Benehmen, Verhalten

132. One is punished best for one's virtues.

133. He who cannot find the way to HIS ideal, lives more frivolously and shamelessly than the man without an ideal.

frivolously - leichtsinnig

shamelessly - schamlos

134. From the senses originate all trustworthiness, all good conscience, all evidence of truth.

trustworthiness - Vertrauenswürdigkeit

135. Pharisaism is not a deterioration of the good man; a considerable part of it is rather an essential condition of being good.

Pharisaism - Pharisäertum

considerable - erheblich, beträchtlich, beachtlich

136. The one seeks an accoucheur for his thoughts, the other seeks some one whom he can assist: a good conversation thus originates.

accoucheur - Entbindungspfleger, Geburtshelfer, Entbindungshelfer

originates - entsteht; entwickeln, erzeugen, entstehen, entspringen

137. In intercourse with scholars and artists one readily makes mistakes of opposite kinds: in a remarkable scholar one not infrequently finds a mediocre man; and often, even in a mediocre artist, one finds a very remarkable man.

remarkable - bemerkenswert, verwunderlich, denkwürdig, beachtenswert

138. We do the same when awake as when dreaming: we only invent and imagine him with whom we have intercourse"and forget it immediately.

awake - munter, wach; erwachen, aufwachen

139. in revenge and in love woman is more barbarous than man.

in revenge - aus Rache (für)

140. ADVICE AS A RIDDLE.""If the band is not to break, bite it first"secure to make!"

riddle - Rätsel

secure - sicher, geschützt, beschützt, zuverlässig

141. The belly is the reason why man does not so readily take himself for a God.

142. The chastest utterance I ever heard: "Dans le veritable amour c'est l'ame qui enveloppe le corps."

chastest - am züchtigsten; keusch

utterance - Äußerung

corps - Korps; .; (corp) Korps

143. Our vanity would like what we do best to pass precisely for what is most difficult to us."Concerning the origin of many systems of morals.

144. When a woman has scholarly inclinations there is generally something wrong with her sexual nature. Barrenness itself conduces to a certain virility of taste; man, indeed, if I may say so, is "the barren animal."

barrenness - Unfruchtbarkeit

conduces - führt; dienen

virility - Potenz; Männlichkeit; Mannhaftigkeit, Männlichsein

145. Comparing man and woman generally, one may say that woman would not have the genius for adornment, if she had not the instinct for the SECONDARY role.

146. He who fights with monsters should be careful lest he thereby become a monster. And if thou gaze long into an abyss, the abyss will also gaze into thee.

monsters - Monster

gaze - Blicken; anstarren

147. From old Florentine novels"moreover, from life: Buona femmina e mala femmina vuol bastone."Sacchetti, Nov. 86.

Florentine - Florentiner

148. To seduce their neighbour to a favourable opinion, and afterwards to believe implicitly in this opinion of their neighbour"who can do this conjuring trick so well as women?

favourable - günstig

implicitly - stillschweigend

conjuring trick - Zauberkunststück

149. That which an age considers evil is usually an unseasonable echo of what was formerly considered good"the atavism of an old ideal.

unseasonable - unzeitgemäß

150. Around the hero everything becomes a tragedy; around the demigod everything becomes a satyr-play; and around God everything becomes"what? perhaps a "world"?

demigod - Halbgott

151. It is not enough to possess a talent: one must also have your permission to possess it;"eh, my friends?

eh - oder

152. "Where there is the tree of knowledge, there is always Paradise": so say the most ancient and the most modern serpents.

paradise - das Paradies; Paradies, Himmel

most modern - modernste

serpents - Schlangen; Schlange, qualifieroetic, Serpent

153. What is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil.

154. Objection, evasion, joyous distrust, and love of irony are signs of health; everything absolute belongs to pathology.

joyous - freudig

irony - Ironie

pathology - Pathologie; Pathologie

155. The sense of the tragic increases and declines with sensuousness.

tragic - tragisch

declines - zurückgeht; Sinken

sensuousness - Sinnlichkeit

156. Insanity in individuals is something rare"but in groups, parties, nations, and epochs it is the rule.

insanity - Wahnsinn

157. The thought of suicide is a great consolation: by means of it one gets successfully through many a bad night.

consolation - Trost; Trostpreis

158. Not only our reason, but also our conscience, truckles to our strongest impulse"the tyrant in us.

truckles - kriechen

tyrant - Tyrann, Tyrannin, checkTyrannin

159. One MUST repay good and ill; but why just to the person who did us good or ill?

repay - zurückzahlen; zurückbezahlen

160. One no longer loves one's knowledge sufficiently after one has communicated it.

161. Poets act shamelessly towards their experiences: they exploit them.

exploit - Heldentat; Exploit; ausnutzen, ausbeuten

162. "Our fellow-creature is not our neighbour, but our neighbour's neighbour":"so thinks every nation.

fellow - Stipendiat, Typ, Kerl, Bursche; Gefährte, Kerl

163. Love brings to light the noble and hidden qualities of a lover"his rare and exceptional traits: it is thus liable to be deceptive as to his normal character.

traits - Eigenschaften; Eigenschaft, Zug

liable - haftbar; fehlbar

164. Jesus said to his Jews: "The law was for servants;"love god as I love him, as his Son! What have we Sons of God to do with morals!"

love god - Liebesgott

165. IN SIGHT OF EVERY PARTY."A shepherd has always need of a bell-wether"or he has himself to be a wether occasionally.

shepherd - Schafhirte; Schäfer, Schafhirt, q

wether - ob

166. One may indeed lie with the mouth; but with the accompanying grimace one nevertheless tells the truth.

167. To vigorous men intimacy is a matter of shame"and something precious.

intimacy - Intimität

precious - kostbar, wertvoll, süßlich, kitschig

168. Christianity gave Eros poison to drink; he did not die of it, certainly, but degenerated to Vice.

degenerated - entartet, widernatürlich, dekadent, degeneriert, entartet

169. To talk much about oneself may also be a means of concealing oneself.

concealing - verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen, verstecken

170. In praise there is more obtrusiveness than in blame.

obtrusiveness - Aufdringlichkeit

171. Pity has an almost ludicrous effect on a man of knowledge, like tender hands on a Cyclops.

cyclops - Zyklopen; Zyklop, Kyklop

172. One occasionally embraces some one or other, out of love to mankind (because one cannot embrace all); but this is what one must never confess to the individual.

embraces - umarmt; umarmen, annehmen, umarmen, Umarmung

confess - gestehen, bekennen, verraten, beichten

173. One does not hate as long as one disesteems, but only when one esteems equal or superior.

174. Ye Utilitarians"ye, too, love the UTILE only as a VEHICLE for your inclinations,"ye, too, really find the noise of its wheels insupportable!

Utilitarians - Utilitaristen; nützlich, zweckmäßig, utilitaristisch

insupportable - untragbar

175. One loves ultimately one's desires, not the thing desired.

176. The vanity of others is only counter to our taste when it is counter to our vanity.

177. With regard to what "truthfulness" is, perhaps nobody has ever been sufficiently truthful.

truthful - wahrheitsliebend; wahrheitsgemäß, wahrheitsgetreu

178. One does not believe in the follies of clever men: what a forfeiture of the rights of man!

forfeiture - Verwirkung; (selbstverschuldeter) Verlust

179. The consequences of our actions seize us by the forelock, very indifferent to the fact that we have meanwhile "reformed."

seize - ergreifen, fassen, packen, beschlagnahmen, erfassen

forelock - Stirnlocke, Stirnhaar

reformed - reformiert; Reform, reformieren

180. There is an innocence in lying which is the sign of good faith in a cause.

181. It is inhuman to bless when one is being cursed.

inhuman - unmenschlich

bless - segnen; selig preisen

cursed - verflucht, verfluchte; (curs) verflucht, verfluchte

182. The familiarity of superiors embitters one, because it may not be returned.

superiors - Vorgesetzten; überlegen, höher, höherstehend, übergeordnet

embitters - erregt; verbittern; jdn. verbittern; etw. verschlimmern

183. "I am affected, not because you have deceived me, but because I can no longer believe in you."

184. There is a haughtiness of kindness which has the appearance of wickedness.

kindness - Freundlichkeit; Liebenswürdigkeit

185. "I dislike him.""Why?""I am not a match for him.""Did any one ever answer so?


186. The moral sentiment in Europe at present is perhaps as subtle, belated, diverse, sensitive, and refined, as the "Science of Morals" belonging thereto is recent, initial, awkward, and coarse-fingered:"an interesting contrast, which sometimes becomes incarnate and obvious in the very person of a moralist. Indeed, the expression, "Science of Morals" is, in respect to what is designated thereby, far too presumptuous and counter to GOOD taste,"which is always a foretaste of more modest expressions. One ought to avow with the utmost fairness WHAT is still necessary here for a long time, WHAT is alone proper for the present: namely, the collection of material, the comprehensive survey and classification of an immense domain of delicate sentiments of worth, and distinctions of worth, which live, grow, propagate, and perish"and perhaps attempts to give a clear idea of the recurring and more common forms of these living crystallizations"as preparation for a THEORY OF TYPES of morality. To be sure, people have not hitherto been so modest. All the philosophers, with a pedantic and ridiculous seriousness, demanded of themselves something very much higher, more pretentious, and ceremonious, when they concerned themselves with morality as a science: they wanted to GIVE A BASIC to morality"and every philosopher hitherto has believed that he has given it a basis; morality itself, however, has been regarded as something "given." How far from their awkward pride was the seemingly insignificant problem"left in dust and decay"of a description of forms of morality, notwithstanding that the finest hands and senses could hardly be fine enough for it! It was precisely owing to moral philosophers'knowing the moral facts imperfectly, in an arbitrary epitome, or an accidental abridgement"perhaps as the morality of their environment, their position, their church, their Zeitgeist, their climate and zone"it was precisely because they were badly instructed with regard to nations, eras, and past ages, and were by no means eager to know about these matters, that they did not even come in sight of the real problems of morals"problems which only disclose themselves by a comparison of MANY kinds of morality.

sensitive - empfindlich, sensibel

thereto - dazu

initial - anfänglich, ursprünglich, erster, Anfangsbuchstabe; Initiale

awkward - peinlich; ungeschickt, unbeholfen, umständlich, tollpatschig

incarnate - fleischgeworden; verkörpern; leibhaftig, in Menschengestalt

moralist - Moralist, Moralistin

foretaste - Vorgeschmack

avow - bekennen, gestehen

utmost - äußerst, höchst, Äußerstes, Möglichstes

fairness - Fairness, Kulanz

comprehensive - umfassend, umfangreich

classification - Klassifikation, Klassifizierung

distinctions - Unterscheidungen; Unterschied, Auszeichnung

propagate - fortpflanzen; verbreiten; sich vermehren

perish - untergehen; verderben, schlecht werden, umkommen

recurring - wiederkehrend; wiederkehren

crystallizations - Kristallisationen; Kristallisation

preparation - Vorbereitung; Präparat

pedantic - pedantisch

ridiculous - lächerlich

demanded - gefordert; Nachfrage, Bedarf, Nachfrage, Anspruch, verlangen

more pretentious - anspruchsvollere

ceremonious - Zeremoniell

insignificant - unbedeutend

decay - Verfall, Verwesung, Fäulnis, verfallen, verderben, faulen

imperfectly - unvollkommen

epitome - Inbegriff; Verkörperlichung; Abriss

abridgement - Kürzung, Kurzfassung, Verkürzung

Zeitgeist - Zeitgeist

zone - Bereich, Distrikt, Eingabefeld

instructed - belehrt; instruieren, briefen, anweisen

eras - Epochen; (era); Ära, Epoche, Erdzeitalter

disclose - offenlegen; enthüllen; veröffentlichen, bekanntgeben

In every "Science of Morals" hitherto, strange as it may sound, the problem of morality itself has been OMITTED: there has been no suspicion that there was anything problematic there! That which philosophers called "giving a basis to morality," and endeavoured to realize, has, when seen in a right light, proved merely a learned form of good FAITH in prevailing morality, a new means of its EXPRESSION, consequently just a matter-of-fact within the sphere of a definite morality, yea, in its ultimate motive, a sort of denial that it is LAWFUL for this morality to be called in question"and in any case the reverse of the testing, analyzing, doubting, and vivisecting of this very faith. Hear, for instance, with what innocence"almost worthy of honour"Schopenhauer represents his own task, and draw your conclusions concerning the scientificness of a "Science" whose latest master still talks in the strain of children and old wives: "The principle," he says (page 136 of the Grundprobleme der Ethik), [Footnote: Pages 54-55 of Schopenhauer's Basis of Morality, translated by Arthur B. Bullock, M.A. (1903).] "the axiom about the purport of which all moralists are PRACTICALLY agreed: neminem laede, immo omnes quantum potes juva"is REALLY the proposition which all moral teachers strive to establish, ... the REAL basis of ethics which has been sought, like the philosopher's stone, for centuries.""The difficulty of establishing the proposition referred to may indeed be great"it is well known that Schopenhauer also was unsuccessful in his efforts; and whoever has thoroughly realized how absurdly false and sentimental this proposition is, in a world whose essence is Will to Power, may be reminded that Schopenhauer, although a pessimist, ACTUALLY"played the flute... daily after dinner: one may read about the matter in his biography. A question by the way: a pessimist, a repudiator of God and of the world, who MAKES A HALT at morality"who assents to morality, and plays the flute to laede-neminem morals, what? Is that really"a pessimist?

omitted - ausgelassen; weglassen, auslassen

problematic - problematisch; problembehaftet, heikel, fatal, haarig

endeavoured - angestrebt; sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung

lawful - rechtmäßig; gesetzlich, legal, rechtsmäßig

analyzing - untersuchen; analysieren

scientificness - Wissenschaftlichkeit

strain - Belastung; Spannung, starke Inanspruchnahme, Zug; anstrengen

bullock - Öchslein; Ochse

axiom - Axiom, Annahme, Postulat, Grundannahme

purport - vorgeben, unterstellen, beabsichtigen

practically - praktisch

quantum - Quanten; Quantum, Minimum

strive - erstreben, bestreben

philosopher's stone - Stein der Weisen

establishing - feststellen, etablieren, eröffnen, gründen, niederlassen

unsuccessful - erfolglos

absurdly - absurd; sinnwidrig

essence - Wesen; Essenz, Extrakt, Parfüm

pessimist - Pessimist, Pessimistin

flute - Flöte, Kannelierung

repudiator - Ablehner, Ablehnerin, Nichtanerkenner, Nichtanerkennerin

assents - zustimmt; zustimmen, behaupten

187. Apart from the value of such assertions as "there is a categorical imperative in us," one can always ask: What does such an assertion indicate about him who makes it? There are systems of morals which are meant to justify their author in the eyes of other people; other systems of morals are meant to tranquilize him, and make him self-satisfied; with other systems he wants to crucify and humble himself, with others he wishes to take revenge, with others to conceal himself, with others to glorify himself and gave superiority and distinction,"this system of morals helps its author to forget, that system makes him, or something of him, forgotten, many a moralist would like to exercise power and creative arbitrariness over mankind, many another, perhaps, Kant especially, gives us to understand by his morals that "what is estimable in me, is that I know how to obey"and with you it SHALL not be otherwise than with me!

tranquilize - beruhigen

Crucify - Kreuzen; kreuzigen

humble - bescheiden; demütig, ergeben

take revenge - sich revanchieren (an)

glorify - verherrlichen; glorifizieren, verklären, anbeten

arbitrariness - Willkürlichkeit, Willkür, Arbitrarität

estimable - schätzenswert, achtenswert

In short, systems of morals are only a SIGN-LANGUAGE OF THE EMOTIONS.

188. In contrast to laisser-aller, every system of morals is a sort of tyranny against "nature" and also against "reason", that is, however, no objection, unless one should again decree by some system of morals, that all kinds of tyranny and unreasonableness are unlawful What is essential and invaluable in every system of morals, is that it is a long constraint. In order to understand Stoicism, or Port Royal, or Puritanism, one should remember the constraint under which every language has attained to strength and freedom"the metrical constraint, the tyranny of rhyme and rhythm. How much trouble have the poets and orators of every nation given themselves!"not excepting some of the prose writers of today, in whose ear dwells an inexorable conscientiousness""for the sake of a folly," as utilitarian bunglers say, and thereby deem themselves wise""from submission to arbitrary laws," as the anarchists say, and thereby fancy themselves "free," even free-spirited. The singular fact remains, however, that everything of the nature of freedom, elegance, boldness, dance, and masterly certainty, which exists or has existed, whether it be in thought itself, or in administration, or in speaking and persuading, in art just as in conduct, has only developed by means of the tyranny of such arbitrary law, and in all seriousness, it is not at all improbable that precisely this is "nature" and "natural""and not laisser-aller! Every artist knows how different from the state of letting himself go, is his "most natural" condition, the free arranging, locating, disposing, and constructing in the moments of "inspiration""and how strictly and delicately he then obeys a thousand laws, which, by their very rigidness and precision, defy all formulation by means of ideas (even the most stable idea has, in comparison therewith, something floating, manifold, and ambiguous in it). The essential thing "in heaven and in earth" is, apparently (to repeat it once more), that there should be long OBEDIENCE in the same direction, there thereby results, and has always resulted in the long run, something which has made life worth living; for instance, virtue, art, music, dancing, reason, spirituality"anything whatever that is transfiguring, refined, foolish, or divine. The long bondage of the spirit, the distrustful constraint in the communicability of ideas, the discipline which the thinker imposed on himself to think in accordance with the rules of a church or a court, or conformable to Aristotelian premises, the persistent spiritual will to interpret everything that happened according to a Christian scheme, and in every occurrence to rediscover and justify the Christian God:"all this violence, arbitrariness, severity, dreadfulness, and unreasonableness, has proved itself the disciplinary means whereby the European spirit has attained its strength, its remorseless curiosity and subtle mobility; granted also that much irrecoverable strength and spirit had to be stifled, suffocated, and spoilt in the process (for here, as everywhere, "nature" shows herself as she is, in all her extravagant and INDIFFERENT magnificence, which is shocking, but nevertheless noble). That for centuries European thinkers only thought in order to prove something"nowadays, on the contrary, we are suspicious of every thinker who "wishes to prove something""that it was always settled beforehand what WAS TO BE the result of their strictest thinking, as it was perhaps in the Asiatic astrology of former times, or as it is still at the present day in the innocent, Christian-moral explanation of immediate personal events "for the glory of God," or "for the good of the soul":"this tyranny, this arbitrariness, this severe and magnificent stupidity, has EDUCATED the spirit; slavery, both in the coarser and the finer sense, is apparently an indispensable means even of spiritual education and discipline. One may look at every system of morals in this light: it is "nature" therein which teaches to hate the laisser-aller, the too great freedom, and implants the need for limited horizons, for immediate duties"it teaches the NARROWING OF PERSPECTIVES, and thus, in a certain sense, that stupidity is a condition of life and development.

decree - Erlass, Dekret, Verordnung, Verfügung, Beschluss

unreasonableness - Unvernünftigkeit, Unvernunft

unlawful - rechtswidrig

metrical - metrisch

rhyme - Reim; reimen (mit)

rhythm - Rhythmus

orators - Redner, Rednerin

dwells - wohnt; leben, verbleiben, wohnen, verweilen

conscientiousness - Gewissenhaftigkeit

utilitarian - nützlich, zweckmäßig, utilitaristisch, Utilitarist

deem - halten, erachten, ansehen

submission - Unterbreitung, Unterwerfung

anarchists - Anarchisten; Anarchist, Anarchistin

singular - einzeln; einzigartig; ungewöhnlich; singularisch; singulär; Einzahl

masterly - meisterhaft, virtuos

administration - Verwaltung, Administration, Verabreichung

most natural - naturgemäßeste

disposing - Entsorgen; anordnend, verfügend; (dispose); beseitigen

constructing - bauen, konstruieren

strictly - strenges, grundsätzlich, pingelig

delicately - zart

obeys - gehorcht; gehorchen, befolgen

rigidness - Starrheiten, Steifheiten

precision - Präzision, Genauigkeit, Messpräzision, Wiederholgenauigkeit

defy - herausfordern, die Stirn bieten, trotzen, widersetzen, lossagen

formulation - Rezeptur, Formulierung

stable - stabil; Rennstall (Pferdesport); dauerhaft, beständig, Stall

floating - schwebend; schwimmend, fließend, gleiten

ambiguous - zweideutig

bondage - Knechtschaft; Sklaverei; Pflicht; Bondage

communicability - Kommunizierbarkeit; Mitteilbarkeit

discipline - Disziplin; Strafe, Bestrafung, disziplinieren

conformable - anpassungsfähig

Aristotelian - aristotelisch

premises - Prämisse, Voraussetzung, Lokal

persistent - ausdauernd, hartnäckig, beharrlich, ständig, anhaltend

rediscover - wiederentdecken; wieder entdecken

dreadfulness - Schrecklichkeit; Scheußlichkeit

whereby - wodurch

remorseless - erbarmungslos; unbarmherzig, hartherzig

mobility - Mobilität

irrecoverable - unwiederbringlich

stifled - erstickt; ersticken

suffocated - erstickt; ersticken, ersticken, würgen, ersticken

spoilt - verdorben; verwöhnt, verzogen; (spoil); plündern; ruinieren

magnificence - Großartigkeit; Prächtigkeit, Pracht

shocking - schockierend; Schock, Betroffenheit, Empörung, Schlag, Stoß

settled - erledigt; abklären

beforehand - vorher

strictest - am strengsten; streng, streng

Asiatic - asiatisch

glory - Pracht, Herrlichkeit, Prunk, Gepränge, Ruhm

severe - schwerwiegend; streng

implants - Implantate; einpflanzen, implantieren, Implantat

horizons - Horizonte; Horizont

"Thou must obey some one, and for a long time; OTHERWISE thou wilt come to grief, and lose all respect for thyself""this seems to me to be the moral imperative of nature, which is certainly neither "categorical," as old Kant wished (consequently the "otherwise"), nor does it address itself to the individual (what does nature care for the individual!), but to nations, races, ages, and ranks; above all, however, to the animal "man" generally, to MANKIND.

wilt - verwelken; welken

189. Industrious races find it a great hardship to be idle: it was a master stroke of ENGLISH instinct to hallow and begloom Sunday to such an extent that the Englishman unconsciously hankers for his week"and work-day again:"as a kind of cleverly devised, cleverly intercalated FAST, such as is also frequently found in the ancient world (although, as is appropriate in southern nations, not precisely with respect to work). Many kinds of fasts are necessary; and wherever powerful influences and habits prevail, legislators have to see that intercalary days are appointed, on which such impulses are fettered, and learn to hunger anew. Viewed from a higher standpoint, whole generations and epochs, when they show themselves infected with any moral fanaticism, seem like those intercalated periods of restraint and fasting, during which an impulse learns to humble and submit itself"at the same time also to PURIFY and SHARPEN itself; certain philosophical sects likewise admit of a similar interpretation (for instance, the Stoa, in the midst of Hellenic culture, with the atmosphere rank and overcharged with Aphrodisiacal odours).

industrious - fleißig

hardship - Härtefall; Härte, Not, Entbehrung, Mühsal

idle - träge, nicht in Betrieb, faul, nutzlos, untätig; faulenzen

master stroke - Meisterstück

hallow - anbeten, heiligen

begloom - aufblühen

Englishman - Engländer

hankers - Sehnsucht; verlangen, begehren

cleverly - klug, pfiffig, schlau

intercalated - interkaliert; einschalten, interpolieren

appropriate - angebracht, angemessen, passend, zugewiesen, anpassen, aneignen

legislators - Gesetzgeber, Gesetzgeberin

intercalary - Interkalation

appointed - ernannt; bestimmen, festlegen, ausstatten, ausrüsten, festlegen

infected - infiziert; anstecken, infizieren, anstecken, infizieren

fanaticism - Fanatismus, Eiferertum

restraint - Zurückhaltung; Beschränkung, Zügelung, Einschränkung, Zwang

submit - sich unterwerfen;ich/er/sie gab ab, abgeben;ermöglichen, vorlegen, vorschlagen, einreichen

purify - läutern; reinigen; rein machen

sharpen - schärfen

sects - Sekten; Sekte

admit of - zulassen

Hellenic - hellenisch

overcharged - zu viel Geld verlangt; überladen; überfordere, überfordern

odours - Gerüche; Geruch

Here also is a hint for the explanation of the paradox, why it was precisely in the most Christian period of European history, and in general only under the pressure of Christian sentiments, that the sexual impulse sublimated into love (amour-passion).

hint - Hinweis, Tipp, Wink, Fingerzeig

sublimated - sublimiert; sublimieren, sublimieren

190. There is something in the morality of Plato which does not really belong to Plato, but which only appears in his philosophy, one might say, in spite of him: namely, Socratism, for which he himself was too noble. "No one desires to injure himself, hence all evil is done unwittingly. The evil man inflicts injury on himself; he would not do so, however, if he knew that evil is evil. The evil man, therefore, is only evil through error; if one free him from error one will necessarily make him"good.""This mode of reasoning savours of the POPULACE, who perceive only the unpleasant consequences of evil-doing, and practically judge that "it is STUPID to do wrong"; while they accept "good" as identical with "useful and pleasant," without further thought. As regards every system of utilitarianism, one may at once assume that it has the same origin, and follow the scent: one will seldom err."Plato did all he could to interpret something refined and noble into the tenets of his teacher, and above all to interpret himself into them"he, the most daring of all interpreters, who lifted the entire Socrates out of the street, as a popular theme and song, to exhibit him in endless and impossible modifications"namely, in all his own disguises and multiplicities.

unwittingly - unwissentlich

inflicts - zufügt; zufügen, de

err - irren

savours - schmeckt; Geschmack; genießen, würdigen, recht genießen

perceive - wahrnehmen

utilitarianism - Utilitarismus

scent - Geruch, Duft, Parfüm, Parfum, Fährte, Geruch (1, 3)

tenets - Lehren; Dogma

interpreters - Dolmetscher, Dolmetscherin, Dolmetsch, Interpreter

exhibit - zeigen, zur Schau stellen, ausstellen, vorzeigen

endless - endlos, unbegrenzt, unbeschränkt, unendlich

modifications - Änderungen; Änderung, Abänderung, Modifikation, Änderung

disguises - Verkleidungen; Verkleidung, Tarnung, verstellen

multiplicities - Multiplizitäten; Multiplizität

In jest, and in Homeric language as well, what is the Platonic Socrates, if not"[Greek words inserted here.]

jest - scherzen

inserted - eingefügt; einsetzen, einfügen, einwerfen, Beilage

191. The old theological problem of "Faith" and "Knowledge," or more plainly, of instinct and reason"the question whether, in respect to the valuation of things, instinct deserves more authority than rationality, which wants to appreciate and act according to motives, according to a "Why," that is to say, in conformity to purpose and utility"it is always the old moral problem that first appeared in the person of Socrates, and had divided men's minds long before Christianity. Socrates himself, following, of course, the taste of his talent"that of a surpassing dialectician"took first the side of reason; and, in fact, what did he do all his life but laugh at the awkward incapacity of the noble Athenians, who were men of instinct, like all noble men, and could never give satisfactory answers concerning the motives of their actions? In the end, however, though silently and secretly, he laughed also at himself: with his finer conscience and introspection, he found in himself the same difficulty and incapacity. "But why""he said to himself""should one on that account separate oneself from the instincts! One must set them right, and the reason ALSO"one must follow the instincts, but at the same time persuade the reason to support them with good arguments.

deserves - verdient; verdienen

rationality - Rationalität; vernünftige Denkweise, Vernunft

surpassing - zu übertreffen; übersteigen, übertreffen, überschreiten

dialectician - Dialektiker

incapacity - Unfähigkeit

Athenians - Athener, Athenerin, Athener, athenisch

satisfactory - befriedigend, zufriedenstellend

silently - leise; schweigend, still

introspection - Innenschau, Introspektion, Selbstbeobachtung, Selbstprüfung

This was the real FALSENESS of that great and mysterious ironist; he brought his conscience up to the point that he was satisfied with a kind of self-outwitting: in fact, he perceived the irrationality in the moral judgment."Plato, more innocent in such matters, and without the craftiness of the plebeian, wished to prove to himself, at the expenditure of all his strength"the greatest strength a philosopher had ever expended"that reason and instinct lead spontaneously to one goal, to the good, to "God"; and since Plato, all theologians and philosophers have followed the same path"which means that in matters of morality, instinct (or as Christians call it, "Faith," or as I call it, "the herd") has hitherto triumphed. Unless one should make an exception in the case of Descartes, the father of rationalism (and consequently the grandfather of the Revolution), who recognized only the authority of reason: but reason is only a tool, and Descartes was superficial.

mysterious - geheimnisvoll; mysteriös; rätselhaft

ironist - Ironiker, Ironikerin

outwitting - überlisten, überflügeln, austricksen

perceived - wahrgenommen; wahrnehmen

more innocent - unschuldigere

expenditure - Aufwand; Aufwendung

expended - verbraucht; aufwenden, ausgeben (Geld), aufbrauchen

spontaneously - spontan

triumphed - triumphiert; Sieg, Erfolg

rationalism - Rationalismus

192. Whoever has followed the history of a single science, finds in its development a clue to the understanding of the oldest and commonest processes of all "knowledge and cognizance": there, as here, the premature hypotheses, the fictions, the good stupid will to "belief," and the lack of distrust and patience are first developed"our senses learn late, and never learn completely, to be subtle, reliable, and cautious organs of knowledge. Our eyes find it easier on a given occasion to produce a picture already often produced, than to seize upon the divergence and novelty of an impression: the latter requires more force, more "morality." It is difficult and painful for the ear to listen to anything new; we hear strange music badly. When we hear another language spoken, we involuntarily attempt to form the sounds into words with which we are more familiar and conversant"it was thus, for example, that the Germans modified the spoken word ARCUBALISTA into ARMBRUST (cross-bow). Our senses are also hostile and averse to the new; and generally, even in the "simplest" processes of sensation, the emotions DOMINATE"such as fear, love, hatred, and the passive emotion of indolence."As little as a reader nowadays reads all the single words (not to speak of syllables) of a page"he rather takes about five out of every twenty words at random, and "guesses" the probably appropriate sense to them"just as little do we see a tree correctly and completely in respect to its leaves, branches, colour, and shape; we find it so much easier to fancy the chance of a tree. Even in the midst of the most remarkable experiences, we still do just the same; we fabricate the greater part of the experience, and can hardly be made to contemplate any event, EXCEPT as "inventors" thereof. All this goes to prove that from our fundamental nature and from remote ages we have been"ACCUSTOMED TO LYING.

cognizance - Erkennen; Erkenntnis

premature - frühreif; vorzeitig, verfrüht

divergence - Abweichung; Divergenz

novelty - Neuheit, Neuartigkeit, neues Produkt, Krimskrams

involuntarily - unfreiwillig

conversant - vertraut

modified - geändert; ändern, abändern, modifizieren

averse - abgeneigt

passive - passiv; leidend, leidentlich, passivisch, unterwürfig, Passiv

indolence - Indolenz

syllables - Silben; Silbe

random - Rando; zufällig; Durchschnitts-; random

fabricate - fabrizieren, erzeugen, herstellen

contemplate - nachdenken; nachsinnen

inventors - Erfinder, Erfinderin

Or, to express it more politely and hypocritically, in short, more pleasantly"one is much more of an artist than one is aware of."In an animated conversation, I often see the face of the person with whom I am speaking so clearly and sharply defined before me, according to the thought he expresses, or which I believe to be evoked in his mind, that the degree of distinctness far exceeds the STRENGTH of my visual faculty"the delicacy of the play of the muscles and of the expression of the eyes MUST therefore be imagined by me. Probably the person put on quite a different expression, or none at all.

politely - höflich

hypocritically - heuchlerisch

pleasantly - angenehme, angenehm

animated - animiert; lebendig, beseelt, bewegt, lebhaft, belebt, beleben

sharply - scharf, scharfzüngig, spitzzüngig

evoked - evoziert; hervorrufen

distinctness - Unterscheidbarkeit; Deutlichkeit

exceeds - übersteigt; überschreiten, hinausgehen über, übertreffen

visual - sichtbar; visuell

delicacy - Feinheit, Zartheit, Delikatesse, Leckerbissen, Köstlichkeit

193. Quidquid luce fuit, tenebris agit: but also contrariwise. What we experience in dreams, provided we experience it often, pertains at last just as much to the general belongings of our soul as anything "actually" experienced; by virtue thereof we are richer or poorer, we have a requirement more or less, and finally, in broad daylight, and even in the brightest moments of our waking life, we are ruled to some extent by the nature of our dreams. Supposing that someone has often flown in his dreams, and that at last, as soon as he dreams, he is conscious of the power and art of flying as his privilege and his peculiarly enviable happiness; such a person, who believes that on the slightest impulse, he can actualize all sorts of curves and angles, who knows the sensation of a certain divine levity, an "upwards" without effort or constraint, a "downwards" without descending or lowering"without TROUBLE!

luce - (ausgewachsener) Hecht

agit - aufregen

belongings - Hab und Gut; gehörend, zugehörig

requirement - Anforderung

broad - breit, deutliche, großräumig

daylight - Tageslicht; Tag

peculiarly - eigentümlich

enviable - beneidenswert

slightest - das Geringste; geringfügig, leicht, gering, unbedeutend, wenig

actualize - aktualisieren; realisieren, verwirklichen, sich verwirklichen

curves - Kurve, Kurve, Linie, Kurven, biegen, verbiegen

angles - Winkeln; Angel

levity - Lockerheit, Unbeschwertheit, Ungezwungenheit, Leichtfertigkeit

descending - absteigend; absteigen, niedergehen, herunterkommen, herabsteigen

lowering - Senken; Abbau (von Kosten)

how could the man with such dream-experiences and dream-habits fail to find "happiness" differently coloured and defined, even in his waking hours! How could he fail"to long DIFFERENTLY for happiness? "Flight," such as is described by poets, must, when compared with his own "flying," be far too earthly, muscular, violent, far too "troublesome" for him.

troublesome - lästig

194. The difference among men does not manifest itself only in the difference of their lists of desirable things"in their regarding different good things as worth striving for, and being disagreed as to the greater or less value, the order of rank, of the commonly recognized desirable things:"it manifests itself much more in what they regard as actually HAVING and POSSESSING a desirable thing. As regards a woman, for instance, the control over her body and her sexual gratification serves as an amply sufficient sign of ownership and possession to the more modest man; another with a more suspicious and ambitious thirst for possession, sees the "questionableness," the mere apparentness of such ownership, and wishes to have finer tests in order to know especially whether the woman not only gives herself to him, but also gives up for his sake what she has or would like to have"only THEN does he look upon her as "possessed." A third, however, has not even here got to the limit of his distrust and his desire for possession: he asks himself whether the woman, when she gives up everything for him, does not perhaps do so for a phantom of him; he wishes first to be thoroughly, indeed, profoundly well known; in order to be loved at all he ventures to let himself be found out. Only then does he feel the beloved one fully in his possession, when she no longer deceives herself about him, when she loves him just as much for the sake of his devilry and concealed insatiability, as for his goodness, patience, and spirituality. One man would like to possess a nation, and he finds all the higher arts of Cagliostro and Catalina suitable for his purpose. Another, with a more refined thirst for possession, says to himself: "One may not deceive where one desires to possess""he is irritated and impatient at the idea that a mask of him should rule in the hearts of the people: "I must, therefore, MAKE myself known, and first of all learn to know myself!" Among helpful and charitable people, one almost always finds the awkward craftiness which first gets up suitably him who has to be helped, as though, for instance, he should "merit" help, seek just THEIR help, and would show himself deeply grateful, attached, and subservient to them for all help.

manifest - manifest; Ladungsliste; Manifest; manifestieren

desirable - erwünscht; wünschenswert

regarding - bezüglich; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

striving - bestrebend, strebsam, strebend; (strive) bestrebend, strebsam

commonly - allgemein; gewöhnlich

possessing - zu besitzen; Schutzpolizeiaufgebote

gratification - Befriedigung

amply - reichlich

ownership - Eigentum; Verantwortung

more suspicious - argwöhnischere

apparentness - Offensichtlichkeit; Offenbarung

phantom - Gespenst; Phantom

fully - vollständig; völlig

deceives - täuscht; betrügen, täuschen

insatiability - Unersättlichkeit

irritated - gereizt; reizen, irritieren, ärgern

impatient - ungeduldig

merit - Verdienst

subservient - unterwürfig; dienstbar

With these conceits, they take control of the needy as a property, just as in general they are charitable and helpful out of a desire for property. One finds them jealous when they are crossed or forestalled in their charity. Parents involuntarily make something like themselves out of their children"they call that "education"; no mother doubts at the bottom of her heart that the child she has borne is thereby her property, no father hesitates about his right to HIS OWN ideas and notions of worth. Indeed, in former times fathers deemed it right to use their discretion concerning the life or death of the newly born (as among the ancient Germans). And like the father, so also do the teacher, the class, the priest, and the prince still see in every new individual an unobjectionable opportunity for a new possession. The consequence is...

conceits - Einbildungen; Eingebung, Einbildung, Konzept

needy - bedürftig

forestalled - vorgebeugt; verhindern

hesitates - zögert; zögern, zögern, stammeln

deemed - als; halten, erachten, erachten, ansehen

discretion - Diskretion, Takt, Verschwiegenheit, Angemessenheit

newly - neu

unobjectionable - unbedenklich

195. The Jews"a people "born for slavery," as Tacitus and the whole ancient world say of them; "the chosen people among the nations," as they themselves say and believe"the Jews performed the miracle of the inversion of valuations, by means of which life on earth obtained a new and dangerous charm for a couple of millenniums. Their prophets fused into one the expressions "rich," "godless," "wicked," "violent," "sensual," and for the first time coined the word "world" as a term of reproach.

obtained - erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

prophets - Propheten; Prophet, Prophetin, Prophet, Prophetin

godless - gottlos, unreligiös, nicht gottgläubig

sensual - sinnlich, lustvoll

In this inversion of valuations (in which is also included the use of the word "poor" as synonymous with "saint" and "friend") the significance of the Jewish people is to be found; it is with THEM that the SLAVE-INSURRECTION IN MORALS commences.

synonymous - bedeutungsgleich, gleichbedeutend, synonym, synonymisch

196. It is to be INFERRED that there are countless dark bodies near the sun"such as we shall never see. Among ourselves, this is an allegory; and the psychologist of morals reads the whole star-writing merely as an allegorical and symbolic language in which much may be unexpressed.

countless - unzählige; unzählig, unzählbar, zahllos

allegory - Allegorie, Sinnbild, Allegorik

allegorical - allegorisch

symbolic - symbolisch, symbolträchtig

unexpressed - unausgesprochen

197. The beast of prey and the man of prey (for instance, Caesar Borgia) are fundamentally misunderstood, "nature" is misunderstood, so long as one seeks a "morbidness" in the constitution of these healthiest of all tropical monsters and growths, or even an innate "hell" in them"as almost all moralists have done hitherto. Does it not seem that there is a hatred of the virgin forest and of the tropics among moralists?

beast - Tier, Bestie, Unmensch, Biest

prey - Beute; lauern, auflauern

Caesar - Cäsar, Caesar, Zäsar, Kaiser

morbidness - Morbidität; Krankhaftigkeiten

hell - Hölle

tropics - Tropen; Wendekreis, tropisch

And that the "tropical man" must be discredited at all costs, whether as disease and deterioration of mankind, or as his own hell and self-torture? And why? In favour of the "temperate zones"? In favour of the temperate men? The "moral"? The mediocre?"This for the chapter: "Morals as Timidity."

discredited - diskreditiert; in Misskredit bringen

temperate - gemäßigt; zurückhaltend

zones - Bereich, Distrikt, Eingabefeld

198. All the systems of morals which address themselves with a view to their "happiness," as it is called"what else are they but suggestions for behaviour adapted to the degree of DANGER from themselves in which the individuals live; recipes for their passions, their good and bad propensities, insofar as such have the Will to Power and would like to play the master; small and great expediencies and elaborations, permeated with the musty odour of old family medicines and old-wife wisdom; all of them grotesque and absurd in their form"because they address themselves to "all," because they generalize where generalization is not authorized; all of them speaking unconditionally, and taking themselves unconditionally; all of them flavoured not merely with one grain of salt, but rather endurable only, and sometimes even seductive, when they are over-spiced and begin to smell dangerously, especially of "the other world." That is all of little value when estimated intellectually, and is far from being "science," much less "wisdom"; but, repeated once more, and three times repeated, it is expediency, expediency, expediency, mixed with stupidity, stupidity, stupidity"whether it be the indifference and statuesque coldness towards the heated folly of the emotions, which the Stoics advised and fostered; or the no-more-laughing and no-more-weeping of Spinoza, the destruction of the emotions by their analysis and vivisection, which he recommended so naively; or the lowering of the emotions to an innocent mean at which they may be satisfied, the Aristotelianism of morals; or even morality as the enjoyment of the emotions in a voluntary attenuation and spiritualization by the symbolism of art, perhaps as music, or as love of God, and of mankind For God's sake"for in religion the passions are once more enfranchised, provided that.

propensities - Neigungen; Neigung, Tendenz

insofar - inwieweit

expediencies - Zweckmäßigkeiten; Zweckmäßigkeit, Zweckdienlichkeit

elaborations - Ausarbeitungen; Ausarbeitung, Elaboration

permeated - durchdrungen; durchsickern, durchdringen, verbreiten

musty - miefig, muffig

grotesque - grotesk

generalize - generalisieren, pauschalisieren, verallgemeinern

authorized - berechtigt; autorisieren, berechtigen, befugen, ermächtigen

unconditionally - bedingungslos

flavoured - aromatisiert; Geschmack, Aroma, Sorte

spiced - gewürzt; würzen; Gewürz

dangerously - Gefährlich

estimated - geschätzt; Schätzung, Abschätzung, Kostenvoranschlag

intellectually - intellektuell

expediency - Zweckmäßigkeit, Zweckdienlichkeit, Opportunität

statuesque - statuesk

coldness - Kälte

weeping - weinen; .; (weep) weinen

vivisection - Vivisektion

Aristotelianism - Aristotelismus

attenuation - Verminderung; Attenuation, Dämpfung, Attenuierung, Abschwächung

spiritualization - Vergeistigung

symbolism - Symbolik

For God's sake - Um Gottes willen!

enfranchised - entmündigt; befreien

.; or, finally, even the complaisant and wanton surrender to the emotions, as has been taught by Hafis and Goethe, the bold letting-go of the reins, the spiritual and corporeal licentia morum in the exceptional cases of wise old codgers and drunkards, with whom it "no longer has much danger.""This also for the chapter: "Morals as Timidity."

complaisant - selbstgefällig

bold - kräftig, kühn, klar, keck, heftig, deutlich, fett

reins - Zügel

corporeal - leibhaftig

codgers - Dorftrottel; Kauz

drunkards - Trunkenbolde; Säufer, Trunkenbold, Trinker (Säufer)

199. Inasmuch as in all ages, as long as mankind has existed, there have also been human herds (family alliances, communities, tribes, peoples, states, churches), and always a great number who obey in proportion to the small number who command"in view, therefore, of the fact that obedience has been most practiced and fostered among mankind hitherto, one may reasonably suppose that, generally speaking, the need thereof is now innate in every one, as a kind of FORMAL CONSCIENCE which gives the command "Thou shalt unconditionally do something, unconditionally refrain from something", in short, "Thou shalt". This need tries to satisfy itself and to fill its form with a content, according to its strength, impatience, and eagerness, it at once seizes as an omnivorous appetite with little selection, and accepts whatever is shouted into its ear by all sorts of commanders"parents, teachers, laws, class prejudices, or public opinion. The extraordinary limitation of human development, the hesitation, protractedness, frequent retrogression, and turning thereof, is attributable to the fact that the herd-instinct of obedience is transmitted best, and at the cost of the art of command. If one imagine this instinct increasing to its greatest extent, commanders and independent individuals will finally be lacking altogether, or they will suffer inwardly from a bad conscience, and will have to impose a deception on themselves in the first place in order to be able to command just as if they also were only obeying. This condition of things actually exists in Europe at present"I call it the moral hypocrisy of the commanding class.

herds - Herden; Herde

alliances - Allianzen; Allianz, Zusammenschluss, Verbund, Bund, Bündnis

tribes - Stämme; Stamm, Volksstamm, Sippe, Volk

refrain - zurückhalten; Refrain, Kehrreim

satisfy - befriedigen, zufriedenstellen

content - Inhalt; (to be content with) sich mit etwas begnügen

Impatience - Ungeduld

seizes - ergreift; ergreifen, fassen, greifen, packen, ergreifen

omnivorous - Allesfresser

appetite - Appetit; Begierde, Lust

selection - Anwahl, Auswahl

commanders - Kommandeure; Befehlshaber, Kommandant, Kommandeur, Kommandör

limitation - Einschränkung; Limitieren, Limitierung, Begrenzen, Begrenzung

hesitation - Zögern

protractedness - Langwierigkeit

retrogression - Rückschritt

attributable - zurechenbar

transmitted - übermitteln, senden (1), de

be lacking - fehlen

inwardly - innerlich

impose - aufdrängen; auferlegen, aufzwingen

hypocrisy - Heuchelei, Scheinheiligkeit, Hypokrisie, Doppelmoral

They know no other way of protecting themselves from their bad conscience than by playing the role of executors of older and higher orders (of predecessors, of the constitution, of justice, of the law, or of God himself), or they even justify themselves by maxims from the current opinions of the herd, as "first servants of their people," or "instruments of the public weal". On the other hand, the gregarious European man nowadays assumes an air as if he were the only kind of man that is allowable, he glorifies his qualities, such as public spirit, kindness, deference, industry, temperance, modesty, indulgence, sympathy, by virtue of which he is gentle, endurable, and useful to the herd, as the peculiarly human virtues. In cases, however, where it is believed that the leader and bell-wether cannot be dispensed with, attempt after attempt is made nowadays to replace commanders by the summing together of clever gregarious men all representative constitutions, for example, are of this origin. In spite of all, what a blessing, what a deliverance from a weight becoming unendurable, is the appearance of an absolute ruler for these gregarious Europeans"of this fact the effect of the appearance of Napoleon was the last great proof the history of the influence of Napoleon is almost the history of the higher happiness to which the entire century has attained in its worthiest individuals and periods.

executors - Testamentsvollstrecker, Testamentsvollstreckerin

predecessors - Vorgängerinnen und Vorgänger; Vorgänger, Vorgängerin, Vorläufer

maxims - Maximen; Grundsatz, Sprichwort, Lebensweisheit

public weal - Staatswohl

glorifies - verherrlicht; verherrlichen, glorifizieren, verklären, anbeten

temperance - Mäßigung, Enthaltsamkeit, Mäßigkeit im Alkoholgenuss, Temperenz

modesty - Bescheidenheit; Sittsamkeit

indulgence - Ablasshandel; Nachgiebigkeit, Nachsicht, Milde, Nachsichtigkeit

dispensed - ausgeteilt; ausgeben, austeilen, verteilen, dosieren

summing - summierend, resümierend; (sum) summierend, resümierend

representative - repräsentativ; Repräsentant, Repräsentantin, Vertreter

constitutions - Verfassungen; Verfassen

deliverance - Auslieferung, Abgabe, Erlösung, Befreiung

unendurable - unerträglich

ruler - Lineal; Herrscher

worthiest - am würdigsten; würdig

200. The man of an age of dissolution which mixes the races with one another, who has the inheritance of a diversified descent in his body"that is to say, contrary, and often not only contrary, instincts and standards of value, which struggle with one another and are seldom at peace"such a man of late culture and broken lights, will, on an average, be a weak man. His fundamental desire is that the war which is IN HIM should come to an end; happiness appears to him in the character of a soothing medicine and mode of thought (for instance, Epicurean or Christian); it is above all things the happiness of repose, of undisturbedness, of repletion, of final unity"it is the "Sabbath of Sabbaths," to use the expression of the holy rhetorician, St. Augustine, who was himself such a man."Should, however, the contrariety and conflict in such natures operate as an ADDITIONAL incentive and stimulus to life"and if, on the other hand, in addition to their powerful and irreconcilable instincts, they have also inherited and indoctrinated into them a proper mastery and subtlety for carrying on the conflict with themselves (that is to say, the faculty of self-control and self-deception), there then arise those marvelously incomprehensible and inexplicable beings, those enigmatical men, predestined for conquering and circumventing others, the finest examples of which are Alcibiades and Caesar (with whom I should like to associate the FIRST of Europeans according to my taste, the Hohenstaufen, Frederick the Second), and among artists, perhaps Leonardo da Vinci.

dissolution - Auflösung

inheritance - Vererbung; Erbschaft; Erbe, Erbteil

descent - Abstieg, Runterweg, Herkunft, Abstammung, Verschlechterung

soothing - erleichternd, lindernd, beruhigend; (sooth); Wahrheit

repose - ruhen

undisturbedness - Ungestörtheit

repletion - Sättigung; Fülle

Sabbaths - Sabbate; Sabbat, Schabbat, Schabbes, Sonntag, Hexensabbat

rhetorician - Rhetoriker; Schönredner

contrariety - Widersprüchlichkeit; Widerspruch, Widrigkeit

conflict - Konflikt, Streit, Gegensatz, Inkompatibilität

incentive - Anreiz, Ansporn, Incentive, Bonus

stimulus - Anreiz; Auslöseimpuls; Stimulus

irreconcilable - unversöhnlich, unvereinbar, unverträglich

inherited - geerbt; erben, übernehmen, erben, erben, vererben

indoctrinated - indoktriniert; indoktrinieren

arise - sich erheben, aufstehen, entstehen, auftreten, erwachsen

marvelously - Wunderbar

incomprehensible - unverständlich

inexplicable - unerklärlich

enigmatical - rätselhaft

circumventing - Umgehung; umgehen, umlagern, ausmanövrieren

associate - Mitarbeiterin; Weggefährte; vereinigen

They appear precisely in the same periods when that weaker type, with its longing for repose, comes to the front; the two types are complementary to each other, and spring from the same causes.

spring from - herrühren von

201. As long as the utility which determines moral estimates is only gregarious utility, as long as the preservation of the community is only kept in view, and the immoral is sought precisely and exclusively in what seems dangerous to the maintenance of the community, there can be no "morality of love to one's neighbour." Granted even that there is already a little constant exercise of consideration, sympathy, fairness, gentleness, and mutual assistance, granted that even in this condition of society all those instincts are already active which are latterly distinguished by honourable names as "virtues," and eventually almost coincide with the conception "morality": in that period they do not as yet belong to the domain of moral valuations"they are still ULTRA-MORAL. A sympathetic action, for instance, is neither called good nor bad, moral nor immoral, in the best period of the Romans; and should it be praised, a sort of resentful disdain is compatible with this praise, even at the best, directly the sympathetic action is compared with one which contributes to the welfare of the whole, to the RES PUBLICA. After all, "love to our neighbour" is always a secondary matter, partly conventional and arbitrarily manifested in relation to our FEAR OF OUR NEIGHBOUR. After the fabric of society seems on the whole established and secured against external dangers, it is this fear of our neighbour which again creates new perspectives of moral valuation. Certain strong and dangerous instincts, such as the love of enterprise, foolhardiness, revengefulness, astuteness, rapacity, and love of power, which up till then had not only to be honoured from the point of view of general utility"under other names, of course, than those here given"but had to be fostered and cultivated (because they were perpetually required in the common danger against the common enemies), are now felt in their dangerousness to be doubly strong"when the outlets for them are lacking"and are gradually branded as immoral and given over to calumny. The contrary instincts and inclinations now attain to moral honour, the gregarious instinct gradually draws its conclusions. How much or how little dangerousness to the community or to equality is contained in an opinion, a condition, an emotion, a disposition, or an endowment"that is now the moral perspective, here again fear is the mother of morals.

gentleness - Sanftheit; Sanftmut

assistance - Unterstützung; Hilfe

latterly - in letzter Zeit; neuerdings, letzthin

coincide - zusammenfallen; übereinstimmen

sympathetic - sympathisch; mitfühlend

Romans - Die Römer; Römer; röm. römisch, römisch

Praised - Gelobt; Lob

resentful - nachtragend

compatible - austauschbar, fähig, kompatibel, verträglich

contributes - beiträgt; beisteuern, beitragen

welfare - Wohlergehen, Wohlfahrt, Sozialhilfe

partly - teilweise, zum Teil

manifested - manifestiert; manifest, Ladungsliste, Manifest, manifestieren

fabric - Stoff; Bau, Rohbau, Struktur, Gewebe, Textil

established - etabliert; feststellen, etablieren, eröffnen, gründen

foolhardiness - Tollkühnheit

revengefulness - Rachsucht

astuteness - Gerissenheit, Scharfsinn, Scharsinnigkeit

rapacity - Raubgier

till then - bis dahin, bis nachher

cultivated - kultiviert; kultivieren, anbauen, kultivieren, pflegen

outlets - Steckdosen; Ausgang, Auslass, Direktverkauf, Werksverkauf

calumny - Verleumdung; Rufmord, verleumden

disposition - Neigung, Gesinnung, Hang, Veranlagung, Einteilung

Endowment - Gabe, Begabung, Dotierung, Talent

It is by the loftiest and strongest instincts, when they break out passionately and carry the individual far above and beyond the average, and the low level of the gregarious conscience, that the self-reliance of the community is destroyed, its belief in itself, its backbone, as it were, breaks, consequently these very instincts will be most branded and defamed. The lofty independent spirituality, the will to stand alone, and even the cogent reason, are felt to be dangers, everything that elevates the individual above the herd, and is a source of fear to the neighbour, is henceforth called EVIL, the tolerant, unassuming, self-adapting, self-equalizing disposition, the MEDIOCRITY of desires, attains to moral distinction and honour. Finally, under very peaceful circumstances, there is always less opportunity and necessity for training the feelings to severity and rigour, and now every form of severity, even in justice, begins to disturb the conscience, a lofty and rigorous nobleness and self-responsibility almost offends, and awakens distrust, "the lamb," and still more "the sheep," wins respect. There is a point of diseased mellowness and effeminacy in the history of society, at which society itself takes the part of him who injures it, the part of the CRIMINAL, and does so, in fact, seriously and honestly. To punish, appears to it to be somehow unfair"it is certain that the idea of "punishment" and "the obligation to punish" are then painful and alarming to people. "Is it not sufficient if the criminal be rendered HARMLESS? Why should we still punish? Punishment itself is terrible!""with these questions gregarious morality, the morality of fear, draws its ultimate conclusion. If one could at all do away with danger, the cause of fear, one would have done away with this morality at the same time, it would no longer be necessary, it WOULD NOT CONSIDER ITSELF any longer necessary!"Whoever examines the conscience of the present-day European, will always elicit the same imperative from its thousand moral folds and hidden recesses, the imperative of the timidity of the herd "we wish that some time or other there may be NOTHING MORE TO FEAR!" Some time or other"the will and the way THERETO is nowadays called "progress" all over Europe.

loftiest - am höchsten; hoch, qualifier

reliance - Verlass, Vertrauen, Abhängigkeit, Vertrauende, Abhängige

backbone - Rückgrat, Wirbelsäule

defamed - verleumdet; diffamieren, diffamieren

stand alone - einzig dastehen, einzigartig sein

cogent - überzeugend, schlagend, stichhaltig

elevates - erhebt; erhöhen, anheben, erhöhen

adapting - anpassen, angleichen, anwenden, einrichten, anpassen

equalizing - ausgleichend; ausgleichen, ausgleichen

mediocrity - Mittelmäßigkeit, Mittelmaß

rigour - Härte, Strenge

disturb - stören

nobleness - Edelmut; Adel

awakens - erwacht; aufwecken, wecken, aufwachen, erwachen, wach werden

lamb - Lamm, Lammfleisch

mellowness - Sanftheit; Weichheit

effeminacy - Weichlichkeit, Verweiblichung

elicit - hervorlocken, hervorrufen, auslösen, erzeugen, herauslocken

recesses - Pausen; Vertiefung, Winkel, Aushöhlung, qualifier

202. Let us at once say again what we have already said a hundred times, for people's ears nowadays are unwilling to hear such truths"OUR truths. We know well enough how offensive it sounds when any one plainly, and without metaphor, counts man among the animals, but it will be accounted to us almost a CRIME, that it is precisely in respect to men of "modern ideas" that we have constantly applied the terms "herd," "herd-instincts," and such like expressions. What avail is it? We cannot do otherwise, for it is precisely here that our new insight is. We have found that in all the principal moral judgments, Europe has become unanimous, including likewise the countries where European influence prevails in Europe people evidently KNOW what Socrates thought he did not know, and what the famous serpent of old once promised to teach"they "know" today what is good and evil. It must then sound hard and be distasteful to the ear, when we always insist that that which here thinks it knows, that which here glorifies itself with praise and blame, and calls itself good, is the instinct of the herding human animal, the instinct which has come and is ever coming more and more to the front, to preponderance and supremacy over other instincts, according to the increasing physiological approximation and resemblance of which it is the symptom. MORALITY IN EUROPE AT PRESENT IS HERDING-ANIMAL MORALITY, and therefore, as we understand the matter, only one kind of human morality, beside which, before which, and after which many other moralities, and above all HIGHER moralities, are or should be possible. Against such a "possibility," against such a "should be," however, this morality defends itself with all its strength, it says obstinately and inexorably "I am morality itself and nothing else is morality!" Indeed, with the help of a religion which has humoured and flattered the sublimest desires of the herding-animal, things have reached such a point that we always find a more visible expression of this morality even in political and social arrangements: the DEMOCRATIC movement is the inheritance of the Christian movement.

avail - zur Verfügung; ausnutzen; helfen, nützen, Erfolg

unanimous - einstimmig

prevails - vorherrscht; erman: die Vorherrschaft erringen (''over'' über)

serpent - Schlange, Serpent

distasteful - geschmacklos

herding - Hüten; Herde

preponderance - Vorherrschaft; Präponderanz, Überlegenheit, Übergewichtigkeit

approximation - Annäherung; Approximieren; Approximation

moralities - Moralvorstellungen; Moral, Moralität, Moral

defends - verteidigt; verteidigen

obstinately - hartnäckig

inexorably - unaufhaltsam

humoured - belustigt; Humor, Laune, Humor, Stimmung, Körpersaft, Saft

flattered - geschmeichelt; schmeicheln

sublimest - am sublimsten; sublimierens, erhaben

visible - sichtbar

That its TEMPO, however, is much too slow and sleepy for the more impatient ones, for those who are sick and distracted by the herding-instinct, is indicated by the increasingly furious howling, and always less disguised teeth-gnashing of the anarchist dogs, who are now roving through the highways of European culture. Apparently in opposition to the peacefully industrious democrats and Revolution-ideologues, and still more so to the awkward philosophasters and fraternity-visionaries who call themselves Socialists and want a "free society," those are really at one with them all in their thorough and instinctive hostility to every form of society other than that of the AUTONOMOUS herd (to the extent even of repudiating the notions "master" and "servant""ni dieu ni maitre, says a socialist formula); at one in their tenacious opposition to every special claim, every special right and privilege (this means ultimately opposition to EVERY right, for when all are equal, no one needs "rights" any longer); at one in their distrust of punitive justice (as though it were a violation of the weak, unfair to the NECESSARY consequences of all former society); but equally at one in their religion of sympathy, in their compassion for all that feels, lives, and suffers (down to the very animals, up even to "God""the extravagance of "sympathy for God" belongs to a democratic age); altogether at one in the cry and impatience of their sympathy, in their deadly hatred of suffering generally, in their almost feminine incapacity for witnessing it or ALLOWING it; at one in their involuntary beglooming and heart-softening, under the spell of which Europe seems to be threatened with a new Buddhism; at one in their belief in the morality of MUTUAL sympathy, as though it were morality in itself, the climax, the ATTAINED climax of mankind, the sole hope of the future, the consolation of the present, the great discharge from all the obligations of the past; altogether at one in their belief in the community as the DELIVERER, in the herd, and therefore in "themselves."

sleepy - schläfrig; verschlafen

more impatient - ungeduldigere

increasingly - zunehmend

furious - wütend, erbost, furios

howling - brüllen, heulen, niederschreien; (howl); Heulen, jaulen

gnashing - knirschen

anarchist - Anarchist, Anarchistin

roving - Umherstreifen; umherschweifend; (rove) Umherstreifen; umherschweifend

highways - Autobahnen; Hauptstraße, Chaussee

peacefully - friedlich

ideologues - Ideologen; Ideologe, Ideologin

Fraternity - Bruderschaft; Gemeinschaft, Vereinigung, Verbindung

visionaries - Visionäre; visionär, unwirklich, seherisch, hellseherisch

Socialists - Sozialisten; sozialistisch, Sozialist, Sozialistin

repudiating - Ablehnen; verleugnen (sb./sth.), abstreiten, leugnen

tenacious - hartnäckig

compassion - Mitleid, Erbarmen, Mitgefühl

extravagance - Extravaganz; Ăśberspanntheit

deadly - tödlich

witnessing - Zeugenschaft; Zeugnis

threatened - bedroht; drohen, bedrohen, bedrohen, androhen

obligations - Verpflichtungen; Verpflichtung, Pflicht, Verpflichtung

deliverer - Zusteller; Befreier

203. We, who hold a different belief"we, who regard the democratic movement, not only as a degenerating form of political organization, but as equivalent to a degenerating, a waning type of man, as involving his mediocrising and depreciation: where have WE to fix our hopes? In NEW PHILOSOPHERS"there is no other alternative: in minds strong and original enough to initiate opposite estimates of value, to transvalue and invert "eternal valuations"; in forerunners, in men of the future, who in the present shall fix the constraints and fasten the knots which will compel millenniums to take NEW paths. To teach man the future of humanity as his WILL, as depending on human will, and to make preparation for vast hazardous enterprises and collective attempts in rearing and educating, in order thereby to put an end to the frightful rule of folly and chance which has hitherto gone by the name of "history" (the folly of the "greatest number" is only its last form)"for that purpose a new type of philosopher and commander will some time or other be needed, at the very idea of which everything that has existed in the way of occult, terrible, and benevolent beings might look pale and dwarfed. The image of such leaders hovers before OUR eyes:"is it lawful for me to say it aloud, ye free spirits? The conditions which one would partly have to create and partly utilize for their genesis; the presumptive methods and tests by virtue of which a soul should grow up to such an elevation and power as to feel a CONSTRAINT to these tasks; a transvaluation of values, under the new pressure and hammer of which a conscience should be steeled and a heart transformed into brass, so as to bear the weight of such responsibility; and on the other hand the necessity for such leaders, the dreadful danger that they might be lacking, or miscarry and degenerate:"these are OUR real anxieties and glooms, ye know it well, ye free spirits!

equivalent - gleichwertig, entsprechend, äquivalent, Entsprechung, Äquivalent

waning - (wane) abnehmen, abflauen, schwinden; (wan) (wane) abnehmen

mediocrising - mittelmäßig

depreciation - Abschreibung; Minderung des Wertes, Wertminderung

initiate - einleiten; Eingeweihter, Eingeweihte, Initiierter, Initiierte

transvalue - Transwert

constraints - Zwänge; Einschränkung, Beschränkung, Restriktion, Zwang, Hemmnis

knots - Knoten, Knäuel

compel - zwingen, nötigen

enterprises - Unternehmen

frightful - schrecklich

occult - okkult; Okkult, Okkultismus

benevolent - wohlwollend; altruistisch

hovers - schwebt; rütteln, verweilen, zögern, bewegen

utilize - anwenden, nutzen, ausbeuten, nutzbar machen

presumptive - mutmaßlich

steeled - gestärkt; verstählen; Stahl

transformed - verwandelt; verwandeln, transformieren, umwandeln

brass - Messingschild

miscarry - eine Fehlgeburt haben; misslingen

anxieties - Ängste; Besorgnis, Angst, Sorge, Angst

glooms - Düsternis, Dunkelheit, Trübnis, Schwermut, Melancholie

these are the heavy distant thoughts and storms which sweep across the heaven of OUR life. There are few pains so grievous as to have seen, divined, or experienced how an exceptional man has missed his way and deteriorated; but he who has the rare eye for the universal danger of "man" himself DETERIORATING, he who like us has recognized the extraordinary fortuitousness which has hitherto played its game in respect to the future of mankind"a game in which neither the hand, nor even a "finger of God" has participated!"he who divines the fate that is hidden under the idiotic unwariness and blind confidence of "modern ideas," and still more under the whole of Christo-European morality"suffers from an anguish with which no other is to be compared. He sees at a glance all that could still BE MADE OUT OF MAN through a favourable accumulation and augmentation of human powers and arrangements; he knows with all the knowledge of his conviction how unexhausted man still is for the greatest possibilities, and how often in the past the type man has stood in presence of mysterious decisions and new paths:"he knows still better from his painfulest recollections on what wretched obstacles promising developments of the highest rank have hitherto usually gone to pieces, broken down, sunk, and become contemptible. The UNIVERSAL DEGENERACY OF MANKIND to the level of the "man of the future""as idealized by the socialistic fools and shallow-pates"this degeneracy and dwarfing of man to an absolutely gregarious animal (or as they call it, to a man of "free society"), this brutalizing of man into a pigmy with equal rights and claims, is undoubtedly POSSIBLE! He who has thought out this possibility to its ultimate conclusion knows ANOTHER loathing unknown to the rest of mankind"and perhaps also a new MISSION!

distant - weit entfernt; abgelegen, abstehend, distanziert, entfernt

sweep - fegen, kehren, rauschen, auf den Kopf stellen, fahren

grievous - schmerzlich; ernst, ernsthaft, schwerwiegend

deteriorating - verschlechtern, verschlechtern, sich verschlechtern

fortuitousness - Zufälligkeit

idiotic - idiotisch, blöd

unwariness - Unvorsichtigkeit; Unachtsamkeit

blind confidence - Vertrauensseligkeit

anguish - Ängste; Pein, Angst, Qual

accumulation - Anhäufung; Konkurrenz

augmentation - Vergrößerung

painfulest - am schmerzhaftesten

recollections - Erinnern Sie sich; Erinnerung

contemptible - verachtenswürdig, verachtenswert

degeneracy - Entartung

idealized - idealisiert; idealisieren, idealisieren

fools - Dummköpfe; dumme Gans, Dummkopf, Narr, Närrin, Pute, Narr

shallow - flach; q

pates - Pasteten; Kopf

dwarfing - Zwergwuchs; Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwerg

pigmy - Schweinchen; Zwerg


204. At the risk that moralizing may also reveal itself here as that which it has always been"namely, resolutely MONTRER SES PLAIES, according to Balzac"I would venture to protest against an improper and injurious alteration of rank, which quite unnoticed, and as if with the best conscience, threatens nowadays to establish itself in the relations of science and philosophy. I mean to say that one must have the right out of one's own EXPERIENCE"experience, as it seems to me, always implies unfortunate experience?"to treat of such an important question of rank, so as not to speak of colour like the blind, or AGAINST science like women and artists ("Ah! this dreadful science!" sigh their instinct and their shame, "it always FINDS THINGS OUT!"). The declaration of independence of the scientific man, his emancipation from philosophy, is one of the subtler after-effects of democratic organization and disorganization: the self-glorification and self-conceitedness of the learned man is now everywhere in full bloom, and in its best springtime"which does not mean to imply that in this case self-praise smells sweet. Here also the instinct of the populace cries, "Freedom from all masters!" and after science has, with the happiest results, resisted theology, whose "hand-maid" it had been too long, it now proposes in its wantonness and indiscretion to lay down laws for philosophy, and in its turn to play the "master""what am I saying! to play the PHILOSOPHER on its own account. My memory"the memory of a scientific man, if you please!"teems with the naivetes of insolence which I have heard about philosophy and philosophers from young naturalists and old physicians (not to mention the most cultured and most conceited of all learned men, the philologists and schoolmasters, who are both the one and the other by profession). On one occasion it was the specialist and the Jack Horner who instinctively stood on the defensive against all synthetic tasks and capabilities; at another time it was the industrious worker who had got a scent of OTIUM and refined luxuriousness in the internal economy of the philosopher, and felt himself aggrieved and belittled thereby. On another occasion it was the colour-blindness of the utilitarian, who sees nothing in philosophy but a series of REFUTED systems, and an extravagant expenditure which "does nobody any good". At another time the fear of disguised mysticism and of the boundary-adjustment of knowledge became conspicuous, at another time the disregard of individual philosophers, which had involuntarily extended to disregard of philosophy generally. In fine, I found most frequently, behind the proud disdain of philosophy in young scholars, the evil after-effect of some particular philosopher, to whom on the whole obedience had been foresworn, without, however, the spell of his scornful estimates of other philosophers having been got rid of"the result being a general ill-will to all philosophy. (Such seems to me, for instance, the after-effect of Schopenhauer on the most modern Germany: by his unintelligent rage against Hegel, he has succeeded in severing the whole of the last generation of Germans from its connection with German culture, which culture, all things considered, has been an elevation and a divining refinement of the HISTORICAL SENSE, but precisely at this point Schopenhauer himself was poor, irreceptive, and un-German to the extent of ingeniousness.) On the whole, speaking generally, it may just have been the humanness, all-too-humanness of the modern philosophers themselves, in short, their contemptibleness, which has injured most radically the reverence for philosophy and opened the doors to the instinct of the populace.

moralizing - moralisierend; moralisieren

improper - unangemessen

alteration - Abänderung; Änderung, Veränderung

unnoticed - unbemerkt

Threatens - Bedroht; drohen, bedrohen, bedrohen, androhen

establish - feststellen, etablieren, eröffnen, gründen, niederlassen

implies - impliziert; implizieren, zur Folge haben, implizieren, bedeuten

sigh - Seufzen, Seufzer, Säuseln (Wind); säuseln (Wind)

declaration - Erklärung, Deklaration

Emancipation - Emanzipation, Freilassung

subtler - subtiler; subtil, fast unmerklich, haarfein, dezent, feinsinnig

disorganization - Desorganisation

conceitedness - Eingebildetheit; Eitelkeit

bloom - blühen; Blüte, Blütenpracht, Duft

springtime - Frühling

self-praise - (self-praise) Eigenlob

resisted - widerstanden; widerstreben, widerstehen, widerstreiten

maid - Dienstmädchen; Mädchen; Stubenmädchen

proposes - schlägt vor; vorschlagen, einen Heiratsantrag machen

wantonness - Lüsternheit; Ausgelassenheit, Unbeherrschtheit

indiscretion - Indiskretion

teems - wimmelt; wimmeln

insolence - Unverfrorenheit, Frechheit, Unverschämtheit, Dreistigkeit

physicians - Ärzten; Arzt, Ärztin, Mediziner, Medizinerin, Doktor, Doktorin

philologists - Philologen; Philologe, Philologin

schoolmasters - Schulmeister

Jack - Hans, Hanns, Hannes, Hänsel

Horner - (horn) Horn, Hupe, Horn (Hobelgriff); (horn) (horn) Horn, Hupe

defensive - Verteidigungs-, Abwehr-, defensiv, zurückhaltend, abwehrend

capabilities - Fähigkeiten; Fähigkeit

luxuriousness - Luxus; Wohlleben

internal - intern, checkinnerlich, checkinländisch

aggrieved - geschädigt; kränken, verletzen

belittled - verharmlost; schmälern, herunterspielen, herabsetzen

mysticism - Mystik, Mystizismus

boundary - Grenze; Grenzen; Rand

conspicuous - auffallend; auffällig, augenfällig, offensichtlich, sichtbar

extended - erweitert; erweitern, ausdehnen, erweitern, ausdehnen, ausweiten

scornful - verächtlich

ill-will - (ill-will) Groll

severing - Abtrennung; abtrennen, durchtrennen, abbrechen, trennen

German culture - Deutschtum

divining - Wahrsagen; göttlich

irreceptive - irreführend

ingeniousness - Einfallsreichtum; Genialität

humanness - Menschlichkeit

contemptibleness - Verachtenswürdigkeit; Verächtlichkeiten

Let it but be acknowledged to what an extent our modern world diverges from the whole style of the world of Heraclitus, Plato, Empedocles, and whatever else all the royal and magnificent anchorites of the spirit were called, and with what justice an honest man of science MAY feel himself of a better family and origin, in view of such representatives of philosophy, who, owing to the fashion of the present day, are just as much aloft as they are down below"in Germany, for instance, the two lions of Berlin, the anarchist Eugen Duhring and the amalgamist Eduard von Hartmann. It is especially the sight of those hotch-potch philosophers, who call themselves "realists," or "positivists," which is calculated to implant a dangerous distrust in the soul of a young and ambitious scholar those philosophers, at the best, are themselves but scholars and specialists, that is very evident! All of them are persons who have been vanquished and BROUGHT BACK AGAIN under the dominion of science, who at one time or another claimed more from themselves, without having a right to the "more" and its responsibility"and who now, creditably, rancorously, and vindictively, represent in word and deed, DISBELIEF in the master-task and supremacy of philosophy After all, how could it be otherwise? Science flourishes nowadays and has the good conscience clearly visible on its countenance, while that to which the entire modern philosophy has gradually sunk, the remnant of philosophy of the present day, excites distrust and displeasure, if not scorn and pity Philosophy reduced to a "theory of knowledge," no more in fact than a diffident science of epochs and doctrine of forbearance a philosophy that never even gets beyond the threshold, and rigorously DENIES itself the right to enter"that is philosophy in its last throes, an end, an agony, something that awakens pity. How could such a philosophy"RULE!

acknowledged - zur Kenntnis nehmen, erkennen, bekennen, anerkennen

diverges - abweicht; divergieren, auseinandergehen, auseinanderstreben

anchorites - Anglikaner; Anachoret, Eremit, Klausner, Einsiedler

representatives - repräsentativ, Repräsentant, Repräsentantin, Vertreter

Berlin - Berlin

positivists - Positivisten; Positivist, Positivistin, positivistisch

calculated - berechnet; kalkulieren, berechnen, ausrechnen, rechnen

implant - einpflanzen, implantieren, Implantat

specialists - Spezialisten; Spezialist, Spezialistin, Fachmann, Fachfrau

vanquished - besiegt; besiegen

creditably - glaubwürdig

rancorously - rücksichtslos

vindictively - Rachsüchtig

remnant - Rest, Überbleibsel, Relikt, Überrest, Restposten

displeasure - Unzufriedenheit; Unmut, Missfallen, Verdruss

diffident - zurückhaltend

forbearance - Langmut, Geduld, Duldsamkeit, Nachsicht, Unterlassung

rigorously - rigoros

denies - leugnet; leugnen, bestreiten, dementieren

throes - Kämpfe; Agonie

agony - Qualen; Agonie, Qual, Pein, Todeskampf, Freudenausbruch

205. The dangers that beset the evolution of the philosopher are, in fact, so manifold nowadays, that one might doubt whether this fruit could still come to maturity. The extent and towering structure of the sciences have increased enormously, and therewith also the probability that the philosopher will grow tired even as a learner, or will attach himself somewhere and "specialize" so that he will no longer attain to his elevation, that is to say, to his superspection, his circumspection, and his DESPECTION. Or he gets aloft too late, when the best of his maturity and strength is past, or when he is impaired, coarsened, and deteriorated, so that his view, his general estimate of things, is no longer of much importance. It is perhaps just the refinement of his intellectual conscience that makes him hesitate and linger on the way, he dreads the temptation to become a dilettante, a millepede, a milleantenna, he knows too well that as a discerner, one who has lost his self-respect no longer commands, no longer LEADS, unless he should aspire to become a great play-actor, a philosophical Cagliostro and spiritual rat-catcher"in short, a misleader. This is in the last instance a question of taste, if it has not really been a question of conscience.

beset - bedrängt; befallen, bedrängen

evolution - Evolution

probability - Wahrscheinlichkeit

learner - Lerner, Lernerin, Lernender, Lernende

superspection - Superspektion

impaired - beeinträchtigt; beeinträchtigen, schädigen

coarsened - vergröbert; grob machen

hesitate - zögern, stammeln

linger - herumlungern, verzögern, Zeit brauchen, verweilen

dreads - schaudern, grauen, gruseln, grausen

temptation - Versuchung, Verführung

dilettante - Dilettant, Dilettantin, Amateur, Amateurin

millepede - Tausendfüßler

rat - Ratte

catcher - Fänger; Catcher, Catcherin, Fängerin

misleader - Irreführend

To double once more the philosopher's difficulties, there is also the fact that he demands from himself a verdict, a Yea or Nay, not concerning science, but concerning life and the worth of life"he learns unwillingly to believe that it is his right and even his duty to obtain this verdict, and he has to seek his way to the right and the belief only through the most extensive (perhaps disturbing and destroying) experiences, often hesitating, doubting, and dumbfounded. In fact, the philosopher has long been mistaken and confused by the multitude, either with the scientific man and ideal scholar, or with the religiously elevated, desensualized, desecularized visionary and God-intoxicated man; and even yet when one hears anybody praised, because he lives "wisely," or "as a philosopher," it hardly means anything more than "prudently and apart." Wisdom: that seems to the populace to be a kind of flight, a means and artifice for withdrawing successfully from a bad game; but the GENUINE philosopher"does it not seem so to US, my friends?"lives "unphilosophically" and "unwisely," above all, IMPRUDENTLY, and feels the obligation and burden of a hundred attempts and temptations of life"he risks HIMSELF constantly, he plays THIS bad game.

verdict - Gerichtsurteil

extensive - umfangreich

hesitating - zögernd; zögern, zögern, stammeln

dumbfounded - verblüfft; verblüffen

multitude - Vielfältigkeit; Vielzahl, Menge, Menschenmenge, Volk

religiously - religiös

desensualized - desensualisiert

desecularized - desäkularisiert

intoxicated - berauscht; berauschen, vergiften, berauschen

artifice - Kunstgriff

withdrawing - zurückziehen; annullieren, entziehen, abziehen, ausscheiden

unphilosophically - unphilosophisch

unwisely - unklug

imprudently - unvorsichtig

206. In relation to the genius, that is to say, a being who either ENGENDERS or PRODUCES"both words understood in their fullest sense"the man of learning, the scientific average man, has always something of the old maid about him; for, like her, he is not conversant with the two principal functions of man. To both, of course, to the scholar and to the old maid, one concedes respectability, as if by way of indemnification"in these cases one emphasizes the respectability"and yet, in the compulsion of this concession, one has the same admixture of vexation. Let us examine more closely: what is the scientific man? Firstly, a commonplace type of man, with commonplace virtues: that is to say, a non-ruling, non-authoritative, and non-self-sufficient type of man; he possesses industry, patient adaptableness to rank and file, equability and moderation in capacity and requirement; he has the instinct for people like himself, and for that which they require"for instance: the portion of independence and green meadow without which there is no rest from labour, the claim to honour and consideration (which first and foremost presupposes recognition and recognisability), the sunshine of a good name, the perpetual ratification of his value and usefulness, with which the inward DISTRUST which lies at the bottom of the heart of all dependent men and gregarious animals, has again and again to be overcome.

engenders - hervorruft; erzeugen

concedes - einräumt; zugeben, zugestehen, einräumen, zugestehen, zulassen

respectability - Respektabilität; Achtbarkeit

indemnification - Entschädigung; Schadenersatz; Entschädigtsein; Entschädigen

emphasizes - unterstreicht; betonen, unterstreichen, hervorheben

concession - gewährtes Grundstück; Eingeständnis; Einräumen, Zugeständnis

vexation - Verärgerung; Ärger, Störung, Irritation, Ärgernis

closely - dicht, eng, nah, nahe

possesses - besitzt; besitzen, besitzen

adaptableness - Anpassungsfähigkeit

equability - Gleichwertigkeit; Gleichmäßigkeit

moderation - Maßhalten; Mäßigung; Diskussionsleitung

capacity - Kapazität; Befugnis

portion - Anteil; Teil

presupposes - voraussetzt; erfordern, voraussetzen

recognisability - Erkennbarkeit

ratification - Bestätigung; Ratifikation, Ratifizierung

usefulness - Nützlichkeit

dependent - abhängig, angewiesen, Unterhaltsempfänger

The learned man, as is appropriate, has also maladies and faults of an ignoble kind: he is full of petty envy, and has a lynx-eye for the weak points in those natures to whose elevations he cannot attain. He is confiding, yet only as one who lets himself go, but does not FLOW; and precisely before the man of the great current he stands all the colder and more reserved"his eye is then like a smooth and irresponsive lake, which is no longer moved by rapture or sympathy. The worst and most dangerous thing of which a scholar is capable results from the instinct of mediocrity of his type, from the Jesuitism of mediocrity, which labours instinctively for the destruction of the exceptional man, and endeavours to break"or still better, to relax"every bent bow To relax, of course, with consideration, and naturally with an indulgent hand"to RELAX with confiding sympathy that is the real art of Jesuitism, which has always understood how to introduce itself as the religion of sympathy.

maladies - Krankheiten; Krankheit, Übel

faults - Fehlern; Fehler, Schuld, Fehler, Charakterschwäche, Verfehlung

ignoble - unanständig; unedel, gemein

lynx - Luchs

elevations - Erhöhungen; Hebung, Erheben

confiding - vertrauensvoll; vertrauen, einweihen, ins Vertrauen ziehen

more reserved - zurückhaltendere

irresponsive - unempfänglich

capable - fähig

labours - Arbeit, Arbeiter-p, gebären, arbeiten

endeavours - Bestrebungen; sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung

207. However gratefully one may welcome the OBJECTIVE spirit"and who has not been sick to death of all subjectivity and its confounded IPSISIMOSITY!"in the end, however, one must learn caution even with regard to one's gratitude, and put a stop to the exaggeration with which the unselfing and depersonalizing of the spirit has recently been celebrated, as if it were the goal in itself, as if it were salvation and glorification"as is especially accustomed to happen in the pessimist school, which has also in its turn good reasons for paying the highest honours to "disinterested knowledge" The objective man, who no longer curses and scolds like the pessimist, the IDEAL man of learning in whom the scientific instinct blossoms forth fully after a thousand complete and partial failures, is assuredly one of the most costly instruments that exist, but his place is in the hand of one who is more powerful He is only an instrument, we may say, he is a MIRROR"he is no "purpose in himself" The objective man is in truth a mirror accustomed to prostration before everything that wants to be known, with such desires only as knowing or "reflecting" implies"he waits until something comes, and then expands himself sensitively, so that even the light footsteps and gliding-past of spiritual beings may not be lost on his surface and film Whatever "personality" he still possesses seems to him accidental, arbitrary, or still oftener, disturbing, so much has he come to regard himself as the passage and reflection of outside forms and events He calls up the recollection of "himself" with an effort, and not infrequently wrongly, he readily confounds himself with other persons, he makes mistakes with regard to his own needs, and here only is he unrefined and negligent Perhaps he is troubled about the health, or the pettiness and confined atmosphere of wife and friend, or the lack of companions and society"indeed, he sets himself to reflect on his suffering, but in vain! His thoughts already rove away to the MORE GENERAL case, and tomorrow he knows as little as he knew yesterday how to help himself He does not now take himself seriously and devote time to himself he is serene, NOT from lack of trouble, but from lack of capacity for grasping and dealing with HIS trouble The habitual complaisance with respect to all objects and experiences, the radiant and impartial hospitality with which he receives everything that comes his way, his habit of inconsiderate good-nature, of dangerous indifference as to Yea and Nay: alas!

gratefully - dankbar

subjectivity - Subjektivität

confounded - verwirrt; verwirren, verschlimmern, verschlechtern, besiegen

exaggeration - Übertreibung

depersonalizing - entpersönlichend; depersonalisieren, entpersönlichen

curses - Verfluchungen; (cur) Hundesohn, Köter

scolds - schimpft; Beißzange, Xanthippe, beschimpfen, schelten, tadeln

blossoms - blüht; Blüte, Blüte, Blütezeit, blühen, erblühen, blühen

partial - teilweise, partiell, parteiisch

prostration - Kniefall, Niederwerfung

sensitively - empfindlich

Footsteps - Fußstapfen; Fußabdruck, Schritt

gliding - Segelfliegen; Segelflug

possesses - besitzt; Schutzpolizeiaufgebote

passage - Durchfahrt, Ăśbergang, Gang

confounds - verwirrt; verwirren, verschlimmern, verschlechtern, besiegen

unrefined - ungeschliffen

negligent - fahrlässig

pettiness - Kleinlichkeit; Geringfügigkeit

Companions - Gefährten; Begleiter, Freund, Liebhaber, Kamerad, Gefährte

rove - umherstreifen; ausfasern

devote - widmen

serene - Gelassenheit; heiter

grasping - greifen, erfassen, begreifen, verstehen, erfassen, Griff

habitual - gewohnheitsmäßig; gewohnt; gewöhnlich, habituell

complaisance - Wohlwollen; Gefälligkeit

radiant - strahlend; Radiant

there are enough of cases in which he has to atone for these virtues of his!"and as man generally, he becomes far too easily the CAPUT MORTUUM of such virtues. Should one wish love or hatred from him"I mean love and hatred as God, woman, and animal understand them"he will do what he can, and furnish what he can. But one must not be surprised if it should not be much"if he should show himself just at this point to be false, fragile, questionable, and deteriorated. His love is constrained, his hatred is artificial, and rather UN TOUR DE FORCE, a slight ostentation and exaggeration. He is only genuine so far as he can be objective; only in his serene totality is he still "nature" and "natural." His mirroring and eternally self-polishing soul no longer knows how to affirm, no longer how to deny; he does not command; neither does he destroy. "JE NE MEPRISE PRESQUE RIEN""he says, with Leibniz: let us not overlook nor undervalue the PRESQUE! Neither is he a model man; he does not go in advance of any one, nor after, either; he places himself generally too far off to have any reason for espousing the cause of either good or evil. If he has been so long confounded with the PHILOSOPHER, with the Caesarian trainer and dictator of civilization, he has had far too much honour, and what is more essential in him has been overlooked"he is an instrument, something of a slave, though certainly the sublimest sort of slave, but nothing in himself"PRESQUE RIEN! The objective man is an instrument, a costly, easily injured, easily tarnished measuring instrument and mirroring apparatus, which is to be taken care of and respected; but he is no goal, not outgoing nor upgoing, no complementary man in whom the REST of existence justifies itself, no termination"and still less a commencement, an engendering, or primary cause, nothing hardy, powerful, self-centred, that wants to be master; but rather only a soft, inflated, delicate, movable potter's-form, that must wait for some kind of content and frame to "shape" itself thereto"for the most part a man without frame and content, a "selfless" man. Consequently, also, nothing for women, IN PARENTHESI.

atone - sühnen; wiedergutmachen, kompensieren, Ersatz leisten

furnish - möblieren, einrichten, ausrüsten

constrained - gezwungen; behindern, einschränken, limitieren

ostentation - Zurschaustellung, Pomp, Prahlerei

totality - Totalität

eternally - auf ewig

polishing - polierend, abschleifend; (polish); polnisch; Polnisch

affirm - zustimmen, bejahen, bestätigen, unterstützen

deny - leugnen, bestreiten, dementieren

undervalue - unterbewerten, unterschätzen

advance - erhöhen, erheben, befördern, vorrücken, Fortschritt, Vorschuss

espousing - befürwortend; heiraten, ehelichen, sich vermählen mit

confounded with - verwechselte mit

Caesarian - Kaiserschnitt

Dictator - Diktator

civilization - Zivilisation, Kultur, Zivilisiertwerden

overlooked - Übersicht, Überblick, bemerken

tarnished - befleckt; Anlaufen, Mattieren, Beschlagen, anlaufen

measuring instrument - Messinstrument

apparatus - Gerät; Apparat; Apparat

outgoing - kontaktfreudig, aufgeschlossen, gesellig, leutselig

upgoing - aufgeschlossen

justifies - rechtfertigt; rechtfertigen, rechtfertigen, ausrichten

termination - Beendigung; Abbruch, Kündigung, Endung

engendering - hervorbringen; erzeugen

inflated - aufgeblasen; aufblasen, aufpumpen, aufblähen, aufblasen

movable - beweglich

Potter - Töpfer

selfless - selbstlos, uneigennützig

208. When a philosopher nowadays makes known that he is not a skeptic"I hope that has been gathered from the foregoing description of the objective spirit?"people all hear it impatiently; they regard him on that account with some apprehension, they would like to ask so many, many questions... indeed among timid hearers, of whom there are now so many, he is henceforth said to be dangerous. With his repudiation of skepticism, it seems to them as if they heard some evil-threatening sound in the distance, as if a new kind of explosive were being tried somewhere, a dynamite of the spirit, perhaps a newly discovered Russian NIHILINE, a pessimism BONAE VOLUNTATIS, that not only denies, means denial, but"dreadful thought! PRACTISES denial. Against this kind of "good-will""a will to the veritable, actual negation of life"there is, as is generally acknowledged nowadays, no better soporific and sedative than skepticism, the mild, pleasing, lulling poppy of skepticism; and Hamlet himself is now prescribed by the doctors of the day as an antidote to the "spirit," and its underground noises. "Are not our ears already full of bad sounds?" say the skeptics, as lovers of repose, and almost as a kind of safety police; "this subterranean Nay is terrible! Be still, ye pessimistic moles!" The skeptic, in effect, that delicate creature, is far too easily frightened; his conscience is schooled so as to start at every Nay, and even at that sharp, decided Yea, and feels something like a bite thereby. Yea! and Nay!"they seem to him opposed to morality; he loves, on the contrary, to make a festival to his virtue by a noble aloofness, while perhaps he says with Montaigne: "What do I know?" Or with Socrates: "I know that I know nothing." Or: "Here I do not trust myself, no door is open to me." Or: "Even if the door were open, why should I enter immediately?" Or: "What is the use of any hasty hypotheses? It might quite well be in good taste to make no hypotheses at all. Are you absolutely obliged to straighten at once what is crooked? to stuff every hole with some kind of oakum? Is there not time enough for that? Has not the time leisure? Oh, ye demons, can ye not at all WAIT? The uncertain also has its charms, the Sphinx, too, is a Circe, and Circe, too, was a philosopher.""Thus does a skeptic console himself; and in truth he needs some consolation. For skepticism is the most spiritual expression of a certain many-sided physiological temperament, which in ordinary language is called nervous debility and sickliness; it arises whenever races or classes which have been long separated, decisively and suddenly blend with one another. In the new generation, which has inherited as it were different standards and valuations in its blood, everything is disquiet, derangement, doubt, and tentativeness; the best powers operate restrictively, the very virtues prevent each other growing and becoming strong, equilibrium, ballast, and perpendicular stability are lacking in body and soul. That, however, which is most diseased and degenerated in such nondescripts is the WILL; they are no longer familiar with independence of decision, or the courageous feeling of pleasure in willing"they are doubtful of the "freedom of the will" even in their dreams Our present-day Europe, the scene of a senseless, precipitate attempt at a radical blending of classes, and CONSEQUENTLY of races, is therefore skeptical in all its heights and depths, sometimes exhibiting the mobile skepticism which springs impatiently and wantonly from branch to branch, sometimes with gloomy aspect, like a cloud over-charged with interrogative signs"and often sick unto death of its will! Paralysis of will, where do we not find this cripple sitting nowadays!

skeptic - Skeptiker, Skeptikerin

foregoing - vorstehenden Ausführungen; vorhergehend; (forego) vorstehenden Ausführungen; vorhergehend

apprehension - Befürchtungen; Greifen, Ergreifen, Fassen, Anfassen

hearers - Hörer, Zuhörer

repudiation - Ablehnung

threatening - bedrohlich; drohend; (threaten); drohen, bedrohen, androhen

explosive - explosiv; aufbrausend, Sprengstoff; Sprengmittel

dynamite - Dynamit; Sprengstoff

Russian - russisch, russländisch, altrussisch, Russe, Russin

soporific - schlaffördernd; Schlafmittel; einschläfernd

sedative - Beruhigungsmittel; beruhigend, sedativ

lulling - einlullend; Windstille

poppy - Mohnblume, Mohn

hamlet - Weiler, Dorf, Hamletbarsche

prescribed - verschrieben; verschreiben, verordnen, vorschreiben, verordnen

lovers - Geliebte, Liebhaber, Liebhaberin

subterranean - unterirdisch

pessimistic - pessimistisch

moles - Maulwürfe; Spion; Leberfleck, Maulwurf, Mol

aloofness - Unnahbarkeit; Zurückhaltung

hasty - voreilig; hastig, eilig

straighten - begradigen; richten (gerade biegen); gerade machen

crooked - schief; (to crook) sich krümmen

oakum - Eichenholz; Werg

charms - Reize; Talisman; Charme, Zauberformel, Lieblichkeit; bezaubern

console - Konsole; trösten (mit), vertrösten; Bedienungsfeld, Gerät

temperament - Temperament, Charakter, Veranlagung, Stimmung

debility - Schwächezustand

sickliness - Kränklichkeit

decisively - Entscheidend

disquiet - Beunruhigung, Unbehagen, beunruhigen

derangement - Geistesgestörtheit; Störung

tentativeness - Zögerlichkeit; Unsicherheit

restrictively - restriktiv

equilibrium - Gleichgewicht, Balance, Ausgeglichenheit

ballast - Ballast; Bettung, Schotter, beschottern

perpendicular - rechtwinklig; lotrecht, senkrecht, perpendikular, perpendikulär

stability - Stabilität

nondescripts - Unbeschriebenes Blatt; unbestimmbar, unauffällig, unbestimmt

doubtful - zweifelhaft; zweifelnd

senseless - empfindungslos, ohne Gefühl, ohnmächtig, bewusstlos

precipitate - auszufällen; Niederschlag; ausscheiden, stürzen, fällen

radical - radikal; radikalisch; Wurzel

blending - Vermischung, vermengend

exhibiting - zeigen, zur Schau stellen, ausstellen, vorzeigen, zeigen

wantonly - mutwillig

unto - zu

paralysis - Paralyse, Lähmung

cripple - Krüppel; verkrüppeln, lahm legen, lähmen, zunichte machen

And yet how bedecked oftentimes'How seductively ornamented! There are the finest gala dresses and disguises for this disease, and that, for instance, most of what places itself nowadays in the show-cases as "objectiveness," "the scientific spirit," "L'ART POUR L'ART," and "pure voluntary knowledge," is only decked-out skepticism and paralysis of will"I am ready to answer for this diagnosis of the European disease"The disease of the will is diffused unequally over Europe, it is worst and most varied where civilization has longest prevailed, it decreases according as "the barbarian" still"or again"asserts his claims under the loose drapery of Western culture It is therefore in the France of today, as can be readily disclosed and comprehended, that the will is most infirm, and France, which has always had a masterly aptitude for converting even the portentous crises of its spirit into something charming and seductive, now manifests emphatically its intellectual ascendancy over Europe, by being the school and exhibition of all the charms of skepticism The power to will and to persist, moreover, in a resolution, is already somewhat stronger in Germany, and again in the North of Germany it is stronger than in Central Germany, it is considerably stronger in England, Spain, and Corsica, associated with phlegm in the former and with hard skulls in the latter"not to mention Italy, which is too young yet to know what it wants, and must first show whether it can exercise will, but it is strongest and most surprising of all in that immense middle empire where Europe as it were flows back to Asia"namely, in Russia There the power to will has been long stored up and accumulated, there the will"uncertain whether to be negative or affirmative"waits threateningly to be discharged (to borrow their pet phrase from our physicists) Perhaps not only Indian wars and complications in Asia would be necessary to free Europe from its greatest danger, but also internal subversion, the shattering of the empire into small states, and above all the introduction of parliamentary imbecility, together with the obligation of every one to read his newspaper at breakfast I do not say this as one who desires it, in my heart I should rather prefer the contrary"I mean such an increase in the threatening attitude of Russia, that Europe would have to make up its mind to become equally threatening"namely, TO ACQUIRE ONE WILL, by means of a new caste to rule over the Continent, a persistent, dreadful will of its own, that can set its aims thousands of years ahead; so that the long spun-out comedy of its petty-statism, and its dynastic as well as its democratic many-willed-ness, might finally be brought to a close. The time for petty politics is past; the next century will bring the struggle for the dominion of the world"the COMPULSION to great politics.

bedecked - geschmückt; schmücken, verzieren

oftentimes - Oftmals

seductively - verführerisch

ornamented - verziert; Verzierung, musikalische Verzierung

gala - die Festlichkeit

objectiveness - Objektivitäten

diagnosis - Diagnose

diffused - verbreiten, diffundieren, sich vermischen; diffus (Licht)

unequally - ungleich

prevailed - sich durchgesetzt; erman: die Vorherrschaft erringen (''over'' über)

asserts - behauptet; versichern, zusichern, beteuern, beteuern, beteuern

loose - verlassen, lose, locker

drapery - Drapierung; Vorhang

disclosed - offengelegt; enthüllen, veröffentlichen, bekanntgeben

comprehended - begriffen; umfassen, verstehen, begreifen, erfassen, einsehen

aptitude - Befähigung; Begabung; Eignung

converting - Bekehrung; konvertieren, umwandeln, Konvertit

crises - Krisen; Krise, Krise, Krise, Krise, Krise

charming - charmant; (charm); charmant

emphatically - mit Nachdruck

ascendancy - die Vorherrschaft; Vormacht, Vormachtstellung, Einfluss

persist - fortbestehen; beharren

Considerably - Erheblich; wesentlich, beträchtlich, beachtlich

Spain - Spanien

Corsica - Korsika

associated - verbunden; Weggefährte, vereinigen

phlegm - Phlegma; Schleim, Nasenschleim, Popel, Gemütsruhe, Gleichmut

skulls - Totenköpfe; Totenschädel, Totenkopf, Schädel

Italy - Italien

Empire - Reich, Imperium, Kaiserreich, Kaisertum, Weltreich

Russia - Russland

accumulated - angehäuft; aufstauen, sich vermehren

affirmative - Bejaht; affirmativ; affirmativer Satz

threateningly - bedrohlich

discharged - entladen, entlassen, entlassen, entladen, Ablauf, Befreiung

complications - Komplikationen; Komplikation, Komplikation, Komplikation

shattering - zerschmetternd; zum Zerspringen bringen, zerschmettern

parliamentary - parlamentarisch

imbecility - Geistesschwäche, Schwachsinn

caste - Kaste

spun - gesponnen; durchdrehen, spinnen

statism - Staatlichkeit; Etatismus

dynastic - dynastisch

209. As to how far the new warlike age on which we Europeans have evidently entered may perhaps favour the growth of another and stronger kind of skepticism, I should like to express myself preliminarily merely by a parable, which the lovers of German history will already understand. That unscrupulous enthusiast for big, handsome grenadiers (who, as King of Prussia, brought into being a military and skeptical genius"and therewith, in reality, the new and now triumphantly emerged type of German), the problematic, crazy father of Frederick the Great, had on one point the very knack and lucky grasp of the genius: he knew what was then lacking in Germany, the want of which was a hundred times more alarming and serious than any lack of culture and social form"his ill-will to the young Frederick resulted from the anxiety of a profound instinct. MEN WERE LACKING; and he suspected, to his bitterest regret, that his own son was not man enough. There, however, he deceived himself; but who would not have deceived himself in his place? He saw his son lapsed to atheism, to the ESPRIT, to the pleasant frivolity of clever Frenchmen"he saw in the background the great bloodsucker, the spider skepticism; he suspected the incurable wretchedness of a heart no longer hard enough either for evil or good, and of a broken will that no longer commands, is no longer ABLE to command. Meanwhile, however, there grew up in his son that new kind of harder and more dangerous skepticism"who knows TO WHAT EXTENT it was encouraged just by his father's hatred and the icy melancholy of a will condemned to solitude?"the skepticism of daring manliness, which is closely related to the genius for war and conquest, and made its first entrance into Germany in the person of the great Frederick. This skepticism despises and nevertheless grasps; it undermines and takes possession; it does not believe, but it does not thereby lose itself; it gives the spirit a dangerous liberty, but it keeps strict guard over the heart.

warlike - streitlustig, angriffslustig, kampfeslustig, kriegerisch

preliminarily - vorläufig

unscrupulous - ohne Skrupel

enthusiast - Enthusiasten; Enthusiast

handsome - gut aussehend; hübsch, stattlich, gutaussehend, ansehnlich

Grenadiers - Grenadiere; Granatier, Granatierer, Grenadier

Prussia - Preußen; Prußen, q

military - Militär

triumphantly - triumphierend

emerged - aufgetaucht; erscheinen, auftauchen, herauskommen, davonkommen

knack - Geschicklichkeit; Gabe, Talent, Geschick, Fertigkeit

more alarming - besorgniserregender

anxiety - Ängste; Besorgnis, Angst, Sorge

suspected - verdächtigt; vermuten, misstrauen, verdächtigen

bitterest - am bittersten; herb, rau, bitter

regret - bedauern, bereuen, leidtun, Reue, Bedauern

lapsed - verjährt; Runden

esprit - Esprit

frivolity - Leichtsinn; Frivolität, Leichtfertigkeit

bloodsucker - Blutsauger, Blutsaugerin

wretchedness - Elend

manliness - Männlichkeit, Mannhaftigkeit

conquest - Eroberung; Conquest-Modus, Conquestmodus

grasps - ergreift; greifen, erfassen, begreifen, verstehen, erfassen

undermines - untergräbt; unterlaufen, untergraben, unterminieren, schwächen

strict - streng

It is the GERMAN form of skepticism, which, as a continued Fredericianism, risen to the highest spirituality, has kept Europe for a considerable time under the dominion of the German spirit and its critical and historical distrust Owing to the insuperably strong and tough masculine character of the great German philologists and historical critics (who, rightly estimated, were also all of them artists of destruction and dissolution), a NEW conception of the German spirit gradually established itself"in spite of all Romanticism in music and philosophy"in which the leaning towards masculine skepticism was decidedly prominent whether, for instance, as fearlessness of gaze, as courage and sternness of the dissecting hand, or as resolute will to dangerous voyages of discovery, to spiritualized North Pole expeditions under barren and dangerous skies. There may be good grounds for it when warm-blooded and superficial humanitarians cross themselves before this spirit, CET ESPRIT FATALISTE, IRONIQUE, MEPHISTOPHELIQUE, as Michelet calls it, not without a shudder. But if one would realize how characteristic is this fear of the "man" in the German spirit which awakened Europe out of its "dogmatic slumber," let us call to mind the former conception which had to be overcome by this new one"and that it is not so very long ago that a masculinized woman could dare, with unbridled presumption, to recommend the Germans to the interest of Europe as gentle, good-hearted, weak-willed, and poetical fools. Finally, let us only understand profoundly enough Napoleon's astonishment when he saw Goethe it reveals what had been regarded for centuries as the "German spirit" "VOILA UN HOMME!""that was as much as to say "But this is a MAN! And I only expected to see a German!"

insuperably - unüberwindbar

masculine - männlich, maskulin, Maskulinum; maskulines Genus

critics - Kritiker, Kritiker, Kritikerin, Kritiker, Kritiker, Kritikerin

leaning - (to lean) sich an etwas lehnen

decidedly - entschieden, deutlich, bestimmt

fearlessness - Furchtlosigkeit

sternness - Strenge, Härte, Ernst, Strengheit

dissecting - Sezieren; zerlegend; (dissect); sezieren; zerlegen, analysieren

resolute - entschieden, entschlossen, resolut

spiritualized - vergeistigt; vergeistigen

humanitarians - Menschenfreunde; humanitär

shudder - erschaudern; Schauder; (wohliger) Schauder; schaudern; zittern

awakened - geweckt; aufwecken, wecken, aufwachen, erwachen, wach werden

slumber - Halbschlaf, Schlummer, Schläfchen, schlummern, dösen, träumen

masculinized - vermännlicht; vermännlichen, maskulinisieren

unbridled - ungezügelt; abzäumen

presumption - Anmaßung; Annahme; Überheblichkeit; Vermutung

poetical - poetisch

reveals - enthüllt; enthüllen, offenbaren

210. Supposing, then, that in the picture of the philosophers of the future, some trait suggests the question whether they must not perhaps be skeptics in the last-mentioned sense, something in them would only be designated thereby"and not they themselves. With equal right they might call themselves critics, and assuredly they will be men of experiments. By the name with which I ventured to baptize them, I have already expressly emphasized their attempting and their love of attempting is this because, as critics in body and soul, they will love to make use of experiments in a new, and perhaps wider and more dangerous sense? In their passion for knowledge, will they have to go further in daring and painful attempts than the sensitive and pampered taste of a democratic century can approve of?"There is no doubt these coming ones will be least able to dispense with the serious and not unscrupulous qualities which distinguish the critic from the skeptic I mean the certainty as to standards of worth, the conscious employment of a unity of method, the wary courage, the standing-alone, and the capacity for self-responsibility, indeed, they will avow among themselves a DELIGHT in denial and dissection, and a certain considerate cruelty, which knows how to handle the knife surely and deftly, even when the heart bleeds They will be STERNER (and perhaps not always towards themselves only) than humane people may desire, they will not deal with the "truth" in order that it may "please" them, or "elevate" and "inspire" them"they will rather have little faith in "TRUTH" bringing with it such revels for the feelings. They will smile, those rigorous spirits, when any one says in their presence "That thought elevates me, why should it not be true?

trait - Eigenschaft, Zug

baptize - taufen

emphasized - hervorgehoben; betonen, unterstreichen, hervorheben

attempting - versuchen, Versuch, Bestreben

critic - Kritiker, Kritikerin, Gegner

pampered - verhätschelt; verwöhnen, hätscheln

approve - billigen, genehmigen, zusagen

dispense with - überflüssig machen, verzichten auf

wary - misstrauisch; achtsam, umsichtig, vorsichtig, wachsam

dissection - Sezierung; Präparation, Dissektion

considerate - rücksichtsvoll

handle - handhaben; Henkel, Hantel, Griff, Türklinke; abarbeiten

deftly - Geschickt; gewandt, flink

bleeds - blutet; bluten, ausbluten, entlüften, Blutung, Beschnitt

sterner - strenger; ernst, Heck

humane - human, menschlich

inspire - inspirieren; beatmen, einhauchen, einflößen, checkbegeistern

revels - feiern, ausgelassen sein

or "That work enchants me, why should it not be beautiful?" or "That artist enlarges me, why should he not be great?" Perhaps they will not only have a smile, but a genuine disgust for all that is thus rapturous, idealistic, feminine, and hermaphroditic, and if any one could look into their inmost hearts, he would not easily find therein the intention to reconcile "Christian sentiments" with "antique taste," or even with "modern parliamentarism" (the kind of reconciliation necessarily found even among philosophers in our very uncertain and consequently very conciliatory century). Critical discipline, and every habit that conduces to purity and rigour in intellectual matters, will not only be demanded from themselves by these philosophers of the future, they may even make a display thereof as their special adornment"nevertheless they will not want to be called critics on that account. It will seem to them no small indignity to philosophy to have it decreed, as is so welcome nowadays, that "philosophy itself is criticism and critical science"and nothing else whatever!" Though this estimate of philosophy may enjoy the approval of all the Positivists of France and Germany (and possibly it even flattered the heart and taste of KANT: let us call to mind the titles of his principal works), our new philosophers will say, notwithstanding, that critics are instruments of the philosopher, and just on that account, as instruments, they are far from being philosophers themselves! Even the great Chinaman of Konigsberg was only a great critic.

enchants - verzaubert; verzaubern, verzaubern

enlarges - vergrößert; vergrößern

rapturous - schwärmerisch

hermaphroditic - hermaphroditisch

reconcile - versöhnen

parliamentarism - Parlamentarismus

reconciliation - Aussöhnung, Schlichtung, Versöhnung, Wiederaussöhnung

conciliatory - versöhnlich

demanded from - abverlangt

indignity - Demütigung; Entwürdigung

decreed - verordnet; Erlass, Dekret

approval - Genehmigung, Billigung, Erlaubnis, Zustimmung

Chinaman - Chinesen; Chinese

211. I insist upon it that people finally cease confounding philosophical workers, and in general scientific men, with philosophers"that precisely here one should strictly give "each his own," and not give those far too much, these far too little. It may be necessary for the education of the real philosopher that he himself should have once stood upon all those steps upon which his servants, the scientific workers of philosophy, remain standing, and MUST remain standing he himself must perhaps have been critic, and dogmatist, and historian, and besides, poet, and collector, and traveler, and riddle-reader, and moralist, and seer, and "free spirit," and almost everything, in order to traverse the whole range of human values and estimations, and that he may BE ABLE with a variety of eyes and consciences to look from a height to any distance, from a depth up to any height, from a nook into any expanse. But all these are only preliminary conditions for his task; this task itself demands something else"it requires him TO CREATE VALUES. The philosophical workers, after the excellent pattern of Kant and Hegel, have to fix and formalize some great existing body of valuations"that is to say, former DETERMINATIONS OF VALUE, creations of value, which have become prevalent, and are for a time called "truths""whether in the domain of the LOGICAL, the POLITICAL (moral), or the ARTISTIC.

confounding - verwechseln; verwirren, verschlimmern, verschlechtern, besiegen

historian - Historiker, Historikerin, Geschichtsschreiber

collector - Sammler, Sammlerin, Kassierer, Kollektor

traverse - durchkreuzen, durchqueren, überqueren

estimations - Schätzungen; Abschätzung, Wertschätzung, Meinung

nook - Nische, Alkoven, stiller Winkel, Rückzugsort

expanse - Fläche, Ausdehnung, Weite

preliminary - vorläufig, vorbereitend

formalize - formalisieren

determinations - Feststellungen; Bestimmung, Determination, Bestimmtheit

creations - Kreationen; Erfindung, Werk

It is for these investigators to make whatever has happened and been esteemed hitherto, conspicuous, conceivable, intelligible, and manageable, to shorten everything long, even "time" itself, and to SUBJUGATE the entire past: an immense and wonderful task, in the carrying out of which all refined pride, all tenacious will, can surely find satisfaction. THE REAL PHILOSOPHERS, HOWEVER, ARE COMMANDERS AND LAW-GIVERS; they say: "Thus SHALL it be!" They determine first the Whither and the Why of mankind, and thereby set aside the previous labour of all philosophical workers, and all subjugators of the past"they grasp at the future with a creative hand, and whatever is and was, becomes for them thereby a means, an instrument, and a hammer. Their "knowing" is CREATING, their creating is a law-giving, their will to truth is"WILL TO POWER."Are there at present such philosophers? Have there ever been such philosophers? MUST there not be such philosophers some day? ...

esteemed - wertgeschätzt; Achtung, Ansehen

conceivable - denkbar

manageable - überschaubar

subjugate - unterjochen, unterwerfen

Givers - Geber, Geberin, Gebender, Gebende, Spender, Spenderin, Schenker

whither - wohin

212. It is always more obvious to me that the philosopher, as a man INDISPENSABLE for the morrow and the day after the morrow, has ever found himself, and HAS BEEN OBLIGED to find himself, in contradiction to the day in which he lives; his enemy has always been the ideal of his day. Hitherto all those extraordinary furtherers of humanity whom one calls philosophers"who rarely regarded themselves as lovers of wisdom, but rather as disagreeable fools and dangerous interrogators"have found their mission, their hard, involuntary, imperative mission (in the end, however, the greatness of their mission), in being the bad conscience of their age. In putting the vivisector's knife to the breast of the very VIRTUES OF THEIR AGE, they have betrayed their own secret; it has been for the sake of a NEW greatness of man, a new untrodden path to his aggrandizement. They have always disclosed how much hypocrisy, indolence, self-indulgence, and self-neglect, how much falsehood was concealed under the most venerated types of contemporary morality, how much virtue was OUTLIVED, they have always said "We must remove hence to where YOU are least at home" In the face of a world of "modern ideas," which would like to confine every one in a corner, in a "specialty," a philosopher, if there could be philosophers nowadays, would be compelled to place the greatness of man, the conception of "greatness," precisely in his comprehensiveness and multifariousness, in his all-roundness, he would even determine worth and rank according to the amount and variety of that which a man could bear and take upon himself, according to the EXTENT to which a man could stretch his responsibility Nowadays the taste and virtue of the age weaken and attenuate the will, nothing is so adapted to the spirit of the age as weakness of will consequently, in the ideal of the philosopher, strength of will, sternness, and capacity for prolonged resolution, must specially be included in the conception of "greatness", with as good a right as the opposite doctrine, with its ideal of a silly, renouncing, humble, selfless humanity, was suited to an opposite age"such as the sixteenth century, which suffered from its accumulated energy of will, and from the wildest torrents and floods of selfishness In the time of Socrates, among men only of worn-out instincts, old conservative Athenians who let themselves go""for the sake of happiness," as they said, for the sake of pleasure, as their conduct indicated"and who had continually on their lips the old pompous words to which they had long forfeited the right by the life they led, IRONY was perhaps necessary for greatness of soul, the wicked Socratic assurance of the old physician and plebeian, who cut ruthlessly into his own flesh, as into the flesh and heart of the "noble," with a look that said plainly enough "Do not dissemble before me!

morrow - morgen; Morgen

interrogators - Vernehmungsbeamte; Fragender, Fragende, Fragesteller

greatness - Großartigkeit; Größe

breast - Brust; -brust, Entenbrust

untrodden - unbetreten; nicht betreten

aggrandizement - Vergrößerung; Erhöhung

neglect - Vernachlässigung; vernachlässigen, verabsäumen, versäumen

falsehood - Unwahrheit, Falschheit, Lüge, unwahre Behauptung, Falschsein

outlived - überlebt hat; überleben

specialty - Spezialität

comprehensiveness - Umfassend; Umfang

multifariousness - Vielfältigkeit, Mannigfaltigkeit

roundness - Rundheit

stretch - strecken, dehnen, langziehen, dehnen

weaken - schwächen, abschwächen, schwächeln

attenuate - verringern, vermindern, abschwächen, reduzieren

prolonged - langwierig; ausdehnen, verlängern, hinauszögern

renouncing - sich distanzieren, sich verleugnen

Sixteenth - sechzehnte; Sechzehntel

torrents - Sturzbach, Sturzflut

conservative - Konservativer, Konservative

pompous - pompös, schwülstig

forfeited - verwirkt; Strafe, Pfand

Socratic - sokratisch; Sokratiker

assurance - Sicherheit; Zusicherung, Versicherung, Zusage, Beteuerung

ruthlessly - ruchlos, rücksichtslos, unbarmherzig, unerbittlich

dissemble - verbergen; vortäuschen, verhehlen, anmerken lassen

here"we are equal!" At present, on the contrary, when throughout Europe the herding-animal alone attains to honours, and dispenses honours, when "equality of right" can too readily be transformed into equality in wrong"I mean to say into general war against everything rare, strange, and privileged, against the higher man, the higher soul, the higher duty, the higher responsibility, the creative plenipotence and lordliness"at present it belongs to the conception of "greatness" to be noble, to wish to be apart, to be capable of being different, to stand alone, to have to live by personal initiative, and the philosopher will betray something of his own ideal when he asserts "He shall be the greatest who can be the most solitary, the most concealed, the most divergent, the man beyond good and evil, the master of his virtues, and of super-abundance of will; precisely this shall be called GREATNESS: as diversified as can be entire, as ample as can be full." And to ask once more the question: Is greatness POSSIBLE"nowadays?

dispenses - ausgibt; ausgeben, austeilen, verteilen, dosieren, ausstellen

plenipotence - Plenipotenz

lordliness - Herrschaftlichkeit; Großzügigkeit

initiative - Initiative

solitary - einsam, einzeln

most concealed - verborgenste

divergent - abweichend

abundance - Reichtum; Überfluss

ample - reichlich; groß, umfangreich, üppig

213. It is difficult to learn what a philosopher is, because it cannot be taught: one must "know" it by experience"or one should have the pride NOT to know it. The fact that at present people all talk of things of which they CANNOT have any experience, is true more especially and unfortunately as concerns the philosopher and philosophical matters:"the very few know them, are permitted to know them, and all popular ideas about them are false. Thus, for instance, the truly philosophical combination of a bold, exuberant spirituality which runs at presto pace, and a dialectic rigour and necessity which makes no false step, is unknown to most thinkers and scholars from their own experience, and therefore, should any one speak of it in their presence, it is incredible to them. They conceive of every necessity as troublesome, as a painful compulsory obedience and state of constraint; thinking itself is regarded by them as something slow and hesitating, almost as a trouble, and often enough as "worthy of the SWEAT of the noble""but not at all as something easy and divine, closely related to dancing and exuberance! "To think" and to take a matter "seriously," "arduously""that is one and the same thing to them; such only has been their "experience.""Artists have here perhaps a finer intuition; they who know only too well that precisely when they no longer do anything "arbitrarily," and everything of necessity, their feeling of freedom, of subtlety, of power, of creatively fixing, disposing, and shaping, reaches its climax"in short, that necessity and "freedom of will" are then the same thing with them. There is, in fine, a gradation of rank in psychical states, to which the gradation of rank in the problems corresponds; and the highest problems repel ruthlessly every one who ventures too near them, without being predestined for their solution by the loftiness and power of his spirituality.

by experience - aus Erfahrung

truly - wirklich, wahrhaft, ehrlich, echt

combination - Kombinieren; Kombination, Kombinierte, Kombinat, Vereinigung

pace - Tempo, Stufe, Schritt

sweat - schwitzen; Schweiß

exuberance - Überschwang; Exuberanz, Überfluss, Überschwänglichkeit

arduously - anstrengend, mühsam, schwierig

creatively - kreativ

psychical - Parapsychologie, psychisch

corresponds - entspricht; entsprechen, korrespondieren, korrespondieren

repel - zurückweisen, abweisen, abwehren, zurückdrängen, zurückwerfen

loftiness - Anmaßung; Erhabenheit

Of what use is it for nimble, everyday intellects, or clumsy, honest mechanics and empiricists to press, in their plebeian ambition, close to such problems, and as it were into this "holy of holies""as so often happens nowadays! But coarse feet must never tread upon such carpets: this is provided for in the primary law of things; the doors remain closed to those intruders, though they may dash and break their heads thereon. People have always to be born to a high station, or, more definitely, they have to be BRED for it: a person has only a right to philosophy"taking the word in its higher significance"in virtue of his descent; the ancestors, the "blood," decide here also. Many generations must have prepared the way for the coming of the philosopher; each of his virtues must have been separately acquired, nurtured, transmitted, and embodied; not only the bold, easy, delicate course and current of his thoughts, but above all the readiness for great responsibilities, the majesty of ruling glance and contemning look, the feeling of separation from the multitude with their duties and virtues, the kindly patronage and defense of whatever is misunderstood and calumniated, be it God or devil, the delight and practice of supreme justice, the art of commanding, the amplitude of will, the lingering eye which rarely admires, rarely looks up, rarely loves....

nimble - wendig; schnell, gelenkig, behänd, flink

intellects - Intellektuelle; Intellekt

mechanics - Mechaniker, Mechanikerin

empiricists - Empiriker

holies - heiligen; heilig, heilig, heilig

tread - Lauffläche; (to tread) betreten, schreiten

intruders - Eindringlinge; Eindringling

Dash - Bindestrich, Gedankenstrich, Querstrich, Spurt, Sprint

thereon - darauf; daran

bred - gezüchtet; (breed) Zucht, Art, Rasse, Sorte; (breed); aufziehen

separately - getrennt

nurtured - gehegt und gepflegt; Umsorgen

embodied - verkörpert; verkörpern, verkörpern

Majesty - Majestät

contemning - nachdenklich; verachten

separation - Trennung

Patronage - PATRONEN; Schirmherrschaft, Protektion, Patronat, Klüngel

calumniated - verleumdet; verleumden

supreme - übergeordnet; höchster, oberster

amplitude - Amplitude

Lingering - nachklingend, verweilend, zögernd; (linger); herumlungern


214. OUR Virtues?"It is probable that we, too, have still our virtues, although naturally they are not those sincere and massive virtues on account of which we hold our grandfathers in esteem and also at a little distance from us. We Europeans of the day after tomorrow, we firstlings of the twentieth century"with all our dangerous curiosity, our multifariousness and art of disguising, our mellow and seemingly sweetened cruelty in sense and spirit"we shall presumably, IF we must have virtues, have those only which have come to agreement with our most secret and heartfelt inclinations, with our most ardent requirements: well, then, let us look for them in our labyrinths!"where, as we know, so many things lose themselves, so many things get quite lost!

massive - massiv

firstlings - Erstlinge

disguising - verkleidend; (disguise); Verkleidung; Tarnung; verstellen

mellow - zart, weich

presumably - Vermutlich

most secret - geheimste

heartfelt - herzlich, von Herzen kommend, tief empfunden, innig

labyrinths - Labyrinthe; Labyrinth

And is there anything finer than to SEARCH for one's own virtues? Is it not almost to BELIEVE in one's own virtues? But this "believing in one's own virtues""is it not practically the same as what was formerly called one's "good conscience," that long, respectable pigtail of an idea, which our grandfathers used to hang behind their heads, and often enough also behind their understandings? It seems, therefore, that however little we may imagine ourselves to be old-fashioned and grandfatherly respectable in other respects, in one thing we are nevertheless the worthy grandchildren of our grandfathers, we last Europeans with good consciences: we also still wear their pigtail."Ah! if you only knew how soon, so very soon"it will be different!

respectable - respektabel; angesehen, geachtet

pigtail - Zopf; Haarzopf, Zöpfchen, Anschlussdraht, Anschlussfaser

understandings - Verstehen

grandfatherly - großväterlich

grandchildren - Enkelkinder; Enkel, Enkelkind


As in the stellar firmament there are sometimes two suns which determine the path of one planet, and in certain cases suns of different colours shine around a single planet, now with red light, now with green, and then simultaneously illumine and flood it with motley colours: so we modern men, owing to the complicated mechanism of our "firmament," are determined by DIFFERENT moralities; our actions shine alternately in different colours, and are seldom unequivocal"and there are often cases, also, in which our actions are MOTLEY-COLOURED.

stellar - stellar, Stern

firmament - Firmament

simultaneously - gleichzeitig

illumine - erhellen; beleuchten

mechanism - Mechanismus

alternately - abwechselnd

unequivocal - unzweideutig

216. To love one's enemies? I think that has been well learnt: it takes place thousands of times at present on a large and small scale; indeed, at times the higher and sublimer thing takes place:"we learn to DESPISE when we love, and precisely when we love best; all of it, however, unconsciously, without noise, without ostentation, with the shame and secrecy of goodness, which forbids the utterance of the pompous word and the formula of virtue.

sublimer - (sublime) sublimierens

forbids - verbietet; verbieten, untersagen, verweigern, vorenthalten

Morality as attitude"is opposed to our taste nowadays. This is ALSO an advance, as it was an advance in our fathers that religion as an attitude finally became opposed to their taste, including the enmity and Voltairean bitterness against religion (and all that formerly belonged to freethinker-pantomime). It is the music in our conscience, the dance in our spirit, to which Puritan litanies, moral sermons, and goody-goodness won't chime.

freethinker - Freidenker, Freidenkerin

Puritan - Puritaner; puritanisch

litanies - Litaneien; Litanei, Litanei, de

Sermons - Predigt

goody - Leckerli; Bonbon

chime - Ton; läuten

217. Let us be careful in dealing with those who attach great importance to being credited with moral tact and subtlety in moral discernment! They never forgive us if they have once made a mistake BEFORE us (or even with REGARD to us)"they inevitably become our instinctive calumniators and detractors, even when they still remain our "friends.""Blessed are the forgetful: for they "get the better" even of their blunders.

tact - Takt, Taktgefühl

discernment - Unterscheidungsvermögen; Diskriminierung, Urteilsvermögen

inevitably - unausweichlich; zwangsläufig; erwartbarerweise

calumniators - Verleumder

detractors - Lästerer, Verleumder, Lästermaul

blessed - gesegnet; selig; (bless); gesegnet; selig

forgetful - vergesslich

blunders - Patzer, Schnitzer, Fehler, Fehlgriff, Mißgriff, Fauxpas

218. The psychologists of France"and where else are there still psychologists nowadays?"have never yet exhausted their bitter and manifold enjoyment of the betise bourgeoise, just as though... in short, they betray something thereby. Flaubert, for instance, the honest citizen of Rouen, neither saw, heard, nor tasted anything else in the end; it was his mode of self-torment and refined cruelty. As this is growing wearisome, I would now recommend for a change something else for a pleasure"namely, the unconscious astuteness with which good, fat, honest mediocrity always behaves towards loftier spirits and the tasks they have to perform, the subtle, barbed, Jesuitical astuteness, which is a thousand times subtler than the taste and understanding of the middle-class in its best moments"subtler even than the understanding of its victims:"a repeated proof that "instinct" is the most intelligent of all kinds of intelligence which have hitherto been discovered.

exhausted - erschöpft; erschöpfen, dezimieren, erschöpfen, Auspuff, Abgas

Bitter - herb, rau, bitter

bourgeoise - bourgeois

citizen - Staatsbürger, Staatsbürgerin, Einwohner

torment - Qualen; Qual; quälen, peinigen

loftier - erhabener; hoch, qualifier

barbed - mit Widerhaken; Widerhaken

most intelligent - intelligenteste

In short, you psychologists, study the philosophy of the "rule" in its struggle with the "exception": there you have a spectacle fit for Gods and godlike malignity! Or, in plainer words, practise vivisection on "good people," on the "homo bonae voluntatis," ON YOURSELVES!

malignity - Bosheit, Bösartigkeit

Homo - Homo

219. The practice of judging and condemning morally, is the favourite revenge of the intellectually shallow on those who are less so, it is also a kind of indemnity for their being badly endowed by nature, and finally, it is an opportunity for acquiring spirit and BECOMING subtle"malice spiritualises.

condemning - Verurteilung; verurteilen, verurteilen, verdammen, verurteilen

indemnity - Entschädigung; Erstattung, Rückzahlung, Kompensation

endowed - dotiert; ausstatten

acquiring - Anwerben; erwerben, erwerben, akquirieren

They are glad in their inmost heart that there is a standard according to which those who are over-endowed with intellectual goods and privileges, are equal to them, they contend for the "equality of all before God," and almost NEED the belief in God for this purpose. It is among them that the most powerful antagonists of atheism are found. If any one were to say to them "A lofty spirituality is beyond all comparison with the honesty and respectability of a merely moral man""it would make them furious, I shall take care not to say so. I would rather flatter them with my theory that lofty spirituality itself exists only as the ultimate product of moral qualities, that it is a synthesis of all qualities attributed to the "merely moral" man, after they have been acquired singly through long training and practice, perhaps during a whole series of generations, that lofty spirituality is precisely the spiritualising of justice, and the beneficent severity which knows that it is authorized to maintain GRADATIONS OF RANK in the world, even among things"and not only among men.

are glad - freust

privileges - Privilegien; Privileg

antagonists - Antagonisten; Antagonist, Widersacher, Gegner, Antagonist

attributed - zugeschrieben; Eigenschaft, Merkmal

singly - einzeln

beneficent - wohltätig

220. Now that the praise of the "disinterested person" is so popular one must"probably not without some danger"get an idea of WHAT people actually take an interest in, and what are the things generally which fundamentally and profoundly concern ordinary men"including the cultured, even the learned, and perhaps philosophers also, if appearances do not deceive. The fact thereby becomes obvious that the greater part of what interests and charms higher natures, and more refined and fastidious tastes, seems absolutely "uninteresting" to the average man"if, notwithstanding, he perceive devotion to these interests, he calls it desinteresse, and wonders how it is possible to act "disinterestedly." There have been philosophers who could give this popular astonishment a seductive and mystical, other-worldly expression (perhaps because they did not know the higher nature by experience?), instead of stating the naked and candidly reasonable truth that "disinterested" action is very interesting and "interested" action, provided that.

devotion - Hingebung, Hingabe, Zuneigung, Zuwendung

disinterestedly - uneigennützig

mystical - mystisch

worldly - weltlich

naked - nackt, kahl, bloß

candidly - aufrichtig; offen

reasonable - vernünftig

. "And love?""What! Even an action for love's sake shall be "unegoistic"? But you fools"! "And the praise of the self-sacrificer?""But whoever has really offered sacrifice knows that he wanted and obtained something for it"perhaps something from himself for something from himself; that he relinquished here in order to have more there, perhaps in general to be more, or even feel himself "more." But this is a realm of questions and answers in which a more fastidious spirit does not like to stay: for here truth has to stifle her yawns so much when she is obliged to answer. And after all, truth is a woman; one must not use force with her.

unegoistic - unegoistisch

sacrificer - Opfernden; Opferer, Opfererin, Opfernder, Opfernde

offered - angeboten; offerieren, anbieten, bieten, zeigen; Antrag

relinquished - aufgegeben; verlassen, aufgeben, überlassen, abtreten

stifle - abwürgen; ersticken

yawns - gähnt; gähnen, Gähnen

221. "It sometimes happens," said a moralistic pedant and trifle-retailer, "that I honour and respect an unselfish man: not, however, because he is unselfish, but because I think he has a right to be useful to another man at his own expense. In short, the question is always who HE is, and who THE OTHER is. For instance, in a person created and destined for command, self-denial and modest retirement, instead of being virtues, would be the waste of virtues: so it seems to me. Every system of unegoistic morality which takes itself unconditionally and appeals to every one, not only sins against good taste, but is also an incentive to sins of omission, an ADDITIONAL seduction under the mask of philanthropy"and precisely a seduction and injury to the higher, rarer, and more privileged types of men. Moral systems must be compelled first of all to bow before the GRADATIONS OF RANK; their presumption must be driven home to their conscience"until they thoroughly understand at last that it is IMMORAL to say that 'what is right for one is proper for another.

moralistic - moralistisch

pedant - Pedant, Pedantin

trifle - eine Lappalie; Trifle; Kleinigkeit, ein bisschen, ein wenig

retailer - Einzelhändler, Verkäufer, Ladenbesitzer; (retail); Einzelhandel

retirement - Rente, Ruhestand, Lebensabend

sins - Sünden; Sünde, sündigen; eine Sünde begehen

omission - Unterlassung, Unterlassen, Auslassung

seduction - Verführung

philanthropy - Philanthropie; Philantropie, Menschenliebe, Nächstenliebe

more privileged - privilegiertere

""So said my moralistic pedant and bonhomme. Did he perhaps deserve to be laughed at when he thus exhorted systems of morals to practise morality? But one should not be too much in the right if one wishes to have the laughers on one's own side; a grain of wrong pertains even to good taste.

deserve - verdienen

exhorted - ermahnt; ermahnen, anhalten, bedrängen, verlangen, anspornen

laughers - Lachen; Lacher

on one's own - auf eigene Faust

222. Wherever sympathy (fellow-suffering) is preached nowadays"and, if I gather rightly, no other religion is any longer preached"let the psychologist have his ears open through all the vanity, through all the noise which is natural to these preachers (as to all preachers), he will hear a hoarse, groaning, genuine note of SELF-CONTEMPT. It belongs to the overshadowing and uglifying of Europe, which has been on the increase for a century (the first symptoms of which are already specified documentarily in a thoughtful letter of Galiani to Madame d'Epinay)"IF IT IS NOT REALLY THE CAUSE THEREOF!

preached - gepredigt; predigen, predigen, verkündigen, predigen

hoarse - heiser

groaning - ächzend, stöhnend, Ächzen, Geächze

overshadowing - überschatten, überschatten

uglifying - verunstalten, hässlich machen, häßlich machen

specified - spezifiziert; spezifizieren

documentarily - dokumentarisch

The man of "modern ideas," the conceited ape, is excessively dissatisfied with himself"this is perfectly certain. He suffers, and his vanity wants him only "to suffer with his fellows."

excessively - übermäßig; exzessiv

dissatisfied - unzufrieden; nicht befriedigen, missfallen

223. The hybrid European"a tolerably ugly plebeian, taken all in all"absolutely requires a costume: he needs history as a storeroom of costumes. To be sure, he notices that none of the costumes fit him properly"he changes and changes. Let us look at the nineteenth century with respect to these hasty preferences and changes in its masquerades of style, and also with respect to its moments of desperation on account of "nothing suiting" us. It is in vain to get ourselves up as romantic, or classical, or Christian, or Florentine, or barocco, or "national," in moribus et artibus: it does not "clothe us"! But the "spirit," especially the "historical spirit," profits even by this desperation: once and again a new sample of the past or of the foreign is tested, put on, taken off, packed up, and above all studied"we are the first studious age in puncto of "costumes," I mean as concerns morals, articles of belief, artistic tastes, and religions; we are prepared as no other age has ever been for a carnival in the grand style, for the most spiritual festival"laughter and arrogance, for the transcendental height of supreme folly and Aristophanic ridicule of the world.

hybrid - Blendling, Mischling, Kreuzling, Kreuzung

tolerably - erträglich

storeroom - Lager, Lagerraum, Abstellraum

nineteenth - neunzehnten; neunzehnte

masquerades - Maskeraden; Maskenspiel

desperation - Verzweiflung

studious - besonnen; fleißig, lernbegierig

carnival - Fastnacht; Karneval, Fasching

arrogance - Arroganz, Dünkel, Hochmut, Überheblichkeit

Perhaps we are still discovering the domain of our invention just here, the domain where even we can still be original, probably as parodists of the world's history and as God's Merry-Andrews,"perhaps, though nothing else of the present have a future, our laughter itself may have a future!

224. The historical sense (or the capacity for divining quickly the order of rank of the valuations according to which a people, a community, or an individual has lived, the "divining instinct" for the relationships of these valuations, for the relation of the authority of the valuations to the authority of the operating forces),"this historical sense, which we Europeans claim as our specialty, has come to us in the train of the enchanting and mad semi-barbarity into which Europe has been plunged by the democratic mingling of classes and races"it is only the nineteenth century that has recognized this faculty as its sixth sense. Owing to this mingling, the past of every form and mode of life, and of cultures which were formerly closely contiguous and superimposed on one another, flows forth into us "modern souls"; our instincts now run back in all directions, we ourselves are a kind of chaos: in the end, as we have said, the spirit perceives its advantage therein. By means of our semi-barbarity in body and in desire, we have secret access everywhere, such as a noble age never had; we have access above all to the labyrinth of imperfect civilizations, and to every form of semi-barbarity that has at any time existed on earth; and in so far as the most considerable part of human civilization hitherto has just been semi-barbarity, the "historical sense" implies almost the sense and instinct for everything, the taste and tongue for everything: whereby it immediately proves itself to be an IGNOBLE sense. For instance, we enjoy Homer once more: it is perhaps our happiest acquisition that we know how to appreciate Homer, whom men of distinguished culture (as the French of the seventeenth century, like Saint-Evremond, who reproached him for his ESPRIT VASTE, and even Voltaire, the last echo of the century) cannot and could not so easily appropriate"whom they scarcely permitted themselves to enjoy. The very decided Yea and Nay of their palate, their promptly ready disgust, their hesitating reluctance with regard to everything strange, their horror of the bad taste even of lively curiosity, and in general the averseness of every distinguished and self-sufficing culture to avow a new desire, a dissatisfaction with its own condition, or an admiration of what is strange: all this determines and disposes them unfavourably even towards the best things of the world which are not their property or could not become their prey"and no faculty is more unintelligible to such men than just this historical sense, with its truckling, plebeian curiosity.

enchanting - bezaubernd; verzaubern, verzaubern

plunged - stürzte; eintauchen, tauchen

mingling - mischend, vermischend; (mingle); vermischen, vermengen

contiguous - zusammenhängend

superimposed - überlagert; überlagern, darüberlegen, darübersetzen

chaos - Chaos, Unordnung, Durcheinander . Wirrwarr

perceives - wahrnimmt; wahrnehmen

imperfect - unvollkommen, mangelhaft, unvollständig, fehlerhaft, Imperfekt

civilizations - Zivilisationen; Zivilisation, Kultur, Kultur, Zivilisiertwerden

most considerable - beachtlichste

acquisition - Erwerb, Aneignung

seventeenth - siebzehnten; siebzehnter; siebzehnte

reproached - Vorwürfe; Vorwurf, Schande, vorwerfen

scarcely - knapp, kaum, wohl nicht, gerade erst

palate - Gaumen

reluctance - Widerstreben, Widerwillen, Widerwille, Zögern, Zaudern

averseness - Abneigung; Abgeneigtheit

sufficing - Ausreichend; ausreichen, genügen, genug sein, reichen

dissatisfaction - Unzufriedenheit

disposes - entsorgt; beseitigen, entsorgen, ordnen

unfavourably - ungünstig

unintelligible - unverständlich

truckling - kriechend; (truckle) kriechend

The case is not different with Shakespeare, that marvelous Spanish-Moorish-Saxon synthesis of taste, over whom an ancient Athenian of the circle of AEschylus would have half-killed himself with laughter or irritation: but we"accept precisely this wild motleyness, this medley of the most delicate, the most coarse, and the most artificial, with a secret confidence and cordiality; we enjoy it as a refinement of art reserved expressly for us, and allow ourselves to be as little disturbed by the repulsive fumes and the proximity of the English populace in which Shakespeare's art and taste lives, as perhaps on the Chiaja of Naples, where, with all our senses awake, we go our way, enchanted and voluntarily, in spite of the drain-odour of the lower quarters of the town. That as men of the "historical sense" we have our virtues, is not to be disputed:"we are unpretentious, unselfish, modest, brave, habituated to self-control and self-renunciation, very grateful, very patient, very complaisant"but with all this we are perhaps not very "tasteful." Let us finally confess it, that what is most difficult for us men of the "historical sense" to grasp, feel, taste, and love, what finds us fundamentally prejudiced and almost hostile, is precisely the perfection and ultimate maturity in every culture and art, the essentially noble in works and men, their moment of smooth sea and halcyon self-sufficiency, the goldenness and coldness which all things show that have perfected themselves. Perhaps our great virtue of the historical sense is in necessary contrast to GOOD taste, at least to the very bad taste; and we can only evoke in ourselves imperfectly, hesitatingly, and with compulsion the small, short, and happy godsends and glorifications of human life as they shine here and there: those moments and marvelous experiences when a great power has voluntarily come to a halt before the boundless and infinite,"when a super-abundance of refined delight has been enjoyed by a sudden checking and petrifying, by standing firmly and planting oneself fixedly on still trembling ground. PROPORTIONATENESS is strange to us, let us confess it to ourselves; our itching is really the itching for the infinite, the immeasurable. Like the rider on his forward panting horse, we let the reins fall before the infinite, we modern men, we semi-barbarians"and are only in OUR highest bliss when we"ARE IN MOST DANGER.

Spanish - spanisch; Spanisch; Spanier

Moorish - maurisch

Saxon - Sachse, Sachse, Sächsin, Non Plus Ultra, Viertelpetit, Sächsisch

Athenian - Athener, Athenerin, athenisch

Aeschylus - Äschylus, Aischylos

irritation - Ärger, Irritation, Verärgerung

medley - Allerlei, bunte Mischung, buntes Durcheinander, Medley

most delicate - zierlichste

most artificial - künstlichste

cordiality - Herzlichkeit

disturbed - beunruhigt; stören

repulsive - abstoßend

fumes - Abgase; Rauch, Qualm, rauchen, qualmen, schäumen

proximity - Nähe, Nachbarschaft

Naples - Neapel

enchanted - verzaubert; verzaubern, verzaubern

drain - Abfluss; entwässern, abfließen lassen, ablassen, trocknen

disputed - umstritten; Streit, Disput, Debatte, erörtern, bestreiten

unpretentious - unprätentiös

habituated - Gewöhnt; gewöhnen an

tasteful - geschmackvoll

perfection - Vollkommenheit, Perfektion

halcyon - ruhig, glücklich, friedlich

sufficiency - Ausreichend; Zulänglichkeiten, Zulänglichkeit

goldenness - Goldigkeit

evoke - evozieren; hervorrufen

hesitatingly - zögernd

godsends - Götter; Glücksfall, Geschenk des Himmels

glorifications - Verherrlichungen; Glorifizierung

boundless - grenzenlos, unbegrenzt

infinite - unendlich, endlos, unzählige

petrifying - versteinernd; versteinern, versteinern, erstarren

fixedly - fixiert; bestimmt

trembling - Zittern, Beben; (tremble); zittern; Zittern

Proportionateness - Verhältnismäßigkeit

itching - juckend, Jucken, Juckreiz; (itch) juckend, Jucken, Juckreiz

immeasurable - unermesslich

rider - Reiter, Reiterin, Mitfahrer, Mitfahrerin, Zusatzklausel

panting - hechelnd; hecheln, keucheln

barbarians - Barbaren; barbarisch, Barbar, Barbarin, Barbar, Barbar

bliss - Glückseligkeit, Glück

225. Whether it be hedonism, pessimism, utilitarianism, or eudaemonism, all those modes of thinking which measure the worth of things according to PLEASURE and PAIN, that is, according to accompanying circumstances and secondary considerations, are plausible modes of thought and naivetes, which every one conscious of CREATIVE powers and an artist's conscience will look down upon with scorn, though not without sympathy. Sympathy for you!"to be sure, that is not sympathy as you understand it: it is not sympathy for social "distress," for "society" with its sick and misfortuned, for the hereditarily vicious and defective who lie on the ground around us; still less is it sympathy for the grumbling, vexed, revolutionary slave-classes who strive after power"they call it "freedom." OUR sympathy is a loftier and further-sighted sympathy:"we see how MAN dwarfs himself, how YOU dwarf him! and there are moments when we view YOUR sympathy with an indescribable anguish, when we resist it,"when we regard your seriousness as more dangerous than any kind of levity. You want, if possible"and there is not a more foolish "if possible""TO DO AWAY WITH SUFFERING; and we?"it really seems that WE would rather have it increased and made worse than it has ever been! Well-being, as you understand it"is certainly not a goal; it seems to us an END; a condition which at once renders man ludicrous and contemptible"and makes his destruction DESIRABLE!

Hedonism - Hedonismus; Genußsucht

eudaemonism - Eudaemonismus

considerations - Überlegungen; Erwägung, Überlegung, Überlegung, Rücksicht

misfortuned - unglücklich

hereditarily - vererbbar

vicious - bösartig; gewalttätig, destruktiv, grausam, aggressiv, böse

grumbling - Grummeln; murrend; (grumble); Gegrummel, Grummeln, Knurren

vexed - verärgert; ärgern, verärgern, reizen, irritieren, beunruhigen

revolutionary - revolutionär; Revolutionär, Revolutionärin

dwarfs - Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwergin, Zwerg, Zwerg, Zwergstern, Zwerg

indescribable - unbeschreiblich

resist - widerstreben; widerstehen; widerstreiten; zuwider sein; Deckmittel

more foolish - törichtere

made worse - verschlimmerte

The discipline of suffering, of GREAT suffering"know ye not that it is only THIS discipline that has produced all the elevations of humanity hitherto? The tension of soul in misfortune which communicates to it its energy, its shuddering in view of rack and ruin, its inventiveness and bravery in undergoing, enduring, interpreting, and exploiting misfortune, and whatever depth, mystery, disguise, spirit, artifice, or greatness has been bestowed upon the soul"has it not been bestowed through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? In man CREATURE and CREATOR are united: in man there is not only matter, shred, excess, clay, mire, folly, chaos; but there is also the creator, the sculptor, the hardness of the hammer, the divinity of the spectator, and the seventh day"do ye understand this contrast? And that YOUR sympathy for the "creature in man" applies to that which has to be fashioned, bruised, forged, stretched, roasted, annealed, refined"to that which must necessarily SUFFER, and IS MEANT to suffer? And our sympathy"do ye not understand what our REVERSE sympathy applies to, when it resists your sympathy as the worst of all pampering and enervation?"So it is sympathy AGAINST sympathy!"But to repeat it once more, there are higher problems than the problems of pleasure and pain and sympathy; and all systems of philosophy which deal only with these are naivetes.

misfortune - Pech, Ungemach, Unglück, Unfall, Unheil

shuddering - Schütteln; schaudernd; (shudder); Schauder; (wohliger) Schauder; schaudern; zittern

rack - Folterbank, Zahnstange, Gestell

inventiveness - Erfindungsreichtum; Ideenreichtum

undergoing - unterziehen; durchmachen

enduring - ausdauernd; ertragen, aushalten, dulden, von Bestand sein

exploiting - Heldentat, Exploit

creator - Schöpfer, Schöpferin, Kreateur, Ersteller, Verfasser

shred - Schrot; Schnitzel, Stückchen; fetzen, zerfetzen

clay - Lehm, Ton, Asche

mire - Moor; Sumpf; beschmutzen

sculptor - Skulpteur, Bildhauer, Bildhauerin

hardness - Härte

divinity - Göttlichkeit; Gottheit; Theologie

forged - gefälscht; sich Bahn brechen, formen, erfinden

stretched - gestreckt; strecken, dehnen, langziehen, dehnen

Roasted - braten, rösten, Braten, Braten, gebraten

annealed - geglüht; ausglühen, tempern, anlassen, spannungsfrei glühen

resists - widersteht; widerstreben, widerstehen, widerstreiten

pampering - Verwöhnung; verwöhnen, hätscheln

enervation - Schwäche

226. WE IMMORALISTS."This world with which WE are concerned, in which we have to fear and love, this almost invisible, inaudible world of delicate command and delicate obedience, a world of "almost" in every respect, captious, insidious, sharp, and tender"yes, it is well protected from clumsy spectators and familiar curiosity! We are woven into a strong net and garment of duties, and CANNOT disengage ourselves"precisely here, we are "men of duty," even we!

inaudible - nicht hörbar

captious - gefangen; spitzfindig, verfänglich, haarspalterisch, krittelig

insidious - heimtückisch

woven - gewebt; gewoben; (weave) gewebt; gewoben

garment - Kleidungsstück

disengage - auskuppeln; ausklinken, aushaken, entkuppeln

Occasionally, it is true, we dance in our "chains" and betwixt our "swords"; it is none the less true that more often we gnash our teeth under the circumstances, and are impatient at the secret hardship of our lot. But do what we will, fools and appearances say of us: "These are men WITHOUT duty,""we have always fools and appearances against us!

betwixt - Dazwischen; zwischen

swords - Schwerter; Schwert

gnash - knirschen

227. Honesty, granting that it is the virtue of which we cannot rid ourselves, we free spirits"well, we will labour at it with all our perversity and love, and not tire of "perfecting" ourselves in OUR virtue, which alone remains: may its glance some day overspread like a gilded, blue, mocking twilight this aging civilization with its dull gloomy seriousness! And if, nevertheless, our honesty should one day grow weary, and sigh, and stretch its limbs, and find us too hard, and would fain have it pleasanter, easier, and gentler, like an agreeable vice, let us remain HARD, we latest Stoics, and let us send to its help whatever devilry we have in us:"our disgust at the clumsy and undefined, our "NITIMUR IN VETITUM," our love of adventure, our sharpened and fastidious curiosity, our most subtle, disguised, intellectual Will to Power and universal conquest, which rambles and roves avidiously around all the realms of the future"let us go with all our "devils" to the help of our "God"! It is probable that people will misunderstand and mistake us on that account: what does it matter!

perversity - Perversität

overspread - verbreiten

gilded - vergoldet; vergolden

mocking - spöttisch; (moc) spöttisch

twilight - Dämmerung, Zwielicht, Halbdunkel

weary - müde

limbs - Gliedmaßen; Schenkel (geol. Falte), Glied

undefined - undefiniert

sharpened - geschärft; schärfen

rambles - Streifzüge; Abschweifen, umherziehen, spazieren, bummeln

roves - ausfasern, umherstreichen

avidiously - eifrig

devils - Teufeln; Teufel, Satan, Teufel, Teufel, Teufel, Teufelin

They will say: "Their 'honesty'"that is their devilry, and nothing else!" What does it matter! And even if they were right"have not all Gods hitherto been such sanctified, re-baptized devils? And after all, what do we know of ourselves? And what the spirit that leads us wants TO BE CALLED? (It is a question of names.) And how many spirits we harbour? Our honesty, we free spirits"let us be careful lest it become our vanity, our ornament and ostentation, our limitation, our stupidity! Every virtue inclines to stupidity, every stupidity to virtue; "stupid to the point of sanctity," they say in Russia,"let us be careful lest out of pure honesty we eventually become saints and bores! Is not life a hundred times too short for us"to bore ourselves? One would have to believe in eternal life in order to...

sanctified - geheiligt; heiligen

baptized - getauft; taufen, taufen

harbour - Hafen, Zufluchtsort

ornament - Verzierung; musikalische Verzierung

sanctity - Unantastbarkeit; Heiligkeit

Saints - Heilige; Sankt

bores - langweilig; (to bear fruit) Früchte tragen

228. I hope to be forgiven for discovering that all moral philosophy hitherto has been tedious and has belonged to the soporific appliances"and that "virtue," in my opinion, has been MORE injured by the TEDIOUSNESS of its advocates than by anything else; at the same time, however, I would not wish to overlook their general usefulness. It is desirable that as few people as possible should reflect upon morals, and consequently it is very desirable that morals should not some day become interesting! But let us not be afraid! Things still remain today as they have always been: I see no one in Europe who has (or DISCLOSES) an idea of the fact that philosophizing concerning morals might be conducted in a dangerous, captious, and ensnaring manner"that CALAMITY might be involved therein. Observe, for example, the indefatigable, inevitable English utilitarians: how ponderously and respectably they stalk on, stalk along (a Homeric metaphor expresses it better) in the footsteps of Bentham, just as he had already stalked in the footsteps of the respectable Helvetius! (no, he was not a dangerous man, Helvetius, CE SENATEUR POCOCURANTE, to use an expression of Galiani). No new thought, nothing of the nature of a finer turning or better expression of an old thought, not even a proper history of what has been previously thought on the subject: an IMPOSSIBLE literature, taking it all in all, unless one knows how to leaven it with some mischief. In effect, the old English vice called CANT, which is MORAL TARTUFFISM, has insinuated itself also into these moralists (whom one must certainly read with an eye to their motives if one MUST read them), concealed this time under the new form of the scientific spirit; moreover, there is not absent from them a secret struggle with the pangs of conscience, from which a race of former Puritans must naturally suffer, in all their scientific tinkering with morals.

forgiven - vergeben, verzeihen, entschuldigen

appliances - Geräte; Gerät

tediousness - Mühsamkeit; Langweiligkeit

overlook - Übersicht, Überblick, bemerken

conducted - durchgeführt; Leitung, Führung, leiten, führen, sich verhalten

ensnaring - umgarnen; fangen, verwickeln

calamity - Verhängnis; Unheil, Kalamität

indefatigable - unermüdlich

inevitable - unvermeidlich, unabwendbar, zwangsläufig

ponderously - nachdenklich

respectably - respektabel

stalk - jdn. belauern;Stiel , Stengel

stalked - gestalkt; jdn. belauern; Stiel, Stengel

Leaven - Sauerteig; Treibmittel, Triebmittel, Ferment

cant - nicht; kippen, verkanten

insinuated - angedeutet; andeuten, unterstellen, insinuieren, einschmeicheln

absent - (absent-minded) abwesend, geistesabwesend, unaufmerksam

pangs - Schmerzen; Stechen, Schmerz

Puritans - Puritaner; puritanisch

tinkering - flickend, bastelnd; (tinker); Kesselflicker, Kesselflickerin

(Is not a moralist the opposite of a Puritan? That is to say, as a thinker who regards morality as questionable, as worthy of interrogation, in short, as a problem? Is moralizing not-immoral?) In the end, they all want English morality to be recognized as authoritative, inasmuch as mankind, or the "general utility," or "the happiness of the greatest number,""no! the happiness of ENGLAND, will be best served thereby. They would like, by all means, to convince themselves that the striving after English happiness, I mean after COMFORT and FASHION (and in the highest instance, a seat in Parliament), is at the same time the true path of virtue; in fact, that in so far as there has been virtue in the world hitherto, it has just consisted in such striving. Not one of those ponderous, conscience-stricken herding-animals (who undertake to advocate the cause of egoism as conducive to the general welfare) wants to have any knowledge or inkling of the facts that the "general welfare" is no ideal, no goal, no notion that can be at all grasped, but is only a nostrum,"that what is fair to one MAY NOT at all be fair to another, that the requirement of one morality for all is really a detriment to higher men, in short, that there is a DISTINCTION OF RANK between man and man, and consequently between morality and morality. They are an unassuming and fundamentally mediocre species of men, these utilitarian Englishmen, and, as already remarked, in so far as they are tedious, one cannot think highly enough of their utility. One ought even to ENCOURAGE them, as has been partially attempted in the following rhymes:"

Parliament - Das Parlament; Parlament; Eulenschwarm

stricken - angeschlagen; ergriffen, heimgesucht, betroffen

undertake - unternehmen, ausführen, verpflichten

advocate - Befürworter; Rechtsanwalt, Rechtsanwältin, Verteidiger

egoism - Egoismus

conducive - förderlich

inkling - Andeutung

grasped - begriffen; greifen, erfassen, begreifen, verstehen, erfassen

nostrum - Patentrezept, Patentlösung

detriment - nachteilig; Schaden

remarked - bemerkt; bemerken; Anmerkung, Bemerkung

tedious - ermüdend, langweilig, langwierig, lästig

partially - teilweise, teils, zum Teil

attempted - Versucht; versuchen, Versuch, Bestreben

rhymes - Reimt sich; Reim, Reim, Reim, reimen (mit), reimen, reimen

hail, ye worthies, barrow-wheeling,

hail - jdm. zujubeln;(Hail to thee!) Wohl dir!, Sei gegrüßt!

Worthies - Würdenträger; würdig

barrow - Schubkarre; Hügel, Karre, Grabhügel, Tumulus

"Longer"better," aye revealing,

Aye - gewiss, Ja-Stimme

revealing - aufschlussreich; gewagt

Stiffer aye in head and knee;

stiffer - härter; steif, starr, steif, steif, Steifer, Zechpreller

Unenraptured, never jesting,

jesting - scherzend; (jest) scherzend

Mediocre everlasting,


genie - Dschinn, Djinn

229. In these later ages, which may be proud of their humanity, there still remains so much fear, so much SUPERSTITION of the fear, of the "cruel wild beast," the mastering of which constitutes the very pride of these humaner ages"that even obvious truths, as if by the agreement of centuries, have long remained unuttered, because they have the appearance of helping the finally slain wild beast back to life again. I perhaps risk something when I allow such a truth to escape; let others capture it again and give it so much "milk of pious sentiment" [FOOTNOTE: An expression from Schiller's William Tell, Act IV, Scene 3.] to drink, that it will lie down quiet and forgotten, in its old corner."One ought to learn anew about cruelty, and open one's eyes; one ought at last to learn impatience, in order that such immodest gross errors"as, for instance, have been fostered by ancient and modern philosophers with regard to tragedy"may no longer wander about virtuously and boldly. Almost everything that we call "higher culture" is based upon the spiritualising and intensifying of CRUELTY"this is my thesis; the "wild beast" has not been slain at all, it lives, it flourishes, it has only been"transfigured. That which constitutes the painful delight of tragedy is cruelty; that which operates agreeably in so-called tragic sympathy, and at the basis even of everything sublime, up to the highest and most delicate thrills of metaphysics, obtains its sweetness solely from the intermingled ingredient of cruelty. What the Roman enjoys in the arena, the Christian in the ecstasies of the cross, the Spaniard at the sight of the faggot and stake, or of the bull-fight, the present-day Japanese who presses his way to the tragedy, the workman of the Parisian suburbs who has a homesickness for bloody revolutions, the Wagnerienne who, with unhinged will, "undergoes" the performance of "Tristan and Isolde""what all these enjoy, and strive with mysterious ardour to drink in, is the philtre of the great Circe "cruelty." Here, to be sure, we must put aside entirely the blundering psychology of former times, which could only teach with regard to cruelty that it originated at the sight of the suffering of OTHERS: there is an abundant, super-abundant enjoyment even in one's own suffering, in causing one's own suffering"and wherever man has allowed himself to be persuaded to self-denial in the RELIGIOUS sense, or to self-mutilation, as among the Phoenicians and ascetics, or in general, to desensualisation, decarnalisation, and contrition, to Puritanical repentance-spasms, to vivisection of conscience and to Pascal-like SACRIFIZIA DELL'INTELLETO, he is secretly allured and impelled forwards by his cruelty, by the dangerous thrill of cruelty TOWARDS HIMSELF.

mastering - Bewältigung, Meisterung; (master); Bewältigung, Meisterung

unuttered - unausgesprochen

capture - erfassen; Fang, Festnahme, Gefangennahme, Erfassung

Schiller - Schiller

William - Wilhelm

immodest - unbescheiden

Gross - grob; brutto; brutto

wander - wandern; umherstreifen, umherstreichen, herumziehen, stromern

virtuously - tugendhaft

intensifying - intensifizieren, intensivieren

transfigured - verklärt; umgestalten

obtains - erhält; erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

sweetness - Süßigkeit; Süße

solely - nur; einzig und allein; ausschließlich, exklusiv, alleinig

intermingled - vermengt; vermischen

arena - Arena; Bühne

ecstasies - Ekstasen; Ekstase, Ekstase, Ekstase, Ecstasy, Teile, Pillen

Spaniard - Spanier, Spanierin

faggot - Schwuchtel; Brennholz, Scheit, Reisigbündel, Arschloch

Bull - Bulle, Stier

Japanese - japanisch; Japaner (Japanerin; Japanese ); Japanisch

workman - Handwerker; Arbeiter

Parisian - Pariser, Pariserin, pariserisch

suburbs - Vorstädte; Vorstadt, Vorort, Stadtteil, Bezirk, Stadtbezirk

homesickness - Heimweh, Nostalgie

bloody - blutig, blutbefleckt

revolutions - Revolutionen; Revolution, Revolution, Umdrehung, Revolution

unhinged - aus den Angeln gehoben; aus den Angeln heben

Undergoes - Unterzieht sich; durchmachen

Tristan - Tristan

ardour - Eifer; Begeisterung, Ăśberschwang, Hitze

philtre - Zaubergetränk

blundering - stolpern; pfuschend; (blunder); Patzer, Schnitzer, Fehler

originated - entstanden ist; entwickeln, erzeugen, entstehen, entspringen

Phoenicians - phönizisch, Phönizisch

desensualisation - Desensualisierung

decarnalisation - Entkarnalisierung

contrition - Reue, Zerknirschung, Zerknirschtheit

repentance - Reue

spasms - Krämpfe; Krampf, Muskelkrampf, Spasmus, Anfall, verkrampfen

impelled - angetrieben; antreiben, vorantreiben, treiben, nötigen

Finally, let us consider that even the seeker of knowledge operates as an artist and glorifier of cruelty, in that he compels his spirit to perceive AGAINST its own inclination, and often enough against the wishes of his heart:"he forces it to say Nay, where he would like to affirm, love, and adore; indeed, every instance of taking a thing profoundly and fundamentally, is a violation, an intentional injuring of the fundamental will of the spirit, which instinctively aims at appearance and superficiality,"even in every desire for knowledge there is a drop of cruelty.

seeker - Suchender, Sucher, Sucherin

glorifier - Verherrlicher

inclination - Neigung

adore - anbeten, verehren

intentional - vorsätzlich

aims at - bezweckt

230. Perhaps what I have said here about a "fundamental will of the spirit" may not be understood without further details; I may be allowed a word of explanation."That imperious something which is popularly called "the spirit," wishes to be master internally and externally, and to feel itself master; it has the will of a multiplicity for a simplicity, a binding, taming, imperious, and essentially ruling will. Its requirements and capacities here, are the same as those assigned by physiologists to everything that lives, grows, and multiplies. The power of the spirit to appropriate foreign elements reveals itself in a strong tendency to assimilate the new to the old, to simplify the manifold, to overlook or repudiate the absolutely contradictory; just as it arbitrarily re-underlines, makes prominent, and falsifies for itself certain traits and lines in the foreign elements, in every portion of the "outside world." Its object thereby is the incorporation of new "experiences," the assortment of new things in the old arrangements"in short, growth; or more properly, the FEELING of growth, the feeling of increased power"is its object. This same will has at its service an apparently opposed impulse of the spirit, a suddenly adopted preference of ignorance, of arbitrary shutting out, a closing of windows, an inner denial of this or that, a prohibition to approach, a sort of defensive attitude against much that is knowable, a contentment with obscurity, with the shutting-in horizon, an acceptance and approval of ignorance: as that which is all necessary according to the degree of its appropriating power, its "digestive power," to speak figuratively (and in fact "the spirit" resembles a stomach more than anything else). Here also belong an occasional propensity of the spirit to let itself be deceived (perhaps with a waggish suspicion that it is NOT so and so, but is only allowed to pass as such), a delight in uncertainty and ambiguity, an exulting enjoyment of arbitrary, out-of-the-way narrowness and mystery, of the too-near, of the foreground, of the magnified, the diminished, the misshapen, the beautified"an enjoyment of the arbitrariness of all these manifestations of power. Finally, in this connection, there is the not unscrupulous readiness of the spirit to deceive other spirits and dissemble before them"the constant pressing and straining of a creating, shaping, changeable power: the spirit enjoys therein its craftiness and its variety of disguises, it enjoys also its feeling of security therein"it is precisely by its Protean arts that it is best protected and concealed!"COUNTER TO this propensity for appearance, for simplification, for a disguise, for a cloak, in short, for an outside"for every outside is a cloak"there operates the sublime tendency of the man of knowledge, which takes, and INSISTS on taking things profoundly, variously, and thoroughly; as a kind of cruelty of the intellectual conscience and taste, which every courageous thinker will acknowledge in himself, provided, as it ought to be, that he has sharpened and hardened his eye sufficiently long for introspection, and is accustomed to severe discipline and even severe words.

further details - nähere Auskünfte

internally - innerbetrieblich

externally - Extern

simplicity - Einfachheit

binding - verbindlich; Bindung; (bind); binden; verbinden, konnektieren

taming - zähmend; (tam) zähmend

capacities - Kapazitäten; Kapazität, Befugnis

assimilate - assimilieren

simplify - vereinfachen; sich vereinfachen, einfacher werden

contradictory - widersprüchlich

underlines - unterstreicht; Unterstreichung, Unterstrich, unterstreichen

falsifies - fälscht; falsifizieren, widerlegen

incorporation - Eingliederung; Angliederung, Verbindung, Vereinigung

assortment - Sortiment, Auswahl

preference - Präferenz, Bevorzugung, Vorliebe; Einstellung

prohibition - Verbot

knowable - kenntlich

contentment - Zufriedenheit, Genügsamkeit

obscurity - Dunkelheit, Unklarheit

horizon - Horizont

acceptance - Akzeptanz; Annahme; Vertrag

appropriating - angebracht, angemessen, passend, angebracht, angemessen

digestive - verdauungsfördernd; digestiv

figuratively - im übertragenen Sinne

occasional - gelegentlich, okkasionell

propensity - Neigung, Tendenz

be deceived - sich täuschen lassen, sich irren (in)

waggish - waghalsig

ambiguity - Ambiguität, Mehrdeutigkeit, Doppeldeutigkeit, Zweideutigkeit

exulting - jubelnd; jubeln, jauchzen

foreground - im Vordergrund; Vordergrund

magnified - vergrößert; vergrößern

diminished - vermindert; vermindern, verkleinern, reduzieren, verringern

beautified - verschönert; verschönern, ausschmücken

manifestations - Manifestationen; Manifestation, Erscheinung

changeable - veränderbar; änderbar, veränderlich, wechselhaft, wandelbar

Protean - vielgestaltig, proteisch, proteusartig

cloak - Umhang, Pelerine, Deckmantel, verhüllen

variously - vielfältig

acknowledge - zur Kenntnis nehmen, erkennen, bekennen, anerkennen

hardened - abgehärtet; härten, verhärten, abhärten

He will say: "There is something cruel in the tendency of my spirit": let the virtuous and amiable try to convince him that it is not so! In fact, it would sound nicer, if, instead of our cruelty, perhaps our "extravagant honesty" were talked about, whispered about, and glorified"we free, VERY free spirits"and some day perhaps SUCH will actually be our"posthumous glory! Meanwhile"for there is plenty of time until then"we should be least inclined to deck ourselves out in such florid and fringed moral verbiage; our whole former work has just made us sick of this taste and its sprightly exuberance. They are beautiful, glistening, jingling, festive words: honesty, love of truth, love of wisdom, sacrifice for knowledge, heroism of the truthful"there is something in them that makes one's heart swell with pride. But we anchorites and marmots have long ago persuaded ourselves in all the secrecy of an anchorite's conscience, that this worthy parade of verbiage also belongs to the old false adornment, frippery, and gold-dust of unconscious human vanity, and that even under such flattering colour and repainting, the terrible original text HOMO NATURA must again be recognized. In effect, to translate man back again into nature; to master the many vain and visionary interpretations and subordinate meanings which have hitherto been scratched and daubed over the eternal original text, HOMO NATURA; to bring it about that man shall henceforth stand before man as he now, hardened by the discipline of science, stands before the OTHER forms of nature, with fearless Oedipus-eyes, and stopped Ulysses-ears, deaf to the enticements of old metaphysical bird-catchers, who have piped to him far too long: "Thou art more! thou art higher! thou hast a different origin!""this may be a strange and foolish task, but that it is a TASK, who can deny! Why did we choose it, this foolish task? Or, to put the question differently: "Why knowledge at all?" Every one will ask us about this. And thus pressed, we, who have asked ourselves the question a hundred times, have not found and cannot find any better answer....

whispered - geflüstert; Geflüster

glorified - verherrlicht; verherrlichen, glorifizieren, verklären, anbeten

posthumous - posthum

deck - Verdeck ;jdm. eine knallen

fringed - ausgefranst; Franse, Saum, Einfassung, Rand, Peripherie

verbiage - Wortwahl; Wortschwall

sprightly - rüstig; lebhaft

glistening - glitzern, glänzen, gleißen

jingling - Klirren; Jingle

festive - festlich

heroism - Heldenmut, Heroismus, Heldentum

swell - anschwellen; Schwellen

marmots - Murmeltiere; Murmeltier

anchorite - Anchorman; Anachoret, Eremit, Klausner, Einsiedler

parade - stolzieren; Exerzierplatz, Korso, Aufzug

frippery - wertloses Zeug, Firlefanz

flattering - Schmeichelhaft; schmeicheln

repainting - übermalend; (repaint); neu streichen

original text - Urschrift

subordinate - untergeordnet, nachgeordnet, Untergebene, Befehlsempfänger

meanings - Bedeutungen; Bedeutung, Sinn

scratched - zerkratzt; kratzen, kratzen, zerkratzen, verkratzen, Kratzer

daubed - beschmiert; Lehmbewurf, Lehmverstrich, Strohlehm, Kleckserei

fearless - furchtlos

deaf - taub, gehörlos, die gehörlos

enticements - Verlockungen; Verlockung, Abwerben, Abspenstigmachen

catchers - Fänger, Catcher, Catcherin, Fänger, Fängerin

231. Learning alters us, it does what all nourishment does that does not merely "conserve""as the physiologist knows. But at the bottom of our souls, quite "down below," there is certainly something unteachable, a granite of spiritual fate, of predetermined decision and answer to predetermined, chosen questions. In each cardinal problem there speaks an unchangeable "I am this"; a thinker cannot learn anew about man and woman, for instance, but can only learn fully"he can only follow to the end what is "fixed" about them in himself. Occasionally we find certain solutions of problems which make strong beliefs for us; perhaps they are henceforth called "convictions." Later on"one sees in them only footsteps to self-knowledge, guide-posts to the problem which we ourselves ARE"or more correctly to the great stupidity which we embody, our spiritual fate, the UNTEACHABLE in us, quite "down below.

alters - ändert; verändern, ändern, wandeln, modifizieren, abändern

physiologist - Physiologe, Physiologin

unteachable - Unbelehrbar

predetermined - vorbestimmt; vorbestimmen, vorherbestimmen

unchangeable - unveränderlich

convictions - Überzeugungen; Überzeugung, Verurteilung

embody - verkörpern

"In view of this liberal compliment which I have just paid myself, permission will perhaps be more readily allowed me to utter some truths about "woman as she is," provided that it is known at the outset how literally they are merely"MY truths.

liberal - freiheitlich; liberal; Liberaler

compliment - Kompliment, Lob, Anerkennung, Achtungsbezeugung

literally - buchstäblich

232. Woman wishes to be independent, and therefore she begins to enlighten men about "woman as she is""THIS is one of the worst developments of the general UGLIFYING of Europe. For what must these clumsy attempts of feminine scientificality and self-exposure bring to light! Woman has so much cause for shame; in woman there is so much pedantry, superficiality, schoolmasterliness, petty presumption, unbridledness, and indiscretion concealed"study only woman's behaviour towards children!"which has really been best restrained and dominated hitherto by the FEAR of man. Alas, if ever the "eternally tedious in woman""she has plenty of it!"is allowed to venture forth! if she begins radically and on principle to unlearn her wisdom and art-of charming, of playing, of frightening away sorrow, of alleviating and taking easily; if she forgets her delicate aptitude for agreeable desires! Female voices are already raised, which, by Saint Aristophanes! make one afraid:"with medical explicitness it is stated in a threatening manner what woman first and last REQUIRES from man. Is it not in the very worst taste that woman thus sets herself up to be scientific? Enlightenment hitherto has fortunately been men's affair, men's gift"we remained therewith "among ourselves"; and in the end, in view of all that women write about "woman," we may well have considerable doubt as to whether woman really DESIRES enlightenment about herself"and CAN desire it.

enlighten - aufklären

scientificality - Wissenschaftlichkeit

exposure - Exposition; Kontakt, Einwirkung, Lage, Witterung, Belichtung

pedantry - Pedanterie

schoolmasterliness - Schulmeisterlichkeit

unbridledness - Zügellosigkeit

restrained - zurückhaltend; zurückhalten

dominated - beherrscht; herrschen (über), emporragen (über); beherrschen

on principle - aus Prinzip

unlearn - umlernen, verlernen, verlerne, anders lernen

sorrow - Kummer, Traurigkeit, Trauer, Sorge

alleviating - Erleichterung; mildern, lindern, abschwächen

explicitness - Eindeutigkeit

If woman does not thereby seek a new ORNAMENT for herself"I believe ornamentation belongs to the eternally feminine?"why, then, she wishes to make herself feared: perhaps she thereby wishes to get the mastery. But she does not want truth"what does woman care for truth? From the very first, nothing is more foreign, more repugnant, or more hostile to woman than truth"her great art is falsehood, her chief concern is appearance and beauty. Let us confess it, we men: we honour and love this very art and this very instinct in woman: we who have the hard task, and for our recreation gladly seek the company of beings under whose hands, glances, and delicate follies, our seriousness, our gravity, and profundity appear almost like follies to us. Finally, I ask the question: Did a woman herself ever acknowledge profundity in a woman's mind, or justice in a woman's heart? And is it not true that on the whole "woman" has hitherto been most despised by woman herself, and not at all by us?"We men desire that woman should not continue to compromise herself by enlightening us; just as it was man's care and the consideration for woman, when the church decreed: mulier taceat in ecclesia. It was to the benefit of woman when Napoleon gave the too eloquent Madame de Stael to understand: mulier taceat in politicis!"and in my opinion, he is a true friend of woman who calls out to women today: mulier taceat de mulierel.

ornamentation - Ausschmückung

more hostile - feindlichere

chief - Häuptling, Oberhaupt, Chef

recreation - Freizeitgestaltung; Wiederherstellung, Erholung

gladly - gerne; gern

most despised - ungeachtetste

compromise - Kompromiss, Ausgleich, sich einigen, eine Abmachung machen

enlightening - erhellend; aufklären

eloquent - wortgewandt

233. It betrays corruption of the instincts"apart from the fact that it betrays bad taste"when a woman refers to Madame Roland, or Madame de Stael, or Monsieur George Sand, as though something were proved thereby in favour of "woman as she is." Among men, these are the three comical women as they are"nothing more!"and just the best involuntary counter-arguments against feminine emancipation and autonomy.

corruption - Korruption; Verderbnis, Verdorbenheit, Verkommenheit

George - Georg

autonomy - Autonomie

234. Stupidity in the kitchen; woman as cook; the terrible thoughtlessness with which the feeding of the family and the master of the house is managed! Woman does not understand what food means, and she insists on being cook! If woman had been a thinking creature, she should certainly, as cook for thousands of years, have discovered the most important physiological facts, and should likewise have got possession of the healing art!

Through bad female cooks"through the entire lack of reason in the kitchen"the development of mankind has been longest retarded and most interfered with: even today matters are very little better. A word to High School girls.

retarded - zurückgeblieben; Verzögerung, Verspätung, verhindern

interfered - eingemischt; eingreifen, einmischen

235. There are turns and casts of fancy, there are sentences, little handfuls of words, in which a whole culture, a whole society suddenly crystallises itself. Among these is the incidental remark of Madame de Lambert to her son: "MON AMI, NE VOUS PERMETTEZ JAMAIS QUE DES FOLIES, QUI VOUS FERONT GRAND PLAISIR""the motherliest and wisest remark, by the way, that was ever addressed to a son.

casts - gießt; werfen, wegwerfen, hinwerfen, gießen, Cast, Besetzung

handfuls - Handvoll, Handbreite, Handvoll

crystallises - kristallisiert; kristallisieren

incidental remark - Zwischenbemerkung

Lambert - Lambrecht

ne - NO Nordost(en)

motherliest - am mütterlichsten; mütterlich

wisest - am weisesten; klug, vernünftig

236. I have no doubt that every noble woman will oppose what Dante and Goethe believed about woman"the former when he sang, "ELLA GUARDAVA SUSO, ED IO IN LEI," and the latter when he interpreted it, "the eternally feminine draws us ALOFT"; for THIS is just what she believes of the eternally masculine.

oppose - ablehnen; widersprechen

Ella - Ella

Io - Io, Io


How the longest ennui flees, When a man comes to our knees!

ennui - Langeweile, Apathie, Depression, Melancholie

flees - flieht; fliehen, flüchten, fliehen, entfliehen, flüchten

Age, alas! and science staid, Furnish even weak virtue aid.

Sombre garb and silence meet: Dress for every dame"discreet.

sombre - dunkel, düster, finster, trübe, matt

garb - Gewandung; Tracht, Gewand

Dame - Dame

discreet - diskret

Whom I thank when in my bliss? God!"and my good tailoress!

tailoress - Schneiderin

Young, a flower-decked cavern home; Old, a dragon thence doth roam.

decked - ausstaffiert; Verdeck; jdm. eine knallen

cavern - Höhle; große; Kaverne

Dragon - Drachen, Drache

thence - von dort aus; daher

roam - durchstreifen; wandern, umherziehen

Noble title, leg that's fine, Man as well: Oh, were HE mine!

Speech in brief and sense in mass"Slippery for the jenny-ass!

brief - kurz; prägnant; kurze Zusammenfassung; briefen, instruieren

ass - Arsch, Esel, Dummkopf

slippery - schlüpfrig; rutschig, glitschig, aalglatt

237A. Woman has hitherto been treated by men like birds, which, losing their way, have come down among them from an elevation: as something delicate, fragile, wild, strange, sweet, and animating"but as something also which must be cooped up to prevent it flying away.

animating - lebendig, beseelt, bewegt, lebhaft, belebt, beleben, animieren

cooped - eingesperrt; Konsumverein

flying away - (fly away) verfliegen

238. To be mistaken in the fundamental problem of "man and woman," to deny here the profoundest antagonism and the necessity for an eternally hostile tension, to dream here perhaps of equal rights, equal training, equal claims and obligations: that is a TYPICAL sign of shallow-mindedness; and a thinker who has proved himself shallow at this dangerous spot"shallow in instinct!"may generally be regarded as suspicious, nay more, as betrayed, as discovered; he will probably prove too "short" for all fundamental questions of life, future as well as present, and will be unable to descend into ANY of the depths. On the other hand, a man who has depth of spirit as well as of desires, and has also the depth of benevolence which is capable of severity and harshness, and easily confounded with them, can only think of woman as ORIENTALS do: he must conceive of her as a possession, as confinable property, as a being predestined for service and accomplishing her mission therein"he must take his stand in this matter upon the immense rationality of Asia, upon the superiority of the instinct of Asia, as the Greeks did formerly; those best heirs and scholars of Asia"who, as is well known, with their INCREASING culture and amplitude of power, from Homer to the time of Pericles, became gradually STRICTER towards woman, in short, more Oriental.

mindedness - Verstand

descend - absteigen, niedergehen, herunterkommen, herabsteigen

benevolence - Wohlwollen; Gutmütigkeit

Orientals - Orientalen; orientalisch, Orientale, östlich

confinable - einschränkbar

accomplishing - zu erreichen; vollenden, vollenden, vollenden, vollenden

stricter - strenger; streng, streng

HOW necessary, HOW logical, even HOW humanely desirable this was, let us consider for ourselves!

239. The weaker sex has in no previous age been treated with so much respect by men as at present"this belongs to the tendency and fundamental taste of democracy, in the same way as disrespectfulness to old age"what wonder is it that abuse should be immediately made of this respect? They want more, they learn to make claims, the tribute of respect is at last felt to be well-nigh galling; rivalry for rights, indeed actual strife itself, would be preferred: in a word, woman is losing modesty. And let us immediately add that she is also losing taste. She is unlearning to FEAR man: but the woman who "unlearns to fear" sacrifices her most womanly instincts. That woman should venture forward when the fear-inspiring quality in man"or more definitely, the MAN in man"is no longer either desired or fully developed, is reasonable enough and also intelligible enough; what is more difficult to understand is that precisely thereby"woman deteriorates. This is what is happening nowadays: let us not deceive ourselves about it! Wherever the industrial spirit has triumphed over the military and aristocratic spirit, woman strives for the economic and legal independence of a clerk: "woman as clerkess" is inscribed on the portal of the modern society which is in course of formation. While she thus appropriates new rights, aspires to be "master," and inscribes "progress" of woman on her flags and banners, the very opposite realises itself with terrible obviousness: WOMAN RETROGRADES. Since the French Revolution the influence of woman in Europe has DECLINED in proportion as she has increased her rights and claims; and the "emancipation of woman," insofar as it is desired and demanded by women themselves (and not only by masculine shallow-pates), thus proves to be a remarkable symptom of the increased weakening and deadening of the most womanly instincts. There is STUPIDITY in this movement, an almost masculine stupidity, of which a well-reared woman"who is always a sensible woman"might be heartily ashamed. To lose the intuition as to the ground upon which she can most surely achieve victory; to neglect exercise in the use of her proper weapons; to let-herself-go before man, perhaps even "to the book," where formerly she kept herself in control and in refined, artful humility; to neutralize with her virtuous audacity man's faith in a VEILED, fundamentally different ideal in woman, something eternally, necessarily feminine; to emphatically and loquaciously dissuade man from the idea that woman must be preserved, cared for, protected, and indulged, like some delicate, strangely wild, and often pleasant domestic animal; the clumsy and indignant collection of everything of the nature of servitude and bondage which the position of woman in the hitherto existing order of society has entailed and still entails (as though slavery were a counter-argument, and not rather a condition of every higher culture, of every elevation of culture):"what does all this betoken, if not a disintegration of womanly instincts, a defeminising?

democracy - Demokratie, Volksherrschaft

disrespectfulness - Unehrerbietigkeit

tribute - Tribut

nigh - naht; nahe, nah bei, beinahe, nahezu

galling - ärgerlich; (gal); ärgerlich

strife - Streit, Unfriede

unlearning - umlernen, verlernen, verlerne, anders lernen

unlearns - umlernen, verlernen, verlerne, anders lernen

most womanly - fraulichste

fully developed - voll ausgebaut

deteriorates - verschlechtert; verschlechtern, verschlechtern

industrial - industriell, Industrie

strives for - eifert

clerkess - Sachbearbeiterin

inscribed - eingeschrieben; beschriften

portal - Portal

formation - Bildung

appropriates - aneignet; angebracht, angemessen, passend, angebracht

aspires - anstrebt; streben, hoffen

inscribes - einschreibt; beschriften

banners - Banner, Fahne, Spruchbanner

realises - merkt; erfassen, (Gewinn) erzielen, zu Geld machen

obviousness - Offensichtlichkeit

Retrogrades - RETROGRADEN; zurückgehen; rückläufig

declined - abgelehnt; Sinken

deadening - Abstumpfung; abstumpfend, abtötend; (deaden); abtöten

victory - Sieg

humility - Bescheidenheit, Demut

neutralize - neutralisieren

loquaciously - geschwätzig

dissuade - abschrecken; abbringen, abraten

indulged - verwöhnt; nachgeben, erliegen, frönen, hätscheln, verwöhnen

domestic animal - Haustier

servitude - Knechtschaft; Dienstbarkeit

entailed - mit sich bringt; nach sich ziehen

entails - mit sich bringt; nach sich ziehen

disintegration - Zersetzung; Zerfall

defeminising - defeminierend

Certainly, there are enough of idiotic friends and corrupters of woman among the learned asses of the masculine sex, who advise woman to defeminize herself in this manner, and to imitate all the stupidities from which "man" in Europe, European "manliness," suffers,"who would like to lower woman to "general culture," indeed even to newspaper reading and meddling with politics. Here and there they wish even to make women into free spirits and literary workers: as though a woman without piety would not be something perfectly obnoxious or ludicrous to a profound and godless man;"almost everywhere her nerves are being ruined by the most morbid and dangerous kind of music (our latest German music), and she is daily being made more hysterical and more incapable of fulfilling her first and last function, that of bearing robust children. They wish to "cultivate" her in general still more, and intend, as they say, to make the "weaker sex" STRONG by culture: as if history did not teach in the most emphatic manner that the "cultivating" of mankind and his weakening"that is to say, the weakening, dissipating, and languishing of his FORCE OF WILL"have always kept pace with one another, and that the most powerful and influential women in the world (and lastly, the mother of Napoleon) had just to thank their force of will"and not their schoolmasters"for their power and ascendancy over men. That which inspires respect in woman, and often enough fear also, is her NATURE, which is more "natural" than that of man, her genuine, carnivora-like, cunning flexibility, her tiger-claws beneath the glove, her NAIVETE in egoism, her untrainableness and innate wildness, the incomprehensibleness, extent, and deviation of her desires and virtues. That which, in spite of fear, excites one's sympaThy for the dangerous and beautiful cat, "woman," is that she seems more afflicted, more vulnerable, more necessitous of love, and more condemned to disillusionment than any other creature. Fear and sympathy it is with these feelings that man has hitherto stood in the presence of woman, always with one foot already in tragedy, which rends while it delights"What? And all that is now to be at an end? And the DISENCHANTMENT of woman is in progress? The tediousness of woman is slowly evolving? Oh Europe! Europe! We know the horned animal which was always most attractive to thee, from which danger is ever again threatening thee! Thy old fable might once more become "history""an immense stupidity might once again overmaster thee and carry thee away! And no God concealed beneath it"no! only an "idea," a "modern idea"!

asses - Ärsche; Dummköpfe, Esel; (ass) Ärsche; Dummköpfe, Esel

defeminize - entweiblichen

stupidities - Dummheiten; Dummheit, Dummheit

meddling - Einmischung; einmischen

obnoxious - unausstehlich

ruined - ruiniert; Ruine, Ruin, Ruin, ruinieren, auf die Knie zwingen

morbid - morbide; morbid; krankhaft

more hysterical - aufgelöstere

fulfilling - erfüllend, ableistend, füllend; (fulfil) erfüllend, ableistend

robust - robust

cultivate - kultivieren, anbauen, pflegen, bestellen

emphatic - nachdrücklich; emphatisch

cultivating - kultivieren, anbauen, kultivieren, pflegen, bestellen

dissipating - zerstreuen, zerteilen, verscheuchen, lösen, abbauen

languishing - schmachtend, ermattend; (languish); ermatten, erschlaffen

influential - einflussreich

Lastly - Und schließlich; schließlich, zuletzt

inspires - inspiriert; inspirieren, inspirieren, beatmen, einhauchen

carnivora - Fleischfresser

cunning - gerissen; schlau, clever, süß, niedlich

flexibility - Flexibilität

tiger - Tiger

claws - Krallen; zerkratzen; Kralle, Fang (Vogelkralle), Klaue

untrainableness - Untrainierbarkeit

wildness - Wildheit, Wildsein, Ungezähmtheit

incomprehensibleness - Unbegreiflichkeit; Unverständlichkeiten

deviation - Abweichung, Abweichen, Übertretung, Verfehlung, Sünde

thy - deine; dein

afflicted - behaftet; bekümmern

vulnerable - verwundbar

more condemned - verdammtere

disillusionment - Desillusionierung, Enttäuschung, Ernüchterung

rends - zerreißen

delights - Köstlichkeiten; Freude, Entzückung, Wohlgefallen

disenchantment - Entzauberung, Entzaubern, Desillusionierung

horned - gehörnt; Horn

most attractive - attraktivste

fable - Fabel; fabulieren

overmaster - beherrschen; überwältigen, bezwingen


240. I HEARD, once again for the first time, Richard Wagner's overture to the Mastersinger: it is a piece of magnificent, gorgeous, heavy, latter-day art, which has the pride to presuppose two centuries of music as still living, in order that it may be understood:"it is an honour to Germans that such a pride did not miscalculate! What flavours and forces, what seasons and climes do we not find mingled in it! It impresses us at one time as ancient, at another time as foreign, bitter, and too modern, it is as arbitrary as it is pompously traditional, it is not infrequently roguish, still oftener rough and coarse"it has fire and courage, and at the same time the loose, dun-coloured skin of fruits which ripen too late. It flows broad and full: and suddenly there is a moment of inexplicable hesitation, like a gap that opens between cause and effect, an oppression that makes us dream, almost a nightmare; but already it broadens and widens anew, the old stream of delight"the most manifold delight,"of old and new happiness; including ESPECIALLY the joy of the artist in himself, which he refuses to conceal, his astonished, happy cognizance of his mastery of the expedients here employed, the new, newly acquired, imperfectly tested expedients of art which he apparently betrays to us.

overture - Angebot, Annäherungsversuch, Offerte, Ouvertüre

Mastersinger - Meistersinger

gorgeous - fantastisch, großartig, herrlich, hinreißend

presuppose - erfordern, voraussetzen

miscalculate - sich verkalkulieren; missrechnen

flavours - Geschmacksrichtungen; Geschmack, Aroma, Sorte

climes - Klimazonen; Gegend

impresses - beeindruckt; beeindrucken, prägen

roguish - schurkisch; skrupellos, gewissenlos, spitzbübisch, verschmitzt

dun - mahnen

ripen - reifen; ausreifen

broadens - ausweitet; weiten

widens - ausweitet; erman: sich weiten, erweitern, weiten, erweitern

refuses - verweigert; Müll; abweisen, verweigern, abschlagen, ablehnen

astonished - erstaunt; erstaunen

expedients - Hilfsmittel; angebracht, opportun, hilfreich, passend

All in all, however, no beauty, no South, nothing of the delicate southern clearness of the sky, nothing of grace, no dance, hardly a will to logic; a certain clumsiness even, which is also emphasized, as though the artist wished to say to us: "It is part of my intention"; a cumbersome drapery, something arbitrarily barbaric and ceremonious, a flirring of learned and venerable conceits and witticisms; something German in the best and worst sense of the word, something in the German style, manifold, formless, and inexhaustible; a certain German potency and super-plenitude of soul, which is not afraid to hide itself under the RAFFINEMENTS of decadence"which, perhaps, feels itself most at ease there; a real, genuine token of the German soul, which is at the same time young and aged, too ripe and yet still too rich in futurity. This kind of music expresses best what I think of the Germans: they belong to the day before yesterday and the day after tomorrow"THEY HAVE AS YET NO TODAY.

clearness - Klarheit; Ăśbersichtlichkeit, Deutlichkeit

cumbersome - umständlich

barbaric - barbarisch

flirring - Flirten

venerable - ehrwürdig, geschätzt, respektabel, verehrenswert

witticisms - Witzeleien; (guter) Spruch, geflügeltes Wort

formless - formlos

potency - Zeugungskraft, Macht, Potenz

plenitude - Fülle

decadence - Dekadenz

token - Zeichen, Symbol, Andenken, Souvenir, Erinnerung, Jeton

ripe - reif

futurity - Zukunft

241. We "good Europeans," we also have hours when we allow ourselves a warm-hearted patriotism, a plunge and relapse into old loves and narrow views"I have just given an example of it"hours of national excitement, of patriotic anguish, and all other sorts of old-fashioned floods of sentiment. Duller spirits may perhaps only get done with what confines its operations in us to hours and plays itself out in hours"in a considerable time: some in half a year, others in half a lifetime, according to the speed and strength with which they digest and "change their material." Indeed, I could think of sluggish, hesitating races, which even in our rapidly moving Europe, would require half a century ere they could surmount such atavistic attacks of patriotism and soil-attachment, and return once more to reason, that is to say, to "good Europeanism." And while digressing on this possibility, I happen to become an ear-witness of a conversation between two old patriots"they were evidently both hard of hearing and consequently spoke all the louder. "HE has as much, and knows as much, philosophy as a peasant or a corps-student," said the one""he is still innocent. But what does that matter nowadays! It is the age of the masses: they lie on their belly before everything that is massive. And so also in politicis. A statesman who rears up for them a new Tower of Babel, some monstrosity of empire and power, they call 'great'"what does it matter that we more prudent and conservative ones do not meanwhile give up the old belief that it is only the great thought that gives greatness to an action or affair. Supposing a statesman were to bring his people into the position of being obliged henceforth to practise 'high politics,'for which they were by nature badly endowed and prepared, so that they would have to sacrifice their old and reliable virtues, out of love to a new and doubtful mediocrity;"supposing a statesman were to condemn his people generally to 'practise politics,'when they have hitherto had something better to do and think about, and when in the depths of their souls they have been unable to free themselves from a prudent loathing of the restlessness, emptiness, and noisy wranglings of the essentially politics-practising nations;"supposing such a statesman were to stimulate the slumbering passions and avidities of his people, were to make a stigma out of their former diffidence and delight in aloofness, an offence out of their exoticism and hidden permanency, were to depreciate their most radical proclivities, subvert their consciences, make their minds narrow, and their tastes 'national'"what!

patriotism - Patriotismus

plunge - stürzen; eintauchen, tauchen

relapse - zurückfallen; sich verschlimmern, sich verschlechtern, Rückfall

patriotic - patriotisch

duller - stumpfer; stumpf, fad, langweilig, matt, stumpf, blöd, blöde

confines - Grenzen; beschränken, Begrenzung

lifetime - Leben, Lebensdauer, Lebenszeit, Ewigkeit

digest - digerieren, verdauen; Ăśbersicht; (dig) digerieren

sluggish - träge; faul, schwach, inaktiv, lustlos

rapidly - schnell

ere - hier

surmount - überwinden

atavistic - atavistisch

attachment - Attachment, Anhang, Dateianhang, Anlage

Europeanism - Europäismus

digressing - Abschweifend; abgehen, abschweifen, ausschweifen

witness - Zeugnis; Zeuge, Zeugin, bezeugen, erman: Zeuge sein

patriots - Patrioten; Patriot, Patriotin, Vaterlandsfreund

peasant - arm

masses - Massen; Messe (kirchlich), Gottesdienst, Menge

statesman - Staatsmann

rears - Hinten; Hinter.., hinterster, Heck, Rück..

babel - Stimmengewirr

monstrosity - Monstrosität, Monstrum, Ungeheuer, Ungeheuerlichkeit

more prudent - besonnenere

condemn - verurteilen; verdammen, für abrissreif erklären

restlessness - Ruhelosigkeit, Unruhe

emptiness - Leere, Leerheit

wranglings - Zankereien

stimulate - anregen; stimulieren

slumbering - schlummernd; (slumber); Halbschlaf, Schlummer, Schläfchen

avidities - Vorlieben; Avidität

stigma - Brandmal, Schandmal

offence - Vergehen; Angriff, Verstoß (gegen), Beleidigung

exoticism - Exotik; Exot

permanency - Dauerhaftigkeit; Dauerstellung

depreciate - an Wert verlieren; herabsetzen; abschreiben; abwerten

most radical - radikalste

proclivities - Veranlagungen; Hang, Vorliebe, Schwäche, Neigung

subvert - unterwandern; zerrütten

a statesman who should do all this, which his people would have to do penance for throughout their whole future, if they had a future, such a statesman would be GREAT, would he?"""Undoubtedly!" replied the other old patriot vehemently, "otherwise he COULD NOT have done it! It was mad perhaps to wish such a thing! But perhaps everything great has been just as mad at its commencement!"""Misuse of words!" cried his interlocutor, contradictorily""strong! strong! Strong and mad! NOT great!""The old men had obviously become heated as they thus shouted their "truths" in each other's faces, but I, in my happiness and apartness, considered how soon a stronger one may become master of the strong, and also that there is a compensation for the intellectual superficialising of a nation"namely, in the deepening of another.

patriot - Patriot, Patriotin, Vaterlandsfreund, Vaterlandsfreundin

vehemently - vehement

interlocutor - Gesprächspartner

contradictorily - widersprüchlich

apartness - Eigenständigkeit

compensation - Entschädigung; Abfindung, Kompensation, Ausgleich, Ersatz

deepening - Vertiefung; aushölen, vertiefen, zunehmen, vergrößern

242. Whether we call it "civilization," or "humanising," or "progress," which now distinguishes the European, whether we call it simply, without praise or blame, by the political formula the DEMOCRATIC movement in Europe"behind all the moral and political foregrounds pointed to by such formulas, an immense PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS goes on, which is ever extending the process of the assimilation of Europeans, their increasing detachment from the conditions under which, climatically and hereditarily, united races originate, their increasing independence of every definite milieu, that for centuries would fain inscribe itself with equal demands on soul and body,"that is to say, the slow emergence of an essentially SUPER-NATIONAL and nomadic species of man, who possesses, physiologically speaking, a maximum of the art and power of adaptation as his typical distinction. This process of the EVOLVING EUROPEAN, which can be retarded in its TEMPO by great relapses, but will perhaps just gain and grow thereby in vehemence and depth"the still-raging storm and stress of "national sentiment" pertains to it, and also the anarchism which is appearing at present"this process will probably arrive at results on which its naive propagators and panegyrists, the apostles of "modern ideas," would least care to reckon.

distinguishes - auszeichnet; unterscheiden, erkennen, auszeichnen

formulas - Formeln; Formel, Formel, Rezept

extending - erweitern, ausdehnen, erweitern, ausdehnen, ausweiten

detachment - Abtrennung; Militäreinheit, Trennung, Abteilung

climatically - klimatisch

milieu - Milieu

emergence - Auftauchen; Emergenz

nomadic - nomadisch

maximum - Maximum, höchstmöglich, maximal

adaptation - Anpassung; Kompromiss, Ad­ap­ta­ti­on, Bearbeitung

relapses - Rückfälle; zurückfallen, sich verschlimmern

vehemence - Heftigkeit, Vehemenz

raging - wütend; Wut, Zorn, Raserei, Rage, wüten, rasen, toben, toben

anarchism - Anarchismus

naive - unbefangen, naiv, blauäugig

propagators - Vermehrer; Verbreiter

panegyrists - Panegyriker; Lobredner

apostles - Apostel

The same new conditions under which on an average a levelling and mediocrising of man will take place"a useful, industrious, variously serviceable, and clever gregarious man"are in the highest degree suitable to give rise to exceptional men of the most dangerous and attractive qualities. For, while the capacity for adaptation, which is every day trying changing conditions, and begins a new work with every generation, almost with every decade, makes the POWERFULNESS of the type impossible; while the collective impression of such future Europeans will probably be that of numerous, talkative, weak-willed, and very handy workmen who REQUIRE a master, a commander, as they require their daily bread; while, therefore, the democratising of Europe will tend to the production of a type prepared for SLAVERY in the most subtle sense of the term: the STRONG man will necessarily in individual and exceptional cases, become stronger and richer than he has perhaps ever been before"owing to the unprejudicedness of his schooling, owing to the immense variety of practice, art, and disguise. I meant to say that the democratising of Europe is at the same time an involuntary arrangement for the rearing of TYRANTS"taking the word in all its meanings, even in its most spiritual sense.

Powerfulness - MÄCHTIGKEIT; Stärke

numerous - zahlreich, vielzählig

talkative - gesprächig, redselig, geschwätzig

handy - praktisch; griffig, nützlich

workmen - Handwerker; Arbeiter

unprejudicedness - Unvoreingenommenheit

243. I hear with pleasure that our sun is moving rapidly towards the constellation Hercules: and I hope that the men on this earth will do like the sun. And we foremost, we good Europeans!

constellation - Sternbild, Asterismus, Konstellation, Sternzeichen

Hercules - Herkules, Herkules

244. There was a time when it was customary to call Germans "deep" by way of distinction; but now that the most successful type of new Germanism is covetous of quite other honours, and perhaps misses "smartness" in all that has depth, it is almost opportune and patriotic to doubt whether we did not formerly deceive ourselves with that commendation: in short, whether German depth is not at bottom something different and worse"and something from which, thank God, we are on the point of successfully ridding ourselves. Let us try, then, to relearn with regard to German depth; the only thing necessary for the purpose is a little vivisection of the German soul."The German soul is above all manifold, varied in its source, aggregated and super-imposed, rather than actually built: this is owing to its origin. A German who would embolden himself to assert: "Two souls, alas, dwell in my breast," would make a bad guess at the truth, or, more correctly, he would come far short of the truth about the number of souls. As a people made up of the most extraordinary mixing and mingling of races, perhaps even with a preponderance of the pre-Aryan element as the "people of the centre" in every sense of the term, the Germans are more intangible, more ample, more contradictory, more unknown, more incalculable, more surprising, and even more terrifying than other peoples are to themselves:"they escape DEFINITION, and are thereby alone the despair of the French. It IS characteristic of the Germans that the question: "What is German?" never dies out among them. Kotzebue certainly knew his Germans well enough: "We are known," they cried jubilantly to him"but Sand also thought he knew them. Jean Paul knew what he was doing when he declared himself incensed at Fichte's lying but patriotic flatteries and exaggerations,"but it is probable that Goethe thought differently about Germans from Jean Paul, even though he acknowledged him to be right with regard to Fichte. It is a question what Goethe really thought about the Germans?"But about many things around him he never spoke explicitly, and all his life he knew how to keep an astute silence"probably he had good reason for it. It is certain that it was not the "Wars of Independence" that made him look up more joyfully, any more than it was the French Revolution,"the event on account of which he RECONSTRUCTED his "Faust," and indeed the whole problem of "man," was the appearance of Napoleon. There are words of Goethe in which he condemns with impatient severity, as from a foreign land, that which Germans take a pride in, he once defined the famous German turn of mind as "Indulgence towards its own and others'weaknesses." Was he wrong? it is characteristic of Germans that one is seldom entirely wrong about them. The German soul has passages and galleries in it, there are caves, hiding-places, and dungeons therein, its disorder has much of the charm of the mysterious, the German is well acquainted with the bypaths to chaos.

customary - Gewöhnlich; üblich

Germanism - Germanismus

covetous - begehrlich

smartness - Klugheit; Eleganz, Pfiffigkeit

opportune - opportun

commendation - Empfehlung, Belobigung

ridding - Reiten; loswerden; befreien

relearn - neu lernen; wieder lernen

aggregated - aggregiert; Anhäufung, Ansammlung, Häufung, Aggregation

embolden - ermutigen; fetten, fett setzen

assert - behaupten; versichern, zusichern, beteuern

dwell - leben, verbleiben, wohnen, verweilen

pre - vor..

Aryan - Arier, Arierin, Arier, Arier, Arier, Arier, Arierin, arisch

more contradictory - widerspruchsvollere

more unknown - unbekanntere

more incalculable - unabsehbarere

terrifying - erschreckend; erschrecken

despair - verzweifeln; Verzweiflung

dies out - (die out) aussterben

jubilantly - jubelnd

Paul - Paulus, Paul

declared - erklärt; bekanntmachen, bekanntgeben, deklarieren, ausrufen

incensed - verärgert; Weihrauch, Räuchwerk

flatteries - Schmeicheleien; Schmeichelei, Schöntuerei, qualifier

exaggerations - Übertreibungen; Übertreibung

explicitly - ausdrücklich

joyfully - freudig

reconstructed - rekonstruiert; wiederaufbauen, rekonstruieren

condemns - verurteilt; verurteilen, verurteilen, verdammen, verurteilen

weaknesses - Schwächen; Schwäche, Schwäche, Faible

passages - Passagen; Durchfahrt, Ăśbergang, Gang

caves - Höhlen; nachgeben, aufgeben; Höhle

dungeons - Verliese; Verlies

disorder - Unordnung; Unruhen; Störung

acquainted - kennengelernt; vertraut machen, in Kenntnis setzen

bypaths - Nebenpfade; Seitenweg

And as everything loves its symbol, so the German loves the clouds and all that is obscure, evolving, crepuscular, damp, and shrouded, it seems to him that everything uncertain, undeveloped, self-displacing, and growing is "deep". The German himself does not EXIST, he is BECOMING, he is "developing himself". "Development" is therefore the essentially German discovery and hit in the great domain of philosophical formulas,"a ruling idea, which, together with German beer and German music, is labouring to Germanise all Europe. Foreigners are astonished and attracted by the riddles which the conflicting nature at the basis of the German soul propounds to them (riddles which Hegel systematised and Richard Wagner has in the end set to music). "Good-natured and spiteful""such a juxtaposition, preposterous in the case of every other people, is unfortunately only too often justified in Germany one has only to live for a while among Swabians to know this! The clumsiness of the German scholar and his social distastefulness agree alarmingly well with his physical rope-dancing and nimble boldness, of which all the Gods have learnt to be afraid. If any one wishes to see the "German soul" demonstrated ad oculos, let him only look at German taste, at German arts and manners what boorish indifference to "taste"! How the noblest and the commonest stand there in juxtaposition! How disorderly and how rich is the whole constitution of this soul! The German DRAGS at his soul, he drags at everything he experiences. He digests his events badly; he never gets "done" with them; and German depth is often only a difficult, hesitating "digestion." And just as all chronic invalids, all dyspeptics like what is convenient, so the German loves "frankness" and "honesty"; it is so CONVENIENT to be frank and honest!"This confidingness, this complaisance, this showing-the-cards of German HONESTY, is probably the most dangerous and most successful disguise which the German is up to nowadays: it is his proper Mephistophelean art; with this he can "still achieve much"! The German lets himself go, and thereby gazes with faithful, blue, empty German eyes"and other countries immediately confound him with his dressing-gown!"I meant to say that, let "German depth" be what it will"among ourselves alone we perhaps take the liberty to laugh at it"we shall do well to continue henceforth to honour its appearance and good name, and not barter away too cheaply our old reputation as a people of depth for Prussian "smartness," and Berlin wit and sand. It is wise for a people to pose, and LET itself be regarded, as profound, clumsy, good-natured, honest, and foolish: it might even be"profound to do so! Finally, we should do honour to our name"we are not called the "TIUSCHE VOLK" (deceptive people) for nothing....

crepuscular - dämmerungsaktiv

damp - feucht; Feuchtigkeit; ersticken, dämpfen

shrouded - verhüllt; Leichentuch, Totenhemd

undeveloped - unentwickelt

displacing - umsiedeln, vertreiben, verschieben, verlagern, verdrängen

labouring - mühsam; Arbeit, Arbeiter-p, gebären, arbeiten

Germanise - Germanisieren

foreigners - Ausländern; Ausländer, Ausländerin

riddles - Rätsel

conflicting - widersprüchlich; Konflikt, Streit, Gegensatz, Konflikt

propounds - vorschlägt; vorlegen, vorschlagen

spiteful - gehässig, boshaft

juxtaposition - Nebeneinanderstellung; Juxtaposition; Gegenüberstellung

preposterous - lächerlich

Swabians - Schwaben; Schwäbin, Schwabe, schwäbisch

distastefulness - Widerwärtigkeit; Widerlichkeit

alarmingly - beunruhigend

demonstrated - demonstriert; demonstrieren, demonstrieren, aufzeigen

boorish - ungehobelt, rüpelhaft

noblest - am edelsten; Adeliger, Adliger, Adelige, Adlige, Aristokrat

disorderly - unordentlich

drags - schleppt; Planierschleppe; nachschleppen, schleppen, ziehen

digests - digerieren, verdauen; Ăśbersicht

digestion - Verdauung

chronic - chronisch; langanhaltend, andauernd, fortwährend, Langzeit-

invalids - zum Invaliden machen; Invalide, Kranken.., Kranke, falsch

dyspeptics - Dyspeptiker; dyspeptisch, magenkrank, missgestimmt, verdrießlich

frankness - Offenheit

confidingness - Vertraulichkeit; Zutraulichkeit

gazes - starrt; anstarren

faithful - treu

Confound - verwirren; verschlimmern, verschlechtern, besiegen, verfluchen

dressing-gown - (dressing-gown) Morgenrock , Schlafrock , Morgenmantel ;Bademantel (Morgenmantel)

barter away - verschachern

cheaply - billig

reputation - Ansehen, Ruf, Klang, Bekanntheit

Prussian - preußisch; Prußisch; Preuße, Preußin, Borusse, Pruße

245. The "good old" time is past, it sang itself out in Mozart"how happy are WE that his ROCOCO still speaks to us, that his "good company," his tender enthusiasm, his childish delight in the Chinese and its flourishes, his courtesy of heart, his longing for the elegant, the amorous, the tripping, the tearful, and his belief in the South, can still appeal to SOMETHING LEFT in us! Ah, some time or other it will be over with it!"but who can doubt that it will be over still sooner with the intelligence and taste for Beethoven! For he was only the last echo of a break and transition in style, and NOT, like Mozart, the last echo of a great European taste which had existed for centuries. Beethoven is the intermediate event between an old mellow soul that is constantly breaking down, and a future over-young soul that is always COMING; there is spread over his music the twilight of eternal loss and eternal extravagant hope,"the same light in which Europe was bathed when it dreamed with Rousseau, when it danced round the Tree of Liberty of the Revolution, and finally almost fell down in adoration before Napoleon. But how rapidly does THIS very sentiment now pale, how difficult nowadays is even the APPREHENSION of this sentiment, how strangely does the language of Rousseau, Schiller, Shelley, and Byron sound to our ear, in whom COLLECTIVELY the same fate of Europe was able to SPEAK, which knew how to SING in Beethoven!"Whatever German music came afterwards, belongs to Romanticism, that is to say, to a movement which, historically considered, was still shorter, more fleeting, and more superficial than that great interlude, the transition of Europe from Rousseau to Napoleon, and to the rise of democracy. Weber"but what do WE care nowadays for "Freischutz" and "Oberon"! Or Marschner's "Hans Heiling" and "Vampyre"!

courtesy - Höflichkeit

amorous - amourös

tearful - weinerlich; tränenreich

Beethoven - Beethoven

intermediate - Zwischenstufe; Zwischenprodukt; als Vermittler handeln

fleeting - flüchtig; Flotte; Fahrzeugpark

more superficial - oberflächlichere

interlude - Zwischenspiel

Weber - Weber

Hans - Bauer; (Han) Bauer

Heiling - Heilung; Heil

Or even Wagner's "Tannhauser"! That is extinct, although not yet forgotten music. This whole music of Romanticism, besides, was not noble enough, was not musical enough, to maintain its position anywhere but in the theatre and before the masses; from the beginning it was second-rate music, which was little thought of by genuine musicians. It was different with Felix Mendelssohn, that halcyon master, who, on account of his lighter, purer, happier soul, quickly acquired admiration, and was equally quickly forgotten: as the beautiful EPISODE of German music. But with regard to Robert Schumann, who took things seriously, and has been taken seriously from the first"he was the last that founded a school,"do we not now regard it as a satisfaction, a relief, a deliverance, that this very Romanticism of Schumann's has been surmounted? Schumann, fleeing into the "Saxon Switzerland" of his soul, with a half Werther-like, half Jean-Paul-like nature (assuredly not like Beethoven! assuredly not like Byron!)"his MANFRED music is a mistake and a misunderstanding to the extent of injustice; Schumann, with his taste, which was fundamentally a PETTY taste (that is to say, a dangerous propensity"doubly dangerous among Germans"for quiet lyricism and intoxication of the feelings), going constantly apart, timidly withdrawing and retiring, a noble weakling who revelled in nothing but anonymous joy and sorrow, from the beginning a sort of girl and NOLI ME TANGERE"this Schumann was already merely a GERMAN event in music, and no longer a European event, as Beethoven had been, as in a still greater degree Mozart had been; with Schumann German music was threatened with its greatest danger, that of LOSING THE VOICE FOR THE SOUL OF EUROPE and sinking into a merely national affair.

extinct - erloschen; aussterben

not musical - unmusikalisch

purer - reiner; pur

Robert - Robert, Rupprecht

founded - gegründet; gefunden, aufgefunden; begründen, gründen

relief - Erleichterung, Befreiung, Linderung, Unterstützung

fleeing - fliehen, flüchten, fliehen, entfliehen, flüchten

Switzerland - Die Schweiz; Schweiz

injustice - Unrecht; Ungerechtigkeit

lyricism - Lyrik

timidly - ängstlich, schüchtern, scheu

weakling - Schwächling, Feigling, Weichei

revelled - geschwelgt; feiern, ausgelassen sein

anonymous - Anonym

246. What a torture are books written in German to a reader who has a THIRD ear! How indignantly he stands beside the slowly turning swamp of sounds without tune and rhythms without dance, which Germans call a "book"! And even the German who READS books! How lazily, how reluctantly, how badly he reads! How many Germans know, and consider it obligatory to know, that there is ART in every good sentence"art which must be divined, if the sentence is to be understood! If there is a misunderstanding about its TEMPO, for instance, the sentence itself is misunderstood! That one must not be doubtful about the rhythm-determining syllables, that one should feel the breaking of the too-rigid symmetry as intentional and as a charm, that one should lend a fine and patient ear to every STACCATO and every RUBATO, that one should divine the sense in the sequence of the vowels and diphthongs, and how delicately and richly they can be tinted and retinted in the order of their arrangement"who among book-reading Germans is complaisant enough to recognize such duties and requirements, and to listen to so much art and intention in language?

indignantly - entrüstet

swamp - Sumpf, Moor, überfluten, überschwemmen

tune - Melodie; stimmen

rhythms - Rhythmen; Rhythmus, Rhythmus

lazily - faul, ruhig, träge

reluctantly - widerstrebend

rigid - steif, starr, rigide

symmetry - Symmetrie

vowels - Vokale; Vokal; q

diphthongs - Diphthonge; Diphthong, Doppellaut, Zwielaut

richly - reich; wohlhabend

tinted - gefärbt; färben, tönen; Farbe, Farbton

After all, one just "has no ear for it"; and so the most marked contrasts of style are not heard, and the most delicate artistry is as it were SQUANDERED on the deaf."These were my thoughts when I noticed how clumsily and unintuitively two masters in the art of prose-writing have been confounded: one, whose words drop down hesitatingly and coldly, as from the roof of a damp cave"he counts on their dull sound and echo; and another who manipulates his language like a flexible sword, and from his arm down into his toes feels the dangerous bliss of the quivering, over-sharp blade, which wishes to bite, hiss, and cut.

artistry - Kunstfertigkeit; Künstlertum

squandered - vergeudet; verschwenden, vergeuden, verprassen

unintuitively - unintuitiv

two masters - Zweimaster

coldly - kalt

cave - nachgeben, aufgeben; Höhle

manipulates - manipuliert; manipulieren

flexible - biegsam, flexibel, elastisch, dehnbar, fügsam

sword - Schwert; Schwertkämpfer, Schwertkämpferin

quivering - zitternd; zittern

blade - Klinge; Turbinenschaufel; Grashalm; Blatt

hiss - Zischen, Fauchen, Knurren

247. How little the German style has to do with harmony and with the ear, is shown by the fact that precisely our good musicians themselves write badly. The German does not read aloud, he does not read for the ear, but only with his eyes; he has put his ears away in the drawer for the time. In antiquity when a man read"which was seldom enough"he read something to himself, and in a loud voice; they were surprised when any one read silently, and sought secretly the reason of it. In a loud voice: that is to say, with all the swellings, inflections, and variations of key and changes of TEMPO, in which the ancient PUBLIC world took delight. The laws of the written style were then the same as those of the spoken style; and these laws depended partly on the surprising development and refined requirements of the ear and larynx; partly on the strength, endurance, and power of the ancient lungs. In the ancient sense, a period is above all a physiological whole, inasmuch as it is comprised in one breath. Such periods as occur in Demosthenes and Cicero, swelling twice and sinking twice, and all in one breath, were pleasures to the men of ANTIQUITY, who knew by their own schooling how to appreciate the virtue therein, the rareness and the difficulty in the deliverance of such a period;"WE have really no right to the BIG period, we modern men, who are short of breath in every sense!

harmony - Harmonie, Einklang, Wohlklang, Harmonielehre

drawer - Zeichner, Schublade, Aussteller

swellings - Schwellungen; Anschwellen

inflections - Beugungen; Flexion, Beugung, Biegung, Betonung, Wendepunkt

variations - Variationen; Veränderung, Variante, Variation

larynx - Kehlkopf

endurance - Ausdauer

lungs - Lunge

comprised - enthalten; bestehen aus, beinhalten

Cicero - Cicero

rareness - Seltenheit; Rarität

Those ancients, indeed, were all of them dilettanti in speaking, consequently connoisseurs, consequently critics"they thus brought their orators to the highest pitch; in the same manner as in the last century, when all Italian ladies and gentlemen knew how to sing, the virtuosoship of song (and with it also the art of melody) reached its elevation. In Germany, however (until quite recently when a kind of platform eloquence began shyly and awkwardly enough to flutter its young wings), there was properly speaking only one kind of public and APPROXIMATELY artistical discourse"that delivered from the pulpit. The preacher was the only one in Germany who knew the weight of a syllable or a word, in what manner a sentence strikes, springs, rushes, flows, and comes to a close; he alone had a conscience in his ears, often enough a bad conscience: for reasons are not lacking why proficiency in oratory should be especially seldom attained by a German, or almost always too late. The masterpiece of German prose is therefore with good reason the masterpiece of its greatest preacher: the BIBLE has hitherto been the best German book. Compared with Luther's Bible, almost everything else is merely "literature""something which has not grown in Germany, and therefore has not taken and does not take root in German hearts, as the Bible has done.

dilettanti - dilettantisch

connoisseurs - Kenner, Kennerin

pitch - werfen, festsetzen, errichten; Tonhöhe, Tonlage, Pech

virtuosoship - Virtuosität

melody - Melodie

eloquence - Redegewandtheit, Eloquenz, Sprachfertigkeit, Beredsamkeit

shyly - schüchtern

awkwardly - unbeholfen, ungeschickt, umständlich, tapsig

flutter - flattern; wedeln

artistical - künstlerisch

discourse - Diskurs, Abhandlung, Gespräch, reden, Rede halten

pulpit - Kanzel; i ot or just slightly raised

preacher - Prediger

syllable - Silbe

strikes - Streiks; streichen, schlagen, prägen, streiken, scheinen

rushes - eilt; stürzen, drängen, hetzen, rasen; Eile, Andrang

proficiency - Kompetenz, Können, Begabung, Befähigung

oratory - Redekunst

masterpiece - Meisterstück, Meisterwerk

take root - Wurzel schlagen, sich etwas zu Herzen nehmen

248. There are two kinds of geniuses: one which above all engenders and seeks to engender, and another which willingly lets itself be fructified and brings forth. And similarly, among the gifted nations, there are those on whom the woman's problem of pregnancy has devolved, and the secret task of forming, maturing, and perfecting"the Greeks, for instance, were a nation of this kind, and so are the French; and others which have to fructify and become the cause of new modes of life"like the Jews, the Romans, and, in all modesty be it asked: like the Germans?

geniuses - Genies

engender - hervorrufen; erzeugen

fructified - befruchtet; befruchten

pregnancy - Schwangerschaft

devolved - dezentralisiert; übertragen

maturing - reifen; ausgereift, mündig, erwachsen, reif

fructify - befruchten

nations tortured and enraptured by unknown fevers and irresistibly forced out of themselves, amorous and longing for foreign races (for such as "let themselves be fructified"), and withal imperious, like everything conscious of being full of generative force, and consequently empowered "by the grace of God." These two kinds of geniuses seek each other like man and woman; but they also misunderstand each other"like man and woman.

enraptured - hingerissen; hinreißen, entzücken, verzücken, begeistern

fevers - Fieber

irresistibly - unwiderstehlich

withal - mit

generative - generativ

empowered - ermächtigt; bevollmächtigen, (''to'' zu) ermächtigen

249. Every nation has its own "Tartuffery," and calls that its virtue."One does not know"cannot know, the best that is in one.

250. What Europe owes to the Jews?"Many things, good and bad, and above all one thing of the nature both of the best and the worst: the grand style in morality, the fearfulness and majesty of infinite demands, of infinite significations, the whole Romanticism and sublimity of moral questionableness"and consequently just the most attractive, ensnaring, and exquisite element in those iridescences and allurements to life, in the aftersheen of which the sky of our European culture, its evening sky, now glows"perhaps glows out.

fearfulness - Ängstlichkeit; Furchtsamkeit

significations - Bedeutungen; Sinn, Bedeutung

sublimity - Erhabenheit

exquisite - exquisit, köstlich, auserlesen

iridescences - Irrlichter; Iridisieren

allurements - Verlockungen; Lockung

glows - leuchtet; glühen, abstrahlen, leuchten, Glühen

For this, we artists among the spectators and philosophers, are"grateful to the Jews.

251. It must be taken into the bargain, if various clouds and disturbances"in short, slight attacks of stupidity"pass over the spirit of a people that suffers and WANTS to suffer from national nervous fever and political ambition: for instance, among present-day Germans there is alternately the anti-French folly, the anti-Semitic folly, the anti-Polish folly, the Christian-romantic folly, the Wagnerian folly, the Teutonic folly, the Prussian folly (just look at those poor historians, the Sybels and Treitschkes, and their closely bandaged heads), and whatever else these little obscurations of the German spirit and conscience may be called. May it be forgiven me that I, too, when on a short daring sojourn on very infected ground, did not remain wholly exempt from the disease, but like every one else, began to entertain thoughts about matters which did not concern me"the first symptom of political infection. About the Jews, for instance, listen to the following:"I have never yet met a German who was favourably inclined to the Jews; and however decided the repudiation of actual anti-Semitism may be on the part of all prudent and political men, this prudence and policy is not perhaps directed against the nature of the sentiment itself, but only against its dangerous excess, and especially against the distasteful and infamous expression of this excess of sentiment;"on this point we must not deceive ourselves. That Germany has amply SUFFICIENT Jews, that the German stomach, the German blood, has difficulty (and will long have difficulty) in disposing only of this quantity of "Jew""as the Italian, the Frenchman, and the Englishman have done by means of a stronger digestion:"that is the unmistakable declaration and language of a general instinct, to which one must listen and according to which one must act. "Let no more Jews come in! And shut the doors, especially towards the East (also towards Austria)!""thus commands the instinct of a people whose nature is still feeble and uncertain, so that it could be easily wiped out, easily extinguished, by a stronger race. The Jews, however, are beyond all doubt the strongest, toughest, and purest race at present living in Europe, they know how to succeed even under the worst conditions (in fact better than under favourable ones), by means of virtues of some sort, which one would like nowadays to label as vices"owing above all to a resolute faith which does not need to be ashamed before "modern ideas", they alter only, WHEN they do alter, in the same way that the Russian Empire makes its conquest"as an empire that has plenty of time and is not of yesterday"namely, according to the principle, "as slowly as possible"!

bargain - Angebot; Vereinbarung, Abmachung, Schnäppchen, Anschaffung

disturbances - Störungen; Störung, Störenfried, Störung, Störung

pass over - übertreten

fever - Fieber, Temperaturerhöhung

Semitic - semitisch, schemitisch

polish - Politur; polnisch; Polnisch

Wagnerian - Wagnerisch; wagnerianisch; Wagnerianer, Wagnerianerin

historians - Historiker, Historikerin, Geschichtsschreiber, Historiker

bandaged - bandagiert; Verband, bandagieren

obscurations - Verdunkelungen; Verdunkelung

sojourn - Aufenthalt; Unterkunft, Obdach, Übernachtungsmöglichkeit

wholly - ganz

exempt - befreit, checkausgenommen, befreien, checkausnehmen

Semitism - Semitismus

Prudent - umsichtig, vorsichtig

prudence - Klugheit, Umsicht, Besonnenheit

infamous - berüchtigt

unmistakable - unverwechselbar, unverkennbar, unüberhörbar

Austria - Österreich

feeble - kraftlos, schwach, dürftig

wiped - abgewischt; löschen, abstreifen, abwischen, aufreiben, wischen

extinguished - ausgelöscht; löschen, auslöschen, auslöschen, abschalten

toughest - am härtesten; zäh, widerstandsfähig, knifflig, schwierig, zäh

purest - am reinsten; bloß, rein

alter - verändern, ändern, wandeln, modifizieren, abändern

A thinker who has the future of Europe at heart, will, in all his perspectives concerning the future, calculate upon the Jews, as he will calculate upon the Russians, as above all the surest and likeliest factors in the great play and battle of forces. That which is at present called a "nation" in Europe, and is really rather a RES FACTA than NATA (indeed, sometimes confusingly similar to a RES FICTA ET PICTA), is in every case something evolving, young, easily displaced, and not yet a race, much less such a race AERE PERENNUS, as the Jews are such "nations" should most carefully avoid all hot-headed rivalry and hostility! It is certain that the Jews, if they desired"or if they were driven to it, as the anti-Semites seem to wish"COULD now have the ascendancy, nay, literally the supremacy, over Europe, that they are NOT working and planning for that end is equally certain. Meanwhile, they rather wish and desire, even somewhat importunely, to be insorbed and absorbed by Europe, they long to be finally settled, authorized, and respected somewhere, and wish to put an end to the nomadic life, to the "wandering Jew","and one should certainly take account of this impulse and tendency, and make advances to it (it possibly betokens a mitigation of the Jewish instincts) for which purpose it would perhaps be useful and fair to banish the anti-Semitic bawlers out of the country. One should make advances with all prudence, and with selection, pretty much as the English nobility do It stands to reason that the more powerful and strongly marked types of new Germanism could enter into relation with the Jews with the least hesitation, for instance, the nobleman officer from the Prussian border it would be interesting in many ways to see whether the genius for money and patience (and especially some intellect and intellectuality"sadly lacking in the place referred to) could not in addition be annexed and trained to the hereditary art of commanding and obeying"for both of which the country in question has now a classic reputation But here it is expedient to break off my festal discourse and my sprightly Teutonomania for I have already reached my SERIOUS TOPIC, the "European problem," as I understand it, the rearing of a new ruling caste for Europe.

calculate - kalkulieren, berechnen, ausrechnen, sich etwas ausrechnen

Russians - Russen; russisch, russländisch, altrussisch, russisch, russisch

confusingly - verwirrend

displaced - verdrängt; umsiedeln, vertreiben, verschieben, verlagern

Semites - Semiten; Semit, Semitin

importunely - aufdringlich

insorbed - aufgesaugt

absorbed - absorbiert; absorbieren, aufnehen

wandering - wandernd; (wander) irren, wandern

make advances to - Geld ausleihen

mitigation - Erleichterung, Abmilderung

banish - verbannen, herauswerfen, vertreiben

bawlers - Schreihälse; Schreier

nobleman - Edelmann, Adeliger, Adliger, Aristokrat

annexed - annektiert; annektieren, anfügen; Anhang

classic - klassisch; Klassiker

expedient - zweckmäßig; angebracht, opportun, hilfreich, passend

break off - (Therapie) absetzen, aufhören, abbrechen

252. They are not a philosophical race"the English: Bacon represents an ATTACK on the philosophical spirit generally, Hobbes, Hume, and Locke, an abasement, and a depreciation of the idea of a "philosopher" for more than a century. It was AGAINST Hume that Kant uprose and raised himself; it was Locke of whom Schelling RIGHTLY said, "JE MEPRISE LOCKE"; in the struggle against the English mechanical stultification of the world, Hegel and Schopenhauer (along with Goethe) were of one accord; the two hostile brother-geniuses in philosophy, who pushed in different directions towards the opposite poles of German thought, and thereby wronged each other as only brothers will do."What is lacking in England, and has always been lacking, that half-actor and rhetorician knew well enough, the absurd muddle-head, Carlyle, who sought to conceal under passionate grimaces what he knew about himself: namely, what was LACKING in Carlyle"real power of intellect, real DEPTH of intellectual perception, in short, philosophy. It is characteristic of such an unphilosophical race to hold on firmly to Christianity"they NEED its discipline for "moralizing" and humanizing. The Englishman, more gloomy, sensual, headstrong, and brutal than the German"is for that very reason, as the baser of the two, also the most pious: he has all the MORE NEED of Christianity.

bacon - Speck

abasement - Erniedrigung

uprose - aufgestiegen; aufstehen

stultification - Verblödung; Verdummung, Veralberung

accord - Vereinbarung; Übereinstimmung, Einvernehmen, Übereinkommen

pushed in - eingedrückt

poles - Stangen; (North Pole) Nordpol

muddle - verwirren; Wirrwarr

grimaces - Grimasse, Grimassen schneiden

real power - Wattleistung

humanizing - vermenschlichen

more gloomy - düsterere

brutal - brutal

To finer nostrils, this English Christianity itself has still a characteristic English taint of spleen and alcoholic excess, for which, owing to good reasons, it is used as an antidote"the finer poison to neutralize the coarser: a finer form of poisoning is in fact a step in advance with coarse-mannered people, a step towards spiritualization. The English coarseness and rustic demureness is still most satisfactorily disguised by Christian pantomime, and by praying and psalm-singing (or, more correctly, it is thereby explained and differently expressed); and for the herd of drunkards and rakes who formerly learned moral grunting under the influence of Methodism (and more recently as the "Salvation Army"), a penitential fit may really be the relatively highest manifestation of "humanity" to which they can be elevated: so much may reasonably be admitted. That, however, which offends even in the humanest Englishman is his lack of music, to speak figuratively (and also literally): he has neither rhythm nor dance in the movements of his soul and body; indeed, not even the desire for rhythm and dance, for "music." Listen to him speaking; look at the most beautiful Englishwoman WALKING"in no country on earth are there more beautiful doves and swans; finally, listen to them singing! But I ask too much...

nostrils - Nasenlöcher; Nasenloch

taint - beflecken; verderben

spleen - Milz; Groll, Trübsinn

mannered - manieriert

rustic - rustikal

demureness - Sittsamkeit

satisfactorily - zufriedenstellend

psalm - Psalm

rakes - harken, stochern; Harke, Rechen

grunting - grunzend; (grunt); Grunzer, Stöhnen, Grunzen, Hucker

Methodism - Methodismus

relatively - relativ, verhältnismäßig

manifestation - Manifestation, Erscheinung

Englishwoman - Engländerin

doves - Tauben; Taube

swans - Schwäne; Schwan

253. There are truths which are best recognized by mediocre minds, because they are best adapted for them, there are truths which only possess charms and seductive power for mediocre spirits:"one is pushed to this probably unpleasant conclusion, now that the influence of respectable but mediocre Englishmen"I may mention Darwin, John Stuart Mill, and Herbert Spencer"begins to gain the ascendancy in the middle-class region of European taste. Indeed, who could doubt that it is a useful thing for SUCH minds to have the ascendancy for a time? It would be an error to consider the highly developed and independently soaring minds as specially qualified for determining and collecting many little common facts, and deducing conclusions from them; as exceptions, they are rather from the first in no very favourable position towards those who are "the rules.

Mill - Promille, 1/10 Prozent; Mühle, Fabrik; fräsen, anfräsen

Spencer - Speiser

independently - unabhängig

soaring - sich erhebend

deducing - folgern, ableiten, herleiten, deduzieren

exceptions - Ausnahmen; Ausnahme, Ausnahme, Ausnahme, Ausnahmebedingung

After all, they have more to do than merely to perceive:"in effect, they have to BE something new, they have to SIGNIFY something new, they have to REPRESENT new values! The gulf between knowledge and capacity is perhaps greater, and also more mysterious, than one thinks: the capable man in the grand style, the creator, will possibly have to be an ignorant person;"while on the other hand, for scientific discoveries like those of Darwin, a certain narrowness, aridity, and industrious carefulness (in short, something English) may not be unfavourable for arriving at them."Finally, let it not be forgotten that the English, with their profound mediocrity, brought about once before a general depression of European intelligence.

signify - bedeuten

Gulf - Golf, Meerbusen

more mysterious - geheimnisvollere

aridity - Aridität, Trockenheit, Dürre

carefulness - Sorgfältigkeit; Vorsicht, Sorgfalt

unfavourable - ungünstig

depression - Senke; Depression, Abschwung

What is called "modern ideas," or "the ideas of the eighteenth century," or "French ideas""that, consequently, against which the GERMAN mind rose up with profound disgust"is of English origin, there is no doubt about it. The French were only the apes and actors of these ideas, their best soldiers, and likewise, alas! their first and profoundest VICTIMS; for owing to the diabolical Anglomania of "modern ideas," the AME FRANCAIS has in the end become so thin and emaciated, that at present one recalls its sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, its profound, passionate strength, its inventive excellency, almost with disbelief.

eighteenth - achtzehnten; achtzehnte

apes - Affen; nachäffen, Affe

diabolical - teuflisch

Anglomania - Anglomanie; anglomania

emaciated - ausgemergelt; abmagern, de

recalls - zurückrufen, erinnern

excellency - Exzellenz

One must, however, maintain this verdict of historical justice in a determined manner, and defend it against present prejudices and appearances: the European NOBLESSE"of sentiment, taste, and manners, taking the word in every high sense"is the work and invention of FRANCE; the European ignobleness, the plebeianism of modern ideas"is ENGLAND'S work and invention.

defend - verteidigen

noblesse - Vornehmheit

ignobleness - Unwürdigkeit; Niedrigkeit

plebeianism - Plebejertum

254. Even at present France is still the seat of the most intellectual and refined culture of Europe, it is still the high school of taste; but one must know how to find this "France of taste.

" He who belongs to it keeps himself well concealed:"they may be a small number in whom it lives and is embodied, besides perhaps being men who do not stand upon the strongest legs, in part fatalists, hypochondriacs, invalids, in part persons over-indulged, over-refined, such as have the AMBITION to conceal themselves.

fatalists - Fatalisten; Fatalist, Fatalistin

hypochondriacs - hypochondrisch, Hypochonder, Hypochonderin

They have all something in common: they keep their ears closed in presence of the delirious folly and noisy spouting of the democratic BOURGEOIS. In fact, a besotted and brutalized France at present sprawls in the foreground"it recently celebrated a veritable orgy of bad taste, and at the same time of self-admiration, at the funeral of Victor Hugo. There is also something else common to them: a predilection to resist intellectual Germanizing"and a still greater inability to do so! In this France of intellect, which is also a France of pessimism, Schopenhauer has perhaps become more at home, and more indigenous than he has ever been in Germany; not to speak of Heinrich Heine, who has long ago been re-incarnated in the more refined and fastidious lyrists of Paris; or of Hegel, who at present, in the form of Taine"the FIRST of living historians"exercises an almost tyrannical influence. As regards Richard Wagner, however, the more French music learns to adapt itself to the actual needs of the AME MODERNE, the more will it "Wagnerite"; one can safely predict that beforehand,"it is already taking place sufficiently! There are, however, three things which the French can still boast of with pride as their heritage and possession, and as indelible tokens of their ancient intellectual superiority in Europe, in spite of all voluntary or involuntary Germanizing and vulgarizing of taste. FIRSTLY, the capacity for artistic emotion, for devotion to "form," for which the expression, L'ART POUR L'ART, along with numerous others, has been invented:"such capacity has not been lacking in France for three centuries; and owing to its reverence for the "small number," it has again and again made a sort of chamber music of literature possible, which is sought for in vain elsewhere in Europe."The SECOND thing whereby the French can lay claim to a superiority over Europe is their ancient, many-sided, MORALISTIC culture, owing to which one finds on an average, even in the petty ROMANCIERS of the newspapers and chance BOULEVARDIERS DE PARIS, a psychological sensitiveness and curiosity, of which, for example, one has no conception (to say nothing of the thing itself!) in Germany. The Germans lack a couple of centuries of the moralistic work requisite thereto, which, as we have said, France has not grudged: those who call the Germans "naive" on that account give them commendation for a defect.

delirious - im Delirium

spouting - sprudelnd; herausspritzend; (spout); Tülle, Ausguss, Schnabel

bourgeois - Bürger, Spießer

besotted - vernarrt; vernarren

sprawls - sich ausbreitet; ausspreizen, grätschen, sich ausbreiten

orgy - Orgie

funeral - Bestattung, Beerdigung, Begräbnis

Victor - Viktor

predilection - Vorliebe, Faible

Germanizing - Germanisierung; eindeutschen, germanisieren

inability - Unfähigkeit, Unvermögen

indigenous - Einheimische

lyrists - Texter; Leierspieler

adapt - anpassen, angleichen, anwenden, einrichten

Moderne - Modern

Wagnerite - Wagneraner

safely - sicher

heritage - Erbschaft, Erbe, Geburtsrecht

indelible - unauslöschlich

tokens - Wertmarken; Zeichen

vulgarizing - vulgarisierend; verbreiten, erniedrigen

chamber music - Kammermusik

sensitiveness - Feingefühl, Empfindlichkeit

requisite - erforderlich, notwendig, Erfordernis, Voraussetzung

grudged - missgönnt; Groll, Neid, missgönnen

defect - Fehler, Defekt, überlaufen, zurückziehen

(As the opposite of the German inexperience and innocence IN VOLUPTATE PSYCHOLOGICA, which is not too remotely associated with the tediousness of German intercourse,"and as the most successful expression of genuine French curiosity and inventive talent in this domain of delicate thrills, Henri Beyle may be noted; that remarkable anticipatory and forerunning man, who, with a Napoleonic TEMPO, traversed HIS Europe, in fact, several centuries of the European soul, as a surveyor and discoverer thereof:"it has required two generations to OVERTAKE him one way or other, to divine long afterwards some of the riddles that perplexed and enraptured him"this strange Epicurean and man of interrogation, the last great psychologist of France)."There is yet a THIRD claim to superiority: in the French character there is a successful half-way synthesis of the North and South, which makes them comprehend many things, and enjoins upon them other things, which an Englishman can never comprehend. Their temperament, turned alternately to and from the South, in which from time to time the Provencal and Ligurian blood froths over, preserves them from the dreadful, northern grey-in-grey, from sunless conceptual-spectrism and from poverty of blood"our GERMAN infirmity of taste, for the excessive prevalence of which at the present moment, blood and iron, that is to say "high politics," has with great resolution been prescribed (according to a dangerous healing art, which bids me wait and wait, but not yet hope)."There is also still in France a pre-understanding and ready welcome for those rarer and rarely gratified men, who are too comprehensive to find satisfaction in any kind of fatherlandism, and know how to love the South when in the North and the North when in the South"the born Midlanders, the "good Europeans." For them BIZET has made music, this latest genius, who has seen a new beauty and seduction,"who has discovered a piece of the SOUTH IN MUSIC.

inexperience - Unerfahrenheit

remotely - aus der Ferne

anticipatory - vorausschauend

forerunning - Vorlauf

traversed - durchquert; durchkreuzen, durchqueren, überqueren

surveyor - Vermesser, Vermesserin, Gutachter

Discoverer - Entdecker

overtake - überholen; aufholen

perplexed - perplex; verwirren

enjoins - befiehlt; auferlegen, vorschreiben, anordnen, ermahnen, mahnen

Provencal - Provenzalisch

Ligurian - Ligurisch

froths - schäumt; Schaum, aufschäumen, schäumen

preserves - Konserven; Konserve, Eingemachtes

sunless - ohne Sonne; sonnenlos

conceptual - konzeptionell

spectrism - Spektralismus

infirmity - Gebrechen; Gebrechlichkeit

prevalence - weite Verbreitung, Vorherrschen, Verbreitetsein

bids - Gebote; Angebot, reizen, Gebot, Bieten, bieten

fatherlandism - Vaterlandsliebe

made music - musizierte

255. I hold that many precautions should be taken against German music. Suppose a person loves the South as I love it"as a great school of recovery for the most spiritual and the most sensuous ills, as a boundless solar profusion and effulgence which o'erspreads a sovereign existence believing in itself"well, such a person will learn to be somewhat on his guard against German music, because, in injuring his taste anew, it will also injure his health anew. Such a Southerner, a Southerner not by origin but by BELIEF, if he should dream of the future of music, must also dream of it being freed from the influence of the North; and must have in his ears the prelude to a deeper, mightier, and perhaps more perverse and mysterious music, a super-German music, which does not fade, pale, and die away, as all German music does, at the sight of the blue, wanton sea and the Mediterranean clearness of sky"a super-European music, which holds its own even in presence of the brown sunsets of the desert, whose soul is akin to the palm-tree, and can be at home and can roam with big, beautiful, lonely beasts of prey.

recovery - Wiedererlangung, Wiedergewinnung, Zurückgewinnung, Genesung

sensuous - sinnenfreudig, sinnlich, sinnenhaft, sensorisch, Sinnes-

solar - Sonnen..

profusion - Überfluss, Überfülle, Verschwendung, Vergeudung

effulgence - Glanz

sovereign - souverän

Prelude - Präludium, Vorspiel

mightier - mächtiger; gewaltig, mächtig

more perverse - widernatürlichere

fade - verfärben, Ausblendung; verblassen, nachlassen, verwelken

die away - verklingen, abebben, ausklingen

Mediterranean - Mittelmeer; mediterran

sunsets - Sonnenuntergänge; Sonnenuntergang, Sonnenuntergang, Lebensabend

akin - verwandt; ähnlich

palm-tree - (palm-tree) Palme

beasts - Biester; Tier

. I could imagine a music of which the rarest charm would be that it knew nothing more of good and evil; only that here and there perhaps some sailor's home-sickness, some golden shadows and tender weaknesses might sweep lightly over it; an art which, from the far distance, would see the colours of a sinking and almost incomprehensible MORAL world fleeing towards it, and would be hospitable enough and profound enough to receive such belated fugitives.

shadows - Schatten, beschatten, beschatten

lightly - leichtfertig; leicht

hospitable - gastfreundlich, gastfrei

fugitives - Flüchtige; Flüchtling, flüchtig, flüchtig, vorübergehend

256. Owing to the morbid estrangement which the nationality-craze has induced and still induces among the nations of Europe, owing also to the short-sighted and hasty-handed politicians, who with the help of this craze, are at present in power, and do not suspect to what extent the disintegrating policy they pursue must necessarily be only an interlude policy"owing to all this and much else that is altogether unmentionable at present, the most unmistakable signs that EUROPE WISHES TO BE ONE, are now overlooked, or arbitrarily and falsely misinterpreted. With all the more profound and large-minded men of this century, the real general tendency of the mysterious labour of their souls was to prepare the way for that new SYNTHESIS, and tentatively to anticipate the European of the future; only in their simulations, or in their weaker moments, in old age perhaps, did they belong to the "fatherlands""they only rested from themselves when they became "patriots." I think of such men as Napoleon, Goethe, Beethoven, Stendhal, Heinrich Heine, Schopenhauer: it must not be taken amiss if I also count Richard Wagner among them, about whom one must not let oneself be deceived by his own misunderstandings (geniuses like him have seldom the right to understand themselves), still less, of course, by the unseemly noise with which he is now resisted and opposed in France: the fact remains, nevertheless, that Richard Wagner and the LATER FRENCH ROMANTICISM of the forties, are most closely and intimately related to one another. They are akin, fundamentally akin, in all the heights and depths of their requirements; it is Europe, the ONE Europe, whose soul presses urgently and longingly, outwards and upwards, in their multifarious and boisterous art"whither? into a new light? towards a new sun? But who would attempt to express accurately what all these masters of new modes of speech could not express distinctly? It is certain that the same storm and stress tormented them, that they SOUGHT in the same manner, these last great seekers! All of them steeped in literature to their eyes and ears"the first artists of universal literary culture"for the most part even themselves writers, poets, intermediaries and blenders of the arts and the senses (Wagner, as musician is reckoned among painters, as poet among musicians, as artist generally among actors); all of them fanatics for EXPRESSION "at any cost""I specially mention Delacroix, the nearest related to Wagner; all of them great discoverers in the realm of the sublime, also of the loathsome and dreadful, still greater discoverers in effect, in display, in the art of the show-shop; all of them talented far beyond their genius, out and out VIRTUOSI, with mysterious accesses to all that seduces, allures, constrains, and upsets; born enemies of logic and of the straight line, hankering after the strange, the exotic, the monstrous, the crooked, and the self-contradictory; as men, Tantaluses of the will, plebeian parvenus, who knew themselves to be incapable of a noble TEMPO or of a LENTO in life and action"think of Balzac, for instance,"unrestrained workers, almost destroying themselves by work; antinomians and rebels in manners, ambitious and insatiable, without equilibrium and enjoyment; all of them finally shattering and sinking down at the Christian cross (and with right and reason, for who of them would have been sufficiently profound and sufficiently original for an ANTI-CHRISTIAN philosophy?

estrangement - Entfremden, Entfremdung, Verfremdung

nationality - Nationalität

craze - Verrücktheit; Fimmel

induces - auslöst; dazu bringen, anstacheln, bewirken, verursachen

suspect - vermuten; misstrauen; verdächtigen; einen Verdacht haben; Verdächtiger

disintegrating - zersetzen; desintegrieren, auflösen, auflösen, zerfallen

unmentionable - unaussprechlich, unerwähnbar

misinterpreted - fehlinterpretiert; missverstehen

more profound - tiefsinnigerem

tentatively - vorläufig

anticipate - antizipieren; vorgreifen; voraussehen, vorausahnen

simulations - Simulationen; Simulation, Simulation, Schwalbe

fatherlands - Vaterländer; Vaterland

amiss - nicht in Ordnung; schlecht, fehlend, verkehrt

misunderstandings - Missverständnisse; Missverständnis

intimately - vertraut

urgently - dringend

longingly - sehnsüchtige

outwards - nach außen; äußerlich, auswärts

multifarious - vielfältig

distinctly - deutlich

tormented - gequält; Qual, quälen, peinigen

steeped - getränkt; einweichen, abschüssig

intermediaries - intermediär, Vermittler, Vermittlerin, Zwischenhändler

blenders - Mixer, Pürierer, Vermuser

discoverers - Entdecker

loathsome - verabscheuungswürdig; ekelhaft, abscheulich, scheußlich

virtuosi - Virtuosen

seduces - verführt; verführen, verführen, verleiten

allures - lockt; verlocken

constrains - einschränkt; behindern, einschränken, limitieren

hankering - Sehnsucht; sich sehnend, Verlangen; (hanker); verlangen

exotic - exotisch; Exot

parvenus - Parvenüs; Emporkömmling, Parvenü, parvenühaft

unrestrained - hemmungslos

antinomians - Antinomier; Antinomist, antinomistisch

rebels - Rebellen; Rebell; auflehnen, aufbäumen

insatiable - unersättlich

sinking down - zusammensinkend [alt], zusammen sinkend

;"on the whole, a boldly daring, splendidly overbearing, high-flying, and aloft-up-dragging class of higher men, who had first to teach their century"and it is the century of the MASSES"the conception "higher man."... Let the German friends of Richard Wagner advise together as to whether there is anything purely German in the Wagnerian art, or whether its distinction does not consist precisely in coming from SUPER-GERMAN sources and impulses: in which connection it may not be underrated how indispensable Paris was to the development of his type, which the strength of his instincts made him long to visit at the most decisive time"and how the whole style of his proceedings, of his self-apostolate, could only perfect itself in sight of the French socialistic original. On a more subtle comparison it will perhaps be found, to the honour of Richard Wagner's German nature, that he has acted in everything with more strength, daring, severity, and elevation than a nineteenth-century Frenchman could have done"owing to the circumstance that we Germans are as yet nearer to barbarism than the French;"perhaps even the most remarkable creation of Richard Wagner is not only at present, but for ever inaccessible, incomprehensible, and inimitable to the whole latter-day Latin race: the figure of Siegfried, that VERY FREE man, who is probably far too free, too hard, too cheerful, too healthy, too ANTI-CATHOLIC for the taste of old and mellow civilized nations. He may even have been a sin against Romanticism, this anti-Latin Siegfried: well, Wagner atoned amply for this sin in his old sad days, when"anticipating a taste which has meanwhile passed into politics"he began, with the religious vehemence peculiar to him, to preach, at least, THE WAY TO ROME, if not to walk therein."That these last words may not be misunderstood, I will call to my aid a few powerful rhymes, which will even betray to less delicate ears what I mean"what I mean COUNTER TO the "last Wagner" and his Parsifal music:"

splendidly - prächtig; großartig, herrlich, glanzvoll, in großartiger Weise

overbearing - überheblich; überwältigen

dragging - Planierschleppe; nachschleppen, schleppen, ziehen

underrated - unterschätzt; unterschätzen

most decisive - ausschlaggebendste

apostolate - Apostolat, Apostelamt

barbarism - Barbarei; Barbarismus

inimitable - unnachahmlich

atoned - gesühnt; wiedergutmachen, kompensieren, gutmachen

anticipating - vorausschauend; vorgreifen, voraussehen, vorausahnen

preach - predigen, verkündigen

"Is this our mode?"From German heart came this vexed ululating? From German body, this self-lacerating? Is ours this priestly hand-dilation, This incense-fuming exaltation? Is ours this faltering, falling, shambling, This quite uncertain ding-dong-dangling?

ululating - heulend; heulen

lacerating - zerschneidend; zerfleischen

priestly - priesterlich

dilation - Dilatation; Erweiterung

incense - Weihrauch, Räuchwerk ''(archaic)'', empören, erzürnen

fuming - Rauch, Qualm, rauchen, qualmen, schäumen

faltering - ins Stocken geraten; schwankend; (falter); Wanken, wackeln

shambling - watschelnd; (shamble); schlurfen, schleichen, watscheln

Ding - (ding dong) bim bam, kling klang

dong - (ding dong) bim bam, kling klang

dangling - baumelnd; (dangle); baumeln

This sly nun-ogling, Ave-hour-bell ringing, This wholly false enraptured heaven-o'erspringing?"Is this our mode?"Think well!"ye still wait for admission"For what ye hear is ROME"ROME'S FAITH BY INTUITION!

sly - schlau, gerissen, listig, verschmitzt

nun - Blaumeise, Klosterfrau, Nonne

ogling - liebäugelnd; (ogle); liebäugeln

ave - Straße, Allee

ringing - klingeln; kraftvoll, klar; (ring) klingeln; kraftvoll, klar

admission - Zulassung, Aufnahme, Einlass, Anerkennung


257. EVERY elevation of the type "man," has hitherto been the work of an aristocratic society and so it will always be"a society believing in a long scale of gradations of rank and differences of worth among human beings, and requiring slavery in some form or other. Without the PATHOS OF DISTANCE, such as grows out of the incarnated difference of classes, out of the constant out-looking and down-looking of the ruling caste on subordinates and instruments, and out of their equally constant practice of obeying and commanding, of keeping down and keeping at a distance"that other more mysterious pathos could never have arisen, the longing for an ever new widening of distance within the soul itself, the formation of ever higher, rarer, further, more extended, more comprehensive states, in short, just the elevation of the type "man," the continued "self-surmounting of man," to use a moral formula in a supermoral sense. To be sure, one must not resign oneself to any humanitarian illusions about the history of the origin of an aristocratic society (that is to say, of the preliminary condition for the elevation of the type "man"): the truth is hard.

subordinates - untergeordnet, nachgeordnet, untergeordnet, nachgeordnet

widening - Verbreiterung; erman: sich weiten, erweitern, weiten, erweitern

supermoral - supermoralisch

resign oneself - sich fügen, sich abfinden (mit)

illusions - Illusionen; Illusion, Wahnvorstellung, Sinnestäuschung, Illusion

Let us acknowledge unprejudicedly how every higher civilization hitherto has ORIGINATED! Men with a still natural nature, barbarians in every terrible sense of the word, men of prey, still in possession of unbroken strength of will and desire for power, threw themselves upon weaker, more moral, more peaceful races (perhaps trading or cattle-rearing communities), or upon old mellow civilizations in which the final vital force was flickering out in brilliant fireworks of wit and depravity. At the commencement, the noble caste was always the barbarian caste: their superiority did not consist first of all in their physical, but in their psychical power"they were more COMPLETE men (which at every point also implies the same as "more complete beasts").

unprejudicedly - unvoreingenommen

unbroken - ungebrochen

more peaceful - einträchtigere, geruhsamere

cattle - Kühe, Rinder, Rindvieh

flickering - flimmern, flattern, flackern

fireworks - Feuerwerkskörper

depravity - Verderbtheit; Verdorbenheit, Schlechtigkeit, Sittenlosigkeit

258. Corruption"as the indication that anarchy threatens to break out among the instincts, and that the foundation of the emotions, called "life," is convulsed"is something radically different according to the organization in which it manifests itself. When, for instance, an aristocracy like that of France at the beginning of the Revolution, flung away its privileges with sublime disgust and sacrificed itself to an excess of its moral sentiments, it was corruption:"it was really only the closing act of the corruption which had existed for centuries, by virtue of which that aristocracy had abdicated step by step its lordly prerogatives and lowered itself to a FUNCTION of royalty (in the end even to its decoration and parade-dress). The essential thing, however, in a good and healthy aristocracy is that it should not regard itself as a function either of the kingship or the commonwealth, but as the SIGNIFICANCE and highest justification thereof"that it should therefore accept with a good conscience the sacrifice of a legion of individuals, who, FOR ITS SAKE, must be suppressed and reduced to imperfect men, to slaves and instruments.

indication - Anzeichen, Anzeige, Hinweis, Indiz

anarchy - Anarchie

convulsed - verkrampft; erschüttern

aristocracy - Aristokratie

flung - geschleudert; Affäre (Liebesaffäre)

abdicated - ausstoßen, verweigern, abdanken, abdanken

lordly - herrschaftlich; fürstlich, adelig, einem Lord gemäß, vornehm

prerogatives - Prärogative, Bevorrechtung, Privileg

lowered - gesenkt; niedriger, niedrigerer

royalty - Königtum; Nutzungsgebühr; Tantieme

decoration - Dekorieren, Verschönern, Dekoration, Verschönerung, Auszeichnung

kingship - das Königtum; Königschaft

legion - Legion; Legion

suppressed - unterdrückt; unterdrücken, unterdrücken, unterdrücken

Its fundamental belief must be precisely that society is NOT allowed to exist for its own sake, but only as a foundation and scaffolding, by means of which a select class of beings may be able to elevate themselves to their higher duties, and in general to a higher EXISTENCE: like those sun-seeking climbing plants in Java"they are called Sipo Matador,"which encircle an oak so long and so often with their arms, until at last, high above it, but supported by it, they can unfold their tops in the open light, and exhibit their happiness.

scaffolding - ein Gerüst; Baugerüst, Grundlage; (scaffold); Gerüst, Baugerüst

Java - Java, Java

matador - Matador

encircle - einkreisen; umzingeln, einfassen

oak - Eiche, Eichenholz, Eichen-

unfold - entfalten, ausbreiten, entfalten

259. To refrain mutually from injury, from violence, from exploitation, and put one's will on a par with that of others: this may result in a certain rough sense in good conduct among individuals when the necessary conditions are given (namely, the actual similarity of the individuals in amount of force and degree of worth, and their co-relation within one organization). As soon, however, as one wished to take this principle more generally, and if possible even as the FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF SOCIETY, it would immediately disclose what it really is"namely, a Will to the DENIAL of life, a principle of dissolution and decay. Here one must think profoundly to the very basis and resist all sentimental weakness: life itself is ESSENTIALLY appropriation, injury, conquest of the strange and weak, suppression, severity, obtrusion of peculiar forms, incorporation, and at the least, putting it mildest, exploitation;"but why should one for ever use precisely these words on which for ages a disparaging purpose has been stamped? Even the organization within which, as was previously supposed, the individuals treat each other as equal"it takes place in every healthy aristocracy"must itself, if it be a living and not a dying organization, do all that towards other bodies, which the individuals within it refrain from doing to each other it will have to be the incarnated Will to Power, it will endeavour to grow, to gain ground, attract to itself and acquire ascendancy"not owing to any morality or immorality, but because it LIVES, and because life IS precisely Will to Power.

mutually - gegenseitig

exploitation - Ausbeutung

Co - US-Bundesstaat

appropriation - Fördermittel, Aneignung, Besitznahme

suppression - Unterdrückung; Verdrängung

obtrusion - Aufdringlichkeit; Aufdrängen

disparaging - herabsetzend; nicht standesgemäße Ehe, Missheirat, herabsetzen

dying - (to die) sterben, umkommen; (dye) (to die) sterben, umkommen

gain ground - an Boden gewinnen

On no point, however, is the ordinary consciousness of Europeans more unwilling to be corrected than on this matter, people now rave everywhere, even under the guise of science, about coming conditions of society in which "the exploiting character" is to be absent"that sounds to my ears as if they promised to invent a mode of life which should refrain from all organic functions. "Exploitation" does not belong to a depraved, or imperfect and primitive society it belongs to the nature of the living being as a primary organic function, it is a consequence of the intrinsic Will to Power, which is precisely the Will to Life"Granting that as a theory this is a novelty"as a reality it is the FUNDAMENTAL FACT of all history let us be so far honest towards ourselves!

be absent - fehlen

depraved - verdorben; verderben

intrinsic - intrinsisch

260. In a tour through the many finer and coarser moralities which have hitherto prevailed or still prevail on the earth, I found certain traits recurring regularly together, and connected with one another, until finally two primary types revealed themselves to me, and a radical distinction was brought to light. There is MASTER-MORALITY and SLAVE-MORALITY,"I would at once add, however, that in all higher and mixed civilizations, there are also attempts at the reconciliation of the two moralities, but one finds still oftener the confusion and mutual misunderstanding of them, indeed sometimes their close juxtaposition"even in the same man, within one soul. The distinctions of moral values have either originated in a ruling caste, pleasantly conscious of being different from the ruled"or among the ruled class, the slaves and dependents of all sorts. In the first case, when it is the rulers who determine the conception "good," it is the exalted, proud disposition which is regarded as the distinguishing feature, and that which determines the order of rank. The noble type of man separates from himself the beings in whom the opposite of this exalted, proud disposition displays itself he despises them. Let it at once be noted that in this first kind of morality the antithesis "good" and "bad" means practically the same as "noble" and "despicable","the antithesis "good" and "EVIL" is of a different origin. The cowardly, the timid, the insignificant, and those thinking merely of narrow utility are despised; moreover, also, the distrustful, with their constrained glances, the self-abasing, the dog-like kind of men who let themselves be abused, the mendicant flatterers, and above all the liars:"it is a fundamental belief of all aristocrats that the common people are untruthful. "We truthful ones""the nobility in ancient Greece called themselves. It is obvious that everywhere the designations of moral value were at first applied to MEN; and were only derivatively and at a later period applied to ACTIONS; it is a gross mistake, therefore, when historians of morals start with questions like, "Why have sympathetic actions been praised?" The noble type of man regards HIMSELF as a determiner of values; he does not require to be approved of; he passes the judgment: "What is injurious to me is injurious in itself;" he knows that it is he himself only who confers honour on things; he is a CREATOR OF VALUES. He honours whatever he recognizes in himself: such morality equals self-glorification. In the foreground there is the feeling of plenitude, of power, which seeks to overflow, the happiness of high tension, the consciousness of a wealth which would fain give and bestow:"the noble man also helps the unfortunate, but not"or scarcely"out of pity, but rather from an impulse generated by the super-abundance of power. The noble man honours in himself the powerful one, him also who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and how to keep silence, who takes pleasure in subjecting himself to severity and hardness, and has reverence for all that is severe and hard. "Wotan placed a hard heart in my breast," says an old Scandinavian Saga: it is thus rightly expressed from the soul of a proud Viking. Such a type of man is even proud of not being made for sympathy; the hero of the Saga therefore adds warningly: "He who has not a hard heart when young, will never have one." The noble and brave who think thus are the furthest removed from the morality which sees precisely in sympathy, or in acting for the good of others, or in DESINTERESSEMENT, the characteristic of the moral; faith in oneself, pride in oneself, a radical enmity and irony towards "selflessness," belong as definitely to noble morality, as do a careless scorn and precaution in presence of sympathy and the "warm heart.""It is the powerful who KNOW how to honour, it is their art, their domain for invention. The profound reverence for age and for tradition"all law rests on this double reverence,"the belief and prejudice in favour of ancestors and unfavourable to newcomers, is typical in the morality of the powerful; and if, reversely, men of "modern ideas" believe almost instinctively in "progress" and the "future," and are more and more lacking in respect for old age, the ignoble origin of these "ideas" has complacently betrayed itself thereby.

revealed - aufgedeckt; enthüllen, offenbaren

dependents - Angehörige; abhängig, angewiesen, Unterhaltsempfänger

exalted - erhaben; ehren, erhöhen

distinguishing - zu unterscheiden; unterscheiden, erkennen, auszeichnen

displays - Anzeigen; Vorführung, Vorstellung, Display

antithesis - Antithese

despicable - verachtenswert, gemein, niederträchtig, verabscheuungswürdig

cowardly - feige

despised - verachtet; verachten

abasing - erniedrigen

Mendicant - Vergänglichkeit; betteln

liars - Lügner, Lügnerin

Aristocrats - Aristokraten; Aristokrat, Aristokratin

untruthful - Unwahrhaftig

designations - Bezeichnungen; Benennung, Benennung

derivatively - abgeleitet

determiner - Bestimmungswort; Artikelwort, Determinans, Determinativ

approved - genehmigt; billigen, genehmigen, zusagen

confers - konferiert; übertragen, erteilen, verleihen, beraten

overflow - überfließen, überlaufen, checküberfluten, überströmen

high tension - Hochspannung (mech.)

bestow - verstauen, einlagern, unterbringen, schenken, verleihen

generated - erzeugt; generieren, erzeugen

Scandinavian - Skandinavier, Skandinavierin, skandinavisch

saga - Saga; (sagum) Saga

Viking - Wikinger

warningly - warnend

selflessness - Uneigennützigkeit; Selbstlosigkeit

precaution - Vorsorge; Vorsichtsmaßnahme

newcomers - Neuankömmlinge; Neuankömmling, Neuling, Neuling

reversely - in umgekehrter Richtung

complacently - selbstgefällig

A morality of the ruling class, however, is more especially foreign and irritating to present-day taste in the sternness of its principle that one has duties only to one's equals; that one may act towards beings of a lower rank, towards all that is foreign, just as seems good to one, or "as the heart desires," and in any case "beyond good and evil": it is here that sympathy and similar sentiments can have a place. The ability and obligation to exercise prolonged gratitude and prolonged revenge"both only within the circle of equals,"artfulness in retaliation, RAFFINEMENT of the idea in friendship, a certain necessity to have enemies (as outlets for the emotions of envy, quarrelsomeness, arrogance"in fact, in order to be a good FRIEND): all these are typical characteristics of the noble morality, which, as has been pointed out, is not the morality of "modern ideas," and is therefore at present difficult to realize, and also to unearth and disclose."It is otherwise with the second type of morality, SLAVE-MORALITY. Supposing that the abused, the oppressed, the suffering, the unemancipated, the weary, and those uncertain of themselves should moralize, what will be the common element in their moral estimates? Probably a pessimistic suspicion with regard to the entire situation of man will find expression, perhaps a condemnation of man, together with his situation. The slave has an unfavourable eye for the virtues of the powerful; he has a skepticism and distrust, a REFINEMENT of distrust of everything "good" that is there honoured"he would fain persuade himself that the very happiness there is not genuine. On the other hand, THOSE qualities which serve to alleviate the existence of sufferers are brought into prominence and flooded with light; it is here that sympathy, the kind, helping hand, the warm heart, patience, diligence, humility, and friendliness attain to honour; for here these are the most useful qualities, and almost the only means of supporting the burden of existence. Slave-morality is essentially the morality of utility. Here is the seat of the origin of the famous antithesis "good" and "evil":"power and dangerousness are assumed to reside in the evil, a certain dreadfulness, subtlety, and strength, which do not admit of being despised. According to slave-morality, therefore, the "evil" man arouses fear; according to master-morality, it is precisely the "good" man who arouses fear and seeks to arouse it, while the bad man is regarded as the despicable being. The contrast attains its maximum when, in accordance with the logical consequences of slave-morality, a shade of depreciation"it may be slight and well-intentioned"at last attaches itself to the "good" man of this morality; because, according to the servile mode of thought, the good man must in any case be the SAFE man: he is good-natured, easily deceived, perhaps a little stupid, un bonhomme. Everywhere that slave-morality gains the ascendancy, language shows a tendency to approximate the significations of the words "good" and "stupid.""A last fundamental difference: the desire for FREEDOM, the instinct for happiness and the refinements of the feeling of liberty belong as necessarily to slave-morals and morality, as artifice and enthusiasm in reverence and devotion are the regular symptoms of an aristocratic mode of thinking and estimating."Hence we can understand without further detail why love AS A PASSION"it is our European specialty"must absolutely be of noble origin; as is well known, its invention is due to the Provencal poet-cavaliers, those brilliant, ingenious men of the "gai saber," to whom Europe owes so much, and almost owes itself.

irritating - irritierend; reizen, irritieren, ärgern

artfulness - Kunstfertigkeit; List

retaliation - Vergeltung

quarrelsomeness - Zänkertum; Streitsucht

characteristics - Eigenschaften; charakteristisch, bezeichnend, kennzeichnend

unearth - aufdecken; ausgraben

unemancipated - unemanzipiert

moralize - moralisieren

condemnation - Verurteilung; Verdammung; Verdammnis

alleviate - mildern, lindern, abschwächen

prominence - Prominenz; Protuberanz

diligence - Sorgfalt; Fleiß, Eifer

friendliness - Freundlichkeit

reside - residieren; wohnen

arouses - erregt; reizen, aufreizen, anregen, erregen, entfachen

shade - Schatten; Vorhang; Farbton; schattieren

intentioned - gewollt

servile - sklavisch, unterwürfig, servil, hündisch

gains - Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen, erlangen

approximate - annähernd, ungefähr, zirka, circa

cavaliers - Kavaliere; nachlässig, übermütig, hochmütig, Kavallerist

ingenious - ingeniös, genial, findig

saber - Säbel; niedersäbeln

261. Vanity is one of the things which are perhaps most difficult for a noble man to understand: he will be tempted to deny it, where another kind of man thinks he sees it self-evidently. The problem for him is to represent to his mind beings who seek to arouse a good opinion of themselves which they themselves do not possess"and consequently also do not "deserve,""and who yet BELIEVE in this good opinion afterwards. This seems to him on the one hand such bad taste and so self-disrespectful, and on the other hand so grotesquely unreasonable, that he would like to consider vanity an exception, and is doubtful about it in most cases when it is spoken of. He will say, for instance: "I may be mistaken about my value, and on the other hand may nevertheless demand that my value should be acknowledged by others precisely as I rate it:"that, however, is not vanity (but self-conceit, or, in most cases, that which is called 'humility,'and also 'modesty')." Or he will even say: "For many reasons I can delight in the good opinion of others, perhaps because I love and honour them, and rejoice in all their joys, perhaps also because their good opinion endorses and strengthens my belief in my own good opinion, perhaps because the good opinion of others, even in cases where I do not share it, is useful to me, or gives promise of usefulness:"all this, however, is not vanity." The man of noble character must first bring it home forcibly to his mind, especially with the aid of history, that, from time immemorial, in all social strata in any way dependent, the ordinary man WAS only that which he PASSED FOR:"not being at all accustomed to fix values, he did not assign even to himself any other value than that which his master assigned to him (it is the peculiar RIGHT OF MASTERS to create values).

tempted - in Versuchung; in Versuchung führen, versuchen, locken

arouse - erwecken; reizen, aufreizen, anregen, erregen

disrespectful - respektlos

grotesquely - grotesk

unreasonable - unvernünftig, kompromisslos, nicht nachvollziehbar, unklug

conceit - Eingebung; Einbildung; Konzept

joys - Freuden; Wonne (Freude, Vergnügen); Freude (über)

endorses - befürwortet; empfehlen, bestätigen, unterstützen

strengthens - stärkt; verstärken, stärken, bestärken, stärken, verstärken

forcibly - gewaltsame, gewaltsam

strata - Schichten; (stratum); Bank

assign - zuweisen; zuteilen

It may be looked upon as the result of an extraordinary atavism, that the ordinary man, even at present, is still always WAITING for an opinion about himself, and then instinctively submitting himself to it; yet by no means only to a "good" opinion, but also to a bad and unjust one (think, for instance, of the greater part of the self-appreciations and self-depreciations which believing women learn from their confessors, and which in general the believing Christian learns from his Church). In fact, conformably to the slow rise of the democratic social order (and its cause, the blending of the blood of masters and slaves), the originally noble and rare impulse of the masters to assign a value to themselves and to "think well" of themselves, will now be more and more encouraged and extended; but it has at all times an older, ampler, and more radically ingrained propensity opposed to it"and in the phenomenon of "vanity" this older propensity overmasters the younger. The vain person rejoices over EVERY good opinion which he hears about himself (quite apart from the point of view of its usefulness, and equally regardless of its truth or falsehood), just as he suffers from every bad opinion: for he subjects himself to both, he feels himself subjected to both, by that oldest instinct of subjection which breaks forth in him."It is "the slave" in the vain man's blood, the remains of the slave's craftiness"and how much of the "slave" is still left in woman, for instance!"which seeks to SEDUCE to good opinions of itself; it is the slave, too, who immediately afterwards falls prostrate himself before these opinions, as though he had not called them forth."And to repeat it again: vanity is an atavism.

submitting - einreichen; vorschlagend

appreciations - Wertschätzungen; Anerkennung, Würdigung, Dankbarkeit

depreciations - Wertminderungen; Minderung des Wertes, Wertminderung

confessors - Beichtväter; Bekenner, Beichtvater

learns from - entnimmt

conformably - konform

ampler - Verstärker; groß, umfangreich, üppig

ingrained - tief verwurzelt; eingießen

overmasters - Übermeister; überwältigen, bezwingen

rejoices - freut sich; freuen

regardless - egal; rücksichtslos; trotzdem, dennoch

prostrate - niedergeschlagen; niedergestreckt; niederwerfen, erniedrigen

262. A SPECIES originates, and a type becomes established and strong in the long struggle with essentially constant UNFAVOURABLE conditions. On the other hand, it is known by the experience of breeders that species which receive super-abundant nourishment, and in general a surplus of protection and care, immediately tend in the most marked way to develop variations, and are fertile in prodigies and monstrosities (also in monstrous vices). Now look at an aristocratic commonwealth, say an ancient Greek polis, or Venice, as a voluntary or involuntary contrivance for the purpose of REARING human beings; there are there men beside one another, thrown upon their own resources, who want to make their species prevail, chiefly because they MUST prevail, or else run the terrible danger of being exterminated. The favour, the super-abundance, the protection are there lacking under which variations are fostered; the species needs itself as species, as something which, precisely by virtue of its hardness, its uniformity, and simplicity of structure, can in general prevail and make itself permanent in constant struggle with its neighbours, or with rebellious or rebellion-threatening vassals. The most varied experience teaches it what are the qualities to which it principally owes the fact that it still exists, in spite of all Gods and men, and has hitherto been victorious: these qualities it calls virtues, and these virtues alone it develops to maturity. It does so with severity, indeed it desires severity; every aristocratic morality is intolerant in the education of youth, in the control of women, in the marriage customs, in the relations of old and young, in the penal laws (which have an eye only for the degenerating): it counts intolerance itself among the virtues, under the name of "justice." A type with few, but very marked features, a species of severe, warlike, wisely silent, reserved, and reticent men (and as such, with the most delicate sensibility for the charm and nuances of society) is thus established, unaffected by the vicissitudes of generations; the constant struggle with uniform UNFAVOURABLE conditions is, as already remarked, the cause of a type becoming stable and hard. Finally, however, a happy state of things results, the enormous tension is relaxed; there are perhaps no more enemies among the neighbouring peoples, and the means of life, even of the enjoyment of life, are present in superabundance. With one stroke the bond and constraint of the old discipline severs: it is no longer regarded as necessary, as a condition of existence"if it would continue, it can only do so as a form of LUXURY, as an archaizing TASTE. Variations, whether they be deviations (into the higher, finer, and rarer), or deteriorations and monstrosities, appear suddenly on the scene in the greatest exuberance and splendour; the individual dares to be individual and detach himself.

breeders - Züchter, Züchterin, Pflanzenzüchter, Hete, Brüter, Brutreaktor

fertile - fruchtbar, geil

prodigies - Wunderkinder; Orakel, Wunder

monstrosities - Monstrositäten; Monstrosität, Monstrum

Venice - Venedig

contrivance - Einfallsreichtum; Vorrichtung, Maschinerie, Apparat, Behelf

exterminated - ausgerottet; ausrotten, ausrotten

uniformity - Einheitlichkeit, Uniformität

permanent - dauerhaft; permanent, ständig, beständig, unbefristet

rebellious - rebellisch

rebellion - Rebellion, Aufstand, Aufruhr

vassals - Vasallen; Vasall, Lehnsmann, Gefolgsmann, Gefolgsleute, Höriger

intolerant - unduldsam, intolerant

penal - strafbar; strafrechtlich

intolerance - Intoleranz

wisely - weise

reticent - zurückhaltend

sensibility - Sensibilität, Empfindlichkeit, Empfindungsvermögen

unaffected - unbeeinflusst; ungekünstelt, unberührt

superabundance - Superüberfluss; Ăśberfluss

severs - durchtrennt; abtrennen, durchtrennen, abbrechen, trennen

deviations - Abweichungen; Abweichung, Abweichen

deteriorations - Verschlechterungen; Verschlimmerung, Verschlechterung

splendour - Pracht; Brillanz

dares - wagt; sich getrauen, wagen, jemanden herausfordern

At this turning-point of history there manifest themselves, side by side, and often mixed and entangled together, a magnificent, manifold, virgin-forest-like up-growth and up-striving, a kind of TROPICAL TEMPO in the rivalry of growth, and an extraordinary decay and self-destruction, owing to the savagely opposing and seemingly exploding egoisms, which strive with one another "for sun and light," and can no longer assign any limit, restraint, or forbearance for themselves by means of the hitherto existing morality. It was this morality itself which piled up the strength so enormously, which bent the bow in so threatening a manner:"it is now "out of date," it is getting "out of date." The dangerous and disquieting point has been reached when the greater, more manifold, more comprehensive life IS LIVED BEYOND the old morality; the "individual" stands out, and is obliged to have recourse to his own law-giving, his own arts and artifices for self-preservation, self-elevation, and self-deliverance. Nothing but new "Whys," nothing but new "Hows," no common formulas any longer, misunderstanding and disregard in league with each other, decay, deterioration, and the loftiest desires frightfully entangled, the genius of the race overflowing from all the cornucopias of good and bad, a portentous simultaneousness of Spring and Autumn, full of new charms and mysteries peculiar to the fresh, still inexhausted, still unwearied corruption. Danger is again present, the mother of morality, great danger; this time shifted into the individual, into the neighbour and friend, into the street, into their own child, into their own heart, into all the most personal and secret recesses of their desires and volitions. What will the moral philosophers who appear at this time have to preach? They discover, these sharp onlookers and loafers, that the end is quickly approaching, that everything around them decays and produces decay, that nothing will endure until the day after tomorrow, except one species of man, the incurably MEDIOCRE. The mediocre alone have a prospect of continuing and propagating themselves"they will be the men of the future, the sole survivors; "be like them! become mediocre!" is now the only morality which has still a significance, which still obtains a hearing."But it is difficult to preach this morality of mediocrity! it can never avow what it is and what it desires! it has to talk of moderation and dignity and duty and brotherly love"it will have difficulty IN CONCEALING ITS IRONY!

savagely - brutal

opposing - gegen; ablehnen, widersprechen

egoisms - Egoismen; Egoismus

piled - gestapelt; Haufen, Pfahl, Pulk

disquieting - beunruhigend; Beunruhigung, Unbehagen

recourse - Regress, Rückgriff

artifices - Kunstgriffe; Kunstgriff

League - Liga, Spielklasse, Bund

overflowing - überschwemmt; überlaufend

cornucopias - Füllhörner; Füllhorn

simultaneousness - Gleichzeitigkeit, Simultanität

inexhausted - unerschöpft

unwearied - unermüdlich

most personal - persönlichst

volitions - Willensbekundungen; Vorsatz, Wille, Willenskraft

onlookers - Schaulustiger, Zuschauer

approaching - sich nähern, nahekommen, ähnlich sein

decays - zerfällt; Verfall, Verwesung, Fäulnis, verfallen, verderben

incurably - unheilbar

prospect - Anwärter; Sicht, Perspektive, Aussicht, Erwartung, Chance

propagating - ausbreiten; verbreiten, sich vermehren

survivors - Überlebender, Überlebende, Überlebenskünstler, harter Knochen

dignity - Würde; Förmlichkeit; Amt

brotherly - brüderlich, geschwisterlich

263. There is an INSTINCT FOR RANK, which more than anything else is already the sign of a HIGH rank; there is a DELIGHT in the NUANCES of reverence which leads one to infer noble origin and habits. The refinement, goodness, and loftiness of a soul are put to a perilous test when something passes by that is of the highest rank, but is not yet protected by the awe of authority from obtrusive touches and incivilities: something that goes its way like a living touchstone, undistinguished, undiscovered, and tentative, perhaps voluntarily veiled and disguised. He whose task and practice it is to investigate souls, will avail himself of many varieties of this very art to determine the ultimate value of a soul, the unalterable, innate order of rank to which it belongs: he will test it by its INSTINCT FOR REVERENCE. DIFFERENCE ENGENDRE HAINE: the vulgarity of many a nature spurts up suddenly like dirty water, when any holy vessel, any jewel from closed shrines, any book bearing the marks of great destiny, is brought before it; while on the other hand, there is an involuntary silence, a hesitation of the eye, a cessation of all gestures, by which it is indicated that a soul FEELS the nearness of what is worthiest of respect. The way in which, on the whole, the reverence for the BIBLE has hitherto been maintained in Europe, is perhaps the best example of discipline and refinement of manners which Europe owes to Christianity: books of such profoundness and supreme significance require for their protection an external tyranny of authority, in order to acquire the PERIOD of thousands of years which is necessary to exhaust and unriddle them.

infer - schlussfolgern, schließen, Schlüsse ziehen, zur Folge haben

perilous - lebensgefährlich; gefährlich, gefahrvoll

passes by - (pass by) vorüberziehen, sterben, vorbeigehen

incivilities - Unhöflichkeiten; unhöfliches Benehmen

undiscovered - unentdeckt

tentative - vorläufig, Versuch

unalterable - unabänderlich

vulgarity - Vulgarität

spurts - Schübe; herausspritzen (aus)

vessel - Schiff, Boot, Wasserfahrzeug, Gefäß, Behälter

jewel - Edelstein, Juwel, Schmuckstück, Kleinod

shrines - Schreine; Heiligtum

cessation - Beendigung; Unterbrechung, Einstellung

gestures - Gesten; Geste, Gebärde, Geste, gestikulieren

nearness - Nähe

maintained - unterhalten, warten, beibehalten, aufrechterhalten

profoundness - Tiefgründigkeit; Tiefsinn, Tiefe

exhaust - erschöpfen, dezimieren, Auspuff, Abgas, Abluft

unriddle - enträtseln

Much has been achieved when the sentiment has been at last instilled into the masses (the shallow-pates and the boobies of every kind) that they are not allowed to touch everything, that there are holy experiences before which they must take off their shoes and keep away the unclean hand"it is almost their highest advance towards humanity. On the contrary, in the so-called cultured classes, the believers in "modern ideas," nothing is perhaps so repulsive as their lack of shame, the easy insolence of eye and hand with which they touch, taste, and finger everything; and it is possible that even yet there is more relative nobility of taste, and more tact for reverence among the people, among the lower classes of the people, especially among peasants, than among the newspaper-reading DEMIMONDE of intellect, the cultured class.

instilled - eingeflößt; einträufeln

boobies - Möpse; Dussel, Tölpel, Dummkopf

unclean - unrein, gemein

more relative - relativere

lower classes - Gesindel

peasants - Landwirte; arm

demimonde - Milieu; Halbwelt

264. It cannot be effaced from a man's soul what his ancestors have preferably and most constantly done: whether they were perhaps diligent economizers attached to a desk and a cash-box, modest and citizen-like in their desires, modest also in their virtues; or whether they were accustomed to commanding from morning till night, fond of rude pleasures and probably of still ruder duties and responsibilities; or whether, finally, at one time or another, they have sacrificed old privileges of birth and possession, in order to live wholly for their faith"for their "God,""as men of an inexorable and sensitive conscience, which blushes at every compromise. It is quite impossible for a man NOT to have the qualities and predilections of his parents and ancestors in his constitution, whatever appearances may suggest to the contrary. This is the problem of race. Granted that one knows something of the parents, it is admissible to draw a conclusion about the child: any kind of offensive incontinence, any kind of sordid envy, or of clumsy self-vaunting"the three things which together have constituted the genuine plebeian type in all times"such must pass over to the child, as surely as bad blood; and with the help of the best education and culture one will only succeed in DECEIVING with regard to such heredity.

effaced - ausgelöscht; unkenntlich machen, unlesbar machen, verwischen

preferably - vorzugsweise

diligent - fleißig

economizers - Sparanlagen; Sparanlage

cash-box - (cash-box) Kasse

fond - (to be fond of sb/sth) jemanden/etwas gerne mögen

blushes - errötet; Schamröte; erröten, sich schämen

predilections - Vorlieben; Vorliebe, Faible

admissible - Zulässig

incontinence - Zügellosigkeit, Hemmungslosigkeit, Inkontinenz

sordid - dreckig, schäbig, schmutzig, geizig

vaunting - rühmen; (vaunt) sich brüsten; (vaunt) rühmen; (vaunt) sich brüsten

And what else does education and culture try to do nowadays! In our very democratic, or rather, very plebeian age, "education" and "culture" MUST be essentially the art of deceiving"deceiving with regard to origin, with regard to the inherited plebeianism in body and soul. An educator who nowadays preached truthfulness above everything else, and called out constantly to his pupils: "Be true! Be natural! Show yourselves as you are!""even such a virtuous and sincere ass would learn in a short time to have recourse to the FURCA of Horace, NATURAM EXPELLERE: with what results? "Plebeianism" USQUE RECURRET. [FOOTNOTE: Horace's "Epistles," I. x. 24.]

educator - Erzieher, Erzieherin

epistles - Episteln; Epistel, Apostelbrief

265. At the risk of displeasing innocent ears, I submit that egoism belongs to the essence of a noble soul, I mean the unalterable belief that to a being such as "we," other beings must naturally be in subjection, and have to sacrifice themselves. The noble soul accepts the fact of his egoism without question, and also without consciousness of harshness, constraint, or arbitrariness therein, but rather as something that may have its basis in the primary law of things:"if he sought a designation for it he would say: "It is justice itself." He acknowledges under certain circumstances, which made him hesitate at first, that there are other equally privileged ones; as soon as he has settled this question of rank, he moves among those equals and equally privileged ones with the same assurance, as regards modesty and delicate respect, which he enjoys in intercourse with himself"in accordance with an innate heavenly mechanism which all the stars understand.

displeasing - unangenehm; missfallen

submit - sich fügen; vorlegen, einreichen, unterwerfen

acknowledges - anerkennt; zur Kenntnis nehmen, erkennen, bekennen, anerkennen

heavenly - himmlisch

It is an ADDITIONAL instance of his egoism, this artfulness and self-limitation in intercourse with his equals"every star is a similar egoist; he honours HIMSELF in them, and in the rights which he concedes to them, he has no doubt that the exchange of honours and rights, as the ESSENCE of all INTERcourse, belongs also to the natural condition of things. The noble soul gives as he takes, prompted by the passionate and sensitive instinct of requital, which is at the root of his nature. The notion of "favour" has, INTER PARES, neither significance nor good repute; there may be a sublime way of letting gifts as it were light upon one from above, and of drinking them thirstily like dew-drops; but for those arts and displays the noble soul has no aptitude. His egoism hinders him here: in general, he looks "aloft" unwillingly"he looks either FORWARD, horizontally and deliberately, or downwards"HE KNOWS THAT HE IS ON A HEIGHT.

egoist - Egoist, Egoistin

inter - begraben

requital - Revanche; Vergeltung

Pares - schält; (par) schält

repute - Leumund; Ruf

thirstily - durstig, durstige

dew - tauen; Tau

hinders - behindert; behindern, aufhalten, hindern

horizontally - Horizontal

deliberately - absichtlich

266. "One can only truly esteem him who does not LOOK OUT FOR himself.""Goethe to Rath Schlosser.

267. The Chinese have a proverb which mothers even teach their children: "SIAO-SIN" ("MAKE THY HEART SMALL"). This is the essentially fundamental tendency in latter-day civilizations. I have no doubt that an ancient Greek, also, would first of all remark the self-dwarfing in us Europeans of today"in this respect alone we should immediately be "distasteful" to him.

proverb - Sprichwort, Denkspruch, Redensart; Proverb

remark - bemerken; Anmerkung, Bemerkung

268. What, after all, is ignobleness?"Words are vocal symbols for ideas; ideas, however, are more or less definite mental symbols for frequently returning and concurring sensations, for groups of sensations. It is not sufficient to use the same words in order to understand one another: we must also employ the same words for the same kind of internal experiences, we must in the end have experiences IN COMMON. On this account the people of one nation understand one another better than those belonging to different nations, even when they use the same language; or rather, when people have lived long together under similar conditions (of climate, soil, danger, requirement, toil) there ORIGINATES therefrom an entity that "understands itself""namely, a nation. In all souls a like number of frequently recurring experiences have gained the upper hand over those occurring more rarely: about these matters people understand one another rapidly and always more rapidly"the history of language is the history of a process of abbreviation; on the basis of this quick comprehension people always unite closer and closer. The greater the danger, the greater is the need of agreeing quickly and readily about what is necessary; not to misunderstand one another in danger"that is what cannot at all be dispensed with in intercourse. Also in all loves and friendships one has the experience that nothing of the kind continues when the discovery has been made that in using the same words, one of the two parties has feelings, thoughts, intuitions, wishes, or fears different from those of the other. (The fear of the "eternal misunderstanding": that is the good genius which so often keeps persons of different sexes from too hasty attachments, to which sense and heart prompt them"and NOT some Schopenhauerian "genius of the species"!) Whichever groups of sensations within a soul awaken most readily, begin to speak, and give the word of command"these decide as to the general order of rank of its values, and determine ultimately its list of desirable things.

vocal - stimmhaft, stimmlich, mündlich, lautstark

concurring - übereinstimmen, zustimmen, übereinstimmen, zusammentreffen

toil - Mühe; schuften, sich plagen, sich quälen, roboten

entity - Wesen; Entität, checkWesenheit, checkDasein

unite - vereinen

intuitions - Intuitionen; Ahnung, Anschauung, Eingebung, Einfühlungsvermögen

attachments - Anhänge; Attachment

whichever - was auch immer

awaken - erwecken; aufwecken, aufwachen, erwachen, wach werden

A man's estimates of value betray something of the STRUCTURE of his soul, and wherein it sees its conditions of life, its intrinsic needs. Supposing now that necessity has from all time drawn together only such men as could express similar requirements and similar experiences by similar symbols, it results on the whole that the easy COMMUNICABILITY of need, which implies ultimately the undergoing only of average and COMMON experiences, must have been the most potent of all the forces which have hitherto operated upon mankind. The more similar, the more ordinary people, have always had and are still having the advantage; the more select, more refined, more unique, and difficultly comprehensible, are liable to stand alone; they succumb to accidents in their isolation, and seldom propagate themselves. One must appeal to immense opposing forces, in order to thwart this natural, all-too-natural PROGRESSUS IN SIMILE, the evolution of man to the similar, the ordinary, the average, the gregarious"to the IGNOBLE"!

most potent - potenteste

comprehensible - nachvollziehbar

succumb - erliegen, nachgeben, unterwerfen, sich ergeben, sterben

isolation - Isolierung, Isolation

thwart - durchkreuzen, entgegenwirken, vereiteln, konterkarieren

simile - Vergleich, Gleichnis

269. The more a psychologist"a born, an unavoidable psychologist and soul-diviner"turns his attention to the more select cases and individuals, the greater is his danger of being suffocated by sympathy: he NEEDS sternness and cheerfulness more than any other man. For the corruption, the ruination of higher men, of the more unusually constituted souls, is in fact, the rule: it is dreadful to have such a rule always before one's eyes. The manifold torment of the psychologist who has discovered this ruination, who discovers once, and then discovers ALMOST repeatedly throughout all history, this universal inner "desperateness" of higher men, this eternal "too late!" in every sense"may perhaps one day be the cause of his turning with bitterness against his own lot, and of his making an attempt at self-destruction"of his "going to ruin" himself. One may perceive in almost every psychologist a tell-tale inclination for delightful intercourse with commonplace and well-ordered men; the fact is thereby disclosed that he always requires healing, that he needs a sort of flight and forgetfulness, away from what his insight and incisiveness"from what his "business""has laid upon his conscience. The fear of his memory is peculiar to him. He is easily silenced by the judgment of others; he hears with unmoved countenance how people honour, admire, love, and glorify, where he has PERCEIVED"or he even conceals his silence by expressly assenting to some plausible opinion. Perhaps the paradox of his situation becomes so dreadful that, precisely where he has learnt GREAT SYMPATHY, together with great CONTEMPT, the multitude, the educated, and the visionaries, have on their part learnt great reverence"reverence for "great men" and marvelous animals, for the sake of whom one blesses and honours the fatherland, the earth, the dignity of mankind, and one's own self, to whom one points the young, and in view of whom one educates them. And who knows but in all great instances hitherto just the same happened: that the multitude worshipped a God, and that the "God" was only a poor sacrificial animal! SUCCESS has always been the greatest liar"and the "work" itself is a success; the great statesman, the conqueror, the discoverer, are disguised in their creations until they are unrecognizable; the "work" of the artist, of the philosopher, only invents him who has created it, is REPUTED to have created it; the "great men," as they are reverenced, are poor little fictions composed afterwards; in the world of historical values spurious coinage PREVAILS. Those great poets, for example, such as Byron, Musset, Poe, Leopardi, Kleist, Gogol (I do not venture to mention much greater names, but I have them in my mind), as they now appear, and were perhaps obliged to be: men of the moment, enthusiastic, sensuous, and childish, light-minded and impulsive in their trust and distrust; with souls in which usually some flaw has to be concealed; often taking revenge with their works for an internal defilement, often seeking forgetfulness in their soaring from a too true memory, often lost in the mud and almost in love with it, until they become like the Will-o'-the-Wisps around the swamps, and PRETEND TO BE stars"the people then call them idealists,"often struggling with protracted disgust, with an ever-reappearing phantom of disbelief, which makes them cold, and obliges them to languish for GLORIA and devour "faith as it is" out of the hands of intoxicated adulators:"what a TORMENT these great artists are and the so-called higher men in general, to him who has once found them out!

diviner - Wünschelrutengänger; Hellseher, Hellseherin, Wahrsager

cheerfulness - Fröhlichkeit, Frohsinn, Freundlichkeit

ruination - Ruin; Verderben; Vernichtung

unusually - ungewöhnlich

repeatedly - wiederholt

desperateness - Verzweiflung; Hoffnungslosigkeit

Tale - Geschichte, Erzählung, Fabel

delightful - reizvoll, entzückend, angenehm

forgetfulness - Vergesslichkeit; Vergessen, Vergessenheit

incisiveness - Schärfe

silenced - zum Schweigen gebracht; Stille, Schweigen

unmoved - ungerührt, unbewegt

assenting - zustimmend; zustimmen, behaupten

blesses - segnet; selig preisen

instances - Instanzen; Beispiel

worshipped - verehrt; Verehrung, Anbetung, Gottesdienst, Verehrung, Anbetung

sacrificial - aufopfernd

Conqueror - Eroberer, Erobererin, Bezwinger, Bezwingerin

reputed - angesehen; Ruf

reverenced - verehrt; Ehrfurcht, Bewunderung, Verehrung, Hochachtung

composed - komponiert; compos

spurious - fälschlich; unecht, gefälscht, falsch, herumirrend, beiläufig

coinage - Münzprägung

impulsive - impulsiv

flaw - Makel; Fehlerstelle, Fehler

defilement - Verunreinigung

wisps - Irrlichter; Haarbüschel, Strohbündel, Wisch, Strähne

struggling - sich abmühen; kämpfend, ringend; (struggle); Kampf, Gefecht

protracted - langwierig; verlängern, sich ziehen, sich hinziehen

reappearing - wieder auftauchen; wieder erscheinen, wiederauftreten

obliges - verpflichtet; verpflichten, einen Gefallen tun

languish - ermatten, erschlaffen, siechen, schmachten, sehnen

devour - verschlingen, fressen, herunterschlingen, zerstören

adulators - Werbetreibende; Schmeichler, Schmeichlerin

It is thus conceivable that it is just from woman"who is clairvoyant in the world of suffering, and also unfortunately eager to help and save to an extent far beyond her powers"that THEY have learnt so readily those outbreaks of boundless devoted SYMPATHY, which the multitude, above all the reverent multitude, do not understand, and overwhelm with prying and self-gratifying interpretations. This sympathizing invariably deceives itself as to its power; woman would like to believe that love can do EVERYTHING"it is the SUPERSTITION peculiar to her. Alas, he who knows the heart finds out how poor, helpless, pretentious, and blundering even the best and deepest love is"he finds that it rather DESTROYS than saves!"It is possible that under the holy fable and travesty of the life of Jesus there is hidden one of the most painful cases of the martyrdom of KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LOVE: the martyrdom of the most innocent and most craving heart, that never had enough of any human love, that DEMANDED love, that demanded inexorably and frantically to be loved and nothing else, with terrible outbursts against those who refused him their love; the story of a poor soul insatiated and insatiable in love, that had to invent hell to send thither those who WOULD NOT love him"and that at last, enlightened about human love, had to invent a God who is entire love, entire CAPACITY for love"who takes pity on human love, because it is so paltry, so ignorant! He who has such sentiments, he who has such KNOWLEDGE about love"SEEKS for death!"But why should one deal with such painful matters? Provided, of course, that one is not obliged to do so.

clairvoyant - hellseherisch, präkognitiv, Hellseher, Hellseherin

outbreaks - Ausbrüche; Ausbruch, Auftreten

devoted - hingebungsvoll; widmen

prying - neugierig schauend, neugierig; (pry) neugierig schauend

gratifying - befriedigend; befriedigen, erfreuen

sympathizing - mitfühlend; mitfühlen

invariably - ausnahmslos

pretentious - prätentiös

travesty - eine Travestie; Zerrbild; Farce, lächerliche Karikatur

most innocent - unschuldigste

craving - Sehnsucht (nach); flehend, heftiges Verlangen; (crave); sehnen

frantically - verzweifelt

outbursts - Ausbrüche; hervorbrechen; Ausbruch

refused - abgelehnt; Müll; abweisen, verweigern, abschlagen, ablehnen

insatiated - unersättlich

enlightened - aufgeklärt; aufklären

270. The intellectual haughtiness and loathing of every man who has suffered deeply"it almost determines the order of rank HOW deeply men can suffer"the chilling certainty, with which he is thoroughly imbued and coloured, that by virtue of his suffering he KNOWS MORE than the shrewdest and wisest can ever know, that he has been familiar with, and "at home" in, many distant, dreadful worlds of which "YOU know nothing"!"this silent intellectual haughtiness of the sufferer, this pride of the elect of knowledge, of the "initiated," of the almost sacrificed, finds all forms of disguise necessary to protect itself from contact with officious and sympathizing hands, and in general from all that is not its equal in suffering. Profound suffering makes noble: it separates."One of the most refined forms of disguise is Epicurism, along with a certain ostentatious boldness of taste, which takes suffering lightly, and puts itself on the defensive against all that is sorrowful and profound.

chilling - Abkühlung; Kälte verbreitend; (chill) Abkühlung; Kälte verbreitend

imbued - durchdrungen; tränken, durchdringen

shrewdest - am klügsten; klug, clever, gewitzt, schlau, listig, raffiniert

sufferer - leidet; Leider

elect - entscheiden, wählen, gewählt

initiated - Eingeweihter, Eingeweihte, Initiierter, Initiierte

officious - aufdringlich

Epicurism - Genusssucht

ostentatious - ostentativ

They are "gay men" who make use of gaiety, because they are misunderstood on account of it"they WISH to be misunderstood. There are "scientific minds" who make use of science, because it gives a gay appearance, and because scientificness leads to the conclusion that a person is superficial"they WISH to mislead to a false conclusion. There are free insolent minds which would fain conceal and deny that they are broken, proud, incurable hearts (the cynicism of Hamlet"the case of Galiani); and occasionally folly itself is the mask of an unfortunate OVER-ASSURED knowledge."From which it follows that it is the part of a more refined humanity to have reverence "for the mask," and not to make use of psychology and curiosity in the wrong place.

gay - vergnügt, schwul, homosexuell, lustig, heiter

insolent - unverschämt; beleidigend, verletzend, anmaßend, überheblich

assured - gesichert; beteuerte, versicherte, versichert

271. That which separates two men most profoundly is a different sense and grade of purity. What does it matter about all their honesty and reciprocal usefulness, what does it matter about all their mutual good-will: the fact still remains"they "cannot smell each other!" The highest instinct for purity places him who is affected with it in the most extraordinary and dangerous isolation, as a saint: for it is just holiness"the highest spiritualization of the instinct in question. Any kind of cognizance of an indescribable excess in the joy of the bath, any kind of ardour or thirst which perpetually impels the soul out of night into the morning, and out of gloom, out of "affliction" into clearness, brightness, depth, and refinement:"just as much as such a tendency DISTINGUISHES"it is a noble tendency"it also SEPARATES.

holiness - Heiligkeit

gloom - Finsternis; Düsternis, Dunkelheit, Trübnis, Schwermut

affliction - Bedrängnis; Leiden, Behinderung

brightness - Funkeln, Glanz, Helligkeit, Aufgewecktheit

The pity of the saint is pity for the FILTH of the human, all-too-human. And there are grades and heights where pity itself is regarded by him as impurity, as filth.

impurity - Unreinheit, Verunreinigung, Fremdkörper

272. Signs of nobility: never to think of lowering our duties to the rank of duties for everybody; to be unwilling to renounce or to share our responsibilities; to count our prerogatives, and the exercise of them, among our DUTIES.

be unwilling - nicht gewillt sein, ungewillt sein


A man who strives after great things, looks upon every one whom he encounters on his way either as a means of advance, or a delay and hindrance"or as a temporary resting-place. His peculiar lofty BOUNTY to his fellow-men is only possible when he attains his elevation and dominates. Impatience, and the consciousness of being always condemned to comedy up to that time"for even strife is a comedy, and conceals the end, as every means does"spoil all intercourse for him; this kind of man is acquainted with solitude, and what is most poisonous in it.

encounters - Begegnungen; treffen, begegnen, Begegnung, Treffen

delay - Verspätung, Verzögerung, Verzug

hindrance - Behinderung, Hindernis

temporary - zeitweilig, temporär, vorübergehend, Zeitarbeitskraft

resting-place - (resting-place) Rastplatz

bounty - Geschenk; Belohnung, Kopfgeld, Prämie, Heuer

fellow-men - (fellow-men) Mitmenschen

dominates - dominiert; herrschen (über), emporragen (über); beherrschen

most poisonous - giftigste

274. THE PROBLEM OF THOSE WHO WAIT."Happy chances are necessary, and many incalculable elements, in order that a higher man in whom the solution of a problem is dormant, may yet take action, or "break forth," as one might say"at the right moment. On an average it DOES NOT happen; and in all corners of the earth there are waiting ones sitting who hardly know to what extent they are waiting, and still less that they wait in vain. Occasionally, too, the waking call comes too late"the chance which gives "permission" to take action"when their best youth, and strength for action have been used up in sitting still; and how many a one, just as he "sprang up," has found with horror that his limbs are benumbed and his spirits are now too heavy!

incalculable - unberechenbar

dormant - schlafend, inaktiv

sprang up - (spring up) aus dem Boden schießen, (Wind) aufkommen

benumbed - betäubt; betäuben

"It is too late," he has said to himself"and has become self-distrustful and henceforth for ever useless."In the domain of genius, may not the "Raphael without hands" (taking the expression in its widest sense) perhaps not be the exception, but the rule?"Perhaps genius is by no means so rare: but rather the five hundred HANDS which it requires in order to tyrannize over the [GREEK INSERTED HERE], "the right time""in order to take chance by the forelock!

useless - nutzlos, unnützlich, wertlos

tyrannize - tyrannisieren

275. He who does not WISH to see the height of a man, looks all the more sharply at what is low in him, and in the foreground"and thereby betrays himself.

276. In all kinds of injury and loss the lower and coarser soul is better off than the nobler soul: the dangers of the latter must be greater, the probability that it will come to grief and perish is in fact immense, considering the multiplicity of the conditions of its existence."In a lizard a finger grows again which has been lost; not so in man."

nobler - edler; Adeliger, Adliger, Adelige, Adlige, Aristokrat

Lizard - Eidechse

277. It is too bad! Always the old story! When a man has finished building his house, he finds that he has learnt unawares something which he OUGHT absolutely to have known before he"began to build. The eternal, fatal "Too late!" The melancholia of everything COMPLETED"!

unawares - unversehens; unwissend, nicht wissend, unaufmerksam

fatal - verhängnisvoll, fatal, tödlich

melancholia - Melancholie, Schwermut

278."Wanderer, who art thou? I see thee follow thy path without scorn, without love, with unfathomable eyes, wet and sad as a plummet which has returned to the light insatiated out of every depth"what did it seek down there?"with a bosom that never sighs, with lips that conceal their loathing, with a hand which only slowly grasps: who art thou? what hast thou done?

wanderer - Wanderer

plummet - abstürzen; Lot, Blei, Senker, Senklot

bosom - Busen, Brust, der Busenfreund (bosom buddy)

sighs - seufzt; Seufzen, Seufzer, Säuseln (Wind); säuseln (Wind)

Rest thee here: this place has hospitality for every one"refresh thyself! And whoever thou art, what is it that now pleases thee? What will serve to refresh thee? Only name it, whatever I have I offer thee! "To refresh me? To refresh me? Oh, thou prying one, what sayest thou! But give me, I pray thee"-" What? what? Speak out! "Another mask! A second mask!"

refresh - erfrischen, erquicken, auffrischen, aktualisieren, neu laden

279. Men of profound sadness betray themselves when they are happy: they have a mode of seizing upon happiness as though they would choke and strangle it, out of jealousy"ah, they know only too well that it will flee from them!

sadness - Traurigkeit; Schicksalsschlag, Pech

seizing - (to seize) erfassen, ergreifen, anpacken; (seize); ergreifen

choke - erwürgen, erdrosseln, ersticken, überwältigen

strangle - strangulieren, erwürgen

jealousy - Eifersucht, Missgunst, Neid

280. "Bad! Bad! What? Does he not"go back?" Yes! But you misunderstand him when you complain about it. He goes back like every one who is about to make a great spring.

281.""Will people believe it of me? But I insist that they believe it of me: I have always thought very unsatisfactorily of myself and about myself, only in very rare cases, only compulsorily, always without delight in 'the subject,'ready to digress from 'myself,'and always without faith in the result, owing to an unconquerable distrust of the POSSIBILITY of self-knowledge, which has led me so far as to feel a CONTRADICTIO IN ADJECTO even in the idea of 'direct knowledge'which theorists allow themselves:"this matter of fact is almost the most certain thing I know about myself. There must be a sort of repugnance in me to BELIEVE anything definite about myself."Is there perhaps some enigma therein? Probably; but fortunately nothing for my own teeth."Perhaps it betrays the species to which I belong?"but not to myself, as is sufficiently agreeable to me.

unsatisfactorily - unzufriedenstellend

compulsorily - obligatorisch

digress - abgehen, abschweifen, ausschweifen

theorists - Theoretiker, Theoretikerin

repugnance - Abneigung, Widerwille

282.""But what has happened to you?"""I do not know," he said, hesitatingly; "perhaps the Harpies have flown over my table.""It sometimes happens nowadays that a gentle, sober, retiring man becomes suddenly mad, breaks the plates, upsets the table, shrieks, raves, and shocks everybody"and finally withdraws, ashamed, and raging at himself"whither? for what purpose? To famish apart? To suffocate with his memories?"To him who has the desires of a lofty and dainty soul, and only seldom finds his table laid and his food prepared, the danger will always be great"nowadays, however, it is extraordinarily so.

harpies - Harpyien; Harpyie, Drachen

flown over - überflogene

sober - nüchtern, besonnen, ernst, gedeckt, ernüchtern, ausnüchtern

shrieks - Schreie; Kreischen

raves - schwärmen, rasen

shocks - Schocks; Schock, Betroffenheit, Empörung, Schlag, Stoß

withdraws - zurückzieht; annullieren, entziehen, abziehen, ausscheiden

raging - wütend; Fummel, Lumpen, Putzlappen, Unfug

famish - verhungern, hungern

suffocate - ersticken, würgen

dainty - Delikatesse; fein, zart, zierlich

extraordinarily - außerordentlich

Thrown into the midst of a noisy and plebeian age, with which he does not like to eat out of the same dish, he may readily perish of hunger and thirst"or, should he nevertheless finally "fall to," of sudden nausea."We have probably all sat at tables to which we did not belong; and precisely the most spiritual of us, who are most difficult to nourish, know the dangerous DYSPEPSIA which originates from a sudden insight and disillusionment about our food and our messmates"the AFTER-DINNER NAUSEA.

nausea - Übelkeit; Ekel

nourish - ernähren, aufziehen, erziehen, großziehen

dyspepsia - Dyspepsie; Verdauungsstörung

messmates - Schüsselgenosse, Tischgenosse, Mitesser

283. If one wishes to praise at all, it is a delicate and at the same time a noble self-control, to praise only where one DOES NOT agree"otherwise in fact one would praise oneself, which is contrary to good taste:"a self-control, to be sure, which offers excellent opportunity and provocation to constant MISUNDERSTANDING. To be able to allow oneself this veritable luxury of taste and morality, one must not live among intellectual imbeciles, but rather among men whose misunderstandings and mistakes amuse by their refinement"or one will have to pay dearly for it!

provocation - Provokation

imbeciles - Schwachköpfe; Schwachsinnige, geistesschwach

amuse - amüsieren, vergnügen, belustigen, erheitern

"He praises me, THEREFORE he acknowledges me to be right""this asinine method of inference spoils half of the life of us recluses, for it brings the asses into our neighbourhood and friendship.

praises - lobt; Lob

asinine - töricht

inference - Schlussfolgern, Schlussfolgerung, Inferenz

284. To live in a vast and proud tranquility; always beyond... To have, or not to have, one's emotions, one's For and Against, according to choice; to lower oneself to them for hours; to SEAT oneself on them as upon horses, and often as upon asses:"for one must know how to make use of their stupidity as well as of their fire. To conserve one's three hundred foregrounds; also one's black spectacles: for there are circumstances when nobody must look into our eyes, still less into our "motives.

tranquility - Gelassenheit; Ruhe

spectacles - Brillen; Spektakel

And to choose for company that roguish and cheerful vice, politeness. And to remain master of one's four virtues, courage, insight, sympathy, and solitude. For solitude is a virtue with us, as a sublime bent and bias to purity, which divines that in the contact of man and man""in society""it must be unavoidably impure. All society makes one somehow, somewhere, or sometime""commonplace."

bias - Vorurteile; Voreingenommenheit, Neigung, Ausrichtung, Vorliebe

unavoidably - Unvermeidlich

impure - unrein

sometime - irgendwann, eines Tages

285. The greatest events and thoughts"the greatest thoughts, however, are the greatest events"are longest in being comprehended: the generations which are contemporary with them do not EXPERIENCE such events"they live past them. Something happens there as in the realm of stars. The light of the furthest stars is longest in reaching man; and before it has arrived man DENIES"that there are stars there.

"How many centuries does a mind require to be understood?""that is also a standard, one also makes a gradation of rank and an etiquette therewith, such as is necessary for mind and for star.

etiquette - Etikette

286. "Here is the prospect free, the mind exalted." [FOOTNOTE: Goethe's "Faust," Part II, Act V. The words of Dr. Marianus.]"But there is a reverse kind of man, who is also upon a height, and has also a free prospect"but looks DOWNWARDS.

287. What is noble? What does the word "noble" still mean for us nowadays? How does the noble man betray himself, how is he recognized under this heavy overcast sky of the commencing plebeianism, by which everything is rendered opaque and leaden?"It is not his actions which establish his claim"actions are always ambiguous, always inscrutable; neither is it his "works." One finds nowadays among artists and scholars plenty of those who betray by their works that a profound longing for nobleness impels them; but this very NEED of nobleness is radically different from the needs of the noble soul itself, and is in fact the eloquent and dangerous sign of the lack thereof.

overcast - bedeckt, bewölkt

commencing - anfangen, beginnen

opaque - matt, dunkel, undurchsichtig, undurchlässig, opak

leaden - bleiern

inscrutable - undurchschaubar

It is not the works, but the BELIEF which is here decisive and determines the order of rank"to employ once more an old religious formula with a new and deeper meaning"it is some fundamental certainty which a noble soul has about itself, something which is not to be sought, is not to be found, and perhaps, also, is not to be lost."THE NOBLE SOUL HAS REVERENCE FOR ITSELF."

288. There are men who are unavoidably intellectual, let them turn and twist themselves as they will, and hold their hands before their treacherous eyes"as though the hand were not a betrayer; it always comes out at last that they have something which they hide"namely, intellect. One of the subtlest means of deceiving, at least as long as possible, and of successfully representing oneself to be stupider than one really is"which in everyday life is often as desirable as an umbrella,"is called ENTHUSIASM, including what belongs to it, for instance, virtue.

twist - Zwirn; Biegung; Wendung; Twist; verziehen, drehen, wickeln

treacherous - verräterisch

betrayer - Verräter

subtlest - am subtilsten; subtil, fast unmerklich, haarfein, dezent

For as Galiani said, who was obliged to know it: VERTU EST ENTHOUSIASME.

289. In the writings of a recluse one always hears something of the echo of the wilderness, something of the murmuring tones and timid vigilance of solitude; in his strongest words, even in his cry itself, there sounds a new and more dangerous kind of silence, of concealment. He who has sat day and night, from year's end to year's end, alone with his soul in familiar discord and discourse, he who has become a cave-bear, or a treasure-seeker, or a treasure-guardian and dragon in his cave"it may be a labyrinth, but can also be a gold-mine"his ideas themselves eventually acquire a twilight-colour of their own, and an odour, as much of the depth as of the mould, something uncommunicative and repulsive, which blows chilly upon every passer-by.

writings - Schriftstücke; (write) verfassen

wilderness - Wildnis, Wüste

murmuring - murmelnd, raunend; (murmur); Rauschen, Murmeln, Gemurmel

vigilance - Wachsamkeit

discord - Zwietracht; Zerwürfnis, Misston, Dissonanz

treasure - Schatz; schätzen

guardian - Wächter, Wache, Vormund, Erziehungsberechtigter

mould - Schimmel; Heizform, Form; Gussform, Gießform, Moder; formen

uncommunicative - unkommunikativ

chilly - frostig, kalt, kühl

The recluse does not believe that a philosopher"supposing that a philosopher has always in the first place been a recluse"ever expressed his actual and ultimate opinions in books: are not books written precisely to hide what is in us?"indeed, he will doubt whether a philosopher CAN have "ultimate and actual" opinions at all; whether behind every cave in him there is not, and must necessarily be, a still deeper cave: an ampler, stranger, richer world beyond the surface, an abyss behind every bottom, beneath every "foundation." Every philosophy is a foreground philosophy"this is a recluse's verdict: "There is something arbitrary in the fact that the PHILOSOPHER came to a stand here, took a retrospect, and looked around; that he HERE laid his spade aside and did not dig any deeper"there is also something suspicious in it." Every philosophy also CONCEALS a philosophy; every opinion is also a LURKING-PLACE, every word is also a MASK.

retrospect - rückblickend; Rückblick, Rückschau

spade - Spaten, Schaufel (für Kinder); Pik (Kartenspiel)

dig - graben; Stoß, Puff, Seitenhieb

lurking - auf der Lauer liegen; lauernd; (lurk); lauern

290. Every deep thinker is more afraid of being understood than of being misunderstood. The latter perhaps wounds his vanity; but the former wounds his heart, his sympathy, which always says: "Ah, why would you also have as hard a time of it as I have?"

wounds - anschießen, verwunden


Man, a COMPLEX, mendacious, artful, and inscrutable animal, uncanny to the other animals by his artifice and sagacity, rather than by his strength, has invented the good conscience in order finally to enjoy his soul as something SIMPLE; and the whole of morality is a long, audacious falsification, by virtue of which generally enjoyment at the sight of the soul becomes possible. From this point of view there is perhaps much more in the conception of "art" than is generally believed.

mendacious - verlogen

uncanny - unheimlich, gruselig, seltsam, verstörend, Unheimliche

292. A philosopher: that is a man who constantly experiences, sees, hears, suspects, hopes, and dreams extraordinary things; who is struck by his own thoughts as if they came from the outside, from above and below, as a species of events and lightning-flashes PECULIAR TO HIM; who is perhaps himself a storm pregnant with new lightnings; a portentous man, around whom there is always rumbling and mumbling and gaping and something uncanny going on.

struck - angeschlagen; streichen, schlagen, prägen, streiken, scheinen

flashes - blinkt; aufleuchten, blitzen, aufflammen

pregnant - schwanger; bedeutungsvoll

lightnings - Blitze; Blitz, Entladung

rumbling - Rumpeln; Donnern; (rumble); Poltern, Rumpeln, hunder

mumbling - Nuscheln; Genuschel, murmelnd; (mumble); murmeln, nuscheln

A philosopher: alas, a being who often runs away from himself, is often afraid of himself"but whose curiosity always makes him "come to himself" again.

runs away - entläuft

293. A man who says: "I like that, I take it for my own, and mean to guard and protect it from every one"; a man who can conduct a case, carry out a resolution, remain true to an opinion, keep hold of a woman, punish and overthrow insolence; a man who has his indignation and his sword, and to whom the weak, the suffering, the oppressed, and even the animals willingly submit and naturally belong; in short, a man who is a MASTER by nature"when such a man has sympathy, well! THAT sympathy has value! But of what account is the sympathy of those who suffer! Or of those even who preach sympathy! There is nowadays, throughout almost the whole of Europe, a sickly irritability and sensitiveness towards pain, and also a repulsive irrestrainableness in complaining, an effeminizing, which, with the aid of religion and philosophical nonsense, seeks to deck itself out as something superior"there is a regular cult of suffering.

overthrow - umstürzen (Politik)

irritability - Reizbarkeit, Empfindlichkeit, Irritabilität

irrestrainableness - Unbeugsamkeit

nonsense - Blödsinn, Nonsens

deck - Verdeck; jdm. eine knallen

The UNMANLINESS of that which is called "sympathy" by such groups of visionaries, is always, I believe, the first thing that strikes the eye."One must resolutely and radically taboo this latest form of bad taste; and finally I wish people to put the good amulet, "GAI SABER" ("gay science," in ordinary language), on heart and neck, as a protection against it.

Unmanliness - Unmännlichkeit

taboo - Tabu; tabuisieren

amulet - Amulett

294. THE OLYMPIAN VICE."Despite the philosopher who, as a genuine Englishman, tried to bring laughter into bad repute in all thinking minds""Laughing is a bad infirmity of human nature, which every thinking mind will strive to overcome" (Hobbes),"I would even allow myself to rank philosophers according to the quality of their laughing"up to those who are capable of GOLDEN laughter.

Olympian - Olympionike; Olympian

And supposing that Gods also philosophize, which I am strongly inclined to believe, owing to many reasons"I have no doubt that they also know how to laugh thereby in an overman-like and new fashion"and at the expense of all serious things! Gods are fond of ridicule: it seems that they cannot refrain from laughter even in holy matters.

overman - Aufseher, Steiger

295. The genius of the heart, as that great mysterious one possesses it, the tempter-god and born rat-catcher of consciences, whose voice can descend into the nether-world of every soul, who neither speaks a word nor casts a glance in which there may not be some motive or touch of allurement, to whose perfection it pertains that he knows how to appear,"not as he is, but in a guise which acts as an ADDITIONAL constraint on his followers to press ever closer to him, to follow him more cordially and thoroughly;"the genius of the heart, which imposes silence and attention on everything loud and self-conceited, which smoothes rough souls and makes them taste a new longing"to lie placid as a mirror, that the deep heavens may be reflected in them;"the genius of the heart, which teaches the clumsy and too hasty hand to hesitate, and to grasp more delicately; which scents the hidden and forgotten treasure, the drop of goodness and sweet spirituality under thick dark ice, and is a divining-rod for every grain of gold, long buried and imprisoned in mud and sand; the genius of the heart, from contact with which every one goes away richer; not favoured or surprised, not as though gratified and oppressed by the good things of others; but richer in himself, newer than before, broken up, blown upon, and sounded by a thawing wind; more uncertain, perhaps, more delicate, more fragile, more bruised, but full of hopes which as yet lack names, full of a new will and current, full of a new ill-will and counter-current... but what am I doing, my friends? Of whom am I talking to you? Have I forgotten myself so far that I have not even told you his name? Unless it be that you have already divined of your own accord who this questionable God and spirit is, that wishes to be PRAISED in such a manner? For, as it happens to every one who from childhood onward has always been on his legs, and in foreign lands, I have also encountered on my path many strange and dangerous spirits; above all, however, and again and again, the one of whom I have just spoken: in fact, no less a personage than the God DIONYSUS, the great equivocator and tempter, to whom, as you know, I once offered in all secrecy and reverence my first-fruits"the last, as it seems to me, who has offered a SACRIFICE to him, for I have found no one who could understand what I was then doing. In the meantime, however, I have learned much, far too much, about the philosophy of this God, and, as I said, from mouth to mouth"I, the last disciple and initiate of the God Dionysus: and perhaps I might at last begin to give you, my friends, as far as I am allowed, a little taste of this philosophy?

nether - Unter.., unter

allurement - Verlockung; Lockung

followers - Mitläufer; Nachfolger, Nachfolgerin, Anhänger, Follower

cordially - herzlich

imposes - auferlegt; auferlegen, aufzwingen, auferlegen

placid - ruhig, friedlich, sanft

heavens - Himmel, Firmament

be reflected - sich zeigen (in), sich ausprägen;sich spiegeln

scents - Düfte; Geruch, Duft, Parfüm

divining-rod - (divining-rod) Wünschelrute

imprisoned - inhaftiert; einsperren, einkerkern

thawing - Tauwetter; tauend; (thaw); tauen, schmelzen, auftauen

more fragile - gebrechlichere

onward - vorwärts

encountered - begegnet; treffen, begegnen, Begegnung, Treffen

personage - Persönlichkeit

Dionysus - Dionysos

equivocator - Äquivokator; Wortverdreher

meantime - Inzwischen; unterdessen

disciple - Schülerin; Jünger, Jüngerin

In a hushed voice, as is but seemly: for it has to do with much that is secret, new, strange, wonderful, and uncanny. The very fact that Dionysus is a philosopher, and that therefore Gods also philosophize, seems to me a novelty which is not unensnaring, and might perhaps arouse suspicion precisely among philosophers;"among you, my friends, there is less to be said against it, except that it comes too late and not at the right time; for, as it has been disclosed to me, you are loth nowadays to believe in God and gods. It may happen, too, that in the frankness of my story I must go further than is agreeable to the strict usages of your ears? Certainly the God in question went further, very much further, in such dialogues, and was always many paces ahead of me... Indeed, if it were allowed, I should have to give him, according to human usage, fine ceremonious tides of lustre and merit, I should have to extol his courage as investigator and discoverer, his fearless honesty, truthfulness, and love of wisdom. But such a God does not know what to do with all that respectable trumpery and pomp. "Keep that," he would say, "for thyself and those like thee, and whoever else require it! I"have no reason to cover my nakedness!" One suspects that this kind of divinity and philosopher perhaps lacks shame?"He once said: "Under certain circumstances I love mankind""and referred thereby to Ariadne, who was present; "in my opinion man is an agreeable, brave, inventive animal, that has not his equal upon earth, he makes his way even through all labyrinths. I like man, and often think how I can still further advance him, and make him stronger, more evil, and more profound."""Stronger, more evil, and more profound?" I asked in horror. "Yes," he said again, "stronger, more evil, and more profound; also more beautiful""and thereby the tempter-god smiled with his halcyon smile, as though he had just paid some charming compliment. One here sees at once that it is not only shame that this divinity lacks;"and in general there are good grounds for supposing that in some things the Gods could all of them come to us men for instruction. We men are"more human."

hushed - totgeschwiegen; verstummen, still werden, zum Schweigen bringen

seemly - schicklich, anständig, gesittet, passend

unensnaring - unvernünftig

usages - Verwendungen; Verwendung, Benutzung, Anwendung, Brauch

paces - Schritte; Tempo, Stufe, Schritt

tides - Gezeiten, Ebbe

lustre - Kronleuchter, Glanz, Glanzton

extol - anpreisen; preisen

trumpery - Tand

pomp - Pomp

nakedness - Nacktheit

Ariadne - Ariadne

more human - menschlichere

296. Alas! what are you, after all, my written and painted thoughts! Not long ago you were so variegated, young and malicious, so full of thorns and secret spices, that you made me sneeze and laugh"and now? You have already doffed your novelty, and some of you, I fear, are ready to become truths, so immortal do they look, so pathetically honest, so tedious! And was it ever otherwise? What then do we write and paint, we mandarins with Chinese brush, we immortalisers of things which LEND themselves to writing, what are we alone capable of painting? Alas, only that which is just about to fade and begins to lose its odour! Alas, only exhausted and departing storms and belated yellow sentiments! Alas, only birds strayed and fatigued by flight, which now let themselves be captured with the hand"with OUR hand!

variegated - vielfarbig; abwandeln, beleben

thorns - Dornen; Dorn, Dorn

spices - Gewürze; würzen; Gewürz

sneeze - niesen; Niesen

doffed - Ausgelöst; ausziehen

pathetically - erbärmlich

mandarins - Mandarinen; Mandarin

immortalisers - Unsterbliche

departing - abfliegen; abreisend, abfahrend; (depart); verlassen

strayed - verirrt; Streuverlust; abirren, vagabundieren, streunen, irren

fatigued - Ermüdet; Müdigkeit, Ermüdung, Schlappheit, Überdruss

captured - gefangen genommen; Fang, Festnahme, Gefangennahme, Erfassung

We immortalize what cannot live and fly much longer, things only which are exhausted and mellow! And it is only for your AFTERNOON, you, my written and painted thoughts, for which alone I have colours, many colours, perhaps, many variegated softenings, and fifty yellows and browns and greens and reds;"but nobody will divine thereby how ye looked in your morning, you sudden sparks and marvels of my solitude, you, my old, beloved"EVIL thoughts!

immortalize - verewigen

softenings - Erweichungen; weich werdend, aufweichend

sparks - Funken; Funke; aufkeimen lassen, entfachen

marvels - Erstaunen; wundern


By F W Nietzsche

Translated by L. A. Magnus


MIDDAY of Life! Oh, season of delight!

My summer's park!

Uneaseful joy to look, to lurk, to hark"

lurk - lauern

Hark - Hört ihr; horchen

I peer for friends, am ready day and night,"

peer - seinesgleichen, Beaufsichtigende; schielen, starren

Where linger ye, my friends? The time is right!


Is not the glacier's grey today for you

glacier - Gletscher, Ferner, Kees


garlanded - mit Girlanden; Girlande, Girlande

The brooklet seeks you, wind, cloud, with longing thread

brooklet - Bächlein

thread - Thema; Faden, Garn, Zwirn, Nähgarn

And thrust themselves yet higher to the blue,

thrust - Stoß, Stich, Vorstoß, Schub, Schubkraft

To spy for you from farthest eagle's view.

spy - Spion, Spionin, Spitzel, ausspionieren, erspähen

eagle - Adler, Eagle


My table was spread out for you on high"

Who dwelleth so

dwelleth - wohnt

Star-near, so near the grisly pit below?"

grisly - grässliche, grässlich

pit - Fallgrube, Schachtgrube, Box (Sport)

My realm"what realm hath wider boundary?

My honey"who hath sipped its fragrancy?

honey - Schatz; Honig

sipped - genippt; Schlückchen

fragrancy - Wohlgeruch


Friends, ye are there! Woe me,"yet I am not

He whom ye seek?

Ye stare and stop"better your wrath could speak!

stare - starren, anstarren

wrath - Zorn, Wut, Ärger, Ingrimm, Vergeltung

I am not I? Hand, gait, face, changed? And what

gait - Gang, Gangart (eines Pferdes)

I am, to you my friends, now am I not?


Am I an other? Strange am I to Me?

Yet from Me sprung?

A wrestler, by himself too oft self-wrung?

wrestler - Ringer

wrung - gewrungen; abbringen, erzwingen

Hindering too oft my own self's potency,

hindering - hinderlich; behindern, aufhalten, hindern

Wounded and hampered by self-victory?

hampered - behindert; stören, behindern, hemmen, hindern; Geschenkkorb


I sought where-so the wind blows keenest. There

I learned to dwell

Where no man dwells, on lonesome ice-lorn fell,

lonesome - einsam

And unlearned Man and God and curse and prayer?

unlearned - ungelernt; umlernen, verlernen, verlerne, anders lernen

curse - verfluchen, fluchen, verdammen; Fluch

Became a ghost haunting the glaciers bare?

haunting - spuken; quälend

glaciers - Gletscher, Ferner, Kees


Ye, my old friends! Look! Ye turn pale, filled o'er

turn pale - erblassen, blass werden

With love and fear!

Go! Yet not in wrath. Ye could ne'er live here.

Here in the farthest realm of ice and scaur,

scaur - erschrecken

A huntsman must one be, like chamois soar.

huntsman - Jägersmann, Grünrock (Jäger), Waidmann

chamois - Gämse, Gams, Sämischleder

soar - aufsteigen; schweben; hochfliegen; gleiten; hochschnellen


An evil huntsman was I? See how taut

taut - straff; gespannt; angespannt

My bow was bent!

Strongest was he by whom such bolt were sent"

bolt - Riegel, Ballen, Blitz, Bolzen; durchgehen (Pferd), sausen

Woe now! That arrow is with peril fraught,

peril - Gefahr, Risiko

fraught - angespannt; voll

Perilous as none."Have yon safe home ye sought!


Ye go! Thou didst endure enough, oh, heart;"

Strong was thy hope;

Unto new friends thy portals widely ope,

portals - Portale; Portal

widely - weit verbreitet; breit; entfernt

Let old ones be. Bid memory depart!

bid - Angebot, reizen, Gebot, Bieten, bieten

depart - abreisen; verlassen, aufbrechen, abweichen

Wast thou young then, now"better young thou art!


What linked us once together, one hope's tie"

(Who now doth con

con - Betrug; betrügen, verladen (für dumm verkaufen)

Those lines, now fading, Love once wrote thereon?)"

fading - (fade away) schwinden, verblassen, zerinnen

Is like a parchment, which the hand is shy

parchment - Pergament; Pergamentpapier

To touch"like crackling leaves, all seared, all dry.

crackling - Knistern; erman:; (crackle); Knistern

seared - verbrannt; versengen


Oh! Friends no more! They are"what name for those?"


knocking at my heart's window-pane at night,

knocking at - anklopfend

pane - Scheibe, Fensterscheibe

Gazing on me, that speaks "We were" and goes,"

gazing - starrt; anstarren

Oh, withered words, once fragrant as the rose!

withered - verwelkt; welken, verblühen, verdorren

fragrant - duftend, wohlriechend


Pinings of youth that might not understand!

For which I pined,

Which I deemed changed with me, kin of my kind:

kin - Verwandtschaft; Sippe

But they grew old, and thus were doomed and banned:

grew old - alterte

doomed - dem Untergang geweiht; Bann, Urteil

None but new kith are native of my land!


Midday of life! My second youth's delight!

My summer's park!

Unrestful joy to long, to lurk, to hark!

unrestful - unruhig

I peer for friends!"am ready day and night,

For my new friends. Come! Come! The time is right!


This song is done,"the sweet sad cry of rue

rue - bereuen

Sang out its end;

A wizard wrought it, he the timely friend,

wizard - Zauberer, Magier, Hexenmeister, Assistent

timely - pünktlich; zeitgerecht, fristgerecht, zur rechten Zeit

The midday-friend,"no, do not ask me who;

At midday 'twas, when one became as two.

Twas - Das war; Zeitarbeitsunternehmen


We keep our Feast of Feasts, sure of our bourne,

feasts - Feste; Fest, Festgelage; feiern

Our aims self-same:

The Guest of Guests, friend Zarathustra, came!

The world now laughs, the grisly veil was torn,

veil - Vorhang; Schleier; verschleiern, verhüllen

And Light and Dark were one that wedding-morn.

morn - Morgens; der Morgen

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