remote - remoto, control remoto

nations - aciones; nación

swift - rápido, veloz, célere, pronto


captain - capitán, capitanear, pilotar

Written in the Year 1727.

I hope you will be ready to own publicly, whenever you shall be called to it, that by your great and frequent urgency you prevailed on me to publish a very loose and uncorrect account of my travels, with directions to hire some young gentleman of either university to put them in order, and correct the style, as my cousin Dampier did, by my advice, in his book called "A Voyage round the world." But I do not remember I gave you power to consent that any thing should be omitted, and much less that any thing should be inserted; therefore, as to the latter, I do here renounce every thing of that kind; particularly a paragraph about her majesty Queen Anne, of most pious and glorious memory; although I did reverence and esteem her more than any of human species. But you, or your interpolator, ought to have considered, that it was not my inclination, so was it not decent to praise any animal of our composition before my master Houyhnhnm: And besides, the fact was altogether false; for to my knowledge, being in England during some part of her majesty's reign, she did govern by a chief minister; nay even by two successively, the first whereof was the lord of Godolphin, and the second the lord of Oxford; so that you have made me say the thing that was not. Likewise in the account of the academy of projectors, and several passages of my discourse to my master Houyhnhnm, you have either omitted some material circumstances, or minced or changed them in such a manner, that I do hardly know my own work. When I formerly hinted to you something of this in a letter, you were pleased to answer that you were afraid of giving offence; that people in power were very watchful over the press, and apt not only to interpret, but to punish every thing which looked like an innuendo (as I think you call it). But, pray how could that which I spoke so many years ago, and at about five thousand leagues distance, in another reign, be applied to any of the Yahoos, who now are said to govern the herd; especially at a time when I little thought, or feared, the unhappiness of living under them?

publicly - públicamente

whenever - cuándo; cuando quiera, siempre que, siempre y cuando

frequent - frecuente

urgency - urgencia, premura, apremio, perentoriedad

prevailed - revaleció; prevalecer, vencer

loose - suelto; flojo

uncorrect - incorrecto

account - cuenta

hire - contratar; alquilar

gentleman - caballero, senores

Voyage - viaje

consent - consentir, consentimiento, venia, anuencia

omitted - omitido; omitir, dejar de lado, dejarse en el tintero

inserted - insertado; insertar, meter

therefore - por qué; por eso, por consiguiente, por lo tanto, por ende

renounce - Renunciar

particularly - en particular; particularmente

Majesty - majestad

pious - piadoso

glorious - glorioso

reverence - reverencia, veneración

esteem - estima

species - Especie

interpolator - interpolador

inclination - inclinación

decent - decente

Praise - elogios; alabanza, loa, enaltecimiento, elogio, adoración

composition - composición, panish: t-needed

Master - maestro; senor, dueno; senora, duena

besides - además; al lado de, cabe

altogether - todos juntos; totalmente, completamente, en general, en suma

reign - reinado, reinar

govern - gobernar

chief - jefe, principal

minister - ministro

successively - sucesivamente

whereof - de qué; donde

Lord - senor; castellano, senor

Oxford - Oxford

likewise - similarmente, igualmente

Academy - academia, cantera

projectors - proyectores; proyector

passages - pasajes; pasillo, pasadizo

discourse - discurso, conversación, disertar

circumstances - circunstancias; circunstancia

minced - picado; picadillo, carne picada, carne molida, picar

hardly - apenas, a duras penas

Formerly - anteriormente, otrora, antes, antano

hinted - insinuado; pista, indicio, indirecta, buscapié, toque

offence - Ofensa

watchful - vigilante; atento, avizor

press - prensa; apretar, presionar

apt - apto; susceptible de, propenso a

Interpret - explicar, exponer, interpretar

punish - castigar, punir, maltratar

innuendo - insinuación, indirecta

Pray - rezar, orar

leagues - ligas; liga

herd - rebano, manada, piara

unhappiness - infelicidad

Have not I the most reason to complain, when I see these very Yahoos carried by Houyhnhnms in a vehicle, as if they were brutes, and those the rational creatures? And indeed to avoid so monstrous and detestable a sight was one principal motive of my retirement hither.

brutes - brutos; animal, bestia

rational - racional

creatures - criaturas; criatura

indeed - de verdad; de hecho, realmente, efectivamente, verdaderamente

monstrous - monstruoso

detestable - panish: t-needed

sight - vista, lugar de interés, espectáculo, panorama, visor, mira, ver

principal - principal, capital, director, directora, principal de escuela

motive - motivo, móbil

retirement - jubilación, retirada

hither - aquí, acá, citerior

Thus much I thought proper to tell you in relation to yourself, and to the trust I reposed in you.

thus - así

proper - bien; adecuado, conveniente, preciso, propio

relation - relación, pariente

trust - confiar; confianza, crédito, fiar, consorcio, trust

reposed - reposado; reposo

I do, in the next place, complain of my own great want of judgment, in being prevailed upon by the entreaties and false reasoning of you and some others, very much against my own opinion, to suffer my travels to be published. Pray bring to your mind how often I desired you to consider, when you insisted on the motive of public good, that the Yahoos were a species of animals utterly incapable of amendment by precept or example: and so it has proved; for, instead of seeing a full stop put to all abuses and corruptions, at least in this little island, as I had reason to expect; behold, after above six months warning, I cannot learn that my book has produced one single effect according to my intentions. I desired you would let me know, by a letter, when party and faction were extinguished; judges learned and upright; pleaders honest and modest, with some tincture of common sense, and Smithfield blazing with pyramids of law books; the young nobility's education entirely changed; the physicians banished; the female Yahoos abounding in virtue, honour, truth, and good sense; courts and levees of great ministers thoroughly weeded and swept; wit, merit, and learning rewarded; all disgracers of the press in prose and verse condemned to eat nothing but their own cotton, and quench their thirst with their own ink.

judgment - juicio

upon - sobre, en, tras

entreaties - suplicas; petición, solicitud, plegaria

suffer - sufrir, penar, empeorar

desired - deseado; desear, deseo, gana

insisted - insistió; insistir

utterly - Completamente

incapable - incapaz

amendment - enmienda

precept - precepto

proved - probado; probar

abuses - abusos; Abuso

corruptions - corrupciones; corrupción, corruptela, dano de datos

behold - contemplar, mirar, observar, he aquí, mirad

warning - advertencia, aviso, precaución, cuidado; (warn); alertar

intentions - intenciones; intención

faction - facción

extinguished - extinguido; extinguir, apagar

judges - jueces; juzgar

upright - derecho; vertical, recto, erguido, honrado, verticalmente

pleaders - Suplicante

honest - honesto, sincero; (hon); honesto, sincero

modest - modesto, humilde, pequeno, moderado; (mod); modesto, humilde

tincture - tintura; panish: t-needed

blazing - ardiendo; llamarada, incendio; resplandor

wit - agudeza, ingenio, chispa, gracia

pyramids - pirámides; pirámide

nobility - nobleza

physicians - médicos; médico, médica, facultativo

banished - desterrado; desterrar

abounding - abundar, ser abundante

virtue - virtud

honour - honor; honradez

truth - verdad

Courts - tribunales; patio, callejón, corte, tribunal, juzgado

levees - ique

ministers - ministros; ministro

thoroughly - cabalmente, a cabalidad, a fondo, detenidamente

weeded - maleza; mala hierba

swept - barrido; barrer, peinar

merit - mérito, merecimiento, meritar

rewarded - recompensado; recompensa

disgracers - Discernir

prose - prosa

verse - verso; estrofa

condemned - condenado; condenar, clausurar

cotton - algodón

quench - saciar, apagar, templar

thirst - sed, hambre, ambición, ansias, tener sed, desear

ink - tinta, entintar, firmar, tatuar

These, and a thousand other reformations, I firmly counted upon by your encouragement; as indeed they were plainly deducible from the precepts delivered in my book. And it must be owned, that seven months were a sufficient time to correct every vice and folly to which Yahoos are subject, if their natures had been capable of the least disposition to virtue or wisdom. Yet, so far have you been from answering my expectation in any of your letters; that on the contrary you are loading our carrier every week with libels, and keys, and reflections, and memoirs, and second parts; wherein I see myself accused of reflecting upon great state folk; of degrading human nature (for so they have still the confidence to style it), and of abusing the female sex. I find likewise that the writers of those bundles are not agreed among themselves; for some of them will not allow me to be the author of my own travels; and others make me author of books to which I am wholly a stranger.

reformations - reformas; Reforma protestante

firmly - con firmeza; firmemente

encouragement - aliento; apoyo

deducible - deducible

precepts - preceptos; precepto

delivered - entregado; liberar, parir, dar a luz, entregar

sufficient - suficiente

vice - vicio; torno de banco

folly - una locura; capricho

capable - capaz

disposition - disposición; inclinación, temperamento, carácter

wisdom - sabiduría

expectation - expectativas; expectación, expectativa

contrary - contrario

carrier - transportista, companía de transportes, empresa de transportes

libels - libelos; libelo, calumnia, difamación

reflections - reflexiones; reflexión, reflejo

Memoirs - memorias; memoria

wherein - En qué

accused - acusado; acusar, denunciar

reflecting - reflexionando; reflejar, recapacitar, reflexionar, cavilar

folk - pueblo, gente

degrading - degradante; degradar, erosionar

confidence - confianza; certeza, certeza propia, certidumbre, confidencia

abusing - abusando; Abuso

sex - sexo

bundles - paquetes; haz, atado, fajo, atar, liar

wholly - Por completo

I hear some of our sea Yahoos find fault with my sea-language, as not proper in many parts, nor now in use. I cannot help it. In my first voyages, while I was young, I was instructed by the oldest mariners, and learned to speak as they did. But I have since found that the sea Yahoos are apt, like the land ones, to become new-fangled in their words, which the latter change every year; insomuch, as I remember upon each return to my own country their old dialect was so altered, that I could hardly understand the new.

find fault - encontrar fallo; encontrar al culpable

voyages - viajes; viaje

instructed - instruido; instruir

mariners - marineros; marinero

insomuch - Insoportable

dialect - dialecto

altered - alterado; cambiar, modificar, alterar

And I observe, when any Yahoo comes from London out of curiosity to visit me at my house, we neither of us are able to deliver our conceptions in a manner intelligible to the other.

observe - observar, seguir, tomar en cuenta

curiosity - curiosidad

deliver - cumplir; liberar, parir, dar a luz, entregar

conceptions - concepciones; concepción

intelligible - inteligible

If the censure of the Yahoos could any way affect me, I should have great reason to complain, that some of them are so bold as to think my book of travels a mere fiction out of mine own brain, and have gone so far as to drop hints, that the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos have no more existence than the inhabitants of Utopia.

censure - censura

bold - osado; valiente, audaz, atrevido

mere - simple, mero

hints - sugerencias; pista, indicio, indirecta, buscapié, toque

existence - existencia

inhabitants - habitantes; habitante, residente, lugareno, lugarena

Utopia - utopía

Indeed I must confess, that as to the people of Lilliput, Brobdingrag (for so the word should have been spelt, and not erroneously Brobdingnag), and Laputa, I have never yet heard of any Yahoo so presumptuous as to dispute their being, or the facts I have related concerning them; because the truth immediately strikes every reader with conviction. And is there less probability in my account of the Houyhnhnms or Yahoos, when it is manifest as to the latter, there are so many thousands even in this country, who only differ from their brother brutes in Houyhnhnmland, because they use a sort of jabber, and do not go naked?

confess - confesar, panish: t-needed

erroneously - erróneamente

presumptuous - presuntuoso

dispute - disputa, contencioso

related - relacionado; identificarse (con)

concerning - preocupante; preocupación, referirse a, ataner, concernir

strikes - huelgas; tachar, borrar, golpear, pegar, acunar

conviction - convicción

probability - probabilidad

manifest - manifiesto, evidente, declaración de carga, sobordo

differ - difieren; ser distinto

jabber - farfullar

naked - desnudo

I wrote for their amendment, and not their approbation. The united praise of the whole race would be of less consequence to me, than the neighing of those two degenerate Houyhnhnms I keep in my stable; because from these, degenerate as they are, I still improve in some virtues without any mixture of vice.

approbation - aprobación

consequence - consecuencia

neighing - relinchos; relincho, relinchido, relinchar

degenerate - degenerado, depravado, degenerar, degenerarse

stable - Estable

virtues - irtudes; virtud

mixture - mezcla

Do these miserable animals presume to think, that I am so degenerated as to defend my veracity?

miserable - miserable

degenerated - degenerado, depravado, degenerar, degenerarse

defend - defender

veracity - verdad; veracidad

Yahoo as I am, it is well known through all Houyhnhnmland, that, by the instructions and example of my illustrious master, I was able in the compass of two years (although I confess with the utmost difficulty) to remove that infernal habit of lying, shuffling, deceiving, and equivocating, so deeply rooted in the very souls of all my species; especially the Europeans.

illustrious - ilustre, ínclito

compass - brújula

utmost - extremo, descollante, extremado, sobresaliente, sumo, máximo

difficulty - dificultad

infernal - infernal

shuffling - barajando; (shuffle); barajar, mezclar, barajear, arrastrar

deceiving - enganar; enganar, decebir

equivocating - equivocarse

deeply - profundamente; a fondo

rooted - arraigado; raíz

souls - almas; alma, espíritu

I have other complaints to make upon this vexatious occasion; but I forbear troubling myself or you any further.

complaints - quejas; queja, denuncia, problema, afección

vexatious - vejatorio

Occasion - ocasión, ocasionar

forbear - soportar

I must freely confess, that since my last return, some corruptions of my Yahoo nature have revived in me by conversing with a few of your species, and particularly those of my own family, by an unavoidable necessity; else I should never have attempted so absurd a project as that of reforming the Yahoo race in this kingdom: But I have now done with all such visionary schemes for ever.

freely - libremente

revived - evivido; revivir

conversing - conversando; conversar, charlar

unavoidable - inevitable

necessity - necesidad, menester

attempted - intentado; intentar, tentativa, intento, ensayo

absurd - absurdo, absurdo

reforming - reforma, reformar

Kingdom - reino

visionary - visionario, ilusorio, idealista, visionario, visionaria

schemes - squemas; régimen, proyecto, ardid, artimana, maquinación

April 2, 1727



Chapter - capítulo, sede, sección

The author gives some account of himself and family. His first inducements to travel. He is shipwrecked, and swims for his life. Gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput; is made a prisoner, and carried up the country.

shipwrecked - náufragos; pecio, naufragio, naufragar

on shore - en la orilla

prisoner - prisionero, preso

My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire: I was the third of five sons. He sent me to Emanuel College in Cambridge at fourteen years old, where I resided three years, and applied myself close to my studies; but the charge of maintaining me, although I had a very scanty allowance, being too great for a narrow fortune, I was bound apprentice to Mr. James Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, with whom I continued four years. My father now and then sending me small sums of money, I laid them out in learning navigation, and other parts of the mathematics, useful to those who intend to travel, as I always believed it would be, some time or other, my fortune to do. When I left Mr.

estate - patrimonio; propiedad, inmueble, bien, estamento, finca

Cambridge - Cambridge

resided - Residuos

charge - cargo, acusación, encargo, figura, acusar, cobrar, cargar

maintaining - manteniendo; mantener, sostener

scanty - escaso, exiguo

allowance - permiso; paga

Fortune - fortuna

bound - atado; (bind); atar, atar (tie), empastar (books), liar

apprentice - aprendiz, panish: colocar de aprendiz

James - Santiago, Jacobo, Yago, Jaime

surgeon - cirujano, cirujana

whom - a quién; quién, quiénes, cuyo, quien

sums - suma

laid - tirado; poner, colocar

navigation - navegación, náutica

intend - pretender, planear, intencionar, intentar

Bates, I went down to my father: where, by the assistance of him and my uncle John, and some other relations, I got forty pounds, and a promise of thirty pounds a year to maintain me at Leyden: there I studied physic two years and seven months, knowing it would be useful in long voyages.

assistance - asistencia

relations - relación, pariente

maintain - mantener, sostener

physic - Física

Soon after my return from Leyden, I was recommended by my good master, Mr. Bates, to be surgeon to the Swallow, Captain Abraham Pannel, commander; with whom I continued three years and a half, making a voyage or two into the Levant, and some other parts. When I came back I resolved to settle in London; to which Mr. Bates, my master, encouraged me, and by him I was recommended to several patients.

swallow - tragar, engullir

Abraham - Abraham, Abrahán

commander - comandante

Levant - Levante

resolved - resuelto; tomar la decisión de, resolver

settle - nos conformamos; instalar, colocar

encouraged - nimado; animar, alentar, estimular, promover, recomendar

I took part of a small house in the Old Jewry; and being advised to alter my condition, I married Mrs. Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr. Edmund Burton, hosier, in Newgate-street, with whom I received four hundred pounds for a portion.

small house - una casa pequena

Jewry - judía; pueblo judío, judería

advised - consejo; aconsejar, asesorar, notificar

alter - cambiar, modificar, alterar

Mary - María

portion - porción

But my good master Bates dying in two years after, and I having few friends, my business began to fail; for my conscience would not suffer me to imitate the bad practice of too many among my brethren. Having therefore consulted with my wife, and some of my acquaintance, I determined to go again to sea. I was surgeon successively in two ships, and made several voyages, for six years, to the East and West Indies, by which I got some addition to my fortune.

dying - Muriendo; (dye) Muriendo

conscience - conciencia

imitate - imitar

brethren - hermanos

consulted - consultado; consultar

acquaintance - conocido; amistad, conocimiento, junta, relación

determined - determinado; determinar

Addition - agregación; adición, anadidura, suma

My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best authors, ancient and modern, being always provided with a good number of books; and when I was ashore, in observing the manners and dispositions of the people, as well as learning their language; wherein I had a great facility, by the strength of my memory.

leisure - ocio, tiempo libre

ashore - en tierra

observing - observando; observar, seguir, tomar en cuenta

dispositions - disposición; inclinación, temperamento, carácter

facility - facilidad, instalación, material

strength - fuerza, neque, potencia, intensidad, fuerte, fortaleza

The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea, and intended to stay at home with my wife and family. I removed from the Old Jewry to Fetter Lane, and from thence to Wapping, hoping to get business among the sailors; but it would not turn to account.

proving - probando; probar

fortunate - afortunado, propicio, favorable, afortunada

weary - cansado, cansino, cansar

intended - pretendías; planeado; (intend); pretender, planear, intencionar

fetter - grillos, pihuelas, or animals, grillos, pihuela

lane - camino, carril

thence - desde ahí

Sailors - marineros; marinero, marinera

turn to account - hacer uso de

After three years expectation that things would mend, I accepted an advantageous offer from Captain William Prichard, master of the Antelope, who was making a voyage to the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol, May 4, 1699, and our voyage was at first very prosperous.

mend - remiendo, remendar, reparar

advantageous - ventajoso, provechoso, beneficioso

William - Guillermo

antelope - antílope

prosperous - róspero; rico

It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble the reader with the particulars of our adventures in those seas; let it suffice to inform him, that in our passage from thence to the East Indies, we were driven by a violent storm to the north-west of Van Diemen's Land. By an observation, we found ourselves in the latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south. Twelve of our crew were dead by immoderate labour and ill food; the rest were in a very weak condition. On the 5th of November, which was the beginning of summer in those parts, the weather being very hazy, the seamen spied a rock within half a cable's length of the ship; but the wind was so strong, that we were driven directly upon it, and immediately split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having let down the boat into the sea, made a shift to get clear of the ship and the rock. We rowed, by my computation, about three leagues, till we were able to work no longer, being already spent with labour while we were in the ship. We therefore trusted ourselves to the mercy of the waves, and in about half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry from the north. What became of my companions in the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the rock, or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell; but conclude they were all lost. For my own part, I swam as fortune directed me, and was pushed forward by wind and tide. I often let my legs drop, and could feel no bottom; but when I was almost gone, and able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my depth; and by this time the storm was much abated. The declivity was so small, that I walked near a mile before I got to the shore, which I conjectured was about eight o'clock in the evening. I then advanced forward near half a mile, but could not discover any sign of houses or inhabitants; at least I was in so weak a condition, that I did not observe them. I was extremely tired, and with that, and the heat of the weather, and about half a pint of brandy that I drank as I left the ship, I found myself much inclined to sleep. I lay down on the grass, which was very short and soft, where I slept sounder than ever I remembered to have done in my life, and, as I reckoned, about nine hours; for when I awaked, it was just day-light. I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir: for, as I happened to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to the ground; and my hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same manner. I likewise felt several slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits to my thighs. I could only look upwards; the sun began to grow hot, and the light offended my eyes. I heard a confused noise about me; but in the posture I lay, could see nothing except the sky. In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left leg, which advancing gently forward over my breast, came almost up to my chin; when, bending my eyes downwards as much as I could, I perceived it to be a human creature not six inches high, with a bow and arrow in his hands, and a quiver at his back. In the mean time, I felt at least forty more of the same kind (as I conjectured) following the first. I was in the utmost astonishment, and roared so loud, that they all ran back in a fright; and some of them, as I was afterwards told, were hurt with the falls they got by leaping from my sides upon the ground. However, they soon returned, and one of them, who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifting up his hands and eyes by way of admiration, cried out in a shrill but distinct voice, Hekinah degul: the others repeated the same words several times, but then I knew not what they meant. I lay all this while, as the reader may believe, in great uneasiness. At length, struggling to get loose, I had the fortune to break the strings, and wrench out the pegs that fastened my left arm to the ground; for, by lifting it up to my face, I discovered the methods they had taken to bind me, and at the same time with a violent pull, which gave me excessive pain, I a little loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the left side, so that I was just able to turn my head about two inches. But the creatures ran off a second time, before I could seize them; whereupon there was a great shout in a very shrill accent, and after it ceased I heard one of them cry aloud Tolgo phonac; when in an instant I felt above a hundred arrows discharged on my left hand, which, pricked me like so many needles; and besides, they shot another flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe, whereof many, I suppose, fell on my body, (though I felt them not), and some on my face, which I immediately covered with my left hand. When this shower of arrows was over, I fell a groaning with grief and pain; and then striving again to get loose, they discharged another volley larger than the first, and some of them attempted with spears to stick me in the sides; but by good luck I had on a buff jerkin, which they could not pierce. I thought it the most prudent method to lie still, and my design was to continue so till night, when, my left hand being already loose, I could easily free myself: and as for the inhabitants, I had reason to believe I might be a match for the greatest army they could bring against me, if they were all of the same size with him that I saw. But fortune disposed otherwise of me. When the people observed I was quiet, they discharged no more arrows; but, by the noise I heard, I knew their numbers increased; and about four yards from me, over against my right ear, I heard a knocking for above an hour, like that of people at work; when turning my head that way, as well as the pegs and strings would permit me, I saw a stage erected about a foot and a half from the ground, capable of holding four of the inhabitants, with two or three ladders to mount it: from whence one of them, who seemed to be a person of quality, made me a long speech, whereof I understood not one syllable. But I should have mentioned, that before the principal person began his oration, he cried out three times, Langro dehul san (these words and the former were afterwards repeated and explained to me); whereupon, immediately, about fifty of the inhabitants came and cut the strings that fastened the left side of my head, which gave me the liberty of turning it to the right, and of observing the person and gesture of him that was to speak.

suffice - bastar, alcanzar

inform - informar

passage - pasaje; pasillo, pasadizo

violent - violento

observation - observación, vigilancia; observancia, anotación, registro

Latitude - latitud, holgura

crew - tripulación

immoderate - inmoderado; desmedido, desmesurado

labour - trabajo, campesinos, trabajadores, parto, trabajar

spied - espiado; espía, chivato, espiar

within - dentro de, adentro

cable - cable, cuerda, televisión por cable, cablegrama, telegrama

Length - largo, eslora (nautical: length of a ship from bow to stern)

wind - viento, aire

directly - directamente, en derechura

split - fisura, escisión, partir, dividir, escindir, repartir

let down - decepcionar a alguien; alargar (ropa); dejar caer; desinflar (neumáticos)

shift - turno, cambio, desviación, deslizamiento, desplazamiento

rowed - remo; hilera, fila

computation - cómputo; cálculo

trusted - de confianza; confianza, crédito, fiar, consorcio, trust

mercy - misericordia, piedad

overset - Sobrepasado

sudden - de repente; repentino, súbito, brusco

flurry - ráfaga, frenesí

Companions - companeros; companero, companera

escaped - se escapó; escapar, liberarse, fugarse, eludir

vessel - vasija; embarcación, barco, casco, recipiente, receptáculo

conclude - concluir

pushed forward - empujado hacia adelante

tide - marea

Struggle - lucha, forcejeo, brega, luchar, esforzarse con denuedo

depth - profundidad

abated - aminorado; disminuir, amainar

declivity - declive; bajada

shore - oribera; costa, playa

conjectured - conjeturado; conjetura, suposición, especulación, teoría

advanced - avanzado; avanzar, progresar, avance, progreso, adelanto, avance

half a pint - Media pinta

brandy - brandy, conac

lay - poner, colocar

reckoned - contó; considerar

awaked - despertado; despertar(se)

stir - remover, revolver

strongly - con fuerza; fuertemente

fastened - sujetado; atar, abrochar

slender - esbelto

ligatures - ligaduras; ligadura

pits - fosas; hoyo, foso, fosa

thighs - muslos; muslo, muslamen

upwards - hacia arriba

offended - ofendido; ofender

confused - confundido; confundir, confundirse, mezclar

posture - postura

advancing - avanzando; avanzar, progresar, avance, progreso, adelanto

gently - suavemente; mansamente, suave

breast - pecho, seno, teta, corazón, pechuga

chin - barbilla, mentón

downwards - hacia abajo

perceived - percibido; percibir, entender

creature - criatura

inches - pulgadas; pulgada

bow - arco; inclinar(se), hacer una reverencia

quiver - tiemblo; estremecer(se)

astonishment - asombro, estupefacción, sorpresa, extraneza

roared - rugía; rugir, bramar, rugido, bramido

fright - miedo; susto

afterwards - después

leaping - saltando; saltar, brincar

ventured - se aventuró; aventura, arriesgar

admiration - admiración

shrill - chillón; estridente

distinct - distinto

uneasiness - inquietud; desazón

struggling - con dificultades; (struggle); lucha, forcejeo, brega, luchar

strings - cuerdas; cordel, mecate, usic, cadena, cuerda, enhebrar

wrench - llave inglesa; arrancar

pegs - pinzas; clavija, tarugo, colgador, perchero, gancho, fijar

bind - bindar; atar, atar (tie), empastar (books), liar, acoplar

excessive - excesivo

loosened - aflojado; aflojar, soltar

seize - incautar; agarrar, apoderarse de, apresar, aferrar, tomar

accent - acento, pronunciación

ceased - esado; cesar, parar, terminar

aloud - en voz alta, de viva voz

phonac - Fonac

instant - instantáneo, inmediato

arrows - flechas; flecha

discharged - dado de alta; cumplir, completar, despedir, descargar, descargo

pricked - pinchado; pinchar, perforar

needles - agujas; aguja, acícula

shot - tiro, disparo; (shoot) tiro, disparo

bombs - bombas; bomba, explosivo, bombardear, bombear, hacer la bomba

though - ero..; no obstante, de todas formas, de todas maneras

groaning - gimiendo; gemidor, gemebundo; (groan); gemido, grunido, gemir

grief - duelo; pesar, pesadumbre, dolor, sufrimiento

striving - esforzándose; (strive) esforzándose

volley - salva, volea, voleo

spears - lanzas; lanza, jabalina

stick - palo; clavar

Buff - color de ante

jerkin - Pantalón

pierce - perforar; atravesar, traspasar

most prudent - el más prudente

disposed - dispuesto; deshacerse

otherwise - o no; de otro

observed - observado; observar, seguir, tomar en cuenta

permit - permiso; permitir

erected - rigido; erecto, erguido

ladders - escaleras; escalera, escalafón, carrera

mount - montar

whence - de dónde; de donde, desde donde, de ahí

syllable - sílaba

former - antiguo, anterior

liberty - libertad

gesture - gesto, ademán, detalle, atención

He appeared to be of a middle age, and taller than any of the other three who attended him, whereof one was a page that held up his train, and seemed to be somewhat longer than my middle finger; the other two stood one on each side to support him. He acted every part of an orator, and I could observe many periods of threatenings, and others of promises, pity, and kindness. I answered in a few words, but in the most submissive manner, lifting up my left hand, and both my eyes to the sun, as calling him for a witness; and being almost famished with hunger, having not eaten a morsel for some hours before I left the ship, I found the demands of nature so strong upon me, that I could not forbear showing my impatience (perhaps against the strict rules of decency) by putting my finger frequently to my mouth, to signify that I wanted food. The hurgo (for so they call a great lord, as I afterwards learnt) understood me very well. He descended from the stage, and commanded that several ladders should be applied to my sides, on which above a hundred of the inhabitants mounted and walked towards my mouth, laden with baskets full of meat, which had been provided and sent thither by the king's orders, upon the first intelligence he received of me. I observed there was the flesh of several animals, but could not distinguish them by the taste. There were shoulders, legs, and loins, shaped like those of mutton, and very well dressed, but smaller than the wings of a lark. I ate them by two or three at a mouthful, and took three loaves at a time, about the bigness of musket bullets. They supplied me as fast as they could, showing a thousand marks of wonder and astonishment at my bulk and appetite. I then made another sign, that I wanted drink. They found by my eating that a small quantity would not suffice me; and being a most ingenious people, they slung up, with great dexterity, one of their largest hogsheads, then rolled it towards my hand, and beat out the top; I drank it off at a draught, which I might well do, for it did not hold half a pint, and tasted like a small wine of Burgundy, but much more delicious. They brought me a second hogshead, which I drank in the same manner, and made signs for more; but they had none to give me. When I had performed these wonders, they shouted for joy, and danced upon my breast, repeating several times as they did at first, Hekinah degul. They made me a sign that I should throw down the two hogsheads, but first warning the people below to stand out of the way, crying aloud, Borach mevolah; and when they saw the vessels in the air, there was a universal shout of Hekinah degul. I confess I was often tempted, while they were passing backwards and forwards on my body, to seize forty or fifty of the first that came in my reach, and dash them against the ground. But the remembrance of what I had felt, which probably might not be the worst they could do, and the promise of honour I made them-for so I interpreted my submissive behaviour-soon drove out these imaginations. Besides, I now considered myself as bound by the laws of hospitality, to a people who had treated me with so much expense and magnificence. However, in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the intrepidity of these diminutive mortals, who durst venture to mount and walk upon my body, while one of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the very sight of so prodigious a creature as I must appear to them. After some time, when they observed that I made no more demands for meat, there appeared before me a person of high rank from his imperial majesty. His excellency, having mounted on the small of my right leg, advanced forwards up to my face, with about a dozen of his retinue; and producing his credentials under the signet royal, which he applied close to my eyes, spoke about ten minutes without any signs of anger, but with a kind of determinate resolution, often pointing forwards, which, as I afterwards found, was towards the capital city, about half a mile distant; whither it was agreed by his majesty in council that I must be conveyed. I answered in few words, but to no purpose, and made a sign with my hand that was loose, putting it to the other (but over his excellency's head for fear of hurting him or his train) and then to my own head and body, to signify that I desired my liberty. It appeared that he understood me well enough, for he shook his head by way of disapprobation, and held his hand in a posture to show that I must be carried as a prisoner. However, he made other signs to let me understand that I should have meat and drink enough, and very good treatment. Whereupon I once more thought of attempting to break my bonds; but again, when I felt the smart of their arrows upon my face and hands, which were all in blisters, and many of the darts still sticking in them, and observing likewise that the number of my enemies increased, I gave tokens to let them know that they might do with me what they pleased. Upon this, the hurgo and his train withdrew, with much civility and cheerful countenances. Soon after I heard a general shout, with frequent repetitions of the words Peplom selan; and I felt great numbers of people on my left side relaxing the cords to such a degree, that I was able to turn upon my right, and to ease myself with making water; which I very plentifully did, to the great astonishment of the people; who, conjecturing by my motion what I was going to do, immediately opened to the right and left on that side, to avoid the torrent, which fell with such noise and violence from me. But before this, they had daubed my face and both my hands with a sort of ointment, very pleasant to the smell, which, in a few minutes, removed all the smart of their arrows. These circumstances, added to the refreshment I had received by their victuals and drink, which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep. I slept about eight hours, as I was afterwards assured; and it was no wonder, for the physicians, by the emperor's order, had mingled a sleepy potion in the hogsheads of wine.

somewhat - algo, un poco, de algún modo, de alguna manera

middle finger - dedo corazón

orator - orador, oradora

threatenings - amenazas; amenazador

pity - compasión, piedad, lástima, pena, tener lástima

kindness - amabilidad, bondad

submissive - sumiso, sumiso, sumisa

witness - Testigo

famished - Hambriento

hunger - hambre

morsel - un bocado; pizca, porción, gota

demands - demandas; demanda, exigencia, exigir, demandar

Impatience - impaciencia

strict - estricto

decency - decencia

frequently - con frecuencia; frecuentemente

signify - significar, senalar, checksuponer, checkrepresentar

descended from - descendiente de

commanded - mandado; orden, mandato, mando, comando, dominio

mounted - montado; montar

laden - cargado; (lade); cargado

baskets - cestas; cesta, cesto, canasta

thither - por allí, hacia allá

intelligence - inteligencia

flesh - carne, pellejo, descarnar

distinguish - distinguir

loins - lomo, lomos

mutton - ovino; cordero

wings - alas; ala, sección, parte, flanco, alero

lark - alondra

mouthful - Un bocado

loaves - panes; pan, barra

bigness - Grandeza

musket - mosquete

bullets - balas; bala

supplied - suministrado; proporcionar, abastecer

bulk - masa, corpulencia, grueso, bulto, a granel, masivo

appetite - apetito, deseo, ganas

most ingenious - el más ingenioso

slung - colgado; cabestrillo

dexterity - destreza

hogsheads - cacharros; bocoy

rolled - rodando; rollo

rank - rango, graduación

draught - de barril; dama

pint - una pinta; pinta

Burgundy - burdeos, vino tinto

more delicious - más delicioso

wonders - maravillas; maravilla, milagro, genio, asombro, pasmo

joy - alegría, júbilo

throw down - tirar, arrojar

vessels - vasos; embarcación, barco, casco, recipiente, receptáculo

universal - universal

tempted - tentado; tentar

backwards - hacia atrás; atrasado, rezagado, subdesarrollado

Dash - raya, guion largo, carrerita, gota, pizca, lanzarse, romper

remembrance - recuerdo, memoria, recordatorio, remembranza

interpreted - interpretado; explicar, exponer, interpretar

imaginations - imaginaciones; imaginación, magín

hospitality - hospitalidad, hostelería

treated - tratado; tratar, negociar, rogar, invitar, convidar, sorpresa

magnificence - magnificencia

thoughts - pensamientos; pensamiento

sufficiently - suficientemente

intrepidity - Intrepidez

diminutive - diminuto, diminutivo

mortals - ortales; mortal

durst - durst; atraverse, osar

Venture - aventurarse; aventura, arriesgar

Imperial - imperial

excellency - excelencia

dozen - docena, decenas

retinue - comitiva; servidumbre, séquito

credentials - credenciales; credencial, credencial

Royal - real

anger - ira, enfado, enojo, rabia

determinate - determinado

resolution - resolución, panish: t-needed

distant - distante, a distancia, hurano, remoto

whither - ?adónde?

Council - consejo; concejo

conveyed - transmitido; transportar, trasladar, comunicar, expresar

no purpose - sin propósito

disapprobation - Desaprobación

treatment - trato, tratamiento

attempting - intentando; intentar, tentativa, intento, ensayo

Bonds - fianzas; vínculo

smart - inteligente; elegante

blisters - ampollas; ampolla, ámpula, ampollar

darts - dardos; dardo, flechilla

sticking - Pegándose; (stick) Pegándose

enemies - enemigos; enemigo, enemiga

tokens - fichas; sena, recuerdo, ficha, prenda, símbolo, simbólico

ease - facilidad; aliviar

withdrew - se retiró; retirar(se)

civility - civismo, civilidad

cheerful - alegre; animado

countenances - emblantes; semblante, apariencia, expresión, rostro

repetitions - repeticiones; repetición

cords - cuerdas; cuerda, cable, hilo, cordón

plentifully - En abundancia

conjecturing - conjeturas; conjetura, suposición, especulación, teoría

motion - movimiento, moción

torrent - torrente

violence - violencia

daubed - mbadurnado; pintarrajo, brochazo, manchar, untar, embadurnar

ointment - pomada, ungüento

pleasant - agradable, placentero

refreshment - refresco; refrescamiento, refrigerio

victuals - Virtual

nourishing - nutritiva; nutrir

assured - asegurado; (assure); asegurar

Emperor - emperador

mingled - mezclados; mezclar

sleepy - tienes sueno; sueno, cansado, adormecido, sonoliento

potion - poción, brebaje, elixir, pócima

It seems, that upon the first moment I was discovered sleeping on the ground, after my landing, the emperor had early notice of it by an express; and determined in council, that I should be tied in the manner I have related, (which was done in the night while I slept;) that plenty of meat and drink should be sent to me, and a machine prepared to carry me to the capital city.

be tied - Estar atado; estar vinculado

plenty - bastante; abundancia

This resolution perhaps may appear very bold and dangerous, and I am confident would not be imitated by any prince in Europe on the like occasion.

confident - confiado, seguro de sí mismo

imitated - imitado; imitar

prince - príncipe, conde, príncipe

However, in my opinion, it was extremely prudent, as well as generous: for, supposing these people had endeavoured to kill me with their spears and arrows, while I was asleep, I should certainly have awaked with the first sense of smart, which might so far have roused my rage and strength, as to have enabled me to break the strings wherewith I was tied; after which, as they were not able to make resistance, so they could expect no mercy.

Prudent - prudente, atentado

generous - generoso, magnánimo, dadivoso, munificente

endeavoured - se esforzó; esforzarse

roused - despertado; despertar

rage - furia; rabia, furor

enabled - habilitado; habilitar, posibilitar, activar

resistance - resistencia

These people are most excellent mathematicians, and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics, by the countenance and encouragement of the emperor, who is a renowned patron of learning. This prince has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage of trees and other great weights. He often builds his largest men of war, whereof some are nine feet long, in the woods where the timber grows, and has them carried on these engines three or four hundred yards to the sea. Five hundred carpenters and engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the greatest engine they had. It was a frame of wood raised three inches from the ground, about seven feet long, and four wide, moving upon twenty-two wheels. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine, which, it seems, set out in four hours after my landing. It was brought parallel to me, as I lay. But the principal difficulty was to raise and place me in this vehicle.

most excellent - el más excelente

mathematicians - matemáticos; matemático, matemática

perfection - perfección

mechanics - mecánica; mecánico

countenance - semblante, apariencia, expresión, rostro

renowned - reconocido; renombre, distinción, fama, nombradía

patron - patrón, mecenas, patrocinador, auspiciador, cliente, parroquiano

carriage - coche, carruaje

timber - madera de construcción

carpenters - carpinteros; carpintero, carpintera, ebanista

frame - arco; levantar la estructura, armar, enmarcar, concebir

arrival - llegada, venida, arribo, arribada

parallel - en paralelo; paralelo, paralelo

Eighty poles, each of one foot high, were erected for this purpose, and very strong cords, of the bigness of packthread, were fastened by hooks to many bandages, which the workmen had girt round my neck, my hands, my body, and my legs. Nine hundred of the strongest men were employed to draw up these cords, by many pulleys fastened on the poles; and thus, in less than three hours, I was raised and slung into the engine, and there tied fast. All this I was told; for, while the operation was performing, I lay in a profound sleep, by the force of that soporiferous medicine infused into my liquor. Fifteen hundred of the emperor's largest horses, each about four inches and a half high, were employed to draw me towards the metropolis, which, as I said, was half a mile distant.

poles - postes; polo

hooks - ganchos; gancho, garfio, enganchar

bandages - vendas; venda, vendaje, vendar

girt - Cinturón; (gird) Cinturón

draw up - redactar; acercar(se)

pulleys - poleas; polea, roldana

operation - operación, operación

profound - profundo

force - fuerza

soporiferous - Soporífero

liquor - jugo, licor

metropolis - urbe, metrópolis

About four hours after we began our journey, I awaked by a very ridiculous accident; for the carriage being stopped a while, to adjust something that was out of order, two or three of the young natives had the curiosity to see how I looked when I was asleep; they climbed up into the engine, and advancing very softly to my face, one of them, an officer in the guards, put the sharp end of his half-pike a good way up into my left nostril, which tickled my nose like a straw, and made me sneeze violently; whereupon they stole off unperceived, and it was three weeks before I knew the cause of my waking so suddenly.

ridiculous - ridículo

adjust - ajustar, arreglar, regular, adaptar

natives - nativos; natal, indígena, originario, nativo, oriundo, indígena

climbed up - subir

softly - suavemente, inaudiblemente, silenciosamente

guards - guardias; guarda, guardia, guardés, guarda, tapador, bloque

sharp - agudo, afilado, filoso, listo, sostenido, agrio, certero

Pike - lucio

nostril - narina, fosa nasal

tickled - cosquilla, hacer cosquillas, cosquillear

straw - paja, pajizo, pajiza

sneeze - estornudar, estornudo

violently - violentamente

unperceived - no se percibe

We made a long march the remaining part of the day, and, rested at night with five hundred guards on each side of me, half with torches, and half with bows and arrows, ready to shoot me if I should offer to stir. The next morning at sun-rise we continued our march, and arrived within two hundred yards of the city gates about noon. The emperor, and all his court, came out to meet us; but his great officers would by no means suffer his majesty to endanger his person by mounting on my body.

remaining - quedan; resto, restos, quedarse, sobrar, restar, permanecer

torches - linternas; antorcha, incendiar

bows - arcos; (bow) arcos

shoot - disparar, lanzar

noon - mediodía

Court - patio, callejón, corte, tribunal, juzgado

mounting - Montaje; (mount) Montaje

At the place where the carriage stopped there stood an ancient temple, esteemed to be the largest in the whole kingdom; which, having been polluted some years before by an unnatural murder, was, according to the zeal of those people, looked upon as profane, and therefore had been applied to common use, and all the ornaments and furniture carried away. In this edifice it was determined I should lodge. The great gate fronting to the north was about four feet high, and almost two feet wide, through which I could easily creep. On each side of the gate was a small window, not above six inches from the ground: into that on the left side, the king's smith conveyed fourscore and eleven chains, like those that hang to a lady's watch in Europe, and almost as large, which were locked to my left leg with six-and-thirty padlocks. Over against this temple, on the other side of the great highway, at twenty feet distance, there was a turret at least five feet high. Here the emperor ascended, with many principal lords of his court, to have an opportunity of viewing me, as I was told, for I could not see them.

Temple - templo

esteemed - stimado; estima

Polluted - contaminado; contaminar

unnatural - no es natural; antinatural, contranatural, contra natura

murder - asesinato, asesinar, cepillarse, devorar

zeal - ahínco, fervor, celo, entusiasmo

profane - sacrílego, profano, blasfemo, profanar

ornaments - dornos; ornamento, ornamento musical

edifice - edificio

Lodge - cabana, barraca, caseta, logia, madriguera, panish: t-needed

creep - se arrastran; reptar, hormigueo, fatiga

Smith - Herrera, Herrero

fourscore - cuatro; ochenta

chains - cadenas; cadena, encadenar

hang - colgar

padlocks - candados; candado, candar, asegurar

highway - carretera, autopista

turret - torreta

ascended - ascendió; subir, ascender

lords - senores; castellano, senor

It was reckoned that above a hundred thousand inhabitants came out of the town upon the same errand; and, in spite of my guards, I believe there could not be fewer than ten thousand at several times, who mounted my body by the help of ladders. But a proclamation was soon issued, to forbid it upon pain of death. When the workmen found it was impossible for me to break loose, they cut all the strings that bound me; whereupon I rose up, with as melancholy a disposition as ever I had in my life. But the noise and astonishment of the people, at seeing me rise and walk, are not to be expressed. The chains that held my left leg were about two yards long, and gave me not only the liberty of walking backwards and forwards in a semicircle, but, being fixed within four inches of the gate, allowed me to creep in, and lie at my full length in the temple.

errand - recado

spite - rencor

proclamation - proclamación

issued - emitido; flujo, emisión, envío, incisión, herederos

forbid - prohibir, vedar, vetar, negar

melancholy - melancolía

semicircle - semicírculo

creep in - Entrar a hurtadillas

full length - largometraje; edición completa


The emperor of Lilliput, attended by several of the nobility, comes to see the author in his confinement. The emperor's person and habit described. Learned men appointed to teach the author their language. He gains favour by his mild disposition. His pockets are searched, and his sword and pistols taken from him.

confinement - confinamiento

appointed - nombrado; equipar, determinar, fijar, designar, nombrar

gains - ganancias; ganar, adquirir, obtener, conseguir

favour - favorecer; favor

mild - suave, leve, cálido

sword - espada, gladio

pistols - pistolas; pistola

When I found myself on my feet, I looked about me, and must confess I never beheld a more entertaining prospect. The country around appeared like a continued garden, and the enclosed fields, which were generally forty feet square, resembled so many beds of flowers.

beheld - ontemplado; contemplar, mirar, observar, he aquí, mirad

entertaining - entretenido; divertido; (entertain); divertir, entretener

prospect - prospecto; perspectiva, vista, panorama, expectativa, prospectar

generally - en general; generalmente, por lo general

resembled - se parecía; asemejar

These fields were intermingled with woods of half a stang, [301] and the tallest trees, as I could judge, appeared to be seven feet high. I viewed the town on my left hand, which looked like the painted scene of a city in a theatre.

intermingled - entremezclados; entreverar, entremezclar

judge - juez; juzgar

I had been for some hours extremely pressed by the necessities of nature; which was no wonder, it being almost two days since I had last disburdened myself. I was under great difficulties between urgency and shame. The best expedient I could think of, was to creep into my house, which I accordingly did; and shutting the gate after me, I went as far as the length of my chain would suffer, and discharged my body of that uneasy load. But this was the only time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an action; for which I cannot but hope the candid reader will give some allowance, after he has maturely and impartially considered my case, and the distress I was in.

pressed - presionado; apretar, presionar

necessities - necesidades; necesidad, menester

wonder - me pregunto; maravilla, milagro, genio, asombro, pasmo

disburdened - Descargar

difficulties - dificultades; dificultad

shame - vergüenza, pena

expedient - conveniente, expediente

accordingly - en consecuencia, por consiguiente, consecuentemente

chain - cadena, encadenar

uneasy - inquieta; inquieto

load - cargar; carga

guilty - culpable

uncleanly - Inmundo

candid - cándido; franco

maturely - con madurez

impartially - imparcialmente

distress - aflicción, angustia, desasosiego, ansiedad

From this time my constant practice was, as soon as I rose, to perform that business in open air, at the full extent of my chain; and due care was taken every morning before company came, that the offensive matter should be carried off in wheel-barrows, by two servants appointed for that purpose. I would not have dwelt so long upon a circumstance that, perhaps, at first sight, may appear not very momentous, if I had not thought it necessary to justify my character, in point of cleanliness, to the world; which, I am told, some of my maligners have been pleased, upon this and other occasions, to call in question.

constant - constante, perseverante, firme, constante

open air - al aire libre

extent - en qué medida; extensión

due - debido; salir de cuentas, mérito

offensive - ofensivo, ofensiva

carried off - se lo han llevado

barrows - túmulos; carretilla

servants - sirvientes; sirviente, criado, mozo, doméstico

dwelt - habitó; habitar, morar

circumstance - circunstancia

momentous - rascendental; importante, crucial, memorable

justify - legitimar, justificar, absolver

cleanliness - limpieza

maligners - maligno

occasions - ocasiones; ocasión, ocasionar

When this adventure was at an end, I came back out of my house, having occasion for fresh air. The emperor was already descended from the tower, and advancing on horseback towards me, which had like to have cost him dear; for the beast, though very well trained, yet wholly unused to such a sight, which appeared as if a mountain moved before him, reared up on its hinder feet: but that prince, who is an excellent horseman, kept his seat, till his attendants ran in, and held the bridle, while his majesty had time to dismount. When he alighted, he surveyed me round with great admiration; but kept beyond the length of my chain. He ordered his cooks and butlers, who were already prepared, to give me victuals and drink, which they pushed forward in a sort of vehicles upon wheels, till I could reach them. I took these vehicles and soon emptied them all; twenty of them were filled with meat, and ten with liquor; each of the former afforded me two or three good mouthfuls; and I emptied the liquor of ten vessels, which was contained in earthen vials, into one vehicle, drinking it off at a draught; and so I did with the rest. The empress, and young princes of the blood of both sexes, attended by many ladies, sat at some distance in their chairs; but upon the accident that happened to the emperor's horse, they alighted, and came near his person, which I am now going to describe. He is taller by almost the breadth of my nail, than any of his court; which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders. His features are strong and masculine, with an Austrian lip and arched nose, his complexion olive, his countenance erect, his body and limbs well proportioned, all his motions graceful, and his deportment majestic. He was then past his prime, being twenty-eight years and three quarters old, of which he had reigned about seven in great felicity, and generally victorious. For the better convenience of beholding him, I lay on my side, so that my face was parallel to his, and he stood but three yards off: however, I have had him since many times in my hand, and therefore cannot be deceived in the description. His dress was very plain and simple, and the fashion of it between the Asiatic and the European; but he had on his head a light helmet of gold, adorned with jewels, and a plume on the crest.

descended - descendió; descender, bajar

on horseback - a caballo

beast - bestia, animal, salvaje

unused - no usado/utilizado, sin usar/utilizar, sin uso

reared - criado; parte trasera

hinder - retrasar; impedir; dificultar

horseman - caballero, jinete

attendants - asistentes; asistente, guarda, concomitante, inherente

bridle - brida

dismount - desmontar

alighted - se bajó; apearse de

beyond - más allá de

butlers - mayordomos; sumiller, sommelier, mayordomo

afforded - se puede permitir; costear, permitirse

mouthfuls - Un bocado

earthen - de tierra

vials - frascos; frasco

Empress - Emperatriz

princes - príncipes; (prince); príncipe, conde, príncipe

sexes - exos; sexo

nail - un clavo; una

strike - tachar, borrar, golpear, pegar, acunar, hacer la huelga

awe - pavor, temor, medrosía, asombro, asombrar, abrumar

beholders - contempladores; observador

masculine - masculino, varonil, viril, macho

Austrian - austriaco, austriaco, austríaco, austriaca, austríaca

lip - labio, labro

arched - arqueado; bóveda

complexion - tez

olive - aceituna, oliva, olivo, verde oliva, aceitunado, verde aceituna

erect - erecto, erguido

limbs - miembros; miembro

proportioned - proporcionado; proporción

motions - mociones; movimiento, moción

graceful - gracia; grácil, gracioso

deportment - Comportamiento

majestic - majestuoso

prime - primer, primero

reigned - reinado, reinar

Felicity - felicidad

victorious - victorioso

convenience - conveniencia, comodidad

beholding - mirando; contemplar, mirar, observar, he aquí, mirad

be deceived - enganado

plain - plano; sencillo; liso; sin ornamentos; llano (persona)

Asiatic - Asiático

helmet - casco, yelmo

adorned - dornado; adornar, engalanar

jewels - joyas; gema, joya, alhaja, rubí

plume - pluma

crest - cornisa, cresta, cimera

He held his sword drawn in his hand to defend himself, if I should happen to break loose; it was almost three inches long; the hilt and scabbard were gold enriched with diamonds. His voice was shrill, but very clear and articulate; and I could distinctly hear it when I stood up. The ladies and courtiers were all most magnificently clad; so that the spot they stood upon seemed to resemble a petticoat spread upon the ground, embroidered with figures of gold and silver. His imperial majesty spoke often to me, and I returned answers: but neither of us could understand a syllable. There were several of his priests and lawyers present (as I conjectured by their habits), who were commanded to address themselves to me; and I spoke to them in as many languages as I had the least smattering of, which were High and Low Dutch, Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, and lingua franca, but all to no purpose. After about two hours the court retired, and I was left with a strong guard, to prevent the impertinence, and probably the malice of the rabble, who were very impatient to crowd about me as near as they durst; and some of them had the impudence to shoot their arrows at me, as I sat on the ground by the door of my house, whereof one very narrowly missed my left eye. But the colonel ordered six of the ringleaders to be seized, and thought no punishment so proper as to deliver them bound into my hands; which some of his soldiers accordingly did, pushing them forward with the butt-ends of their pikes into my reach. I took them all in my right hand, put five of them into my coat-pocket; and as to the sixth, I made a countenance as if I would eat him alive. The poor man squalled terribly, and the colonel and his officers were in much pain, especially when they saw me take out my penknife: but I soon put them out of fear; for, looking mildly, and immediately cutting the strings he was bound with, I set him gently on the ground, and away he ran. I treated the rest in the same manner, taking them one by one out of my pocket; and I observed both the soldiers and people were highly delighted at this mark of my clemency, which was represented very much to my advantage at court.

hilt - mpunadura; empunadura, mango

scabbard - vainas; vaina

enriched - enriquecido; enriquecer

Diamonds - diamantes; diamante

articulate - articular

distinctly - laramente; distintamente

courtiers - cortesanos; cortesano

magnificently - magníficamente

spot - unto; mancha, grano, poquito, poquita, zona, paraje, lámpara

resemble - se parecen; asemejar

petticoat - enaguas

spread - extender, dispersar, esparcir, untar, diseminar, difundir

embroidered - bordado; bordar

priests - sacerdotes; sacerdote, cura, padre, párroco

smattering - Un poco; (smatter); charlar, parlotear, chapurrar, chapurrear

Dutch - neerlandés, holandés, neerlandés, holandés

Latin - Latín

French - francés, franceses

Spanish - espanol; espanol, castellano, espanol, castellano, hispano

lingua franca - Lengua franca

retired - jubilado; retirarse, jubilarse

guard - guarda, guardia, guardés, guarda, tapador, bloque

malice - malicia

rabble - gentuza; gentío, muchedumbre

impatient - impaciente

impudence - imprudencia; impudencia, descaro, desenvoltura

Colonel - coronel

ringleaders - líderes; cabecilla

seized - incautado; agarrar, apoderarse de, apresar, aferrar, tomar

punishment - castigo, penitencia, checkpenitencia

butt - culo; dar un cabezazo

pikes - picas; lucio

sixth - sexto, sexto

poor man - Pobre hombre

squalled - chilló; tormenta, borrasca

Terribly - terriblemente; rematadamente

penknife - cuchillo; navaja, cortaplumas

mildly - Suavemente

highly - altamente

delighted - encantado; deleite, regocijo, delicia, placer

clemency - clemencia, compasión, piedad, misericordia, lástima

represented - representado; representar

Towards night I got with some difficulty into my house, where I lay on the ground, and continued to do so about a fortnight; during which time, the emperor gave orders to have a bed prepared for me.

fortnight - quince días; quincena

Six hundred beds of the common measure were brought in carriages, and worked up in my house; a hundred and fifty of their beds, sewn together, made up the breadth and length; and these were four double: which, however, kept me but very indifferently from the hardness of the floor, that was of smooth stone. By the same computation, they provided me with sheets, blankets, and coverlets, tolerable enough for one who had been so long inured to hardships.

common measure - medida común

carriages - carrozas; coche, carruaje

sewn - cosido; coser

indifferently - indiferentemente

hardness - dureza

smooth - liso, sofisticado, constante, tranquilo, apacible, suave, alisar

blankets - mantas; manta, capa, general

coverlets - cubiertas; cobertor

tolerable - tolerable, soportable, checktolerable, checkaceptable

Inured - enfermo; acostumbrar, habituar, avezar

hardships - dificultades; sufrimientos, apuro, penalidades

In the mean time the emperor held frequent councils, to debate what course should be taken with me; and I was afterwards assured by a particular friend, a person of great quality, who was as much in the secret as any, that the court was under many difficulties concerning me. They apprehended my breaking loose; that my diet would be very expensive, and might cause a famine. Sometimes they determined to starve me; or at least to shoot me in the face and hands with poisoned arrows, which would soon despatch me; but again they considered, that the stench of so large a carcass might produce a plague in the metropolis, and probably spread through the whole kingdom. In the midst of these consultations, several officers of the army went to the door of the great council-chamber, and two of them being admitted, gave an account of my behaviour to the six criminals above-mentioned; which made so favourable an impression in the breast of his majesty and the whole board, in my behalf, that an imperial commission was issued out, obliging all the villages, nine hundred yards round the city, to deliver in every morning six beeves, forty sheep, and other victuals for my sustenance; together with a proportionable quantity of bread, and wine, and other liquors; for the due payment of which, his majesty gave assignments upon his treasury:-for this prince lives chiefly upon his own demesnes; seldom, except upon great occasions, raising any subsidies upon his subjects, who are bound to attend him in his wars at their own expense. An establishment was also made of six hundred persons to be my domestics, who had board-wages allowed for their maintenance, and tents built for them very conveniently on each side of my door. It was likewise ordered, that three hundred tailors should make me a suit of clothes, after the fashion of the country; that six of his majesty's greatest scholars should be employed to instruct me in their language; and lastly, that the emperor's horses, and those of the nobility and troops of guards, should be frequently exercised in my sight, to accustom themselves to me. All these orders were duly put in execution; and in about three weeks I made a great progress in learning their language; during which time the emperor frequently honoured me with his visits, and was pleased to assist my masters in teaching me.

councils - consejos; concejo

debate - debate, debatir

apprehended - etenido; aprehender, entender, comprender, captar

famine - hambruna, hambre

starve - morirse de hambre; morir de hambre, hambrear

poisoned - envenenado; veneno, ponzona, envenenar, emponzonar

despatch - despachar

stench - hedor, fetidez

carcass - cadáver, carcasa

plague - plaga, peste, plagar, molestar, atormentar

midst - en medio; centro

consultations - consultas; consulta

chamber - cámara, recámara, compartimento

admitted - admitido; admitir, dar entrada, dejar entrar, reconocer

above-mentioned - (above-mentioned) se ha mencionado anteriormente

favourable - favorable

impression - impresión

in my behalf - en mi nombre

commission - misión, cometido, destino, cargo, comisión, encargo, encargar

obliging - complaciente; obligar

proportionable - proporcional

liquors - licores; jugo, licor

payment - pago, pago

assignments - tareas; asignación, panish: t-needed

treasury - tesorería, erario, tesoro

chiefly - principalmente, sobre todo, particularmente, especialmente

demesnes - demesnes; dominio

seldom - raramente, rara vez

subsidies - subvenciones; subvención, subsidio

establishment - establecimiento, establishment

domestics - domésticos; doméstico, nacional, empleada doméstica, empleada

wages - salario; hacer (la guerra), librar, dar

maintenance - mantenimiento

tents - tiendas; tienda (de campana)

tailors - sastres; sastre, modisto, modista, confeccionar

scholars - estudiosos; erudito, especialista, estudioso, docto

instruct - instruir

accustom - acostumbrarse, habituar

duly - bien; debidamente

execution - ejecución

honoured - onrado; honradez

assist - ayudar, asistir

masters - maestros; senor, dueno; senora, duena

We began already to converse together in some sort; and the first words I learnt, were to express my desire "that he would please give me my liberty;" which I every day repeated on my knees. His answer, as I could comprehend it, was, "that this must be a work of time, not to be thought on without the advice of his council, and that first I must lumos kelmin pesso desmar lon emposo;" that is, swear a peace with him and his kingdom. However, that I should be used with all kindness. And he advised me to "acquire, by my patience and discreet behaviour, the good opinion of himself and his subjects." He desired "I would not take it ill, if he gave orders to certain proper officers to search me; for probably I might carry about me several weapons, which must needs be dangerous things, if they answered the bulk of so prodigious a person." I said, "His majesty should be satisfied; for I was ready to strip myself, and turn up my pockets before him." This I delivered part in words, and part in signs. He replied, "that, by the laws of the kingdom, I must be searched by two of his officers; that he knew this could not be done without my consent and assistance; and he had so good an opinion of my generosity and justice, as to trust their persons in my hands; that whatever they took from me, should be returned when I left the country, or paid for at the rate which I would set upon them." I took up the two officers in my hands, put them first into my coat-pockets, and then into every other pocket about me, except my two fobs, and another secret pocket, which I had no mind should be searched, wherein I had some little necessaries that were of no consequence to any but myself. In one of my fobs there was a silver watch, and in the other a small quantity of gold in a purse. These gentlemen, having pen, ink, and paper, about them, made an exact inventory of every thing they saw; and when they had done, desired I would set them down, that they might deliver it to the emperor. This inventory I afterwards translated into English, and is, word for word, as follows:

converse - conversar, charlar

desire - desear, deseo, gana

comprehend - comprender

swear - jurar

acquire - obtener, adquirir

patience - paciencia, solitario

discreet - discreto

weapons - armas; arma

satisfied - satisfecho; satisfacer

strip - tira; quitar, desprender; arrancar; despojar

done without - Hecho sin

generosity - generosidad

justice - justicia, justedad, justeza, justicia

whatever - qué; cualquier, lo que sea que, cualquier cosa que, no importa

fobs - palancas; colocar/colar algo a alguien

purse - bolsa, monedero, fruncir

gentlemen - caballeros; caballero, senores

inventory - inventario, inventariar

translated - traducido; traducir, trasladar, verter

"Imprimis: In the right coat-pocket of the great man-mountain" (for so I interpret the words quinbus flestrin,) "after the strictest search, we found only one great piece of coarse-cloth, large enough to be a foot-cloth for your majesty's chief room of state. In the left pocket we saw a huge silver chest, with a cover of the same metal, which we, the searchers, were not able to lift. We desired it should be opened, and one of us stepping into it, found himself up to the mid leg in a sort of dust, some part whereof flying up to our faces set us both a sneezing for several times together. In his right waistcoat-pocket we found a prodigious bundle of white thin substances, folded one over another, about the bigness of three men, tied with a strong cable, and marked with black figures; which we humbly conceive to be writings, every letter almost half as large as the palm of our hands. In the left there was a sort of engine, from the back of which were extended twenty long poles, resembling the pallisados before your majesty's court: wherewith we conjecture the man-mountain combs his head; for we did not always trouble him with questions, because we found it a great difficulty to make him understand us. In the large pocket, on the right side of his middle cover" (so I translate the word ranfulo, by which they meant my breeches,) "we saw a hollow pillar of iron, about the length of a man, fastened to a strong piece of timber larger than the pillar; and upon one side of the pillar, were huge pieces of iron sticking out, cut into strange figures, which we know not what to make of. In the left pocket, another engine of the same kind. In the smaller pocket on the right side, were several round flat pieces of white and red metal, of different bulk; some of the white, which seemed to be silver, were so large and heavy, that my comrade and I could hardly lift them. In the left pocket were two black pillars irregularly shaped: we could not, without difficulty, reach the top of them, as we stood at the bottom of his pocket.

strictest - el más estricto; estricto

coarse - grosero; tosco, rústico, rudo, bruto

cloth - tela, pedazo de tela, trozo de tela, trapo, pano, facha

chest - pecho

searchers - buscadores; buscador

mid - a mitad, en medio

dust - polvo, desempolvar, limpiar el polvo, espolvorear

sneezing - Estornudos; (sneeze); estornudar, estornudo

waistcoat - chaleco, chalequillo

bundle - haz, atado, fajo, atar, liar

substances - sustancias; sustancia, enjundia

folded - doblado; doblar, plegar

humbly - humildemente

conceive - concebir

writings - escritos; (writing) escritos

palm - palma

extended - extendido; extender, ampliar

resembling - se parece; asemejar

conjecture - conjeturas; conjetura, suposición, especulación, teoría

combs - peines; peine

translate - traducir, trasladar, verter

breeches - calzones; culata

hollow - hueco

iron - hierro; férreo, planchar

comrade - companero, colega, camarada, correligionario, camarada

pillars - pilares; pilar

irregularly - irregularmente

One of them was covered, and seemed all of a piece: but at the upper end of the other there appeared a white round substance, about twice the bigness of our heads. Within each of these was enclosed a prodigious plate of steel; which, by our orders, we obliged him to show us, because we apprehended they might be dangerous engines. He took them out of their cases, and told us, that in his own country his practice was to shave his beard with one of these, and cut his meat with the other. There were two pockets which we could not enter: these he called his fobs; they were two large slits cut into the top of his middle cover, but squeezed close by the pressure of his belly. Out of the right fob hung a great silver chain, with a wonderful kind of engine at the bottom. We directed him to draw out whatever was at the end of that chain; which appeared to be a globe, half silver, and half of some transparent metal; for, on the transparent side, we saw certain strange figures circularly drawn, and thought we could touch them, till we found our fingers stopped by the lucid substance. He put this engine into our ears, which made an incessant noise, like that of a water-mill: and we conjecture it is either some unknown animal, or the god that he worships; but we are more inclined to the latter opinion, because he assured us, (if we understood him right, for he expressed himself very imperfectly) that he seldom did any thing without consulting it. He called it his oracle, and said, it pointed out the time for every action of his life. From the left fob he took out a net almost large enough for a fisherman, but contrived to open and shut like a purse, and served him for the same use: we found therein several massy pieces of yellow metal, which, if they be real gold, must be of immense value.

substance - sustancia, enjundia

steel - acero

obliged - obligado; obligar

shave - afeitarse

beard - barba, jotera, pantalla, barbar, provocar, mortificar

slits - hendiduras; ranura, abertura, rendija, fisura, raja

squeezed - exprimido; exprimir, apretar, apretujar, apuro, crisis, apretón

pressure - presión, presionar

belly - barriga, panza, vientre, guata

fob - leontina; colocar/colar algo a alguien

hung - colgado; colgar

globe - globo, globo terráqueo

transparent - transparente

circularly - Circularmente

lucid - lúcido, lucido, brillante

incessant - incesante

Mill - molinillo

unknown - ignoto, desconocido, incógnita, desconocido

worships - adoración, culto, checkalabanza, adorar, checkvenerar

imperfectly - imperfectamente

consulting - consultoría; consultar

Oracle - oráculo

net - et; red, malla

fisherman - pescador, pescadora

contrived - ingenioso; idear, improvisar

Therein - En eso

immense - inmenso

value - valor, importancia, valorar, cifrar, apreciar

"Having thus, in obedience to your majesty's commands, diligently searched all his pockets, we observed a girdle about his waist made of the hide of some prodigious animal, from which, on the left side, hung a sword of the length of five men; and on the right, a bag or pouch divided into two cells, each cell capable of holding three of your majesty's subjects.

obedience - obediencia

commands - mandos; orden, mandato, mando, comando, dominio

diligently - con diligencia; diligentemente, con esmero

girdle - faja; cinto

waist - cintura

pouch - bolsa, saquito, marsupio, bolsa marsupial, petaca, checkcebador

divided - dividido; desunir, dividir, repartir, división, divisoria

cells - células; celda

In one of these cells were several globes, or balls, of a most ponderous metal, about the bigness of our heads, and requiring a strong hand to lift them: the other cell contained a heap of certain black grains, but of no great bulk or weight, for we could hold above fifty of them in the palms of our hands.

globes - globos; globo, globo terráqueo

most ponderous - el más pesado

requiring - Necesitas; (require); requerir, necesitar

cell - célula; celda

heap - pila, montón, cúmulo, montículo, checkpila, amontonar

grains - granos; grano

palms - palmeras; palma

"This is an exact inventory of what we found about the body of the man-mountain, who used us with great civility, and due respect to your majesty's commission. Signed and sealed on the fourth day of the eighty-ninth moon of your majesty's auspicious reign.

respect - respeto, respetar

sealed - sellado; sello

auspicious - uspicioso; prometedor, propicio

Clefrin Frelock, Marsi Frelock."

When this inventory was read over to the emperor, he directed me, although in very gentle terms, to deliver up the several particulars. He first called for my scimitar, which I took out, scabbard and all. In the mean time he ordered three thousand of his choicest troops (who then attended him) to surround me at a distance, with their bows and arrows just ready to discharge; but I did not observe it, for mine eyes were wholly fixed upon his majesty. He then desired me to draw my scimitar, which, although it had got some rust by the sea water, was, in most parts, exceeding bright. I did so, and immediately all the troops gave a shout between terror and surprise; for the sun shone clear, and the reflection dazzled their eyes, as I waved the scimitar to and fro in my hand. His majesty, who is a most magnanimous prince, was less daunted than I could expect: he ordered me to return it into the scabbard, and cast it on the ground as gently as I could, about six feet from the end of my chain. The next thing he demanded was one of the hollow iron pillars; by which he meant my pocket pistols. I drew it out, and at his desire, as well as I could, expressed to him the use of it; and charging it only with powder, which, by the closeness of my pouch, happened to escape wetting in the sea (an inconvenience against which all prudent mariners take special care to provide,) I first cautioned the emperor not to be afraid, and then I let it off in the air. The astonishment here was much greater than at the sight of my scimitar. Hundreds fell down as if they had been struck dead; and even the emperor, although he stood his ground, could not recover himself for some time. I delivered up both my pistols in the same manner as I had done my scimitar, and then my pouch of powder and bullets; begging him that the former might be kept from fire, for it would kindle with the smallest spark, and blow up his imperial palace into the air.

read over - leer por encima

gentle - tierno, suave, tranquilo, medido, gradual, amable

scimitar - cimitarra

surround - circundar, envolver, cercar, rodear

discharge - cumplir, completar, despedir, descargar, descargo, dar de alta

rust - oxido; óxido

sea water - agua de mar

exceeding - excediéndose; sobrepasar, pasarse, exceder

terror - terror

shone - brilló; brillar

reflection - reflexión, reflejo

dazzled - deslumbrado; deslumbrar, obnubilar, encandilar, empaparotar

magnanimous - magnánimo

daunted - asustado; descorazonar, intimidar, amedrentar, amilanar, agobiar

cast - moldear, elenco, castear, sondar, sondear, lanzar, lanzamiento

demanded - exigió; demanda, exigencia, exigir, demandar

charging - cargando; cargo, acusación, encargo, figura, acusar, cobrar

powder - polvo, reducir a polvo, pulverizar, triturar, espolvorear

escape - escapar, liberarse, fugarse, eludir

inconvenience - inconveniente; inconveniencia, desconveniencia, incomodar

cautioned - advertido; advertencia, precaución, cuidado, cautela, fianza

struck - golpeado; tachar, borrar, golpear, pegar, acunar

recover - recuperarse

begging - Mendigando; (beg) Mendigando

kindle - indle; encender

spark - chispa

I likewise delivered up my watch, which the emperor was very curious to see, and commanded two of his tallest yeomen of the guards to bear it on a pole upon their shoulders, as draymen in England do a barrel of ale. He was amazed at the continual noise it made, and the motion of the minute-hand, which he could easily discern; for their sight is much more acute than ours: he asked the opinions of his learned men about it, which were various and remote, as the reader may well imagine without my repeating; although indeed I could not very perfectly understand them. I then gave up my silver and copper money, my purse, with nine large pieces of gold, and some smaller ones; my knife and razor, my comb and silver snuff-box, my handkerchief and journal-book. My scimitar, pistols, and pouch, were conveyed in carriages to his majesty's stores; but the rest of my goods were returned me.

Curious - tienes curiosidad; curioso; extrano, raro

Yeomen - yeomen; terrateniente, edecán

pole - pértiga; polo

barrel - barril, tonel, canón, cano, embarrilar

ale - cerveza inglesa, ale, cerveza ale

amazed - asombrado; pasmar, sorprender, asombrar

minute-hand - (minute-hand) minutero, aguja larga

discern - percibir, sensar, vislumbrar, discernir

more acute - más agudo

various - varios, diversos, diferentes, distintos

perfectly - perfectamente

copper - cobre

razor - navaja, razuradora, cuchilla, gillete, gillette

comb - peine

snuff - tabaco; rapé

handkerchief - panuelo; panuelo

journal - diario; revista

I had as I before observed, one private pocket, which escaped their search, wherein there was a pair of spectacles (which I sometimes use for the weakness of mine eyes,) a pocket perspective, and some other little conveniences; which, being of no consequence to the emperor, I did not think myself bound in honour to discover, and I apprehended they might be lost or spoiled if I ventured them out of my possession.

private - privado, privado

spectacles - gafas; espectáculo, papelón

weakness - debilidad, flaqueza, punto débil, debilidad por, carino

perspective - perspectiva

conveniences - omodidades; conveniencia, comodidad

bound in honour - verse obligado por el honor a hacer algo

spoiled - mimado; expoliar, despojar, danar, arruinar, echar a perder


The author diverts the emperor, and his nobility of both sexes, in a very uncommon manner. The diversions of the court of Lilliput described. The author has his liberty granted him upon certain conditions.

diverts - desvíos; desviar, entretener, distraer

uncommon - incomún; raro, poco común, extrano, poco frecuente

diversions - diversiones; distracción, diversión, desviación

granted - concedido; otorgar, conceder, subvención, beca, patrocinio

My gentleness and good behaviour had gained so far on the emperor and his court, and indeed upon the army and people in general, that I began to conceive hopes of getting my liberty in a short time. I took all possible methods to cultivate this favourable disposition. The natives came, by degrees, to be less apprehensive of any danger from me. I would sometimes lie down, and let five or six of them dance on my hand; and at last the boys and girls would venture to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair.

gentleness - gentileza; suavidad, dulzura

Gained - ganado; ganar, adquirir, obtener, conseguir

cultivate - cultivar

by degrees - Poco a poco

apprehensive - preocupado; aprensivo, inquieto

seek - buscar

I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking the language. The emperor had a mind one day to entertain me with several of the country shows, wherein they exceed all nations I have known, both for dexterity and magnificence. I was diverted with none so much as that of the rope-dancers, performed upon a slender white thread, extended about two feet, and twelve inches from the ground. Upon which I shall desire liberty, with the reader's patience, to enlarge a little.

entertain - entretenerse

exceed - sobrepasar, pasarse, exceder

diverted - desviado; desviar, entretener, distraer

rope - cuerda

thread - hilo, hebra, hilaza, tema, argumento, hilazón, subproceso

enlarge - ampliar, agrandar, engrandecer

This diversion is only practised by those persons who are candidates for great employments, and high favour at court. They are trained in this art from their youth, and are not always of noble birth, or liberal education. When a great office is vacant, either by death or disgrace (which often happens,) five or six of those candidates petition the emperor to entertain his majesty and the court with a dance on the rope; and whoever jumps the highest, without falling, succeeds in the office. Very often the chief ministers themselves are commanded to show their skill, and to convince the emperor that they have not lost their faculty.

diversion - distracción, diversión, desviación

candidates - candidatos; candidato, candidata, participante

employments - empleos; empleo

youth - jóvenes; juventud, adolescencia, mocedad, anos mozos, joven

noble - noble

liberal - liberal, liberal, libertario, libertaria

vacant - vacío; vacante

disgrace - desgracia, baldón, deshonrar

petition - petición

entertain - divertir, entretener

Whoever - a quién; cualquier, cualesquiera, cualquiera, quien

convince - convencer

faculty - cuerpo docente, facultad

Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed to cut a caper on the straight rope, at least an inch higher than any other lord in the whole empire. I have seen him do the summerset several times together, upon a trencher fixed on a rope which is no thicker than a common packthread in England. My friend Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs, is, in my opinion, if I am not partial, the second after the treasurer; the rest of the great officers are much upon a par.

treasurer - tesorero, tesorera

caper - caperucita; juguetear, brincar

inch - pulgada

Empire - imperio

summerset - Sumerset

trencher - Zanjadora

affairs - asuntos; negocio, asunto, rollo, amorío, aventura

partial - parcial

These diversions are often attended with fatal accidents, whereof great numbers are on record. I myself have seen two or three candidates break a limb. But the danger is much greater, when the ministers themselves are commanded to show their dexterity; for, by contending to excel themselves and their fellows, they strain so far that there is hardly one of them who has not received a fall, and some of them two or three.

fatal - fatal

limb - miembro

contending - Contendiente; (contend); contender, sostener

excel - aventajar, superar, sobresalir, distinguirse

fellows - companeros; tipo

strain - tensión; estirar, tensar

I was assured that, a year or two before my arrival, Flimnap would infallibly have broke his neck, if one of the king's cushions, that accidentally lay on the ground, had not weakened the force of his fall.

infallibly - infaliblemente

cushions - cojines; cojín, almohadón, colchón, amortiguante, banda

accidentally - accidentalmente

weakened - ebilitado; debilitar, languir, debilitarse, languecer

There is likewise another diversion, which is only shown before the emperor and empress, and first minister, upon particular occasions. The emperor lays on the table three fine silken threads of six inches long; one is blue, the other red, and the third green. These threads are proposed as prizes for those persons whom the emperor has a mind to distinguish by a peculiar mark of his favour. The ceremony is performed in his majesty's great chamber of state, where the candidates are to undergo a trial of dexterity very different from the former, and such as I have not observed the least resemblance of in any other country of the new or old world. The emperor holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the horizon, while the candidates advancing, one by one, sometimes leap over the stick, sometimes creep under it, backward and forward, several times, according as the stick is advanced or depressed.

lays - lays; poner, colocar

silken - panish: de seda, sedoso

threads - hilos; hilo, hebra, hilaza, tema, argumento, hilazón, subproceso

proposed - propuesta; proponer, pedir la mano, pedir matrimonio

peculiar - particular; peculiar, raro, específico

ceremony - ceremonia

undergo - bajo; experimentar, sufrir, soportar, padecer

trial - proceso, juicio

resemblance - semejanza, similitud, similaridad, parecido

horizon - horizonte

leap - salto; saltar, brincar

under it - debajo de

backward - hacia atrás; atrasado, rezagado, subdesarrollado

depressed - deprimido; deprimir

Sometimes the emperor holds one end of the stick, and his first minister the other; sometimes the minister has it entirely to himself. Whoever performs his part with most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded with the blue-coloured silk; the red is given to the next, and the green to the third, which they all wear girt twice round about the middle; and you see few great persons about this court who are not adorned with one of these girdles.

agility - agilidad

holds out - aguantar, Mantenerse firme

creeping - reptando; reptar, hormigueo, fatiga

silk - seda

round about - alrededor, cerca de

girdles - fajas; cinto

The horses of the army, and those of the royal stables, having been daily led before me, were no longer shy, but would come up to my very feet without starting. The riders would leap them over my hand, as I held it on the ground; and one of the emperor's huntsmen, upon a large courser, took my foot, shoe and all; which was indeed a prodigious leap. I had the good fortune to divert the emperor one day after a very extraordinary manner. I desired he would order several sticks of two feet high, and the thickness of an ordinary cane, to be brought me; whereupon his majesty commanded the master of his woods to give directions accordingly; and the next morning six woodmen arrived with as many carriages, drawn by eight horses to each. I took nine of these sticks, and fixing them firmly in the ground in a quadrangular figure, two feet and a half square, I took four other sticks, and tied them parallel at each corner, about two feet from the ground; then I fastened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that stood erect; and extended it on all sides, till it was tight as the top of a drum; and the four parallel sticks, rising about five inches higher than the handkerchief, served as ledges on each side. When I had finished my work, I desired the emperor to let a troop of his best horses twenty-four in number, come and exercise upon this plain. His majesty approved of the proposal, and I took them up, one by one, in my hands, ready mounted and armed, with the proper officers to exercise them.

royal stables - establo real

Shy - tímido, reservado, vergonzoso, lanzar

riders - jinetes; jinete

huntsmen - Cazador

divert - divertirse; desviar, entretener, distraer

extraordinary - extraordinario, descomunal

sticks - bastones; clavar

thickness - espesor; grosor, espesura, torpeza

cane - canón; cana, bastón, bastón blanco

woodmen - Lenador

quadrangular - cuadrangular

tight - apretado, ajustado, tensado, tensionado, tenso

drum - tambor

ledges - episas; repisa, alféizar, estante

approved - aprobado; aprobar; tener un buen concepto de

proposal - propuesta

As soon as they got into order they divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes, discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and pursued, attacked and retired, and in short discovered the best military discipline I ever beheld. The parallel sticks secured them and their horses from falling over the stage; and the emperor was so much delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be repeated several days, and once was pleased to be lifted up and give the word of command; and with great difficulty persuaded even the empress herself to let me hold her in her close chair within two yards of the stage, when she was able to take a full view of the whole performance. It was my good fortune, that no ill accident happened in these entertainments; only once a fiery horse, that belonged to one of the captains, pawing with his hoof, struck a hole in my handkerchief, and his foot slipping, he overthrew his rider and himself; but I immediately relieved them both, and covering the hole with one hand, I set down the troop with the other, in the same manner as I took them up. The horse that fell was strained in the left shoulder, but the rider got no hurt; and I repaired my handkerchief as well as I could: however, I would not trust to the strength of it any more, in such dangerous enterprises.

Mock - imitación, burla, simulacro, imitar, remedar, burlar

skirmishes - escaramuzas; escaramuza

blunt - desafilado, despuntado

swords - espadas; espada, gladio

fled - huyó; huir, desvanecerse, checkfugarse

pursued - perseguido; perseguir, apuntar a

military - militar, ejército

discipline - disciplina, castigo, ramo, disciplinar

secured - seguro, resguardado, confiable, aplomado

Command - orden, mandato, mando, comando, dominio

persuaded - persuadido; persuadir

performance - endimiento; actuación, cumplimiento, ejecución, desempeno

entertainments - entretenimientos; entretenimiento, espectáculo

captains - capitanes; capitán, capitanear, pilotar

pawing - manoseo; pata, garra (gato), zarpa (león)

hoof - pata; pezuna, casco

slipping - resbalando; resbalar

overthrew - derribó; derrocar, derribar

rider - jinete

relieved - aliviado; aliviar, relevar

strained - estirar, tensar

enterprises - empresas; empresa, emprendimiento, empuje, iniciativa

About two or three days before I was set at liberty, as I was entertaining the court with this kind of feat, there arrived an express to inform his majesty, that some of his subjects, riding near the place where I was first taken up, had seen a great black substance lying on the around, very oddly shaped, extending its edges round, as wide as his majesty's bedchamber, and rising up in the middle as high as a man; that it was no living creature, as they at first apprehended, for it lay on the grass without motion; and some of them had walked round it several times; that, by mounting upon each other's shoulders, they had got to the top, which was flat and even, and, stamping upon it, they found that it was hollow within; that they humbly conceived it might be something belonging to the man-mountain; and if his majesty pleased, they would undertake to bring it with only five horses. I presently knew what they meant, and was glad at heart to receive this intelligence. It seems, upon my first reaching the shore after our shipwreck, I was in such confusion, that before I came to the place where I went to sleep, my hat, which I had fastened with a string to my head while I was rowing, and had stuck on all the time I was swimming, fell off after I came to land; the string, as I conjecture, breaking by some accident, which I never observed, but thought my hat had been lost at sea.

feat - hazana, proeza

oddly - extranamente; extranamente, curiosamente, sorprendentemente

extending - extendiéndose; extender, ampliar

edges - bordes; orilla, borde, lado, arista, ventaja, filo

bedchamber - cámara

conceived - concebido; concebir

undertake - emprender, acometer

Glad - feliz, alegre, contento

shipwreck - pecio, naufragio, naufragar

confusion - confusión

string - cordel, mecate, usic, cadena, cuerda, enhebrar, encordar

rowing - remando; (row) remando

stuck - atascado; clavar

I entreated his imperial majesty to give orders it might be brought to me as soon as possible, describing to him the use and the nature of it: and the next day the waggoners arrived with it, but not in a very good condition; they had bored two holes in the brim, within an inch and half of the edge, and fastened two hooks in the holes; these hooks were tied by a long cord to the harness, and thus my hat was dragged along for above half an English mile; but, the ground in that country being extremely smooth and level, it received less damage than I expected.

entreated - suplicado; rogar, suplicar, invitar, compartir, negociar

brim - borde

edge - orilla, borde, lado, arista, ventaja, filo

cord - cuerda, cable, hilo, cordón

harness - arnés, arrear, aparejar, aprovechar

dragged - arrastrado; llevar a rastras

damage - danos; dano

Two days after this adventure, the emperor, having ordered that part of his army which quarters in and about his metropolis, to be in readiness, took a fancy of diverting himself in a very singular manner. He desired I would stand like a Colossus, with my legs as far asunder as I conveniently could. He then commanded his general (who was an old experienced leader, and a great patron of mine) to draw up the troops in close order, and march them under me; the foot by twenty-four abreast, and the horse by sixteen, with drums beating, colours flying, and pikes advanced.

readiness - preparados; preparación

fancy - te apetece; capricho, antojo

diverting - desviando; desviar, entretener, distraer

singular - singular, único, singular

colossus - coloso

asunder - despedazar; en dos, en pedazos

abreast - al día; de lado a lado, al corriente

drums - tambores; tambor

This body consisted of three thousand foot, and a thousand horse. His majesty gave orders, upon pain of death, that every soldier in his march should observe the strictest decency with regard to my person; which however could not prevent some of the younger officers from turning up their eyes as they passed under me: and, to confess the truth, my breeches were at that time in so ill a condition, that they afforded some opportunities for laughter and admiration.

consisted - consistió; componerse (de), constar (de)

regard - respecto a; considerar

turning up - Aparecer, presentarse; subir, aumentar

I had sent so many memorials and petitions for my liberty, that his majesty at length mentioned the matter, first in the cabinet, and then in a full council; where it was opposed by none, except Skyresh Bolgolam, who was pleased, without any provocation, to be my mortal enemy. But it was carried against him by the whole board, and confirmed by the emperor. That minister was galbet, or admiral of the realm, very much in his master's confidence, and a person well versed in affairs, but of a morose and sour complexion. However, he was at length persuaded to comply; but prevailed that the articles and conditions upon which I should be set free, and to which I must swear, should be drawn up by himself. These articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in person attended by two under-secretaries, and several persons of distinction. After they were read, I was demanded to swear to the performance of them; first in the manner of my own country, and afterwards in the method prescribed by their laws; which was, to hold my right foot in my left hand, and to place the middle finger of my right hand on the crown of my head, and my thumb on the tip of my right ear.

memorials - memoriales; monumento conmemorativo, conmemoración

petitions - peticiones; petición

cabinet - armario, gabinete, vestidor, consejo

opposed - oponerse; oponer

provocation - provocación

mortal - mortal

enemy - enemigo, enemiga

confirmed - confirmado; confirmar

admiral - almirante, panish: t-needed

realm - esfera, reino

versed - ersado; estrofa

morose - moroso; malhumorado

sour - agrio, ácido, acedo, acidez

comply - cumplir, acceder a, acatar

set free - liberar, poner en libertdad

distinction - distinción

prescribed - prescrito; prescribir, recetar, ordenar

crown - corona

thumb - pulgar

But because the reader may be curious to have some idea of the style and manner of expression peculiar to that people, as well as to know the article upon which I recovered my liberty, I have made a translation of the whole instrument, word for word, as near as I was able, which I here offer to the public.

recovered - recuperado; recuperarse

translation - traducción, transmisión, traslación

"1st, The man-mountain shall not depart from our dominions, without our license under our great seal.

depart - irse, salir, partir, panish:

dominions - dominios; dominio

license - licencia, permiso, permisividad

seal - sello

"2d, He shall not presume to come into our metropolis, without our express order; at which time, the inhabitants shall have two hours warning to keep within doors.

"3d, The said man-mountain shall confine his walks to our principal high roads, and not offer to walk, or lie down, in a meadow or field of corn.

confine - confinar, encorsetar, confín, raya

meadow - pradera; prado, vega

corn - cereales (maíz, trigo, avena)

"4th, As he walks the said roads, he shall take the utmost care not to trample upon the bodies of any of our loving subjects, their horses, or carriages, nor take any of our subjects into his hands without their own consent.

trample - pisar; pisotear, hollar, maltratar, humillar, ofender

"5th, If an express requires extraordinary despatch, the man-mountain shall be obliged to carry, in his pocket, the messenger and horse a six days journey, once in every moon, and return the said messenger back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence.

requires - requerir, necesitar

be obliged - estar obligado

messenger - mensajero

required - es necesario; requerir, necesitar

presence - presencia

"6th, He shall be our ally against our enemies in the island of Blefuscu, and do his utmost to destroy their fleet, which is now preparing to invade us.

ally - aliado; aliarse (con)

Fleet - flota

invade - invadir

"7th, That the said man-mountain shall, at his times of leisure, be aiding and assisting to our workmen, in helping to raise certain great stones, towards covering the wall of the principal park, and other our royal buildings.

aiding - ayudando; ayuda, auxilio

assisting - asistiendo; ayudar, asistir

buildings - Edificio

"8th, That the said man-mountain shall, in two moons'time, deliver in an exact survey of the circumference of our dominions, by a computation of his own paces round the coast.

circumference - circunferencia

paces - pasos; paso

"Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 of our subjects, with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our favour. Given at our palace at Belfaborac, the twelfth day of the ninety-first moon of our reign."

solemn - solemne

oath - juramento, jurar

daily allowance - la asignación diaria

access - acceso, entrada

twelfth - duodécimo, décimo segundo, doceavo

I swore and subscribed to these articles with great cheerfulness and content, although some of them were not so honourable as I could have wished; which proceeded wholly from the malice of Skyresh Bolgolam, the high-admiral: whereupon my chains were immediately unlocked, and I was at full liberty. The emperor himself, in person, did me the honour to be by at the whole ceremony. I made my acknowledgements by prostrating myself at his majesty's feet: but he commanded me to rise; and after many gracious expressions, which, to avoid the censure of vanity, I shall not repeat, he added, "that he hoped I should prove a useful servant, and well deserve all the favours he had already conferred upon me, or might do for the future.

swore - lo juraste; jurar

subscribed - suscrito; suscribirse

cheerfulness - alegría

content - contenido; satisfecho

honourable - Honorable

proceeded - procedió; continuar, proceder

unlocked - desbloqueado; abrir, abrir con llave, desatrancar, desbloquear

Acknowledgements - agradecimientos; reconocimiento, muestra de agradecimiento

prostrating - postrarse; postrado, acostado boca abajo

vanity - vanidad

Prove - probar

servant - sirviente, criado, mozo, doméstico

deserve - merecer, meritar

favours - favores; favor

conferred - conferido; conferir, debatir, consultar

The reader may please to observe, that, in the last article of the recovery of my liberty, the emperor stipulates to allow me a quantity of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 Lilliputians. Some time after, asking a friend at court how they came to fix on that determinate number, he told me that his majesty's mathematicians, having taken the height of my body by the help of a quadrant, and finding it to exceed theirs in the proportion of twelve to one, they concluded from the similarity of their bodies, that mine must contain at least 1724 of theirs, and consequently would require as much food as was necessary to support that number of Lilliputians.

recovery - recuperación, repunte

stipulates - estipular

quadrant - cuadrante

proportion - proporción

concluded - concluido; concluir

similarity - semejanza, similitud

consequently - por consiguiente; consecuentemente

require - necesitas; requerir, necesitar

By which the reader may conceive an idea of the ingenuity of that people, as well as the prudent and exact economy of so great a prince.

conceive an idea - concebir una idea

ingenuity - ingenuidad; ingenio

economy - economía, económico


Mildendo, the metropolis of Lilliput, described, together with the emperor's palace. A conversation between the author and a principal secretary, concerning the affairs of that empire. The author's offers to serve the emperor in his wars.

offers to - ofrecer

The first request I made, after I had obtained my liberty, was, that I might have license to see Mildendo, the metropolis; which the emperor easily granted me, but with a special charge to do no hurt either to the inhabitants or their houses. The people had notice, by proclamation, of my design to visit the town. The wall which encompassed it is two feet and a half high, and at least eleven inches broad, so that a coach and horses may be driven very safely round it; and it is flanked with strong towers at ten feet distance. I stepped over the great western gate, and passed very gently, and sidling, through the two principal streets, only in my short waistcoat, for fear of damaging the roofs and eaves of the houses with the skirts of my coat. I walked with the utmost circumspection, to avoid treading on any stragglers who might remain in the streets, although the orders were very strict, that all people should keep in their houses, at their own peril.

obtained - obtenido; obtener, coger

encompassed - abarcado; circundar, rodear, abarcar, englobar

broad - amplio; ancho

safely - seguro; seguramente

flanked - flanqueado; costado, flanco

Western - occidental, oesteno, western

damaging - perjudicial; dano

eaves - Alero

treading - Pisando; (tread) Pisando

stragglers - rezagados; rezagado, vago

remain - resto, restos, quedarse, sobrar, restar, permanecer, continuar

peril - peligro, riesgo

The garret windows and tops of houses were so crowded with spectators, that I thought in all my travels I had not seen a more populous place. The city is an exact square, each side of the wall being five hundred feet long. The two great streets, which run across and divide it into four quarters, are five feet wide. The lanes and alleys, which I could not enter, but only view them as I passed, are from twelve to eighteen inches. The town is capable of holding five hundred thousand souls: the houses are from three to five stories: the shops and markets well provided.

garret - buhardilla

spectators - espectadores; espectador

populous - popular; poblado, populoso

divide - desunir, dividir, repartir, división, divisoria

lanes - carriles; camino, carril

alleys - allejones; callejuela

The emperor's palace is in the centre of the city where the two great streets meet. It is enclosed by a wall of two feet high, and twenty feet distance from the buildings. I had his majesty's permission to step over this wall; and, the space being so wide between that and the palace, I could easily view it on every side. The outward court is a square of forty feet, and includes two other courts: in the inmost are the royal apartments, which I was very desirous to see, but found it extremely difficult; for the great gates, from one square into another, were but eighteen inches high, and seven inches wide. Now the buildings of the outer court were at least five feet high, and it was impossible for me to stride over them without infinite damage to the pile, though the walls were strongly built of hewn stone, and four inches thick. At the same time the emperor had a great desire that I should see the magnificence of his palace; but this I was not able to do till three days after, which I spent in cutting down with my knife some of the largest trees in the royal park, about a hundred yards distant from the city.

outward - hacia fuera

inmost - intimo

desirous - deseoso

stride - andar a zancadas

infinite - infinito

pile - montón, pila

hewn - Tallado; (hew) Tallado

cutting down - Reducir

Of these trees I made two stools, each about three feet high, and strong enough to bear my weight. The people having received notice a second time, I went again through the city to the palace with my two stools in my hands. When I came to the side of the outer court, I stood upon one stool, and took the other in my hand; this I lifted over the roof, and gently set it down on the space between the first and second court, which was eight feet wide. I then stept over the building very conveniently from one stool to the other, and drew up the first after me with a hooked stick. By this contrivance I got into the inmost court; and, lying down upon my side, I applied my face to the windows of the middle stories, which were left open on purpose, and discovered the most splendid apartments that can be imagined. There I saw the empress and the young princes, in their several lodgings, with their chief attendants about them. Her imperial majesty was pleased to smile very graciously upon me, and gave me out of the window her hand to kiss.

stools - heces; taburete

stept - paso

hooked - enganchado; gancho, garfio, enganchar

contrivance - aparato, artificio, artimana, estratagema, artefacto, artilugio

left open - dejado abierto

most splendid - el más espléndido

lodgings - alojamiento, hospedaje, encamado

graciously - con amabilidad

kiss - besar

One morning, about a fortnight after I had obtained my liberty, Reldresal, principal secretary (as they style him) for private affairs, came to my house attended only by one servant. He ordered his coach to wait at a distance, and desired I would give him an hours audience; which I readily consented to, on account of his quality and personal merits, as well as of the many good offices he had done me during my solicitations at court. I offered to lie down that he might the more conveniently reach my ear, but he chose rather to let me hold him in my hand during our conversation. He began with compliments on my liberty; said "he might pretend to some merit in it;" but, however, added, "that if it had not been for the present situation of things at court, perhaps I might not have obtained it so soon. For," said he, "as flourishing a condition as we may appear to be in to foreigners, we labour under two mighty evils: a violent faction at home, and the danger of an invasion, by a most potent enemy, from abroad. As to the first, you are to understand, that for about seventy moons past there have been two struggling parties in this empire, under the names of Tramecksan and Slamecksan, from the high and low heels of their shoes, by which they distinguish themselves. It is alleged, indeed, that the high heels are most agreeable to our ancient constitution; but, however this be, his majesty has determined to make use only of low heels in the administration of the government, and all offices in the gift of the crown, as you cannot but observe; and particularly that his majesty's imperial heels are lower at least by a drurr than any of his court (drurr is a measure about the fourteenth part of an inch). The animosities between these two parties run so high, that they will neither eat, nor drink, nor talk with each other. We compute the Tramecksan, or high heels, to exceed us in number; but the power is wholly on our side. We apprehend his imperial highness, the heir to the crown, to have some tendency towards the high heels; at least we can plainly discover that one of his heels is higher than the other, which gives him a hobble in his gait. Now, in the midst of these intestine disquiets, we are threatened with an invasion from the island of Blefuscu, which is the other great empire of the universe, almost as large and powerful as this of his majesty. For as to what we have heard you affirm, that there are other kingdoms and states in the world inhabited by human creatures as large as yourself, our philosophers are in much doubt, and would rather conjecture that you dropped from the moon, or one of the stars; because it is certain, that a hundred mortals of your bulk would in a short time destroy all the fruits and cattle of his majesty's dominions: besides, our histories of six thousand moons make no mention of any other regions than the two great empires of Lilliput and Blefuscu.

readily - listo; fácilmente, en seguida, pronto

consented - consintió; consentir, consentimiento, venia, anuencia

merits - méritos; mérito, merecimiento, meritar

solicitations - solicitudes; solicitación

offered - ofrecido; ofrecer

compliments - cumplidos; cumplido, felicitar, cumplimentar

pretend - fingir, de mentirijillas

flourishing - loreciente; florecer, prosperar, ademanes, floritura, floreo

foreigners - extranjeros; extranjero, extranjera, forastero, fuereno

mighty - poderoso

evils - ales; malo, malvado

invasion - invasión

most potent - el más potente

from abroad - del extranjero

heels - tacones; talón

heir - heredero, sucesor, checkheredera

alleged - supuesto; alegar

agreeable - lisonjero, agradable, dispuesto, conforme

constitution - constitución, constituciones

administration - administración

measure - medición, medida, regla, compás, medir

Fourteenth - decimocuarto, decimocuarto, decimocuarta, catorceavo

animosities - animidades; animosidad, animadversión

compute - computar, calcular

apprehend - aprender; aprehender, entender, comprender, captar

Highness - alteza

tendency - tendencia

hobble - renguear; manea, suelta, atadura, manear

gait - caminar; andar

intestine - intestino

disquiets - disquets; inquietud, inquietar

threatened - amenazado; amenazar

universe - universo

powerful - poderoso

affirm - afirmar

kingdoms - reinos; reino

inhabited - habitado; habitar, morar, vivir

philosophers - filósofos; filósofo, filósofa

doubt - dudas; dudar, duda, incertidumbre

cattle - ganado, ganado bovino

empires - imperios; imperio

Which two mighty powers have, as I was going to tell you, been engaged in a most obstinate war for six-and-thirty moons past. It began upon the following occasion. It is allowed on all hands, that the primitive way of breaking eggs, before we eat them, was upon the larger end; but his present majesty's grandfather, while he was a boy, going to eat an egg, and breaking it according to the ancient practice, happened to cut one of his fingers. Whereupon the emperor his father published an edict, commanding all his subjects, upon great penalties, to break the smaller end of their eggs. The people so highly resented this law, that our histories tell us, there have been six rebellions raised on that account; wherein one emperor lost his life, and another his crown. These civil commotions were constantly fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were quelled, the exiles always fled for refuge to that empire. It is computed that eleven thousand persons have at several times suffered death, rather than submit to break their eggs at the smaller end. Many hundred large volumes have been published upon this controversy: but the books of the Big-endians have been long forbidden, and the whole party rendered incapable by law of holding employments. During the course of these troubles, the emperors of Blefusca did frequently expostulate by their ambassadors, accusing us of making a schism in religion, by offending against a fundamental doctrine of our great prophet Lustrog, in the fifty-fourth chapter of the Blundecral (which is their Alcoran). This, however, is thought to be a mere strain upon the text; for the words are these: 'that all true believers break their eggs at the convenient end.' And which is the convenient end, seems, in my humble opinion to be left to every man's conscience, or at least in the power of the chief magistrate to determine. Now, the Big-endian exiles have found so much credit in the emperor of Blefuscu's court, and so much private assistance and encouragement from their party here at home, that a bloody war has been carried on between the two empires for six-and-thirty moons, with various success; during which time we have lost forty capital ships, and a much a greater number of smaller vessels, together with thirty thousand of our best seamen and soldiers; and the damage received by the enemy is reckoned to be somewhat greater than ours. However, they have now equipped a numerous fleet, and are just preparing to make a descent upon us; and his imperial majesty, placing great confidence in your valour and strength, has commanded me to lay this account of his affairs before you."

engaged - comprometido; atraer, trabar conversación con, trabar batalla

most obstinate - el más obstinado

primitive - primitivo

edict - edicto

commanding - mandando; orden, mandato, mando, comando, dominio

penalties - penalizaciones; pena, castigo

resented - resentido; ofenderse, tomarse a mal

rebellions - rebeliones; rebelión, insurrección

civil - civil

commotions - conmociones; conmoción

constantly - constantemente

fomented - fomentado; fomentar

Monarchs - monarcas; monarca

quelled - acallado; reprimir, sofocar

exiles - exiliados; exilio, destierro, exiliado, desterrado, exiliar

refuge - refugio, refugiarse

computed - cómputo; computar, calcular

suffered - sufrido; sufrir, penar, empeorar

submit - enviar; entregar; presentar; someterse; dar argumento

volumes - volúmenes; volumen

controversy - controversia, polémica

endians - Endianos

forbidden - prohibido; prohibir, vedar, vetar, negar

rendered - rendido; dejar, volver

emperors - emperadores; emperador

expostulate - expostular

ambassadors - embajadores; embajador, embajadora

accusing - acusando; acusar, denunciar

schism - cisma

religion - religión

offending - ofender

fundamental - fundamental

doctrine - doctrina

prophet - profeta, profetisa

Alcoran - Alcorán

believers - creyentes; creyente

Convenient - conveniente, cómodo

humble - humilde

magistrate - magistrado, togado

determine - determinar

bloody - Sangriento

equipped - equipado; equipar, equiparse, preparar, dotar

numerous - numerosos; numeroso

descent - descendencia; descenso, bajada, ascendencia, origen, abolengo

valour - valor

I desired the secretary to present my humble duty to the emperor; and to let him know, "that I thought it would not become me, who was a foreigner, to interfere with parties; but I was ready, with the hazard of my life, to defend his person and state against all invaders."

Duty - deber, obligación, cometido, menester, arancel

interfere - panish: t-needed

hazard - riesgo, peligro, arriesgar, peligrar, aventurar

invaders - invasores; invasor, invasora


The author, by an extraordinary stratagem, prevents an invasion. A high title of honour is conferred upon him. Ambassadors arrive from the emperor of Blefuscu, and sue for peace. The empress's apartment on fire by an accident; the author instrumental in saving the rest of the palace.

stratagem - estratagema

sue - demandar

instrumental - instrumental

The empire of Blefuscu is an island situated to the north-east of Lilliput, from which it is parted only by a channel of eight hundred yards wide. I had not yet seen it, and upon this notice of an intended invasion, I avoided appearing on that side of the coast, for fear of being discovered, by some of the enemy's ships, who had received no intelligence of me; all intercourse between the two empires having been strictly forbidden during the war, upon pain of death, and an embargo laid by our emperor upon all vessels whatsoever. I communicated to his majesty a project I had formed of seizing the enemy's whole fleet; which, as our scouts assured us, lay at anchor in the harbour, ready to sail with the first fair wind. I consulted the most experienced seamen upon the depth of the channel, which they had often plumbed; who told me, that in the middle, at high-water, it was seventy glumgluffs deep, which is about six feet of European measure; and the rest of it fifty glumgluffs at most. I walked towards the north-east coast, over against Blefuscu, where, lying down behind a hillock, I took out my small perspective glass, and viewed the enemy's fleet at anchor, consisting of about fifty men of war, and a great number of transports: I then came back to my house, and gave orders (for which I had a warrant) for a great quantity of the strongest cable and bars of iron. The cable was about as thick as packthread and the bars of the length and size of a knitting-needle. I trebled the cable to make it stronger, and for the same reason I twisted three of the iron bars together, bending the extremities into a hook. Having thus fixed fifty hooks to as many cables, I went back to the north-east coast, and putting off my coat, shoes, and stockings, walked into the sea, in my leathern jerkin, about half an hour before high water. I waded with what haste I could, and swam in the middle about thirty yards, till I felt ground.

situated - situado; situar

Channel - canal

intercourse - conversación, coito, acto sexual, relación sexual

strictly - estrictamente, terminantemente

embargo - embargo, panish: t-needed

whatsoever - qué; en absoluto

seizing - incautando; (seize); agarrar, apoderarse de, apresar, aferrar

scouts - exploradores; explorador

anchor - ancla

harbour - puerto

ready to sail - preparado para navegar

plumbed - A plomo

hillock - cerrito, collado, colina, colineta

consisting - consistente; componerse (de), constar (de)

warrant - garantía, cédula, orden, garantizar

knitting-needle - (knitting-needle) aguja de tejer

trebled - triplicado; triple

twisted - retorcido; torcer, sacar punta a, torcerse

extremities - extremidades; extremidad

Hook - gancho, garfio, enganchar

cables - cables; cable, cuerda, televisión por cable, cablegrama

putting off - desanimar, aplazar, apagar

stockings - medias; media

leathern - de cuero

waded - vadear; caminar por el agua

haste - prisa, premura

I arrived at the fleet in less than half an hour. The enemy was so frightened when they saw me, that they leaped out of their ships, and swam to shore, where there could not be fewer than thirty thousand souls. I then took my tackling, and, fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each, I tied all the cords together at the end. While I was thus employed, the enemy discharged several thousand arrows, many of which stuck in my hands and face, and, beside the excessive smart, gave me much disturbance in my work. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes, which I should have infallibly lost, if I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. I kept, among other little necessaries, a pair of spectacles in a private pocket, which, as I observed before, had escaped the emperor's searchers. These I took out and fastened as strongly as I could upon my nose, and thus armed, went on boldly with my work, in spite of the enemy's arrows, many of which struck against the glasses of my spectacles, but without any other effect, further than a little to discompose them. I had now fastened all the hooks, and, taking the knot in my hand, began to pull; but not a ship would stir, for they were all too fast held by their anchors, so that the boldest part of my enterprise remained. I therefore let go the cord, and leaving the hooks fixed to the ships, I resolutely cut with my knife the cables that fastened the anchors, receiving about two hundred shots in my face and hands; then I took up the knotted end of the cables, to which my hooks were tied, and with great ease drew fifty of the enemy's largest men of war after me.

frightened - asustado; atemorizar

leaped - saltó; saltar, brincar

tackling - Atacando; (tackle); equipo, aparejo, entrada, tacleada, placaje

fastening - Cierre; (fasten); atar, abrochar

prow - proa

beside - al lado de, cabe

disturbance - disturbio, estorbo, perturbación

apprehension - aprehensión; arresto, aprensión

boldly - con valentía; audazmente, valientemente

discompose - Incomodar

anchors - anclas; ancla

boldest - el más audaz; valiente, audaz, atrevido

enterprise - empresa, emprendimiento, empuje, iniciativa

remained - se quedó; resto, restos, quedarse, sobrar, restar, permanecer

resolutely - Decididamente

shots - disparos; tiro, disparo

knotted - nudo

The Blefuscudians, who had not the least imagination of what I intended, were at first confounded with astonishment. They had seen me cut the cables, and thought my design was only to let the ships run adrift or fall foul on each other: but when they perceived the whole fleet moving in order, and saw me pulling at the end, they set up such a scream of grief and despair as it is almost impossible to describe or conceive.

imagination - imaginación, magín

confounded with - confundido con

adrift - a la deriva

fall foul - caer en la trampa, convertirse en víctima

scream - grito, gritar

grief and despair - dolor y desesperación

When I had got out of danger, I stopped awhile to pick out the arrows that stuck in my hands and face; and rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival, as I have formerly mentioned. I then took off my spectacles, and waiting about an hour, till the tide was a little fallen, I waded through the middle with my cargo, and arrived safe at the royal port of Lilliput.

awhile - un rato, algún tiempo

rubbed - frotado; frotación, frotamiento, frote, frotar

cargo - carga

port - puerto

The emperor and his whole court stood on the shore, expecting the issue of this great adventure. They saw the ships move forward in a large half-moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my breast in water. When I advanced to the middle of the channel, they were yet more in pain, because I was under water to my neck. The emperor concluded me to be drowned, and that the enemy's fleet was approaching in a hostile manner: but he was soon eased of his fears; for the channel growing shallower every step I made, I came in a short time within hearing, and holding up the end of the cable, by which the fleet was fastened, I cried in a loud voice, "Long live the most puissant king of Lilliput!

issue - problema; flujo, emisión, envío, incisión, herederos

half-moon - (half-moon) media luna

be drowned - ser/estar ahogado

approaching - se acerca; acercarse, aproximarse

hostile - hostil

eased - aliviado; aliviar

shallower - más superficial; poco profundo, superficial, desinteresante

This great prince received me at my landing with all possible encomiums, and created me a nardac upon the spot, which is the highest title of honour among them.

encomiums - encomios; encomio

His majesty desired I would take some other opportunity of bringing all the rest of his enemy's ships into his ports. And so unmeasureable is the ambition of princes, that he seemed to think of nothing less than reducing the whole empire of Blefuscu into a province, and governing it, by a viceroy; of destroying the Big-endian exiles, and compelling that people to break the smaller end of their eggs, by which he would remain the sole monarch of the whole world. But I endeavoured to divert him from this design, by many arguments drawn from the topics of policy as well as justice; and I plainly protested, "that I would never be an instrument of bringing a free and brave people into slavery.

ports - puertos; puerto

unmeasureable - inconmensurable

Ambition - ambición

province - provincia

governing - gobernando; gobernar

Viceroy - virrey

compelling - onvincente; de peso; (compel); obligar, forzar, compeler

sole - suela; planta

monarch - monarca

policy - política

protested - protestó; protestar, proclamar, oponerse, objetar, protesta

Brave - valiente, valeroso, corajudo

slavery - Esclavitud

And, when the matter was debated in council, the wisest part of the ministry were of my opinion.

debated - ebatido; debate, debatir

wisest - el más sabio; sabio

ministry - ministerio, cartera

This open bold declaration of mine was so opposite to the schemes and politics of his imperial majesty, that he could never forgive me. He mentioned it in a very artful manner at council, where I was told that some of the wisest appeared, at least by their silence, to be of my opinion; but others, who were my secret enemies, could not forbear some expressions which, by a side-wind, reflected on me.

declaration - declaración

opposite to - lo contrario de, opuesto a

politics - política

forgive - perdonar, disculpar

artful - inteligente; diestro, hábil, habiloso, ingenioso, astuto

silence - silencio, silenciar, hacer callar

reflected - reflejado; reflejar, recapacitar, reflexionar, cavilar

And from this time began an intrigue between his majesty and a junto of ministers, maliciously bent against me, which broke out in less than two months, and had like to have ended in my utter destruction. Of so little weight are the greatest services to princes, when put into the balance with a refusal to gratify their passions.

intrigue - intriga, argumento, intrigar

maliciously - maliciosamente

bent - Doblado; (bend); doblar, curvar, doblarse, agacharse

utter - totalmente; absoluto, total

destruction - destrucción, destrucción

balance - equilibrio, balance, balanza, balancear, equilibrar

refusal - negativa, rechazo

passions - pasiones; pasión

About three weeks after this exploit, there arrived a solemn embassy from Blefuscu, with humble offers of a peace, which was soon concluded, upon conditions very advantageous to our emperor, wherewith I shall not trouble the reader. There were six ambassadors, with a train of about five hundred persons, and their entry was very magnificent, suitable to the grandeur of their master, and the importance of their business. When their treaty was finished, wherein I did them several good offices by the credit I now had, or at least appeared to have, at court, their excellencies, who were privately told how much I had been their friend, made me a visit in form.

exploit - explotar; hazana, proeza, gesta, heroicidad

embassy - embajada

offers - ofertas; ofrecer

entry - entrada, acceso, recibidor

magnificent - magnífico, macanudo

suitable - adecuado; apropiado, indicado

grandeur - grandeza

importance - importancia

Treaty - tratado

excellencies - excelencias; excelencia

privately - en privado; privadamente

They began with many compliments upon my valour and generosity, invited me to that kingdom in the emperor their master's name, and desired me to show them some proofs of my prodigious strength, of which they had heard so many wonders; wherein I readily obliged them, but shall not trouble the reader with the particulars.

proofs - pruebas; prueba

It is to be observed, that these ambassadors spoke to me, by an interpreter, the languages of both empires differing as much from each other as any two in Europe, and each nation priding itself upon the antiquity, beauty, and energy of their own tongue, with an avowed contempt for that of their neighbour; yet our emperor, standing upon the advantage he had got by the seizure of their fleet, obliged them to deliver their credentials, and make their speech, in the Lilliputian tongue.

interpreter - intérprete, trujamán, truchimán

differing - diferente; ser distinto

nation - nación

priding - orgullo, soberbia, cachondez, toriondez, verriondez, manada

antiquity - antigüedad

beauty - belleza, hermosura, preciosidad, preciosura

tongue - lengua, tsinhueso, lengüeta

avowed - confesado; confesar, admitir, reconocer

contempt - desprecio, desdén, desgracia, deshonra, vergüenza, desacato

seizure - apropiación, convulsión

And it must be confessed, that from the great intercourse of trade and commerce between both realms, from the continual reception of exiles which is mutual among them, and from the custom, in each empire, to send their young nobility and richer gentry to the other, in order to polish themselves by seeing the world, and understanding men and manners; there are few persons of distinction, or merchants, or seamen, who dwell in the maritime parts, but what can hold conversation in both tongues; as I found some weeks after, when I went to pay my respects to the emperor of Blefuscu, which, in the midst of great misfortunes, through the malice of my enemies, proved a very happy adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper place.

confessed - confesó; confesar, panish: t-needed

trade - comercio

commerce - comercio

realms - reinos; esfera, reino

mutual - mutua; mutuo, recíproco

custom - habituación, costumbre, usanza, a medida, especializado

polish - pulir; polaco, polonés, polaco

merchants - comerciantes; comerciante, mercader

dwell - habitar, morar

maritime - marítimo

tongues - lenguas; lengua, tsinhueso, lengüeta

respects - respetos; respeto, respetar

misfortunes - desgracias; infortunio, gafe, mala suerte, desgracia

relate - relacionar; identificarse (con)

The reader may remember, that when I signed those articles upon which I recovered my liberty, there were some which I disliked, upon account of their being too servile; neither could anything but an extreme necessity have forced me to submit. But being now a nardac of the highest rank in that empire, such offices were looked upon as below my dignity, and the emperor (to do him justice), never once mentioned them to me. However, it was not long before I had an opportunity of doing his majesty, at least as I then thought, a most signal service. I was alarmed at midnight with the cries of many hundred people at my door; by which, being suddenly awaked, I was in some kind of terror. I heard the word Burglum repeated incessantly: several of the emperor's court, making their way through the crowd, entreated me to come immediately to the palace, where her imperial majesty's apartment was on fire, by the carelessness of a maid of honour, who fell asleep while she was reading a romance. I got up in an instant; and orders being given to clear the way before me, and it being likewise a moonshine night, I made a shift to get to the palace without trampling on any of the people. I found they had already applied ladders to the walls of the apartment, and were well provided with buckets, but the water was at some distance.

disliked - no le gusta; aversión, disgusto, antipatía, desagradar

servile - servil

forced - forzado; fuerza

submit - someterse; someter, presentar, entregar, cursar

dignity - dignidad

signal - senal; senal, senalar

alarmed - alarmado; alarma, rebato, despertador, alarma, tocar a rebato

incessantly - incesantemente, sin cesar

carelessness - descuido, imprudencia, negligencia, dejadez

maid - mucama; doncella, senorita, doméstica, empleada doméstica

romance - romance

Moonshine - bebida alcohólica; alcohol ilegal

trampling - Pisoteando; (trample); pisotear, hollar, maltratar, humillar

buckets - cubos; balde, llover a cántaros, jarrear

These buckets were about the size of large thimbles, and the poor people supplied me with them as fast as they could: but the flame was so violent that they did little good. I might easily have stifled it with my coat, which I unfortunately left behind me for haste, and came away only in my leathern jerkin. The case seemed wholly desperate and deplorable; and this magnificent palace would have infallibly been burnt down to the ground, if, by a presence of mind unusual to me, I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. I had, the evening before, drunk plentifully of a most delicious wine called glimigrim, (the Blefuscudians call it flunec, but ours is esteemed the better sort,) which is very diuretic. By the luckiest chance in the world, I had not discharged myself of any part of it. The heat I had contracted by coming very near the flames, and by labouring to quench them, made the wine begin to operate by urine; which I voided in such a quantity, and applied so well to the proper places, that in three minutes the fire was wholly extinguished, and the rest of that noble pile, which had cost so many ages in erecting, preserved from destruction.

thimbles - dedales; dedal, dedo, guardacabo

stifled - asfixiado; ahogar, sofocar

desperate - desesperado

deplorable - deplorable, lamentable

burnt down - quemar(se) por completo

most delicious - el más delicioso

diuretic - diurético

contracted - contratado; contraer

flames - llamas; flama, llama

labouring - trabajando; trabajo, campesinos, trabajadores, parto, trabajar

operate - operar, obrar, trabajar, influir; controlar

urine - orina

voided - anulado; nulo

erecting - rigiendo; erecto, erguido

preserved - conservado; mermelada, reserva, reserva natural, coto, terreno

It was now day-light, and I returned to my house without waiting to congratulate with the emperor: because, although I had done a very eminent piece of service, yet I could not tell how his majesty might resent the manner by which I had performed it: for, by the fundamental laws of the realm, it is capital in any person, of what quality soever, to make water within the precincts of the palace. But I was a little comforted by a message from his majesty, "that he would give orders to the grand justiciary for passing my pardon in form:" which, however, I could not obtain; and I was privately assured, "that the empress, conceiving the greatest abhorrence of what I had done, removed to the most distant side of the court, firmly resolved that those buildings should never be repaired for her use: and, in the presence of her chief confidents could not forbear vowing revenge.

congratulate - felicitar

resent - recibir; ofenderse, tomarse a mal; (resend); reenviar, devolver

soever - alguna vez

precincts - ecintos; recinto, distrito policial

comforted - confortado; comodidad, consuelo, confortar

grand - grande; magnífico, espléndido, imponente

justiciary - Justicia

Pardon - perdón, indulto, perdonar, indultar, cómo?, ?perdón?, ?ah?

obtain - obtener, coger

conceiving - concebir

abhorrence - aversión; aborrecimiento, odio, repugnancia

confidents - confidentes; confiado, seguro de sí mismo

vowing - promesas; voto, manda, promesa

revenge - venganza


Of the inhabitants of Lilliput; their learning, laws, and customs; the manner of educating their children. The author's way of living in that country. His vindication of a great lady.

customs - aduana; habituación, costumbre, usanza, a medida, especializado

educating - educando; educar, instruir

vindication - reivindicación; justificación, vindicación

Although I intend to leave the description of this empire to a particular treatise, yet, in the mean time, I am content to gratify the curious reader with some general ideas. As the common size of the natives is somewhat under six inches high, so there is an exact proportion in all other animals, as well as plants and trees: for instance, the tallest horses and oxen are between four and five inches in height, the sheep an inch and half, more or less: their geese about the bigness of a sparrow, and so the several gradations downwards till you come to the smallest, which to my sight, were almost invisible; but nature has adapted the eyes of the Lilliputians to all objects proper for their view: they see with great exactness, but at no great distance. And, to show the sharpness of their sight towards objects that are near, I have been much pleased with observing a cook pulling a lark, which was not so large as a common fly; and a young girl threading an invisible needle with invisible silk.

treatise - tratado

instance - caso, ejemplo, ocasión, instancia

oxen - Bueyes

geese - Gansos

sparrow - pasérido, gorrión, pájaro

invisible - invisible

adapted - adaptar, ajustar, adaptarse, adaptado

sharpness - nitidez; agudeza

threading - enhebrar; hilo, hebra, hilaza, tema, argumento, hilazón

needle - aguja, acícula

Their tallest trees are about seven feet high: I mean some of those in the great royal park, the tops whereof I could but just reach with my fist clenched. The other vegetables are in the same proportion; but this I leave to the reader's imagination.

fist - puno

clenched - apretado; traba

I shall say but little at present of their learning, which, for many ages, has flourished in all its branches among them: but their manner of writing is very peculiar, being neither from the left to the right, like the Europeans, nor from the right to the left, like the Arabians, nor from up to down, like the Chinese, but aslant, from one corner of the paper to the other, like ladies in England.

flourished - loreció; florecer, prosperar, ademanes, floritura, floreo

branches - ramas; rama, sucursal, delegación, filial, ramo, ramificar

Arabians - arabes; árabe

They bury their dead with their heads directly downward, because they hold an opinion, that in eleven thousand moons they are all to rise again; in which period the earth (which they conceive to be flat) will turn upside down, and by this means they shall, at their resurrection, be found ready standing on their feet.

bury - enterrar

downward - hacia abajo

turn upside down - poner patas arriba, dar vuelta; alterar

resurrection - resurrección

The learned among them confess the absurdity of this doctrine; but the practice still continues, in compliance to the vulgar.

absurdity - absurdo, absurdidad

compliance - cumplimiento, conformismo, contraloría, auditoría, regulación

vulgar - vulgar, chabacano, ramplón

There are some laws and customs in this empire very peculiar; and if they were not so directly contrary to those of my own dear country, I should be tempted to say a little in their justification. It is only to be wished they were as well executed. The first I shall mention, relates to informers. All crimes against the state, are punished here with the utmost severity; but, if the person accused makes his innocence plainly to appear upon his trial, the accuser is immediately put to an ignominious death; and out of his goods or lands the innocent person is quadruply recompensed for the loss of his time, for the danger he underwent, for the hardship of his imprisonment, and for all the charges he has been at in making his defence; or, if that fund be deficient, it is largely supplied by the crown.

be tempted - sentirse tentado

justification - justificación

executed - ejecutado; ejecutar, ajusticiar, arrancar

relates - relatos; identificarse (con)

informers - informantes; informador, informadora

punished - castigado; castigar, punir, maltratar

severity - severidad, seriedad, gravedad

innocence - inocencia

accuser - acusador, acusadora

ignominious - ignominioso

innocent - inocente

quadruply - Cuádruple

recompensed - recompensado; recompensa

Loss - pérdida

underwent - ufrió; experimentar, sufrir, soportar, padecer

hardship - dificultades; sufrimientos, apuro, penalidades

imprisonment - encarcelamiento, encarcelación, aprisionamiento, cautiverio

charges - cargos; cargo, acusación, encargo, figura, acusar, cobrar

defence - defensa

fund - fondo, capital, financiar, sufragar, patrocinar

deficient - deficiente

largely - en gran medida; mayormente

The emperor also confers on him some public mark of his favour, and proclamation is made of his innocence through the whole city.

confers - confiere; conferir, debatir, consultar

They look upon fraud as a greater crime than theft, and therefore seldom fail to punish it with death; for they allege, that care and vigilance, with a very common understanding, may preserve a man's goods from thieves, but honesty has no defence against superior cunning; and, since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual intercourse of buying and selling, and dealing upon credit, where fraud is permitted and connived at, or has no law to punish it, the honest dealer is always undone, and the knave gets the advantage. I remember, when I was once interceding with the emperor for a criminal who had wronged his master of a great sum of money, which he had received by order and ran away with; and happening to tell his majesty, by way of extenuation, that it was only a breach of trust, the emperor thought it monstrous in me to offer as a defence the greatest aggravation of the crime; and truly I had little to say in return, farther than the common answer, that different nations had different customs; for, I confess, I was heartily ashamed.

fraud - fraude, defraudador

theft - robo, hurto

allege - alegar

vigilance - vigilancia

preserve - mermelada, reserva, reserva natural, coto, terreno, dominio

honesty - honradez, sinceridad, honestidad, monedas del Papa

superior - superior, superior

cunning - astucia; astuto

perpetual - perpetua; perpetuo

permitted - permitido; permitir

connived - confabulado; confabular, conspirar, hacerse el leso

undone - deshecho; deshacer

knave - bribón; paje, mozo, bellaco, villano, sota

sum - suma

extenuation - extenuación

breach - brecha, violación, batería, boquete, disolución, quebrada

aggravation - agravación; agravio, agravante

truly - de verdad; verdaderamente, realmente

ashamed - avergonzado, abochornado, apenado


Although we usually call reward and punishment the two hinges upon which all government turns, yet I could never observe this maxim to be put in practice by any nation except that of Lilliput. Whoever can there bring sufficient proof, that he has strictly observed the laws of his country for seventy-three moons, has a claim to certain privileges, according to his quality or condition of life, with a proportionable sum of money out of a fund appropriated for that use: he likewise acquires the title of snilpall, or legal, which is added to his name, but does not descend to his posterity.

Reward - recompensa

hinges - bisagras; bisagra, gozne, charnela, quicio, abisagrar, depender

maxim - máxima

Proof - pruebas; prueba

claim - reclamación, declaración, proposición, afirmación, concesión

privileges - privilegios; privilegio, privilegiar

appropriated - apropiado, adecuado, aduenarse, designar

acquires - dquiere; obtener, adquirir

legal - jurídico, legal

descend - descender, bajar

posterity - posteridad

And these people thought it a prodigious defect of policy among us, when I told them that our laws were enforced only by penalties, without any mention of reward. It is upon this account that the image of Justice, in their courts of judicature, is formed with six eyes, two before, as many behind, and on each side one, to signify circumspection; with a bag of gold open in her right hand, and a sword sheathed in her left, to show she is more disposed to reward than to punish.

defect - falla, tacha, defecto, desperfecto, desertar

enforced - aplicada; reforzar, intensificar, imponer (1)

judicature - judicatura

sheathed - enfundado; vaina, funda

In choosing persons for all employments, they have more regard to good morals than to great abilities; for, since government is necessary to mankind, they believe, that the common size of human understanding is fitted to some station or other; and that Providence never intended to make the management of public affairs a mystery to be comprehended only by a few persons of sublime genius, of which there seldom are three born in an age: but they suppose truth, justice, temperance, and the like, to be in every man's power; the practice of which virtues, assisted by experience and a good intention, would qualify any man for the service of his country, except where a course of study is required.

morals - moral, moraleja

mankind - la humanidad; humanidad, género humano, raza humana

Providence - providencia; Providence

management - Gestión

mystery - misterio, arcano

comprehended - comprendido; comprender

genius - genio, genia

temperance - templanza, temperancia

assisted - asistida; ayudar, asistir

by experience - por experiencia

intention - intención

qualify - calificar, capacitar, clasificar

But they thought the want of moral virtues was so far from being supplied by superior endowments of the mind, that employments could never be put into such dangerous hands as those of persons so qualified; and, at least, that the mistakes committed by ignorance, in a virtuous disposition, would never be of such fatal consequence to the public weal, as the practices of a man, whose inclinations led him to be corrupt, and who had great abilities to manage, to multiply, and defend his corruptions.

moral - moral, moraleja

endowments - otaciones; dote, dotación

qualified - cualificado; calificar, capacitar, clasificar

committed - comprometido; encomendar, cometer

ignorance - ignorancia

virtuous - virtuoso

public weal - bienestar público

inclinations - inclinaciones; inclinación

led - llevado; led; (lead) llevado; led

corrupt - corrupto, corromper

multiply - multiplicar

In like manner, the disbelief of a Divine Providence renders a man incapable of holding any public station; for, since kings avow themselves to be the deputies of Providence, the Lilliputians think nothing can be more absurd than for a prince to employ such men as disown the authority under which he acts.

divine - divino

renders - enders; dejar, volver

avow - confesar, admitir, reconocer

deputies - diputados; suplente

more absurd - más absurdo

disown - desheredar; renegar

authority - autoridad, policía, autoridades, fuerzas del orden, autorización

In relating these and the following laws, I would only be understood to mean the original institutions, and not the most scandalous corruptions, into which these people are fallen by the degenerate nature of man.

relating - relacionando; identificarse (con)

institutions - instituciones; institución

most scandalous - el más escandaloso

For, as to that infamous practice of acquiring great employments by dancing on the ropes, or badges of favour and distinction by leaping over sticks and creeping under them, the reader is to observe, that they were first introduced by the grandfather of the emperor now reigning, and grew to the present height by the gradual increase of party and faction.

infamous - infame; de mala fama, malfamado, malafamado

acquiring - adquiriendo; obtener, adquirir

ropes - cuerdas; cuerda

badges - insignias; insignia, pin, medalla, piocha, identificación

reigning - reinado, reinar

gradual - gradual, paulatino

Ingratitude is among them a capital crime, as we read it to have been in some other countries: for they reason thus; that whoever makes ill returns to his benefactor, must needs be a common enemy to the rest of mankind, from whom he has received no obligation, and therefore such a man is not fit to live.

ingratitude - ingratitud

capital crime - delito capital

benefactor - bienhechor, benefactor

obligation - obligación, compromiso, deber

Their notions relating to the duties of parents and children differ extremely from ours. For, since the conjunction of male and female is founded upon the great law of nature, in order to propagate and continue the species, the Lilliputians will needs have it, that men and women are joined together, like other animals, by the motives of concupiscence; and that their tenderness towards their young proceeds from the like natural principle: for which reason they will never allow that a child is under any obligation to his father for begetting him, or to his mother for bringing him into the world; which, considering the miseries of human life, was neither a benefit in itself, nor intended so by his parents, whose thoughts, in their love encounters, were otherwise employed.

notions - nociones; noción, ganas, intención

duties - deberes; deber, obligación, cometido, menester, arancel

conjunction - conjunción, unión

founded - Encontrado

motives - motivos; motivo, móbil

concupiscence - concupiscencia

tenderness - ternura

proceeds - continuar, proceder

principle - principio

begetting - engendrar, concebir

miseries - iserias; miseria, sinvivir, desgracia, desdicha, infortunio

encounters - encuentros; encontrar

Upon these, and the like reasonings, their opinion is, that parents are the last of all others to be trusted with the education of their own children; and therefore they have in every town public nurseries, where all parents, except cottagers and labourers, are obliged to send their infants of both sexes to be reared and educated, when they come to the age of twenty moons, at which time they are supposed to have some rudiments of docility. These schools are of several kinds, suited to different qualities, and both sexes. They have certain professors well skilled in preparing children for such a condition of life as befits the rank of their parents, and their own capacities, as well as inclinations. I shall first say something of the male nurseries, and then of the female.

reasonings - razonamientos; razonamiento

nurseries - guarderías; criadero, casa cuna, semillero, vivero

cottagers - Campesino

labourers - trabajador

infants - infantes; nene, infante

educated - educado; educar, instruir

rudiments - rudimentos; rudimento

docility - docilidad

capacities - capacidades; capacidad

The nurseries for males of noble or eminent birth, are provided with grave and learned professors, and their several deputies. The clothes and food of the children are plain and simple. They are bred up in the principles of honour, justice, courage, modesty, clemency, religion, and love of their country; they are always employed in some business, except in the times of eating and sleeping, which are very short, and two hours for diversions consisting of bodily exercises. They are dressed by men till four years of age, and then are obliged to dress themselves, although their quality be ever so great; and the women attendant, who are aged proportionably to ours at fifty, perform only the most menial offices.

grave - tumba

bred - criado; (breed); criar, procrear, aparearse, cultivar

principles - principios; principio

courage - coraje, valor, valentía

modesty - modestia, pudor

bodily - corporal, corpóreo, corporalmente

attendant - asistente, guarda, concomitante, inherente

proportionably - proporcionalmente

menial - menor; criado

They are never suffered to converse with servants, but go together in smaller or greater numbers to take their diversions, and always in the presence of a professor, or one of his deputies; whereby they avoid those early bad impressions of folly and vice, to which our children are subject. Their parents are suffered to see them only twice a year; the visit is to last but an hour; they are allowed to kiss the child at meeting and parting; but a professor, who always stands by on those occasions, will not suffer them to whisper, or use any fondling expressions, or bring any presents of toys, sweetmeats, and the like.

go together - Ir juntos

whereby - por qué; mediante el cual, por la cual

impressions - impresiones; impresión

stands by - estar preparado; apoyar a alguien; mantenerse firme en; en espera; estar junto a

whisper - susurro, rumor, rastro, susurrar

fondling - Caricias; (fondle); acariciar

sweetmeats - dulces; golosina, dulce

The pension from each family for the education and entertainment of a child, upon failure of due payment, is levied by the emperor's officers.

pension - pensión, pensionar

entertainment - entretenimiento, espectáculo

failure - fallo, fracaso, fiasco, fracasado, avería

levied - impuesto; recaudar

The nurseries for children of ordinary gentlemen, merchants, traders, and handicrafts, are managed proportionably after the same manner; only those designed for trades are put out apprentices at eleven years old, whereas those of persons of quality continue in their exercises till fifteen, which answers to twenty-one with us: but the confinement is gradually lessened for the last three years.

traders - comerciantes; comerciante

handicrafts - artesanía

trades - comercios; comercio, gremio, compraventa, comerciar, mercadear

apprentices - aprendices; aprendiz, panish: colocar de aprendiz

whereas - ientras que..; mientras que, siendo que, por cuanto, visto que

gradually - gradualmente, poco a poco, paulatinamente

lessened - isminuido; menoscabar, disminuir, reducir, aminorar

In the female nurseries, the young girls of quality are educated much like the males, only they are dressed by orderly servants of their own sex; but always in the presence of a professor or deputy, till they come to dress themselves, which is at five years old. And if it be found that these nurses ever presume to entertain the girls with frightful or foolish stories, or the common follies practised by chambermaids among us, they are publicly whipped thrice about the city, imprisoned for a year, and banished for life to the most desolate part of the country. Thus the young ladies are as much ashamed of being cowards and fools as the men, and despise all personal ornaments, beyond decency and cleanliness: neither did I perceive any difference in their education made by their difference of sex, only that the exercises of the females were not altogether so robust; and that some rules were given them relating to domestic life, and a smaller compass of learning was enjoined them: for their maxim is, that among peoples of quality, a wife should be always a reasonable and agreeable companion, because she cannot always be young.

orderly - ordenada; ordenado, metódico, pacífico, camillero

deputy - diputado; suplente

frightful - aterrador; temible

foolish - tonto, necio, imprudente

follies - locuras; capricho

chambermaids - camareras; panish: t-needed

whipped - batido; fusta, látigo, flagelo, panish: t-needed

thrice - tres veces; tres vez

imprisoned - encarcelado; encarcelar, aprisionar

desolate - desierto, desolado, devastado

cowards - cobardes; cobarde, gallina

fools - idiotas; bobo, imbécil, necio, pendejo, bufón, loco

despise - despreciar; desdenar

perceive - percibir, entender

robust - robusto

domestic - doméstico, nacional, empleada doméstica, empleada, malos tratos

enjoined - ordenado; imponer, ordenar, mandar, prohibir

reasonable - razonable, módico

companion - companero; companero, companera

When the girls are twelve years old, which among them is the marriageable age, their parents or guardians take them home, with great expressions of gratitude to the professors, and seldom without tears of the young lady and her companions.

guardians - guardianes; guardián, guardia, apoderado, tutor, custodio, jefe

gratitude - gratitud

Tears - lágrimas; lágrima

In the nurseries of females of the meaner sort, the children are instructed in all kinds of works proper for their sex, and their several degrees: those intended for apprentices are dismissed at seven years old, the rest are kept to eleven.

dismissed - despedido; despedir, echar, disipar, rechazar, expulsar

The meaner families who have children at these nurseries, are obliged, besides their annual pension, which is as low as possible, to return to the steward of the nursery a small monthly share of their gettings, to be a portion for the child; and therefore all parents are limited in their expenses by the law. For the Lilliputians think nothing can be more unjust, than for people, in subservience to their own appetites, to bring children into the world, and leave the burthen of supporting them on the public.

annual - anual, anuario

steward - camarero; administrador, gestor, representante, apoderado, mozo

nursery - guardería; criadero, casa cuna, semillero, vivero

monthly - mensual, mensualmente

limited - limitado; (limit); limitado

more unjust - más injusto

subservience - sumisión; servilismo

appetites - apetito, deseo, ganas

burthen - carga

As to persons of quality, they give security to appropriate a certain sum for each child, suitable to their condition; and these funds are always managed with good husbandry and the most exact justice.

Security - seguridad, confianza, garantía, prenda

appropriate - es apropiado; apropiado, adecuado, aduenarse, designar

funds - fondos; fondo, capital, financiar, sufragar, patrocinar

husbandry - ganadería; agricultura

most exact - Más exacto

The cottagers and labourers keep their children at home, their business being only to till and cultivate the earth, and therefore their education is of little consequence to the public: but the old and diseased among them, are supported by hospitals; for begging is a trade unknown in this empire.

trade - comercio, gremio, compraventa, comerciar, mercadear, trocar

And here it may, perhaps, divert the curious reader, to give some account of my domestics, and my manner of living in this country, during a residence of nine months, and thirteen days. Having a head mechanically turned, and being likewise forced by necessity, I had made for myself a table and chair convenient enough, out of the largest trees in the royal park. Two hundred sempstresses were employed to make me shirts, and linen for my bed and table, all of the strongest and coarsest kind they could get; which, however, they were forced to quilt together in several folds, for the thickest was some degrees finer than lawn. Their linen is usually three inches wide, and three feet make a piece. The sempstresses took my measure as I lay on the ground, one standing at my neck, and another at my mid-leg, with a strong cord extended, that each held by the end, while a third measured the length of the cord with a rule of an inch long. Then they measured my right thumb, and desired no more; for by a mathematical computation, that twice round the thumb is once round the wrist, and so on to the neck and the waist, and by the help of my old shirt, which I displayed on the ground before them for a pattern, they fitted me exactly.

residence - residencia

mechanically - mecánicamente, maquinalmente

sempstresses - Sempress

linen - lino, linge, ropa blanca, linocros

coarsest - más grueso; tosco, rústico, rudo, bruto

quilt - colcha, edredón, acolchar

folds - liegues; doblar, plegar

lawn - césped

measured - medido; medición, medida, regla, compás, medir

mathematical - matemáticas; matemático

wrist - muneca; muneca

displayed - aparece; espectáculo, exposición, monitor, expositor

Three hundred tailors were employed in the same manner to make me clothes; but they had another contrivance for taking my measure. I kneeled down, and they raised a ladder from the ground to my neck; upon this ladder one of them mounted, and let fall a plumb-line from my collar to the floor, which just answered the length of my coat: but my waist and arms I measured myself. When my clothes were finished, which was done in my house (for the largest of theirs would not have been able to hold them), they looked like the patch-work made by the ladies in England, only that mine were all of a colour.

kneeled down - Arrodillarse

ladder - escalera, escalafón, carrera

plumb - A plomo

collar - cuello, collar, yugo

patch - remiendo, parche

I had three hundred cooks to dress my victuals, in little convenient huts built about my house, where they and their families lived, and prepared me two dishes a-piece. I took up twenty waiters in my hand, and placed them on the table: a hundred more attended below on the ground, some with dishes of meat, and some with barrels of wine and other liquors slung on their shoulders; all which the waiters above drew up, as I wanted, in a very ingenious manner, by certain cords, as we draw the bucket up a well in Europe. A dish of their meat was a good mouthful, and a barrel of their liquor a reasonable draught.

huts - cabanas; cabana

barrels - barriles; barril, tonel, canón, cano, embarrilar

ingenious - ingenioso

bucket - cubo; balde, llover a cántaros, jarrear

Their mutton yields to ours, but their beef is excellent. I have had a sirloin so large, that I have been forced to make three bites of it; but this is rare. My servants were astonished to see me eat it, bones and all, as in our country we do the leg of a lark. Their geese and turkeys I usually ate at a mouthful, and I confess they far exceed ours. Of their smaller fowl I could take up twenty or thirty at the end of my knife.

yields - rendimientos; ceder

sirloin - solomillo, palomilla

bites - mordiscos; morder, picar, mordida, mordedura, mordisco, picadura

rare - raro, poco común

astonished - asombrado; asombrar, sorprender, pasmar

turkeys - pavos; pavo, chompipe

fowl - aves; ave de corral

One day his imperial majesty, being informed of my way of living, desired "that himself and his royal consort, with the young princes of the blood of both sexes, might have the happiness," as he was pleased to call it, "of dining with me." They came accordingly, and I placed them in chairs of state, upon my table, just over against me, with their guards about them. Flimnap, the lord high treasurer, attended there likewise with his white staff; and I observed he often looked on me with a sour countenance, which I would not seem to regard, but ate more than usual, in honour to my dear country, as well as to fill the court with admiration. I have some private reasons to believe, that this visit from his majesty gave Flimnap an opportunity of doing me ill offices to his master. That minister had always been my secret enemy, though he outwardly caressed me more than was usual to the moroseness of his nature.

informed - informado; informar

Consort - consorte, consorcio

Happiness - la felicidad; felicidad

dining - cenar; jaleo

staff - personal, empleados

outwardly - exteriormente

caressed - Te importa

moroseness - morosidad

He represented to the emperor "the low condition of his treasury; that he was forced to take up money at a great discount; that exchequer bills would not circulate under nine per cent. below par; that I had cost his majesty above a million and a half of sprugs" (their greatest gold coin, about the bigness of a spangle) "and, upon the whole, that it would be advisable in the emperor to take the first fair occasion of dismissing me."

discount - descuento, rebaja

Exchequer - Hacienda

circulate - circular

par - valor medio; par

sprugs - Escupir

gold coin - una moneda de oro

spangle - espángula; lentejuela

advisable - aconsejable, recomendable, conveniente

dismissing - despidiendo; despedir, echar, disipar, rechazar, expulsar

I am here obliged to vindicate the reputation of an excellent lady, who was an innocent sufferer upon my account. The treasurer took a fancy to be jealous of his wife, from the malice of some evil tongues, who informed him that her grace had taken a violent affection for my person; and the court scandal ran for some time, that she once came privately to my lodging. This I solemnly declare to be a most infamous falsehood, without any grounds, further than that her grace was pleased to treat me with all innocent marks of freedom and friendship. I own she came often to my house, but always publicly, nor ever without three more in the coach, who were usually her sister and young daughter, and some particular acquaintance; but this was common to many other ladies of the court. And I still appeal to my servants round, whether they at any time saw a coach at my door, without knowing what persons were in it. On those occasions, when a servant had given me notice, my custom was to go immediately to the door, and, after paying my respects, to take up the coach and two horses very carefully in my hands (for, if there were six horses, the postillion always unharnessed four,) and place them on a table, where I had fixed a movable rim quite round, of five inches high, to prevent accidents. And I have often had four coaches and horses at once on my table, full of company, while I sat in my chair, leaning my face towards them; and when I was engaged with one set, the coachmen would gently drive the others round my table.

vindicate - reivindicar; vindicar, defender, justificar, reclamar

reputation - reputación

sufferer - nfermo; sufridor

jealous - celoso, encelado, envidioso, checkenvidioso

evil - malo, malvado

grace - gracias, benedícite, gracia, donaire, merced

affection - afecto, carino, apego

Scandal - escándalo

lodging - alojamiento, hospedaje, encamado; (lodge); cabana, barraca

solemnly - solemnemente

declare - explicar, aclarar, declarar

most infamous - el más infame

falsehood - falsedad

treat - tratar, negociar, rogar, invitar, convidar, sorpresa

freedom - libertad

friendship - amistad

appeal - apelación; suplicar, rogar

whether - si, si , o, ya sea

postillion - Postillón

rim - (rueda) llanta; borde, canto

leaning - Inclinado; (lean) Inclinado

coachmen - Cochero

I have passed many an afternoon very agreeably in these conversations. But I defy the treasurer, or his two informers (I will name them, and let them make the best of it) Clustril and Drunlo, to prove that any person ever came to me incognito, except the secretary Reldresal, who was sent by express command of his imperial majesty, as I have before related. I should not have dwelt so long upon this particular, if it had not been a point wherein the reputation of a great lady is so nearly concerned, to say nothing of my own; though I then had the honour to be a nardac, which the treasurer himself is not; for all the world knows, that he is only a glumglum, a title inferior by one degree, as that of a marquis is to a duke in England; yet I allow he preceded me in right of his post. These false informations, which I afterwards came to the knowledge of by an accident not proper to mention, made the treasurer show his lady for some time an ill countenance, and me a worse; and although he was at last undeceived and reconciled to her, yet I lost all credit with him, and found my interest decline very fast with the emperor himself, who was, indeed, too much governed by that favourite.

agreeably - de acuerdo; agradablemente

defy - desafiar, desobedecer, renunciar

concerned - preocupado; preocupación, referirse a, ataner, concernir, tocar

inferior - inferior

Marquis - Marqués

Duke - duque

preceded - precedido; preceder, anteceder

undeceived - Desenganar

reconciled - reconciliado; reconciliar, avenir

decline - declive, retroceso, decadencia

governed - gobernado; gobernar


The author, being informed of a design to accuse him of high-treason, makes his escape to Blefuscu. His reception there.

accuse - acusar, denunciar

high-treason - (high-treason) alta traición

Before I proceed to give an account of my leaving this kingdom, it may be proper to inform the reader of a private intrigue which had been for two months forming against me.

proceed - continuar, proceder

I had been hitherto, all my life, a stranger to courts, for which I was unqualified by the meanness of my condition. I had indeed heard and read enough of the dispositions of great princes and ministers, but never expected to have found such terrible effects of them, in so remote a country, governed, as I thought, by very different maxims from those in Europe.

hitherto - hasta ahora, hasta aquí, hasta este momento, en ese entonces

unqualified - escalificar

meanness - mezquindad

maxims - máximas; máxima

When I was just preparing to pay my attendance on the emperor of Blefuscu, a considerable person at court (to whom I had been very serviceable, at a time when he lay under the highest displeasure of his imperial majesty) came to my house very privately at night, in a close chair, and, without sending his name, desired admittance. The chairmen were dismissed; I put the chair, with his lordship in it, into my coat-pocket: and, giving orders to a trusty servant, to say I was indisposed and gone to sleep, I fastened the door of my house, placed the chair on the table, according to my usual custom, and sat down by it. After the common salutations were over, observing his lordship's countenance full of concern, and inquiring into the reason, he desired "I would hear him with patience, in a matter that highly concerned my honour and my life.

attendance - asistencia, presencia

considerable - considerable

serviceable - servicial; panish: t-needed

displeasure - disgusto, desazón

admittance - admisión, entrada, admitancia

chairmen - presidentes; presidente, secretario general, presidente

Lordship - senorío; el Senor, senoría, esfera, senorío

indisposed - Indisponer

concern - preocupación, referirse a, ataner, concernir, tocar, preocupar

inquiring - preguntando; investigar, informarse

His speech was to the following effect, for I took notes of it as soon as he left me:-

"You are to know," said he, "that several committees of council have been lately called, in the most private manner, on your account; and it is but two days since his majesty came to a full resolution.

committees - comités; comité, comisión

lately - últimamente

"You are very sensible that Skyresh Bolgolam" (galbet, or high-admiral) "has been your mortal enemy, almost ever since your arrival. His original reasons I know not; but his hatred is increased since your great success against Blefuscu, by which his glory as admiral is much obscured. This lord, in conjunction with Flimnap the high-treasurer, whose enmity against you is notorious on account of his lady, Limtoc the general, Lalcon the chamberlain, and Balmuff the grand justiciary, have prepared articles of impeachment against you, for treason and other capital crimes.

sensible - razonable, sensato, sesudo

hatred - odio

glory - gloria

obscured - ocultado; obscuro, esconder, ocultar

enmity - enemistad

notorious - no es notorio; de mala fama, notorio, afamado

chamberlain - chambelán

impeachment - impugnación; impeachment, desafuero, destitución

treason - traición, colaboración con el enemigo, colaboracionismo

This preface made me so impatient, being conscious of my own merits and innocence, that I was going to interrupt him; when he entreated me to be silent, and thus proceeded:-

preface - prefacio, introducir

conscious - consciente

interrupt - interrumpir, interrupción

be silent - se calla

"Out of gratitude for the favours you have done me, I procured information of the whole proceedings, and a copy of the articles; wherein I venture my head for your service.

"'Articles of Impeachment against QUINBUS FLESTRIN, (the Man-Mountain.)

Article I.

"'Whereas, by a statute made in the reign of his imperial majesty Calin Deffar Plune, it is enacted, that, whoever shall make water within the precincts of the royal palace, shall be liable to the pains and penalties of high-treason; notwithstanding, the said Quinbus Flestrin, in open breach of the said law, under colour of extinguishing the fire kindled in the apartment of his majesty's most dear imperial consort, did maliciously, traitorously, and devilishly, by discharge of his urine, put out the said fire kindled in the said apartment, lying and being within the precincts of the said royal palace, against the statute in that case provided, etc.

statute - estatuto

enacted - romulgado; promulgar, interpretar, hacer efecto, actuar

liable - responsable

notwithstanding - a pesar de todo; no obstante

extinguishing - extinguiendo; extinguir, apagar

kindled - encendido; encender

traitorously - Traidoramente

devilishly - endiabladamente; diabólicamente

etc - tc

against the duty, etc.

Article II.

Article III.

"'That, whereas certain ambassadors arrived from the Court of Blefuscu, to sue for peace in his majesty's court, he, the said Flestrin, did, like a false traitor, aid, abet, comfort, and divert, the said ambassadors, although he knew them to be servants to a prince who was lately an open enemy to his imperial majesty, and in an open war against his said majesty.

aid - ayuda, auxilio

traitor - traidor, traidora

abet - instigar; incitar, ayudar

comfort - comodidad, consuelo, confortar

Article IV.

"'That the said Quinbus Flestrin, contrary to the duty of a faithful subject, is now preparing to make a voyage to the court and empire of Blefuscu, for which he has received only verbal license from his imperial majesty; and, under colour of the said license, does falsely and traitorously intend to take the said voyage, and thereby to aid, comfort, and abet the emperor of Blefuscu, so lately an enemy, and in open war with his imperial majesty aforesaid.

faithful - fieles; fiel, leal

verbal - verbal, verbal

falsely - falsamente

thereby - así, de ese modo

aforesaid - usodicha; antedicho, sobredicho, susodicho

"There are some other articles; but these are the most important, of which I have read you an abstract.

abstract - resumen, extracto, abstracción, arte abstracto, extraído

"In the several debates upon this impeachment, it must be confessed that his majesty gave many marks of his great lenity; often urging the services you had done him, and endeavouring to extenuate your crimes. The treasurer and admiral insisted that you should be put to the most painful and ignominious death, by setting fire to your house at night, and the general was to attend with twenty thousand men, armed with poisoned arrows, to shoot you on the face and hands.

debates - debates; debate, debatir

lenity - lentitud

urging - Instando; (urge); impulso, impulsar, urgir, aguijonear

endeavouring - se esfuerza; esforzarse

extenuate - Extenuar

most painful - el más doloroso

setting - configuración, ajustes, poniente; (set); configuración, ajustes

Some of your servants were to have private orders to strew a poisonous juice on your shirts and sheets, which would soon make you tear your own flesh, and die in the utmost torture. The general came into the same opinion; so that for a long time there was a majority against you; but his majesty resolving, if possible, to spare your life, at last brought off the chamberlain.

strew - estirar; esparcir

poisonous - venenosas; tóxico, venenoso, ponzonoso

tear - desgarro; lágrima

torture - tortura, suplicio, torturar

majority - mayoría, mayoría de edad

resolving - resolviendo; tomar la decisión de, resolver

spare - de repuesto; prescindir, pasar sin

"Upon this incident, Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs, who always approved himself your true friend, was commanded by the emperor to deliver his opinion, which he accordingly did; and therein justified the good thoughts you have of him. He allowed your crimes to be great, but that still there was room for mercy, the most commendable virtue in a prince, and for which his majesty was so justly celebrated. He said, the friendship between you and him was so well known to the world, that perhaps the most honourable board might think him partial; however, in obedience to the command he had received, he would freely offer his sentiments. That if his majesty, in consideration of your services, and pursuant to his own merciful disposition, would please to spare your life, and only give orders to put out both your eyes, he humbly conceived, that by this expedient justice might in some measure be satisfied, and all the world would applaud the lenity of the emperor, as well as the fair and generous proceedings of those who have the honour to be his counsellors.

incident - incidente

justified - justificado; legitimar, justificar, absolver

commendable - alabable, loable, encomiable, meritorio

justly - con justicia; justamente, con razón

most honourable - Más honorable

sentiments - sentimientos; sentimiento

consideration - consideración

pursuant - de acuerdo a, según, con arreglo a

merciful - misericordioso

applaud - aplaudir

counsellors - Consejero

That the loss of your eyes would be no impediment to your bodily strength, by which you might still be useful to his majesty; that blindness is an addition to courage, by concealing dangers from us; that the fear you had for your eyes, was the greatest difficulty in bringing over the enemy's fleet, and it would be sufficient for you to see by the eyes of the ministers, since the greatest princes do no more.

impediment - impedimento; estorbo

blindness - ceguera

concealing - ocultando; esconder, ocultar

"This proposal was received with the utmost disapprobation by the whole board.

Bolgolam, the admiral, could not preserve his temper, but, rising up in fury, said, he wondered how the secretary durst presume to give his opinion for preserving the life of a traitor; that the services you had performed were, by all true reasons of state, the great aggravation of your crimes; that you, who were able to extinguish the fire by discharge of urine in her majesty's apartment (which he mentioned with horror), might, at another time, raise an inundation by the same means, to drown the whole palace; and the same strength which enabled you to bring over the enemy's fleet, might serve, upon the first discontent, to carry it back; that he had good reasons to think you were a Big-endian in your heart; and, as treason begins in the heart, before it appears in overt-acts, so he accused you as a traitor on that account, and therefore insisted you should be put to death.

temper - temperamento, temple, templar, temperar

fury - furia

wondered - se preguntaba; maravilla, milagro, genio, asombro, pasmo

preserving - conservando; mermelada, reserva, reserva natural, coto, terreno

extinguish - extinguir, apagar

horror - horror

inundation - inundación

drown - ahogarse

discontent - descontento

overt - abierto; descubierto, al aire libre, explícito

"But his imperial majesty, fully determined against capital punishment, was graciously pleased to say, that since the council thought the loss of your eyes too easy a censure, some other way may be inflicted hereafter.

fully - totalmente; completamente, a fondo

inflicted - nfligido; infligir

And your friend the secretary, humbly desiring to be heard again, in answer to what the treasurer had objected, concerning the great charge his majesty was at in maintaining you, said, that his excellency, who had the sole disposal of the emperor's revenue, might easily provide against that evil, by gradually lessening your establishment; by which, for want of sufficient for you would grow weak and faint, and lose your appetite, and consequently, decay, and consume in a few months; neither would the stench of your carcass be then so dangerous, when it should become more than half diminished; and immediately upon your death five or six thousand of his majesty's subjects might, in two or three days, cut your flesh from your bones, take it away by cart-loads, and bury it in distant parts, to prevent infection, leaving the skeleton as a monument of admiration to posterity.

desiring - deseando; desear, deseo, gana

disposal - liminación; desecho

revenue - ingresos; retorno, renta, recaudación, rédito

lessening - disminuyendo; menoscabar, disminuir, reducir, aminorar

faint - desmayarse; débil, tenue

decay - decadencia; descomposición, deterioración, putrefacción

consume - consumir, panish: t-needed

diminished - isminuido; disminuir, diminuir, disminuirse, diminuirse

cart - carro, carreta

loads - cargas; carga

infection - infección, infección

skeleton - esqueleto

monument - monumento

"Thus, by the great friendship of the secretary, the whole affair was compromised.

affair - negocio, asunto, rollo, amorío, aventura

compromised - comprometido; acuerdo, arreglo

It was strictly enjoined, that the project of starving you by degrees should be kept a secret; but the sentence of putting out your eyes was entered on the books; none dissenting, except Bolgolam the admiral, who, being a creature of the empress, was perpetually instigated by her majesty to insist upon your death, she having borne perpetual malice against you, on account of that infamous and illegal method you took to extinguish the fire in her apartment.

Starving - Muerto de hambre; (starve); morir de hambre, hambrear

dissenting - disidente; discrepar, disentir, disenso, disentimiento

perpetually - perpetuamente

insist - insistir

illegal - ilegal, ilegal, inmigrante ilegal, sin papeles

"I leave to your prudence what measures you will take; and to avoid suspicion, I must immediately return in as private a manner as I came."

prudence - prudencia

measures - medidas; medición, medida, regla, compás, medir

suspicion - sospecha, suspicacia

His lordship did so; and I remained alone, under many doubts and perplexities of mind.

doubts - dudas; dudar, duda, incertidumbre

perplexities - erplejidades; perplejidad

It was a custom introduced by this prince and his ministry (very different, as I have been assured, from the practice of former times,) that after the court had decreed any cruel execution, either to gratify the monarch's resentment, or the malice of a favourite, the emperor always made a speech to his whole council, expressing his great lenity and tenderness, as qualities known and confessed by all the world. This speech was immediately published throughout the kingdom; nor did any thing terrify the people so much as those encomiums on his majesty's mercy; because it was observed, that the more these praises were enlarged and insisted on, the more inhuman was the punishment, and the sufferer more innocent. Yet, as to myself, I must confess, having never been designed for a courtier, either by my birth or education, I was so ill a judge of things, that I could not discover the lenity and favour of this sentence, but conceived it (perhaps erroneously) rather to be rigorous than gentle.

decreed - ecretado; decreto, ordenanza, decretar

resentment - resentimiento, animadversión, animosidad, rencor

throughout - en todo; a lo largo de, durante, de arriba abajo

terrify - aterrorizar; aterrar

praises - alabanzas; alabanza, loa, enaltecimiento, elogio, adoración

enlarged - aumentado; ampliar, agrandar, engrandecer

inhuman - inhumano

more innocent - más inocente

courtier - cortesano

rigorous - rigoroso; riguroso

I sometimes thought of standing my trial, for, although I could not deny the facts alleged in the several articles, yet I hoped they would admit of some extenuation. But having in my life perused many state-trials, which I ever observed to terminate as the judges thought fit to direct, I durst not rely on so dangerous a decision, in so critical a juncture, and against such powerful enemies. Once I was strongly bent upon resistance, for, while I had liberty the whole strength of that empire could hardly subdue me, and I might easily with stones pelt the metropolis to pieces; but I soon rejected that project with horror, by remembering the oath I had made to the emperor, the favours I received from him, and the high title of nardac he conferred upon me. Neither had I so soon learned the gratitude of courtiers, to persuade myself, that his majesty's present seventies acquitted me of all past obligations.

deny - Negar

admit of - admitirlo

perused - percibido; examinar, ojear, hojear, leer por encima

state-trials - (state-trials) juicios estatales

terminate - terminar, acabar

rely - confiar; contar con, atenerse

critical - crítico, álgido, clave, trascendental, coyuntural

juncture - oyuntura; juntura

subdue - someter, doblegar, domenar, debelar

pelt - piel; tirar, lanzar

rejected - rechazado; rechazar, desestimar, artículo defectuoso, marginado

persuade - persuadir

acquitted - absuelto; absolver, exculpar

obligations - obligaciones; obligación, compromiso, deber

At last, I fixed upon a resolution, for which it is probable I may incur some censure, and not unjustly; for I confess I owe the preserving of mine eyes, and consequently my liberty, to my own great rashness and want of experience; because, if I had then known the nature of princes and ministers, which I have since observed in many other courts, and their methods of treating criminals less obnoxious than myself, I should, with great alacrity and readiness, have submitted to so easy a punishment. But hurried on by the precipitancy of youth, and having his imperial majesty's license to pay my attendance upon the emperor of Blefuscu, I took this opportunity, before the three days were elapsed, to send a letter to my friend the secretary, signifying my resolution of setting out that morning for Blefuscu, pursuant to the leave I had got; and, without waiting for an answer, I went to that side of the island where our fleet lay. I seized a large man of war, tied a cable to the prow, and, lifting up the anchors, I stripped myself, put my clothes (together with my coverlet, which I carried under my arm) into the vessel, and, drawing it after me, between wading and swimming arrived at the royal port of Blefuscu, where the people had long expected me: they lent me two guides to direct me to the capital city, which is of the same name. I held them in my hands, till I came within two hundred yards of the gate, and desired them "to signify my arrival to one of the secretaries, and let him know, I there waited his majesty's command.

probable - probable

incur - incurrir

unjustly - injustamente

owe - deber, adeudar, estar en deuda

treating - Tratando; (treat); tratar, negociar, rogar, invitar, convidar

obnoxious - asqueroso; desagradable, detestable, odioso

alacrity - esmero, alacridad, presteza, prontitud

submitted - sometido; someter, presentar, entregar, cursar

hurried - con prisas; prisa, apuro, apresurarse, apurarse, darse prisa

precipitancy - precipitación

elapsed - ha transcurrido; transcurrir

signifying - significando; Significa; (signify); significar, senalar

setting out - salir de viaje, empezar; exponer, presentar; diponer

stripped - despojado; quitar, desprender; arrancar; despojar

coverlet - cobertor

wading - Vadeando; (wad) Vadeando

I had an answer in about an hour, "that his majesty, attended by the royal family, and great officers of the court, was coming out to receive me." I advanced a hundred yards. The emperor and his train alighted from their horses, the empress and ladies from their coaches, and I did not perceive they were in any fright or concern. I lay on the ground to kiss his majesty's and the empress's hands. I told his majesty, "that I was come according to my promise, and with the license of the emperor my master, to have the honour of seeing so mighty a monarch, and to offer him any service in my power, consistent with my duty to my own prince;" not mentioning a word of my disgrace, because I had hitherto no regular information of it, and might suppose myself wholly ignorant of any such design; neither could I reasonably conceive that the emperor would discover the secret, while I was out of his power; wherein, however, it soon appeared I was deceived.

consistent - consistente, constante, coherente

ignorant - ignorante, ignaro, inculto

reasonably - razonablemente, justamente

deceived - enganado; enganar, decebir

I shall not trouble the reader with the particular account of my reception at this court, which was suitable to the generosity of so great a prince; nor of the difficulties I was in for want of a house and bed, being forced to lie on the ground, wrapped up in my coverlet.

wrapped - envuelto; enrollar


The author, by a lucky accident, finds means to leave Blefuscu; and, after some difficulties, returns safe to his native country.

native country - país de origen

Three days after my arrival, walking out of curiosity to the north-east coast of the island, I observed, about half a league off in the sea, somewhat that looked like a boat overturned. I pulled off my shoes and stockings, and, wailing two or three hundred yards, I found the object to approach nearer by force of the tide; and then plainly saw it to be a real boat, which I supposed might by some tempest have been driven from a ship. Whereupon, I returned immediately towards the city, and desired his imperial majesty to lend me twenty of the tallest vessels he had left, after the loss of his fleet, and three thousand seamen, under the command of his vice-admiral. This fleet sailed round, while I went back the shortest way to the coast, where I first discovered the boat. I found the tide had driven it still nearer. The seamen were all provided with cordage, which I had beforehand twisted to a sufficient strength. When the ships came up, I stripped myself, and waded till I came within a hundred yards off the boat, after which I was forced to swim till I got up to it. The seamen threw me the end of the cord, which I fastened to a hole in the fore-part of the boat, and the other end to a man of war; but I found all my labour to little purpose; for, being out of my depth, I was not able to work.

League - liga

overturned - derribado; volcar, derrocar, casar

wailing - aullidos; (wail) aullidos

approach - enfoque; acercarse, aproximarse

tempest - tormenta; tempestad, temporal

sailed round - navegar alrededor; dar la vuelta en barco

beforehand - de antemano, anticipadamente, adelantadamente, antes

In this necessity I was forced to swim behind, and push the boat forward, as often as I could, with one of my hands; and the tide favouring me, I advanced so far that I could just hold up my chin and feel the ground. I rested two or three minutes, and then gave the boat another shove, and so on, till the sea was no higher than my arm-pits; and now, the most laborious part being over, I took out my other cables, which were stowed in one of the ships, and fastened them first to the boat, and then to nine of the vessels which attended me; the wind being favourable, the seamen towed, and I shoved, until we arrived within forty yards of the shore; and, waiting till the tide was out, I got dry to the boat, and by the assistance of two thousand men, with ropes and engines, I made a shift to turn it on its bottom, and found it was but little damaged.

favouring - favorecer; favor

laborious - trabajoso; laborioso

stowed - guardado; guardar, poner, colocar

shoved - empujado; empujar

damaged - danado; dano

I shall not trouble the reader with the difficulties I was under, by the help of certain paddles, which cost me ten days making, to get my boat to the royal port of Blefuscu, where a mighty concourse of people appeared upon my arrival, full of wonder at the sight of so prodigious a vessel.

paddles - paletas; chapotear, mojarse los pies

concourse - la explanada; explanada

I told the emperor "that my good fortune had thrown this boat in my way, to carry me to some place whence I might return into my native country; and begged his majesty's orders for getting materials to fit it up, together with his license to depart;" which, after some kind expostulations, he was pleased to grant.

native - natal, indígena, originario, nativo, oriundo, indígena

begged - suplicó; pedir

expostulations - expostulación

Grant - otorgar, conceder, subvención, beca, patrocinio

I did very much wonder, in all this time, not to have heard of any express relating to me from our emperor to the court of Blefuscu. But I was afterward given privately to understand, that his imperial majesty, never imagining I had the least notice of his designs, believed I was only gone to Blefuscu in performance of my promise, according to the license he had given me, which was well known at our court, and would return in a few days, when the ceremony was ended. But he was at last in pain at my long absence; and after consulting with the treasurer and the rest of that cabal, a person of quality was dispatched with the copy of the articles against me.

afterward - después

absence - ausencia, falta, ausencia de hierro

after consulting - después de consultar

cabal - cábala, camarilla, sociedad secreta

dispatched - enviado; despachar, privar, despacharse, despacho

This envoy had instructions to represent to the monarch of Blefuscu, "the great lenity of his master, who was content to punish me no farther than with the loss of mine eyes; that I had fled from justice; and if I did not return in two hours, I should be deprived of my title of nardac, and declared a traitor." The envoy further added, "that in order to maintain the peace and amity between both empires, his master expected that his brother of Blefuscu would give orders to have me sent back to Lilliput, bound hand and foot, to be punished as a traitor."

envoy - enviado

represent - representar

punish me - Castigar a alguien

deprived - privado; desproveer, privar

declared - declarado; explicar, aclarar, declarar

amity - amistad

The emperor of Blefuscu, having taken three days to consult, returned an answer consisting of many civilities and excuses. He said, "that as for sending me bound, his brother knew it was impossible; that, although I had deprived him of his fleet, yet he owed great obligations to me for many good offices I had done him in making the peace.

consult - consultar

civilities - civilidades; civismo, civilidad

excuses - excusas; excusar, perdonar, panish: t-needed

owed - debido; deber, adeudar, estar en deuda

That, however, both their majesties would soon be made easy; for I had found a prodigious vessel on the shore, able to carry me on the sea, which he had given orders to fit up, with my own assistance and direction; and he hoped, in a few weeks, both empires would be freed from so insupportable an encumbrance."

Majesties - ajestades; majestad

insupportable - Insoportable

With this answer the envoy returned to Lilliput; and the monarch of Blefuscu related to me all that had passed; offering me at the same time (but under the strictest confidence) his gracious protection, if I would continue in his service; wherein, although I believed him sincere, yet I resolved never more to put any confidence in princes or ministers, where I could possibly avoid it; and therefore, with all due acknowledgments for his favourable intentions, I humbly begged to be excused.

offering - ofrenda; ofrecimiento; (offer) ofrenda; ofrecimiento

protection - protección

sincere - sincero

Possibly - es posible; posiblemente

acknowledgments - agradecimientos; reconocimiento, reconocimiento

excused - disculpado; excusar, perdonar, panish: t-needed

I told him, "that since fortune, whether good or evil, had thrown a vessel in my way, I was resolved to venture myself on the ocean, rather than be an occasion of difference between two such mighty monarchs." Neither did I find the emperor at all displeased; and I discovered, by a certain accident, that he was very glad of my resolution, and so were most of his ministers.

These considerations moved me to hasten my departure somewhat sooner than I intended; to which the court, impatient to have me gone, very readily contributed. Five hundred workmen were employed to make two sails to my boat, according to my directions, by quilting thirteen folds of their strongest linen together. I was at the pains of making ropes and cables, by twisting ten, twenty, or thirty of the thickest and strongest of theirs.

considerations - consideraciones; consideración

hasten - apresurarse; correr, acelerar, precipitar, anticipar, adelantar

departure - salida, partida

contributed - ontribuido; contribuir

quilting - colchar; (quilt); colcha, edredón, acolchar

twisting - Torciendo; (twist); torcer, sacar punta a, torcerse

A great stone that I happened to find, after a long search, by the sea-shore, served me for an anchor. I had the tallow of three hundred cows, for greasing my boat, and other uses. I was at incredible pains in cutting down some of the largest timber-trees, for oars and masts, wherein I was, however, much assisted by his majesty's ship-carpenters, who helped me in smoothing them, after I had done the rough work.

sea-shore - (sea-shore) orilla del mar

tallow - sebo

greasing - engrase; grasa, engrasar, checklubricar

oars - remos; remo

masts - mástiles; mástil

smoothing - Alisado; (smooth); liso, sofisticado, constante, tranquilo

rough - aspero; áspero, aproximado, aproximativo, casi, turbulento

In about a month, when all was prepared, I sent to receive his majesty's commands, and to take my leave. The emperor and royal family came out of the palace; I lay down on my face to kiss his hand, which he very graciously gave me: so did the empress and young princes of the blood.

His majesty presented me with fifty purses of two hundred sprugs a-piece, together with his picture at full length, which I put immediately into one of my gloves, to keep it from being hurt. The ceremonies at my departure were too many to trouble the reader with at this time.

purses - Pers

gloves - guantes; guante, gorro

ceremonies - eremonias; ceremonia

I stored the boat with the carcases of a hundred oxen, and three hundred sheep, with bread and drink proportionable, and as much meat ready dressed as four hundred cooks could provide. I took with me six cows and two bulls alive, with as many ewes and rams, intending to carry them into my own country, and propagate the breed. And to feed them on board, I had a good bundle of hay, and a bag of corn.

carcases - Carcasa

bulls - toros; toro

ewes - ovejas; oveja, oveja madre

rams - los carneros; RAM, memoria RAM

intending - con intención; pretender, planear, intencionar, intentar

breed - criar, procrear, aparearse, cultivar, engendrar, raza

Hay - heno

I would gladly have taken a dozen of the natives, but this was a thing the emperor would by no means permit; and, besides a diligent search into my pockets, his majesty engaged my honour "not to carry away any of his subjects, although with their own consent and desire."

gladly - con gusto; de buena gana

diligent - diligente

carry away - dejarse llevar

Having thus prepared all things as well as I was able, I set sail on the twenty-fourth day of September 1701, at six in the morning; and when I had gone about four-leagues to the northward, the wind being at south-east, at six in the evening I descried a small island, about half a league to the north-west. I advanced forward, and cast anchor on the lee-side of the island, which seemed to be uninhabited. I then took some refreshment, and went to my rest. I slept well, and as I conjectured at least six hours, for I found the day broke in two hours after I awaked. It was a clear night. I ate my breakfast before the sun was up; and heaving anchor, the wind being favourable, I steered the same course that I had done the day before, wherein I was directed by my pocket compass. My intention was to reach, if possible, one of those islands which I had reason to believe lay to the north-east of Van Diemen's Land. I discovered nothing all that day; but upon the next, about three in the afternoon, when I had by my computation made twenty-four leagues from Blefuscu, I descried a sail steering to the south-east; my course was due east.

Lee - abrigo, sotavento, socaire

uninhabited - deshabitado, abandonado, inhabitado

heaving - Agitado; (heave); ondular

steered - dirigido; buey

steering - dirección; (steer); dirección

I hailed her, but could get no answer; yet I found I gained upon her, for the wind slackened. I made all the sail I could, and in half an hour she spied me, then hung out her ancient, and discharged a gun. It is not easy to express the joy I was in, upon the unexpected hope of once more seeing my beloved country, and the dear pledges I left in it. The ship slackened her sails, and I came up with her between five and six in the evening, September 26th; but my heart leaped within me to see her English colours. I put my cows and sheep into my coat-pockets, and got on board with all my little cargo of provisions. The vessel was an English merchantman, returning from Japan by the North and South seas; the captain, Mr. John Biddel, of Deptford, a very civil man, and an excellent sailor.

hailed - aclamado; granizo

slackened - flojado; aflojar

unexpected - inesperado, inopinado

beloved - querida; amado, querido, bienamado

pledges - promesas; prometer, comprometerse, hipotecar, empenar, pignorar

Provisions - provisiones; provisión, aprovisionar, avituallar

merchantman - comerciante

Japan - Japón

sailor - marinero, marinera

We were now in the latitude of 30 degrees south; there were about fifty men in the ship; and here I met an old comrade of mine, one Peter Williams, who gave me a good character to the captain. This gentleman treated me with kindness, and desired I would let him know what place I came from last, and whither I was bound; which I did in a few words, but he thought I was raving, and that the dangers I underwent had disturbed my head; whereupon I took my black cattle and sheep out of my pocket, which, after great astonishment, clearly convinced him of my veracity.

Peter - Pedro, Pedro

Williams - williams; Guillermo

disturbed - molesto; perturbar, molestar

Convinced - convencido; convencer

I then showed him the gold given me by the emperor of Blefuscu, together with his majesty's picture at full length, and some other rarities of that country. I gave him two purses of two hundreds sprugs each, and promised, when we arrived in England, to make him a present of a cow and a sheep big with young.

rarities - rarezas; raridad, rareza

purses - monederos; bolsa, monedero, fruncir

I shall not trouble the reader with a particular account of this voyage, which was very prosperous for the most part. We arrived in the Downs on the 13th of April, 1702. I had only one misfortune, that the rats on board carried away one of my sheep; I found her bones in a hole, picked clean from the flesh. The rest of my cattle I got safe ashore, and set them a-grazing in a bowling-green at Greenwich, where the fineness of the grass made them feed very heartily, though I had always feared the contrary: neither could I possibly have preserved them in so long a voyage, if the captain had not allowed me some of his best biscuit, which, rubbed to powder, and mingled with water, was their constant food.

misfortune - infortunio, gafe, mala suerte, desgracia

rats - ratas; rata

grazing - pastoreo; (graze); rasguno, aranazo, rasguno, pastear

Greenwich - Greenwich

The short time I continued in England, I made a considerable profit by showing my cattle to many persons of quality and others: and before I began my second voyage, I sold them for six hundred pounds. Since my last return I find the breed is considerably increased, especially the sheep, which I hope will prove much to the advantage of the woollen manufacture, by the fineness of the fleeces.

profit - ganancias; ganancia, beneficio, explotar, beneficiarse

Considerably - considerablemente

woollen - Lana

manufacture - fabricar, producir

fleeces - vellones; vellón, vellocino, lana, toisón, piel

I stayed but two months with my wife and family, for my insatiable desire of seeing foreign countries, would suffer me to continue no longer. I left fifteen hundred pounds with my wife, and fixed her in a good house at Redriff. My remaining stock I carried with me, part in money and part in goods, in hopes to improve my fortunes. My eldest uncle John had left me an estate in land, near Epping, of about thirty pounds a-year; and I had a long lease of the Black Bull in Fetter-Lane, which yielded me as much more; so that I was not in any danger of leaving my family upon the parish.

insatiable - insaciable

foreign countries - el extranjero; país extranjero

stock - cciones; existencias, stock

fortunes - ortunas; fortuna

lease - contrato de arrendamiento

Bull - toro

yielded - cedido; ceder

parish - parroquia

My son Johnny, named so after his uncle, was at the grammar-school, and a towardly child. My daughter Betty (who is now well married, and has children) was then at her needle-work. I took leave of my wife, and boy and girl, with tears on both sides, and went on board the Adventure, a merchant ship of three hundred tons, bound for Surat, captain John Nicholas, of Liverpool, commander. But my account of this voyage must be referred to the Second Part of my Travels.

Johnny - Juanito

grammar-school - (grammar-school) Escuela secundaria

towardly - hacia

merchant ship - un barco mercante

tons - toneladas; tonelada

Liverpool - Liverpool



A great storm described; the long boat sent to fetch water; the author goes with it to discover the country. He is left on shore, is seized by one of the natives, and carried to a farmer's house. His reception, with several accidents that happened there. A description of the inhabitants.

fetch - ir por, ir a buscar, traer

Having been condemned, by nature and fortune, to active and restless life, in two months after my return, I again left my native country, and took shipping in the Downs, on the 20th day of June, 1702, in the Adventure, Captain John Nicholas, a Cornish man, commander, bound for Surat. We had a very prosperous gale, till we arrived at the Cape of Good Hope, where we landed for fresh water; but discovering a leak, we unshipped our goods and wintered there; for the captain falling sick of an ague, we could not leave the Cape till the end of March.

restless - inquieto

Cornish - córnico

gale - revuelo; vendaval, galerna

Cape - capa

leak - fuga; gotera, agujero, rotura, vía, pérdida, filtración, gotear

unshipped - Desembarcar

ague - fiebre intermitente, escalofrío

We then set sail, and had a good voyage till we passed the Straits of Madagascar; but having got northward of that island, and to about five degrees south latitude, the winds, which in those seas are observed to blow a constant equal gale between the north and west, from the beginning of December to the beginning of May, on the 19th of April began to blow with much greater violence, and more westerly than usual, continuing so for twenty days together: during which time, we were driven a little to the east of the Molucca Islands, and about three degrees northward of the line, as our captain found by an observation he took the 2nd of May, at which time the wind ceased, and it was a perfect calm, whereat I was not a little rejoiced. But he, being a man well experienced in the navigation of those seas, bid us all prepare against a storm, which accordingly happened the day following: for the southern wind, called the southern monsoon, began to set in.

straits - strechos; estrecho, paso, aprieto

Madagascar - Madagascar

winds - vientos; viento, aire

Equal - igual, igualar, equivaler

Calm - calmado, sosiego, calma

rejoiced - se alegró; alegrarse, regocijarse

bid - ofertar; pujar, hacer una oferta

southern - del sur, sureno, meridional, austral

monsoon - monzón

Finding it was likely to overblow, we took in our sprit-sail, and stood by to hand the fore-sail; but making foul weather, we looked the guns were all fast, and handed the mizen. The ship lay very broad off, so we thought it better spooning before the sea, than trying or hulling. We reefed the fore-sail and set him, and hauled aft the fore-sheet; the helm was hard a-weather. The ship wore bravely. We belayed the fore down-haul; but the sail was split, and we hauled down the yard, and got the sail into the ship, and unbound all the things clear of it. It was a very fierce storm; the sea broke strange and dangerous. We hauled off upon the laniard of the whip-staff, and helped the man at the helm. We would not get down our topmast, but let all stand, because she scudded before the sea very well, and we knew that the top-mast being aloft, the ship was the wholesomer, and made better way through the sea, seeing we had sea-room. When the storm was over, we set fore-sail and main-sail, and brought the ship to.

overblow - Exagerar

sprit - Espíritu

foul - falta; asqueroso, fétido

reefed - refinado; arrecife

hauled - arrastrado; empujar, tirar fuerte, llevar

aft - De popa

helm - yelmo; timón

bravely - con valentía; valientemente

belayed - Asegurar

fierce - fiero, feroz, enconado

whip - fusta, látigo, flagelo, panish: t-needed

mast - mástil

wholesomer - mayorista; saludable, sano, íntegro

Then we set the mizen, main-top-sail, and the fore-top-sail. Our course was east-north-east, the wind was at south-west. We got the starboard tacks aboard, we cast off our weather-braces and lifts; we set in the lee-braces, and hauled forward by the weather-bowlings, and hauled them tight, and belayed them, and hauled over the mizen tack to windward, and kept her full and by as near as she would lie.

starboard - estribor

tacks - tachuelas; tachuela

aboard - a bordo, a bordo de

braces - aparatos; braza, abrazadera, tensor, tirante, pareja, tirantes

bowlings - Bolos

windward - barlovento, barlovento

During this storm, which was followed by a strong wind west-south-west, we were carried, by my computation, about five hundred leagues to the east, so that the oldest sailor on board could not tell in what part of the world we were. Our provisions held out well, our ship was staunch, and our crew all in good health; but we lay in the utmost distress for water.

staunch - inquebrantable; fiel, leal, incondicional, acérrimo

We thought it best to hold on the same course, rather than turn more northerly, which might have brought us to the north-west part of Great Tartary, and into the Frozen Sea.

frozen - congelado; congelar

On the 16th day of June, 1703, a boy on the top-mast discovered land. On the 17th, we came in full view of a great island, or continent (for we knew not whether;) on the south side whereof was a small neck of land jutting out into the sea, and a creek too shallow to hold a ship of above one hundred tons. We cast anchor within a league of this creek, and our captain sent a dozen of his men well armed in the long-boat, with vessels for water, if any could be found. I desired his leave to go with them, that I might see the country, and make what discoveries I could. When we came to land we saw no river or spring, nor any sign of inhabitants. Our men therefore wandered on the shore to find out some fresh water near the sea, and I walked alone about a mile on the other side, where I observed the country all barren and rocky. I now began to be weary, and seeing nothing to entertain my curiosity, I returned gently down towards the creek; and the sea being full in my view, I saw our men already got into the boat, and rowing for life to the ship. I was going to holla after them, although it had been to little purpose, when I observed a huge creature walking after them in the sea, as fast as he could: he waded not much deeper than his knees, and took prodigious strides: but our men had the start of him half a league, and, the sea thereabouts being full of sharp-pointed rocks, the monster was not able to overtake the boat.

jutting - saliente; sobresalir

Creek - caleta, arroyo, riachuelo

shallow - poco profundo, superficial, desinteresante, poco profundo (1

wandered - deambuló; vagar, divagar, errar, deambular, enganar

barren - yermo; estéril, infértil

holla - hola

strides - estridente

thereabouts - algo por ahí

monster - monstruo, fiera

overtake - rebasar, sobrepasar, adelantar, alcanzar, superar, sorprender

This I was afterwards told, for I durst not stay to see the issue of the adventure; but ran as fast as I could the way I first went, and then climbed up a steep hill, which gave me some prospect of the country. I found it fully cultivated; but that which first surprised me was the length of the grass, which, in those grounds that seemed to be kept for hay, was about twenty feet high.

steep - mpinada; empinado

cultivated - ultivado; cultivar

I fell into a high road, for so I took it to be, though it served to the inhabitants only as a foot-path through a field of barley. Here I walked on for some time, but could see little on either side, it being now near harvest, and the corn rising at least forty feet. I was an hour walking to the end of this field, which was fenced in with a hedge of at least one hundred and twenty feet high, and the trees so lofty that I could make no computation of their altitude. There was a stile to pass from this field into the next. It had four steps, and a stone to cross over when you came to the uppermost. It was impossible for me to climb this stile, because every step was six-feet high, and the upper stone about twenty. I was endeavouring to find some gap in the hedge, when I discovered one of the inhabitants in the next field, advancing towards the stile, of the same size with him whom I saw in the sea pursuing our boat. He appeared as tall as an ordinary spire steeple, and took about ten yards at every stride, as near as I could guess. I was struck with the utmost fear and astonishment, and ran to hide myself in the corn, whence I saw him at the top of the stile looking back into the next field on the right hand, and heard him call in a voice many degrees louder than a speaking-trumpet: but the noise was so high in the air, that at first I certainly thought it was thunder. Whereupon seven monsters, like himself, came towards him with reaping-hooks in their hands, each hook about the largeness of six scythes. These people were not so well clad as the first, whose servants or labourers they seemed to be; for, upon some words he spoke, they went to reap the corn in the field where I lay. I kept from them at as great a distance as I could, but was forced to move with extreme difficulty, for the stalks of the corn were sometimes not above a foot distant, so that I could hardly squeeze my body betwixt them. However, I made a shift to go forward, till I came to a part of the field where the corn had been laid by the rain and wind.

path - camino, sendero

barley - cebada

harvest - cosecha, cosechar

fenced in - se ha cercado

hedge - cobertura; seto

lofty - altivo; majestuoso

altitude - altitud, altura

stile - dos escalones de madera para pasar por encima de una cerca

cross over - cruzar

pursuing - Persiguiendo; (pursue); perseguir, apuntar a

spire - giro; aguja

steeple - campanario

trumpet - trompeta, barrito, berrido, trompetear, tocar a la trompeta

thunder - trueno, estruendo, fragor, tronar

monsters - monstruos; monstruo, fiera

reaping - segar, cosechar, recoger, mies

largeness - Grandeza

scythes - guadanas; guadana, guadanar

stalks - tallos; tallo

squeeze - exprimir, apretar, apretujar, apuro, crisis, apretón

betwixt - entre medias; entre

Here it was impossible for me to advance a step; for the stalks were so interwoven, that I could not creep through, and the beards of the fallen ears so strong and pointed, that they pierced through my clothes into my flesh. At the same time I heard the reapers not a hundred yards behind me. Being quite dispirited with toil, and wholly overcome by grief and dispair, I lay down between two ridges, and heartily wished I might there end my days. I bemoaned my desolate widow and fatherless children. I lamented my own folly and wilfulness, in attempting a second voyage, against the advice of all my friends and relations. In this terrible agitation of mind, I could not forbear thinking of Lilliput, whose inhabitants looked upon me as the greatest prodigy that ever appeared in the world; where I was able to draw an imperial fleet in my hand, and perform those other actions, which will be recorded for ever in the chronicles of that empire, while posterity shall hardly believe them, although attested by millions. I reflected what a mortification it must prove to me, to appear as inconsiderable in this nation, as one single Lilliputian would be among us. But this I conceived was to be the least of my misfortunes; for, as human creatures are observed to be more savage and cruel in proportion to their bulk, what could I expect but to be a morsel in the mouth of the first among these enormous barbarians that should happen to seize me? Undoubtedly philosophers are in the right, when they tell us that nothing is great or little otherwise than by comparison. It might have pleased fortune, to have let the Lilliputians find some nation, where the people were as diminutive with respect to them, as they were to me. And who knows but that even this prodigious race of mortals might be equally overmatched in some distant part of the world, whereof we have yet no discovery.

advance - avanzar, progresar, avance, progreso, adelanto, avance

interwoven - entrelazados; entretejer, entrelazar

beards - barbas; barba, jotera, pantalla, barbar, provocar, mortificar

pierced - perforado; atravesar, traspasar

reapers - segadoras; cosechador, cosechadora, segador

toil - esfuerzo, labrar, trabajar

overcome - vencer, superar

dispair - desesperación

ridges - crestas; cresta, arista, cumbrera, caballete, cordillera

bemoaned - lamentó; quejar, lamentar

widow - viuda, enviudar

lamented - lamentó; lamento, lamentación, lamentar

wilfulness - voluntad

agitation - agitación, desasosiego, inquietud

prodigy - prodigio; presagio, augurio, agüero, auspicio, maravilla

Chronicles - crónicas; crónica

attested - atestiguado; avalar, atestiguar, compulsar

mortification - Mortificación

inconsiderable - despreciable

savage - salvaje

barbarians - bárbaros; bárbaro, bárbaro, bárbara, panish: t-needed

Undoubtedly - sin duda

comparison - comparación

equally - igualmente

overmatched - Sobrematch

Scared and confounded as I was, I could not forbear going on with these reflections, when one of the reapers, approaching within ten yards of the ridge where I lay, made me apprehend that with the next step I should be squashed to death under his foot, or cut in two with his reaping-hook. And therefore, when he was again about to move, I screamed as loud as fear could make me: whereupon the huge creature trod short, and, looking round about under him for some time, at last espied me as I lay on the ground. He considered awhile, with the caution of one who endeavours to lay hold on a small dangerous animal in such a manner that it shall not be able either to scratch or bite him, as I myself have sometimes done with a weasel in England. At length he ventured to take me behind, by the middle, between his fore-finger and thumb, and brought me within three yards of his eyes, that he might behold my shape more perfectly. I guessed his meaning, and my good fortune gave me so much presence of mind, that I resolved not to struggle in the least as he held me in the air above sixty feet from the ground, although he grievously pinched my sides, for fear I should slip through his fingers.

confounded - confundido; confundir, empeorar

ridge - cresta, arista, cumbrera, caballete, cordillera, sierra, dorsal

squashed - aplastado; apretujar, aplastar

screamed - gritó; grito, gritar

espied - Espiar

caution - advertencia, precaución, cuidado, cautela, fianza, advertir

endeavours - esfuerzos; esforzarse

scratch - rascar, raspar, aranar, rasgunar, rayar, aranazo, rayadura

bite - morder, picar, mordida, mordedura, mordisco, picadura

weasel - comadreja, mustela, turón, checkmostela

pinched - pellizcado; pellizcar, repizcar, afanar, chorizar, pellizco

slip - resbalón; resbalar

All I ventured was to raise mine eyes towards the sun, and place my hands together in a supplicating posture, and to speak some words in a humble melancholy tone, suitable to the condition I then was in: for I apprehended every moment that he would dash me against the ground, as we usually do any little hateful animal, which we have a mind to destroy. But my good star would have it, that he appeared pleased with my voice and gestures, and began to look upon me as a curiosity, much wondering to hear me pronounce articulate words, although he could not understand them. In the mean time I was not able to forbear groaning and shedding tears, and turning my head towards my sides; letting him know, as well as I could, how cruelly I was hurt by the pressure of his thumb and finger. He seemed to apprehend my meaning; for, lifting up the lappet of his coat, he put me gently into it, and immediately ran along with me to his master, who was a substantial farmer, and the same person I had first seen in the field.

supplicating - suplicando; suplicar, deprecar, panish: t-needed

tone - tono

hateful - odioso, detestable

gestures - gestos; gesto, ademán, detalle, atención

wondering - Te preguntas; (wonder); maravilla, milagro, genio, asombro

shedding - desprendimiento; (shed) desprendimiento

cruelly - sangrientamente, cruelmente

lappet - Papel

substantial - sustancial, is, enjundioso, substancial

The farmer having (as I suppose by their talk) received such an account of me as his servant could give him, took a piece of a small straw, about the size of a walking-staff, and therewith lifted up the lappets of my coat; which it seems he thought to be some kind of covering that nature had given me. He blew my hairs aside to take a better view of my face. He called his hinds about him, and asked them, as I afterwards learned, whether they had ever seen in the fields any little creature that resembled me. He then placed me softly on the ground upon all fours, but I got immediately up, and walked slowly backward and forward, to let those people see I had no intent to run away. They all sat down in a circle about me, the better to observe my motions. I pulled off my hat, and made a low bow towards the farmer. I fell on my knees, and lifted up my hands and eyes, and spoke several words as loud as I could: I took a purse of gold out of my pocket, and humbly presented it to him. He received it on the palm of his hand, then applied it close to his eye to see what it was, and afterwards turned it several times with the point of a pin (which he took out of his sleeve,) but could make nothing of it. Whereupon I made a sign that he should place his hand on the ground. I then took the purse, and, opening it, poured all the gold into his palm. There were six Spanish pieces of four pistoles each, beside twenty or thirty smaller coins.

lappets - Papel

aside - aparte, a un lado, aparte

hinds - traseros; cierva

intent - intención, intento, propósito, concentrado, entregado

pin - alfiler

sleeve - manga, funda, enfundar

poured - vertido; verter, derramar; chorrear; manar, salir

pistoles - pistolas; pistola

coins - monedas; moneda, acunar

I saw him wet the tip of his little finger upon his tongue, and take up one of my largest pieces, and then another; but he seemed to be wholly ignorant what they were. He made me a sign to put them again into my purse, and the purse again into my pocket, which, after offering it to him several times, I thought it best to do.

The farmer, by this time, was convinced I must be a rational creature. He spoke often to me; but the sound of his voice pierced my ears like that of a water-mill, yet his words were articulate enough. I answered as loud as I could in several languages, and he often laid his ear within two yards of me: but all in vain, for we were wholly unintelligible to each other. He then sent his servants to their work, and taking his handkerchief out of his pocket, he doubled and spread it on his left hand, which he placed flat on the ground with the palm upward, making me a sign to step into it, as I could easily do, for it was not above a foot in thickness. I thought it my part to obey, and, for fear of falling, laid myself at full length upon the handkerchief, with the remainder of which he lapped me up to the head for further security, and in this manner carried me home to his house. There he called his wife, and showed me to her; but she screamed and ran back, as women in England do at the sight of a toad or a spider.

vain - vanidoso, vano, vacuo

unintelligible - ininteligible

upward - hacia arriba

obey - obedecer

remainder - restos; resto, remanente, sobras, restante

lapped - lapeado; lamer

toad - sapo, sapa

However, when she had a while seen my behaviour, and how well I observed the signs her husband made, she was soon reconciled, and by degrees grew extremely tender of me.

tender - tierno

It was about twelve at noon, and a servant brought in dinner. It was only one substantial dish of meat (fit for the plain condition of a husbandman,) in a dish of about four-and-twenty feet diameter. The company were, the farmer and his wife, three children, and an old grandmother. When they were sat down, the farmer placed me at some distance from him on the table, which was thirty feet high from the floor. I was in a terrible fright, and kept as far as I could from the edge, for fear of falling. The wife minced a bit of meat, then crumbled some bread on a trencher, and placed it before me. I made her a low bow, took out my knife and fork, and fell to eat, which gave them exceeding delight. The mistress sent her maid for a small dram cup, which held about two gallons, and filled it with drink; I took up the vessel with much difficulty in both hands, and in a most respectful manner drank to her ladyship's health, expressing the words as loud as I could in English, which made the company laugh so heartily, that I was almost deafened with the noise. This liquor tasted like a small cider, and was not unpleasant. Then the master made me a sign to come to his trencher side; but as I walked on the table, being in great surprise all the time, as the indulgent reader will easily conceive and excuse, I happened to stumble against a crust, and fell flat on my face, but received no hurt.

husbandman - marido

diameter - diámetro

crumbled - se desmoronó; desmigajarse, desmoronarse, desmenuzarse, crumble

delight - disfrutar; deleite, regocijo, delicia, placer

Mistress - senora; duena, maestra, querida, amante, barragana, manceba, ama

gallons - galones; galón

most respectful - más respetuoso

ladyship - senora; panish: la#Spanish

deafened - sordo; ensordecer

cider - sidra

unpleasant - desagradable, desapacible

indulgent - indulgente

Excuse - disculpe; excusar, perdonar, panish: t-needed

stumble - tropezón, traspié, desliz, torpeza, tropiezo, tropezar

crust - costra, corteza, corteza

I got up immediately, and observing the good people to be in much concern, I took my hat (which I held under my arm out of good manners,) and waving it over my head, made three huzzas, to show I had got no mischief by my fall. But advancing forward towards my master (as I shall henceforth call him,) his youngest son, who sat next to him, an arch boy of about ten years old, took me up by the legs, and held me so high in the air, that I trembled every limb: but his father snatched me from him, and at the same time gave him such a box on the left ear, as would have felled an European troop of horse to the earth, ordering him to be taken from the table. But being afraid the boy might owe me a spite, and well remembering how mischievous all children among us naturally are to sparrows, rabbits, young kittens, and puppy dogs, I fell on my knees, and pointing to the boy, made my master to understand, as well as I could, that I desired his son might be pardoned. The father complied, and the lad took his seat again, whereupon I went to him, and kissed his hand, which my master took, and made him stroke me gently with it.

mischief - travesuras; travesura, diablura, gamberrada

arch - arco; bóveda

trembled - tembló; tiritar, temblar, temblor, vibración, temblequera

snatched - arrebatado; agarrar, arrebatar, arrancada, arranque

felled - Cayó

mischievous - pícaro, travieso

naturally - naturalmente

sparrows - gorriones; pasérido, gorrión, pájaro

rabbits - conejos; conejo

kittens - gatitos; gatito, minino, gatita

puppy - cachorro, perrito

pardoned - indultado; perdón, indulto, perdonar, indultar, cómo?, ?perdón?

complied - cumplió; cumplir, acceder a, acatar

lad - nino, chico, mozo, mozalbete

kissed - besado; besar

stroke - ictus; golpe

In the midst of dinner, my mistress's favourite cat leaped into her lap. I heard a noise behind me like that of a dozen stocking-weavers at work; and turning my head, I found it proceeded from the purring of that animal, who seemed to be three times larger than an ox, as I computed by the view of her head, and one of her paws, while her mistress was feeding and stroking her. The fierceness of this creature's countenance altogether discomposed me; though I stood at the farther end of the table, above fifty feet off; and although my mistress held her fast, for fear she might give a spring, and seize me in her talons. But it happened there was no danger, for the cat took not the least notice of me when my master placed me within three yards of her.

lap - vuelta; lamer

stocking - medias; media; (stock) medias; media

weavers - tejedores; tejedor, tejedora

purring - Ronroneando; (pur) Ronroneando

ox - buey

paws - patas; pata, garra (gato), zarpa (león)

stroking - Acariciar; (stroke) Acariciar

fierceness - ferocidad

discomposed - Incomodar

talons - talones; garra

And as I have been always told, and found true by experience in my travels, that flying or discovering fear before a fierce animal, is a certain way to make it pursue or attack you, so I resolved, in this dangerous juncture, to show no manner of concern. I walked with intrepidity five or six times before the very head of the cat, and came within half a yard of her; whereupon she drew herself back, as if she were more afraid of me: I had less apprehension concerning the dogs, whereof three or four came into the room, as it is usual in farmers'houses; one of which was a mastiff, equal in bulk to four elephants, and another a greyhound, somewhat taller than the mastiff, but not so large.

pursue - perseguir, apuntar a

farmers - agricultores; granjero, granjera

mastiff - mastín, alano, dogo

in bulk - a granel

greyhound - galgo

When dinner was almost done, the nurse came in with a child of a year old in her arms, who immediately spied me, and began a squall that you might have heard from London-Bridge to Chelsea, after the usual oratory of infants, to get me for a plaything. The mother, out of pure indulgence, took me up, and put me towards the child, who presently seized me by the middle, and got my head into his mouth, where I roared so loud that the urchin was frighted, and let me drop, and I should infallibly have broke my neck, if the mother had not held her apron under me. The nurse, to quiet her babe, made use of a rattle which was a kind of hollow vessel filled with great stones, and fastened by a cable to the child's waist: but all in vain; so that she was forced to apply the last remedy by giving it suck. I must confess no object ever disgusted me so much as the sight of her monstrous breast, which I cannot tell what to compare with, so as to give the curious reader an idea of its bulk, shape, and colour.

squall - chillar; tormenta, borrasca

oratory - oratoria

pure - pura; puro

indulgence - complacencia; indulgencia

urchin - erizo; gamín, gamina, golfillo

frighted - asustado; susto

apron - delantal, mandil

rattle - sonajero; hacer sonar, hacer vibrar

hollow vessel - recipiente vacío

remedy - remedio, recurso, remediar

suck - chupar, sorber, ser un asco, dar asco, apestar

disgusted - asqueado; repugnar, dar asco, asquear, asco, repugnancia

It stood prominent six feet, and could not be less than sixteen in circumference. The nipple was about half the bigness of my head, and the hue both of that and the dug, so varied with spots, pimples, and freckles, that nothing could appear more nauseous: for I had a near sight of her, she sitting down, the more conveniently to give suck, and I standing on the table. This made me reflect upon the fair skins of our English ladies, who appear so beautiful to us, only because they are of our own size, and their defects not to be seen but through a magnifying glass; where we find by experiment that the smoothest and whitest skins look rough, and coarse, and ill-coloured.

prominent - destacado; prominente, sobresaliente

nipple - pezón

hue - color; matiz

varied - variada; variar

spots - puntos; mancha, grano, poquito, poquita, zona, paraje, lámpara

pimples - granos; espinilla, grano, pendejo

freckles - pecas; peca, tener peca

nauseous - náuseas; nauseabundo

reflect - reflejar, recapacitar, reflexionar, cavilar, discurrir

defects - defectos; falla, tacha, defecto, desperfecto, desertar

magnifying glass - Lupa

smoothest - Suavizar

I remember when I was at Lilliput, the complexion of those diminutive people appeared to me the fairest in the world; and talking upon this subject with a person of learning there, who was an intimate friend of mine, he said that my face appeared much fairer and smoother when he looked on me from the ground, than it did upon a nearer view, when I took him up in my hand, and brought him close, which he confessed was at first a very shocking sight. He said, "he could discover great holes in my skin; that the stumps of my beard were ten times stronger than the bristles of a boar, and my complexion made up of several colours altogether disagreeable:" although I must beg leave to say for myself, that I am as fair as most of my sex and country, and very little sunburnt by all my travels.

intimate - intimo; íntimo

smoother - Más suave; (smooth); liso, sofisticado, constante, tranquilo

shocking - impresionante; conmoción, golpe

stumps - tocones; tocón, tueco, estaca, poste

bristles - cerdas; cerda, erizar, ponerse a la defensiva

boar - jabalí; verraco

disagreeable - desagradable

beg leave - pedir permiso

On the other side, discoursing of the ladies in that emperor's court, he used to tell me, "one had freckles; another too wide a mouth; a third too large a nose;" nothing of which I was able to distinguish. I confess this reflection was obvious enough; which, however, I could not forbear, lest the reader might think those vast creatures were actually deformed: for I must do them the justice to say, they are a comely race of people, and particularly the features of my master's countenance, although he was but a farmer, when I beheld him from the height of sixty feet, appeared very well proportioned.

discoursing - discutiendo; discurso, conversación, disertar

obvious - obvio, evidente

vast - vasta; vasto, enorme

deformed - deformado; deformar

comely - cómoda; lindo

When dinner was done, my master went out to his labourers, and, as I could discover by his voice and gesture, gave his wife strict charge to take care of me. I was very much tired, and disposed to sleep, which my mistress perceiving, she put me on her own bed, and covered me with a clean white handkerchief, but larger and coarser than the mainsail of a man-of-war.

perceiving - Percibiendo; (perceive); percibir, entender

coarser - más grueso; tosco, rústico, rudo, bruto

mainsail - vela mayor

I slept about two hours, and dreamt I was at home with my wife and children, which aggravated my sorrows when I awaked, and found myself alone in a vast room, between two and three hundred feet wide, and above two hundred high, lying in a bed twenty yards wide. My mistress was gone about her household affairs, and had locked me in. The bed was eight yards from the floor. Some natural necessities required me to get down; I durst not presume to call; and if I had, it would have been in vain, with such a voice as mine, at so great a distance from the room where I lay to the kitchen where the family kept. While I was under these circumstances, two rats crept up the curtains, and ran smelling backwards and forwards on the bed. One of them came up almost to my face, whereupon I rose in a fright, and drew out my hanger to defend myself. These horrible animals had the boldness to attack me on both sides, and one of them held his fore-feet at my collar; but I had the good fortune to rip up his belly before he could do me any mischief. He fell down at my feet; and the other, seeing the fate of his comrade, made his escape, but not without one good wound on the back, which I gave him as he fled, and made the blood run trickling from him. After this exploit, I walked gently to and fro on the bed, to recover my breath and loss of spirits. These creatures were of the size of a large mastiff, but infinitely more nimble and fierce; so that if I had taken off my belt before I went to sleep, I must have infallibly been torn to pieces and devoured.

aggravated - agravado; agravar, empeorar, irritar, exasperar, sublevar

sorrows - enas; tristeza, aflicción, infelicidad, pesar

household - hogar, agregado familiar, núcleo familiar, familia, casero

crept - se arrastró; reptar, hormigueo, fatiga

curtains - cortinas; cortina, telón

hanger - Percha

horrible - horrible, horrendo

boldness - audacia; osadía

rip - rasgar, desgarrar

fate - destino, azar

wound - Herida

trickling - goteo; (trickle); riachuelo, chorreo, instilar, chorrear, gotear

breath - respiración, aliento, respiro

spirits - espíritus; espíritu, alma, onda, alcohol, bebida espirituosa

infinitely - infinitamente

more nimble - más ágil

torn - desgarrado; lágrima

devoured - evorado; devorar, jambar

I measured the tail of the dead rat, and found it to be two yards long, wanting an inch; but it went against my stomach to drag the carcass off the bed, where it lay still bleeding; I observed it had yet some life, but with a strong slash across the neck, I thoroughly despatched it.

tail - cola

rat - rata

drag - arrastrar; llevar a rastras

bleeding - sangrado, hemorragia; (bleed); sangrar, desangrar, purgar

slash - rayar; dar un tajo, rajar

despatched - despachar

Soon after my mistress came into the room, who seeing me all bloody, ran and took me up in her hand. I pointed to the dead rat, smiling, and making other signs to show I was not hurt; whereat she was extremely rejoiced, calling the maid to take up the dead rat with a pair of tongs, and throw it out of the window. Then she set me on a table, where I showed her my hanger all bloody, and wiping it on the lappet of my coat, returned it to the scabbard. I was pressed to do more than one thing which another could not do for me, and therefore endeavoured to make my mistress understand, that I desired to be set down on the floor; which after she had done, my bashfulness would not suffer me to express myself farther, than by pointing to the door, and bowing several times.

wiping - Limpiar; (wipe) Limpiar

bowing - Inclinarse; (bow) Inclinarse

The good woman, with much difficulty, at last perceived what I would be at, and taking me up again in her hand, walked into the garden, where she set me down. I went on one side about two hundred yards, and beckoning to her not to look or to follow me, I hid myself between two leaves of sorrel, and there discharged the necessities of nature.

beckoning - haciendo senas; llamar con senas, atraer

sorrel - Alazán

I hope the gentle reader will excuse me for dwelling on these and the like particulars, which, however insignificant they may appear to groveling vulgar minds, yet will certainly help a philosopher to enlarge his thoughts and imagination, and apply them to the benefit of public as well as private life, which was my sole design in presenting this and other accounts of my travels to the world; wherein I have been chiefly studious of truth, without affecting any ornaments of learning or of style.

dwelling - vivienda; (dwell); habitar, morar

insignificant - insignificante, oscuro, desestimable

groveling - Arrastrándose; (grovel); humillarse, panish: t-needed

philosopher - filósofo, filósofa

accounts - uentas; cuenta

But the whole scene of this voyage made so strong an impression on my mind, and is so deeply fixed in my memory, that, in committing it to paper I did not omit one material circumstance: however, upon a strict review, I blotted out several passages. Of less moment which were in my first copy, for fear of being censured as tedious and trifling, whereof travellers are often, perhaps not without justice, accused.

committing - comprometiéndose; encomendar, cometer

omit - omitir, dejar de lado, dejarse en el tintero

blotted out - se ha borrado

censured - censurado; censura

tedious - tedioso, prolijo

trifling - tan insignificante; trivial, de pitiminí

travellers - viajeros; viajero


A description of the farmer's daughter. The author carried to a market-town, and then to the metropolis. The particulars of his journey.

My mistress had a daughter of nine years old, a child of towardly parts for her age, very dexterous at her needle, and skilful in dressing her baby. Her mother and she contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night: the cradle was put into a small drawer of a cabinet, and the drawer placed upon a hanging shelf for fear of the rats. This was my bed all the time I staid with those people, though made more convenient by degrees, as I began to learn their language and make my wants known. This young girl was so handy, that after I had once or twice pulled off my clothes before her, she was able to dress and undress me, though I never gave her that trouble when she would let me do either myself. She made me seven shirts, and some other linen, of as fine cloth as could be got, which indeed was coarser than sackcloth; and these she constantly washed for me with her own hands. She was likewise my school-mistress, to teach me the language: when I pointed to any thing, she told me the name of it in her own tongue, so that in a few days I was able to call for whatever I had a mind to. She was very good-natured, and not above forty feet high, being little for her age.

dexterous - destreza; diestro, hábil, habiloso, habilidoso

skilful - Hábil

cradle - cuna, brezo, brezar, brizar

drawer - cajón

hanging - Colgando; (hang) Colgando

shelf - estante, balda, anaquel, entrepano, estantería, arrecife

more convenient - más conveniente

handy - a mano, cercano

undress - desvestirse, desnudarse

sackcloth - arpillera; sambenito

good-natured - (good-natured) Buen carácter, buena gente

She gave me the name of Grildrig, which the family took up, and afterwards the whole kingdom. The word imports what the Latins call nanunculus, the Italians homunceletino, and the English mannikin. To her I chiefly owe my preservation in that country: we never parted while I was there; I called her my Glumdalclitch, or little nurse; and should be guilty of great ingratitude, if I omitted this honourable mention of her care and affection towards me, which I heartily wish it lay in my power to requite as she deserves, instead of being the innocent, but unhappy instrument of her disgrace, as I have too much reason to fear.

imports - importaciones; importar

Latins - Latín

nanunculus - Nanúnculo

mannikin - Maniquí

preservation - preservación

deserves - merecer, meritar

It now began to be known and talked of in the neighbourhood, that my master had found a strange animal in the field, about the bigness of a splacnuck, but exactly shaped in every part like a human creature; which it likewise imitated in all its actions; seemed to speak in a little language of its own, had already learned several words of theirs, went erect upon two legs, was tame and gentle, would come when it was called, do whatever it was bid, had the finest limbs in the world, and a complexion fairer than a nobleman's daughter of three years old. Another farmer, who lived hard by, and was a particular friend of my master, came on a visit on purpose to inquire into the truth of this story. I was immediately produced, and placed upon a table, where I walked as I was commanded, drew my hanger, put it up again, made my reverence to my master's guest, asked him in his own language how he did, and told him he was welcome, just as my little nurse had instructed me. This man, who was old and dim-sighted, put on his spectacles to behold me better; at which I could not forbear laughing very heartily, for his eyes appeared like the full moon shining into a chamber at two windows. Our people, who discovered the cause of my mirth, bore me company in laughing, at which the old fellow was fool enough to be angry and out of countenance. He had the character of a great miser; and, to my misfortune, he well deserved it, by the cursed advice he gave my master, to show me as a sight upon a market-day in the next town, which was half an hour's riding, about two-and-twenty miles from our house. I guessed there was some mischief when I observed my master and his friend whispering together, sometimes pointing at me; and my fears made me fancy that I overheard and understood some of their words.

neighbourhood - Vecindario

tame - dócil; domesticado; doméstico

nobleman - noble

inquire - preguntar; investigar, informarse

dim - débil, ténue

sighted - vidente; vista, lugar de interés, espectáculo, panorama, visor

shining - brillante; brillar

mirth - felicidad, alegría, júbilo

fellow - colega; tipo

fool - idiota; bobo, imbécil, necio, pendejo, bufón, loco

miser - miserable; tacano, rata, pesetero, tacano

deserved - merecido; merecer, meritar

cursed - Maldito; (curs) Maldito

overheard - oído por casualidad; oír por casualidad, oír sin querer

But the next morning Glumdalclitch, my little nurse, told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother. The poor girl laid me on her bosom, and fell a weeping with shame and grief. She apprehended some mischief would happen to me from rude vulgar folks, who might squeeze me to death, or break one of my limbs by taking me in their hands. She had also observed how modest I was in my nature, how nicely I regarded my honour, and what an indignity I should conceive it, to be exposed for money as a public spectacle, to the meanest of the people. She said, her papa and mamma had promised that Grildrig should be hers; but now she found they meant to serve her as they did last year, when they pretended to give her a lamb, and yet, as soon as it was fat, sold it to a butcher. For my own part, I may truly affirm, that I was less concerned than my nurse. I had a strong hope, which never left me, that I should one day recover my liberty: and as to the ignominy of being carried about for a monster, I considered myself to be a perfect stranger in the country, and that such a misfortune could never be charged upon me as a reproach, if ever I should return to England, since the king of Great Britain himself, in my condition, must have undergone the same distress.

cunningly - astutamente, arteramente

bosom - seno, pechera, busto

weeping - Llorando; (weep) Llorando

folks - pueblo, gente

nicely - espléndidamente, bien

regarded - considerado; considerar

indignity - indignidad, ofensa, afrenta

exposed - Exposiciones

spectacle - espectáculo, papelón

papa - papá

mamma - mama, mamá

pretended - fingido; fingir, de mentirijillas

lamb - cordero, carne de cordero, borrego, borrega

butcher - carnicero; (butch) carnicero

ignominy - ignominia

perfect stranger - perfecto desconocido

charged - cargado; cargo, acusación, encargo, figura, acusar, cobrar

reproach - reproche, vergüenza, reprochar, avergonzar, echar en cara algo

Britain - Gran Bretana

undergone - ufrido; experimentar, sufrir, soportar, padecer

My master, pursuant to the advice of his friend, carried me in a box the next market-day to the neighbouring town, and took along with him his little daughter, my nurse, upon a pillion behind him. The box was close on every side, with a little door for me to go in and out, and a few gimlet holes to let in air. The girl had been so careful as to put the quilt of her baby's bed into it, for me to lie down on. However, I was terribly shaken and discomposed in this journey, though it was but of half an hour: for the horse went about forty feet at every step and trotted so high, that the agitation was equal to the rising and falling of a ship in a great storm, but much more frequent.

little daughter - hija pequena

pillion - asiento de pasajero, asiento trasero, de paquete, grupera

gimlet - barrena de mano

let in - hacer pasar; dejar entrar; permitir

trotted - trotó; trotar

Our journey was somewhat farther than from London to St. Alban's. My master alighted at an inn which he used to frequent; and after consulting awhile with the inn-keeper, and making some necessary preparations, he hired the grultrud, or crier, to give notice through the town of a strange creature to be seen at the sign of the Green Eagle, not so big as a splacnuck (an animal in that country very finely shaped, about six feet long,) and in every part of the body resembling a human creature, could speak several words, and perform a hundred diverting tricks.

Inn - posada, venta

keeper - guardián, guardiana, custodio

preparations - preparativos; preparación

hired - contratado; alquilar

crier - Llorón

give notice - dar aviso

eagle - águila

finely - Finamente

tricks - trucos; truco, artimana, enganifa, treta

I was placed upon a table in the largest room of the inn, which might be near three hundred feet square. My little nurse stood on a low stool close to the table, to take care of me, and direct what I should do. My master, to avoid a crowd, would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. I walked about on the table as the girl commanded; she asked me questions, as far as she knew my understanding of the language reached, and I answered them as loud as I could. I turned about several times to the company, paid my humble respects, said they were welcome, and used some other speeches I had been taught. I took up a thimble filled with liquor, which Glumdalclitch had given me for a cup, and drank their health, I drew out my hanger, and flourished with it after the manner of fencers in England. My nurse gave me a part of a straw, which I exercised as a pike, having learnt the art in my youth. I was that day shown to twelve sets of company, and as often forced to act over again the same fopperies, till I was half dead with weariness and vexation; for those who had seen me made such wonderful reports, that the people were ready to break down the doors to come in.

stool - heces; taburete

turned about - darse la vuelta

thimble - dedal, dedo, guardacabo

fencers - esgrimistas; esgrimidor, esgrimidora, esgrimista

fopperies - fopperies; panish: t-needed

vexation - enfado; vejación, vejación

My master, for his own interest, would not suffer any one to touch me except my nurse; and to prevent danger, benches were set round the table at such a distance as to put me out of every body's reach. However, an unlucky school-boy aimed a hazel nut directly at my head, which very narrowly missed me; otherwise it came with so much violence, that it would have infallibly knocked out my brains, for it was almost as large as a small pumpkin, but I had the satisfaction to see the young rogue well beaten, and turned out of the room.

benches - bancos; banco

unlucky - mala suerte; desafortunado

aimed - dirigido; apuntar

hazel - avellano, color avellana

pumpkin - calabaza, calabazera, auyama

satisfaction - satisfacción, satisfacción

rogue - canalla, granuja, vago

My master gave public notice that he would show me again the next market-day; and in the meantime he prepared a convenient vehicle for me, which he had reason enough to do; for I was so tired with my first journey, and with entertaining company for eight hours together, that I could hardly stand upon my legs, or speak a word. It was at least three days before I recovered my strength; and that I might have no rest at home, all the neighbouring gentlemen from a hundred miles round, hearing of my fame, came to see me at my master's own house.

meantime - mientras tanto; entretanto, en tanto

fame - fama

There could not be fewer than thirty persons with their wives and children (for the country is very populous;) and my master demanded the rate of a full room whenever he showed me at home, although it were only to a single family; so that for some time I had but little ease every day of the week (except Wednesday, which is their Sabbath,) although I were not carried to the town.

Sabbath - sábado, sabbat, domingo, aquelarre

My master, finding how profitable I was likely to be, resolved to carry me to the most considerable cities of the kingdom. Having therefore provided himself with all things necessary for a long journey, and settled his affairs at home, He took leave of his wife, and upon the 17th of August, 1703, about two months after my arrival, we set out for the metropolis, situate near the middle of that empire, and about three thousand miles distance from our house.

profitable - rentable, provechoso, lucrativo, ventajoso

most considerable - el más considerable

settled - resuelto; instalar, colocar

He took leave - irse de baja, despedirse

situate - situar

My master made his daughter Glumdalclitch ride behind him. She carried me on her lap, in a box tied about her waist. The girl had lined it on all sides with the softest cloth she could get, well quilted underneath, furnished it with her baby's bed, provided me with linen and other necessaries, and made everything as convenient as she could. We had no other company but a boy of the house, who rode after us with the luggage.

quilted - acolchado; colcha, edredón, acolchar

underneath - abajo, por debajo, bajos

furnished - amueblado; amoblar, amueblar, suministrar, proporcionar, dotar

luggage - equipaje

My master's design was to show me in all the towns by the way, and to step out of the road for fifty or a hundred miles, to any village, or person of quality's house, where he might expect custom. We made easy journeys, of not above seven or eight score miles a-day; for Glumdalclitch, on purpose to Spare me, complained she was tired with the trotting of the horse. She often took me out of my box, at my own desire, to give me air, and show me the country, but always held me fast by a leading-string. We passed over five or six rivers, many degrees broader and deeper than the Nile or the Ganges: and there was hardly a rivulet so small as the Thames at London-bridge.

Spare me - ahorrarle algo a alguien

trotting - al trote; (trot) al trote

leading - dirigiendo; (lead) dirigiendo

broader - más amplio; ancho

Nile - Nilo

Ganges - Ganges

rivulet - riachuelo

Thames - Támesis

We were ten weeks in our journey, and I was shown in eighteen large towns, besides many villages, and private families.

On the 26th day of October we arrived at the metropolis, called in their language Lorbrulgrud, or Pride of the Universe. My master took a lodging in the principal street of the city, not far from the royal palace, and put out bills in the usual form, containing an exact description of my person and parts. He hired a large room between three and four hundred feet wide. He provided a table sixty feet in diameter, upon which I was to act my part, and pallisadoed it round three feet from the edge, and as many high, to prevent my falling over. I was shown ten times a-day, to the wonder and satisfaction of all people. I could now speak the language tolerably well, and perfectly understood every word, that was spoken to me. Besides, I had learnt their alphabet, and could make a shift to explain a sentence here and there; for Glumdalclitch had been my instructor while we were at home, and at leisure hours during our journey.

pride - orgullo, soberbia, cachondez, toriondez, verriondez, manada

pallisadoed - pallisado

alphabet - alfabeto, abecedario

She carried a little book in her pocket, not much larger than a Sanson's Atlas; it was a common treatise for the use of young girls, giving a short account of their religion: out of this she taught me my letters, and interpreted the words.


The author sent for to court. The queen buys him of his master the farmer, and presents him to the king. He disputes with his majesty's great scholars. An apartment at court provided for the author. He is in high favour with the queen. He stands up for the honour of his own country. His quarrels with the queen's dwarf.

disputes - disputas; disputa, contencioso

quarrels - peleas; pelea, rina

dwarf - enano, enano

The frequent labours I underwent every day, made, in a few weeks, a very considerable change in my health: the more my master got by me, the more insatiable he grew. I had quite lost my stomach, and was almost reduced to a skeleton. The farmer observed it, and concluding I must soon die, resolved to make as good a hand of me as he could. While he was thus reasoning and resolving with himself, a sardral, or gentleman-usher, came from court, commanding my master to carry me immediately thither for the diversion of the queen and her ladies. Some of the latter had already been to see me, and reported strange things of my beauty, behaviour, and good sense. Her majesty, and those who attended her, were beyond measure delighted with my demeanour. I fell on my knees, and begged the honour of kissing her imperial foot; but this gracious princess held out her little finger towards me, after I was set on the table, which I embraced in both my arms, and put the tip of it with the utmost respect to my lip. She made me some general questions about my country and my travels, which I answered as distinctly, and in as few words as I could. She asked, "whether I could be content to live at court?" I bowed down to the board of the table, and humbly answered "that I was my master's slave: but, if I were at my own disposal, I should be proud to devote my life to her majesty's service." She then asked my master, "whether he was willing to sell me at a good price?" He, who apprehended I could not live a month, was ready enough to part with me, and demanded a thousand pieces of gold, which were ordered him on the spot, each piece being about the bigness of eight hundred moidores; but allowing for the proportion of all things between that country and Europe, and the high price of gold among them, was hardly so great a sum as a thousand guineas would be in England.

labours - trabajos; trabajo, campesinos, trabajadores, parto, trabajar

more insatiable - más insaciable

concluding - concluyendo; concluir

usher - acomodador, acomodadora, gloss rotestant churches, ujier

demeanour - conducta, comportamiento

kissing - besando; besar

princess - princesa, infanta, princesa, checkinfanta

embraced - abrazado; abrazar, abrazo

bowed - inclinado; inclinar(se), hacer una reverencia

slave - esclavo, esclava, checkesclava

proud - orgulloso

devote - devota; dedicar

guineas - guineas; Guinea

I then said to the queen, "since I was now her majesty's most humble creature and vassal, I must beg the favour, that Glumdalclitch, who had always tended me with so much care and kindness, and understood to do it so well, might be admitted into her service, and continue to be my nurse and instructor."

vassal - vasallo, avasallar

beg - pedir limosna; pedir

tended - tendido; guardar

Her majesty agreed to my petition, and easily got the farmer's consent, who was glad enough to have his daughter preferred at court, and the poor girl herself was not able to hide her joy. My late master withdrew, bidding me farewell, and saying he had left me in a good service; to which I replied not a word, only making him a slight bow.

bidding - Pujando; (bid) Pujando

Farewell - adiós, despedida, despedirse

Slight - insignificante, leve, ligero, falta de respeto

The queen observed my coldness; and, when the farmer was gone out of the apartment, asked me the reason. I made bold to tell her majesty, "that I owed no other obligation to my late master, than his not dashing out the brains of a poor harmless creature, found by chance in his fields: which obligation was amply recompensed, by the gain he had made in showing me through half the kingdom, and the price he had now sold me for. That the life I had since led was laborious enough to kill an animal of ten times my strength. That my health was much impaired, by the continual drudgery of entertaining the rabble every hour of the day; and that, if my master had not thought my life in danger, her majesty would not have got so cheap a bargain.

coldness - frío, frialdad, displicencia

dashing - legante; raya, guion largo, carrerita, gota, pizca, lanzarse

harmless - inocuo, inofensivo

amply - ampliamente, con creces

impaired - deteriorado; deteriorar, empeorar, descomponer, mermar

bargain - trato, ganga, bicoca, chollo, regatear

But as I was out of all fear of being ill-treated under the protection of so great and good an empress, the ornament of nature, the darling of the world, the delight of her subjects, the phoenix of the creation, so I hoped my late master's apprehensions would appear to be groundless; for I already found my spirits revive, by the influence of her most august presence."

ornament - ornamento, ornamento musical

darling - carino; querido, querida, amado, amada

phoenix - fénix, fénice

creation - creación

apprehensions - aprehensiones; arresto, aprensión

groundless - infundado, sin fundamento

revive - revivir

influence - influencia, influir, influenciar

This was the sum of my speech, delivered with great improprieties and hesitation. The latter part was altogether framed in the style peculiar to that people, whereof I learned some phrases from Glumdalclitch, while she was carrying me to court.

hesitation - hesitación, vacilación, dudas, titubeo

framed - enmarcado; levantar la estructura, armar, enmarcar, concebir

The queen, giving great allowance for my defectiveness in speaking, was, however, surprised at so much wit and good sense in so diminutive an animal. She took me in her own hand, and carried me to the king, who was then retired to his cabinet. His majesty, a prince of much gravity and austere countenance, not well observing my shape at first view, asked the queen after a cold manner "how long it was since she grew fond of a splacnuck?" for such it seems he took me to be, as I lay upon my breast in her majesty's right hand.

defectiveness - defectuosidad

gravity - gravedad

austere - austeridad; severo, austero

fond - carinoso, afectuoso

But this princess, who has an infinite deal of wit and humour, set me gently on my feet upon the scrutoire, and commanded me to give his majesty an account of myself, which I did in a very few words: and Glumdalclitch who attended at the cabinet door, and could not endure I should be out of her sight, being admitted, confirmed all that had passed from my arrival at her father's house.

humour - humor, seguir la corriente

scrutoire - crutoire

endure - soportar; aguantar, perdurar, tolerar, consentir, condescender

The king, although he be as learned a person as any in his dominions, had been educated in the study of philosophy, and particularly mathematics; yet when he observed my shape exactly, and saw me walk erect, before I began to speak, conceived I might be a piece of clock-work (which is in that country arrived to a very great perfection) contrived by some ingenious artist. But when he heard my voice, and found what I delivered to be regular and rational, he could not conceal his astonishment.

Philosophy - filosofía

conceal - esconder, ocultar

He was by no means satisfied with the relation I gave him of the manner I came into his kingdom, but thought it a story concerted between Glumdalclitch and her father, who had taught me a set of words to make me sell at a better price. Upon this imagination, he put several other questions to me, and still received rational answers: no otherwise defective than by a foreign accent, and an imperfect knowledge in the language, with some rustic phrases which I had learned at the farmer's house, and did not suit the polite style of a court.

defective - defectuoso, defectivo

imperfect - imperfecto, imperfecto

rustic - rústico

His majesty sent for three great scholars, who were then in their weekly waiting, according to the custom in that country. These gentlemen, after they had a while examined my shape with much nicety, were of different opinions concerning me. They all agreed that I could not be produced according to the regular laws of nature, because I was not framed with a capacity of preserving my life, either by swiftness, or climbing of trees, or digging holes in the earth. They observed by my teeth, which they viewed with great exactness, that I was a carnivorous animal; yet most quadrupeds being an overmatch for me, and field mice, with some others, too nimble, they could not imagine how I should be able to support myself, unless I fed upon snails and other insects, which they offered, by many learned arguments, to evince that I could not possibly do. One of these virtuosi seemed to think that I might be an embryo, or abortive birth.

weekly - semanalmente, cada semana, todas las semanas, semanario

examined - examinado; examinar, analizar, auscultar

capacity - capacidad

swiftness - rapidez

digging - Cavando; (dig) Cavando

carnivorous - carnívoro

quadrupeds - uadrúpedos; cuadrúpedo, tetrápodo

overmatch - Sobrematch

nimble - diestro, ágil, hábil, despierto

Unless - menos que..; a menos que, a no ser que, salvo

snails - caracoles; caracol, haragán, holgazán, gandul, tortuga

evince - manifestar, revelar, evidenciar

virtuosi - virtuosos

embryo - embrión

abortive - abortivo, fracasado, frustrado, malogrado

But this opinion was rejected by the other two, who observed my limbs to be perfect and finished; and that I had lived several years, as it was manifest from my beard, the stumps whereof they plainly discovered through a magnifying glass. They would not allow me to be a dwarf, because my littleness was beyond all degrees of comparison; for the queen's favourite dwarf, the smallest ever known in that kingdom, was near thirty feet high. After much debate, they concluded unanimously, that I was only relplum scalcath, which is interpreted literally lusus naturć; a determination exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of Europe, whose professors, disdaining the old evasion of occult causes, whereby the followers of Aristotle endeavoured in vain to disguise their ignorance, have invented this wonderful solution of all difficulties, to the unspeakable advancement of human knowledge.

magnifying - aumentando; magnificar

littleness - la pequenez

unanimously - unánimemente, por unanimidad

relplum - replum

scalcath - Escalcatar

literally - literalmente, literal

naturć - natura

determination - determinación, decisión, resolución, ahínco

disdaining - desdén, desprecio, desdeno, desdenar, despreciar

evasion - evasión, fraude de ley

occult - oculto, ocultismo

followers - seguidores; seguidor, seguidora, imitador

Aristotle - Aristóteles

disguise - disfraz, pantalla, tapadera, disfrazar

advancement - avanzar; ascenso, progreso, avance de herencia

After this decisive conclusion, I entreated to be heard a word or two. I applied myself to the king, and assured his majesty, "that I came from a country which abounded with several millions of both sexes, and of my own stature; where the animals, trees, and houses, were all in proportion, and where, by consequence, I might be as able to defend myself, and to find sustenance, as any of his majesty's subjects could do here; which I took for a full answer to those gentlemen's arguments." To this they only replied with a smile of contempt, saying, "that the farmer had instructed me very well in my lesson." The king, who had a much better understanding, dismissing his learned men, sent for the farmer, who by good fortune was not yet gone out of town. Having therefore first examined him privately, and then confronted him with me and the young girl, his majesty began to think that what we told him might possibly be true. He desired the queen to order that a particular care should be taken of me; and was of opinion that Glumdalclitch should still continue in her office of tending me, because he observed we had a great affection for each other. A convenient apartment was provided for her at court: she had a sort of governess appointed to take care of her education, a maid to dress her, and two other servants for menial offices; but the care of me was wholly appropriated to herself. The queen commanded her own cabinet-maker to contrive a box, that might serve me for a bedchamber, after the model that Glumdalclitch and I should agree upon.

decisive - decisivo, decidido

conclusion - conclusión

abounded - bundaban; abundar, ser abundante

stature - estatura

confronted - confrontado; enfrentar

tending - tendiendo; guardar

governess - gobernanta; institutriz

Maker - hacedor, fabricante

contrive - inventar; idear, improvisar

agree upon - acordar

This man was a most ingenious artist, and according to my direction, in three weeks finished for me a wooden chamber of sixteen feet square, and twelve high, with sash-windows, a door, and two closets, like a London bed-chamber. The board, that made the ceiling, was to be lifted up and down by two hinges, to put in a bed ready furnished by her majesty's upholsterer, which Glumdalclitch took out every day to air, made it with her own hands, and letting it down at night, locked up the roof over me. A nice workman, who was famous for little curiosities, undertook to make me two chairs, with backs and frames, of a substance not unlike ivory, and two tables, with a cabinet to put my things in. The room was quilted on all sides, as well as the floor and the ceiling, to prevent any accident from the carelessness of those who carried me, and to break the force of a jolt, when I went in a coach. I desired a lock for my door, to prevent rats and mice from coming in. The smith, after several attempts, made the smallest that ever was seen among them, for I have known a larger at the gate of a gentleman's house in England. I made a shift to keep the key in a pocket of my own, fearing Glumdalclitch might lose it. The queen likewise ordered the thinnest silks that could be gotten, to make me clothes, not much thicker than an English blanket, very cumbersome till I was accustomed to them. They were after the fashion of the kingdom, partly resembling the Persian, and partly the Chinese, and are a very grave and decent habit.

sash - faja; fajín (militar)

closets - armarios; ropero, armario, clóset

ceiling - techo; (ceil) techo

curiosities - curiosidades; curiosidad

undertook - mprendió; emprender, acometer

frames - marcos; levantar la estructura, armar, enmarcar, concebir

unlike - a diferencia de; diferente

ivory - marfil, ebúrneo

jolt - sacudida; sacudir, traquetear

attempts - intentos; intentar, tentativa, intento, ensayo

silks - sedas; seda

gotten - Conseguido

blanket - manta, capa, general

cumbersome - ngorroso; pesado, cargante, penoso

accustomed - acostumbrado; acostumbrarse, habituar

partly - en parte, en cierto modo

Persian - Persa

The queen became so fond of my company, that she could not dine without me. I had a table placed upon the same at which her majesty ate, just at her left elbow, and a chair to sit on. Glumdalclitch stood on a stool on the floor near my table, to assist and take care of me. I had an entire set of silver dishes and plates, and other necessaries, which, in proportion to those of the queen, were not much bigger than what I have seen in a London toy-shop for the furniture of a baby-house: these my little nurse kept in her pocket in a silver box, and gave me at meals as I wanted them, always cleaning them herself. No person dined with the queen but the two princesses royal, the eldest sixteen years old, and the younger at that time thirteen and a month. Her majesty used to put a bit of meat upon one of my dishes, out of which I carved for myself, and her diversion was to see me eat in miniature: for the queen (who had indeed but a weak stomach) took up, at one mouthful, as much as a dozen English farmers could eat at a meal, which to me was for some time a very nauseous sight.

elbow - codo, codazo, panish: t-needed

entire - entero

toy-shop - (toy-shop) tienda de juguetes

dined - cenamos; jaleo

princesses - princesas; princesa, infanta, princesa, checkinfanta

carved - tallado; cortar, trinchar, tallar, esculpir

eat in - comer en

miniature - miniatura

She would craunch the wing of a lark, bones and all, between her teeth, although it were nine times as large as that of a full-grown turkey; and put a bit of bread into her mouth as big as two twelve-penny loaves. She drank out of a golden cup, above a hogshead at a draught. Her knives were twice as long as a scythe, set straight upon the handle. The spoons, forks, and other instruments, were all in the same proportion. I remember when Glumdalclitch carried me, out of curiosity, to see some of the tables at court, where ten or a dozen of those enormous knives and forks were lifted up together, I thought I had never till then beheld so terrible a sight.

Wing - ala, sección, parte, flanco, alero

turkey - pavo, chompipe

hogshead - cabeza de cerdo; bocoy

scythe - guadana; guadana, guadanar

handle - manejar; mango; asa; manilla, pomo(puerta)

till then - hasta entonces

It is the custom, that every Wednesday (which, as I have observed, is their Sabbath) the king and queen, with the royal issue of both sexes, dine together in the apartment of his majesty, to whom I was now become a great favourite; and at these times, my little chair and table were placed at his left hand, before one of the salt-cellars. This prince took a pleasure in conversing with me, inquiring into the manners, religion, laws, government, and learning of Europe; wherein I gave him the best account I was able. His apprehension was so clear, and his judgment so exact, that he made very wise reflections and observations upon all I said. But I confess, that, after I had been a little too copious in talking of my own beloved country, of our trade and wars by sea and land, of our schisms in religion, and parties in the state; the prejudices of his education prevailed so far, that he could not forbear taking me up in his right hand, and stroking me gently with the other, after a hearty fit of laughing, asked me, "whether I was a whig or tory?

dine - cenar

cellars - sótanos; sótano, bodega

pleasure - placer, voluptuosidad, gustar

wise - sabio

observations - observaciones; observación, vigilancia; observancia, anotación

copious - copioso

schisms - ismas; cisma

prejudices - prejuicios; prejuicio, perjudicar, prejuiciar

hearty - corazonoso; carinoso, de corazón, cordial, corpulento, nutritivo

Then turning to his first minister, who waited behind him with a white staff, near as tall as the mainmast of the Royal Sovereign, he observed "how contemptible a thing was human grandeur, which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects as I: and yet," says he, "I dare engage these creatures have their titles and distinctions of honour; they contrive little nests and burrows, that they call houses and cities; they make a figure in dress and equipage; they love, they fight, they dispute, they cheat, they betray!" And thus he continued on, while my colour came and went several times, with indignation, to hear our noble country, the mistress of arts and arms, the scourge of France, the arbitress of Europe, the seat of virtue, piety, honour, and truth, the pride and envy of the world, so contemptuously treated.

mainmast - mástil principal; palo mayor

sovereign - soberano

contemptible - despreciable, menospreciable, desdenable, rastrero

dare - te atreves; atraverse, osar

engage - participar; atraer, trabar conversación con, trabar batalla

distinctions - distinciones; distinción

nests - nidos; nido

burrows - adrigueras; madriguera, ratonera, socavar

equipage - bagaje, furgón, tren de equipajes, carroza, carruaje de lujo

cheat - enganar, estafar, timar

betray - traicionar, entregar, vender, delatar, demostrar

indignation - indignación

scourge - azote, flagelo, azotar, flagelar

arbitress - árbitro

piety - piedad

envy - envidia, pelusa, envidiar

contemptuously - despectivamente

Nothing angered and mortified me so much as the queen's dwarf; who being of the lowest stature that was ever in that country (for I verily think he was not full thirty feet high), became so insolent at seeing a creature so much beneath him, that he would always affect to swagger and look big as he passed by me in the queen's antechamber, while I was standing on some table talking with the lords or ladies of the court, and he seldom failed of a smart word or two upon my littleness; against which I could only revenge myself by calling him brother, challenging him to wrestle, and such repartees as are usually in the mouths of court pages. One day, at dinner, this malicious little cub was so nettled with something I had said to him, that, raising himself upon the frame of her majesty's chair, he took me up by the middle, as I was sitting down, not thinking any harm, and let me drop into a large silver bowl of cream, and then ran away as fast as he could.

angered - enfadado; ira, enfado, enojo, rabia

mortified - mortificado; mortificar, matar

verily - verdaderamente, de verdad, de veras, realmente

insolent - insolente

beneath - por debajo; bajo

swagger - presumir; contonearse; pavonearse

antechamber - antecámara, antesala

challenging - un reto; desafío, reto, disputa, impedimento, incompatibilidad

wrestle - luchar

malicious - malicioso; maligno

cub - cachorro

nettled - molesto; ortiga, picar, checkirritar, checkprovocar

harm - dano; dano, danar

I fell over head and ears, and, if I had not been a good swimmer, it might have gone very hard with me; for Glumdalclitch in that instant happened to be at the other end of the room, and the queen was in such a fright, that she wanted presence of mind to assist me. But my little nurse ran to my relief, and took me out, after I had swallowed above a quart of cream. I was put to bed: however, I received no other damage than the loss of a suit of clothes, which was utterly spoiled. The dwarf was soundly whipt, and as a farther punishment, forced to drink up the bowl of cream into which he had thrown me: neither was he ever restored to favour; for soon after the queen bestowed him on a lady of high quality, so that I saw him no more, to my very great satisfaction; for I could not tell to what extremities such a malicious urchin might have carried his resentment.

swimmer - nadador, nadadora

relief - alivio

swallowed - tragado; tragar, engullir

quart - un cuarto de galón; cuarta, cuarto de galón

soundly - a fondo; profundo

whipt - Latigazo

drink up - apurar el trago, terminar

restored - restaurado; restablecer, restaurar

bestowed - otorgado; guardar, estibar, depositar, alojar, acordar, conceder

He had before served me a scurvy trick, which set the queen a-laughing, although at the same time she was heartily vexed, and would have immediately cashiered him, if I had not been so generous as to intercede. Her majesty had taken a marrow-bone upon her plate, and, after knocking out the marrow, placed the bone again in the dish erect, as it stood before; the dwarf, watching his opportunity, while Glumdalclitch was gone to the side-board, mounted the stool that she stood on to take care of me at meals, took me up in both hands, and squeezing my legs together, wedged them into the marrow bone above my waist, where I stuck for some time, and made a very ridiculous figure.

scurvy - escorbuto

trick - truco, artimana, enganifa, treta

vexed - molesto; molestar, irritar, disgustar, afligir, atormentar

cashiered - cajero

marrow - médula, tuétano

squeezing - apretando; (squeeze); exprimir, apretar, apretujar, apuro

wedged - clavado; cuna

I believe it was near a minute before any one knew what was become of me; for I thought it below me to cry out. But, as princes seldom get their meat hot, my legs were not scalded, only my stockings and breeches in a sad condition. The dwarf, at my entreaty, had no other punishment than a sound whipping.

scalded - escaldado; escaldar, quemar con agua caliente

entreaty - suplicas; petición, solicitud, plegaria

whipping - azotes; fustigamiento, montaje, batimiento; (whip); fusta

I was frequently rallied by the queen upon account of my fearfulness; and she used to ask me whether the people of my country were as great cowards as myself? The occasion was this: the kingdom is much pestered with flies in summer; and these odious insects, each of them as big as a Dunstable lark, hardly gave me any rest while I sat at dinner, with their continual humming and buzzing about mine ears. They would sometimes alight upon my victuals, and leave their loathsome excrement, or spawn behind, which to me was very visible, though not to the natives of that country, whose large optics were not so acute as mine, in viewing smaller objects. Sometimes they would fix upon my nose, or forehead, where they stung me to the quick, smelling very offensively; and I could easily trace that viscous matter, which, our naturalists tell us, enables those creatures to walk with their feet upwards upon a ceiling. I had much ado to defend myself against these detestable animals, and could not forbear starting when they came on my face.

rallied - reunidos; reagrupar

fearfulness - Miedo

pestered - molestado; atosigar, molestar, dar la tabarra, jorobar

odious - odioso

humming - Tarareando; (hum); tararear, canturrear

alight - se enciende; apearse de

loathsome - asqueroso; aborrecible, detestable, odioso, abominable

excrement - excrementos; excremento

spawn - desove; huevas

visible - visible

optics - óptica; óptico

acute - agudo, perspicaz, sagaz, grave

forehead - la frente; frente

stung - picado; aguijón

offensively - ofensivamente

trace - rastrear; rastro, huella, vestigio, indicio

viscous - viscoso

naturalists - naturalistas; naturalista

enables - permite; habilitar, posibilitar, activar

It was the common practice of the dwarf, to catch a number of these insects in his hand, as schoolboys do among us, and let them out suddenly under my nose, on purpose to frighten me, and divert the queen. My remedy was to cut them in pieces with my knife, as they flew in the air, wherein my dexterity was much admired.

frighten - asustar; atemorizar

admired - admirado; admirar

I remember, one morning, when Glumdalclitch had set me in a box upon a window, as she usually did in fair days to give me air (for I durst not venture to let the box be hung on a nail out of the window, as we do with cages in England), after I had lifted up one of my sashes, and sat down at my table to eat a piece of sweet cake for my breakfast, above twenty wasps, allured by the smell, came flying into the room, humming louder than the drones of as many bagpipes. Some of them seized my cake, and carried it piecemeal away; others flew about my head and face, confounding me with the noise, and putting me in the utmost terror of their stings.

cages - jaulas; jaula, cabina, enjaular

sashes - fajas; faja; fajín (militar)

wasps - a avispas; avispa

allured - atraído; Attactivo, Encanto

drones - drones; zángano

bagpipes - Gaitas

piecemeal - poco a poco; deslavazado, poco sistemático, deslavazadamente

confounding - confusión; confundir, empeorar

stings - piquetes; aguijón

However, I had the courage to rise and draw my hanger, and attack them in the air. I dispatched four of them, but the rest got away, and I presently shut my window. These insects were as large as partridges: I took out their stings, found them an inch and a half long, and as sharp as needles. I carefully preserved them all; and having since shown them, with some other curiosities, in several parts of Europe, upon my return to England I gave three of them to Gresham College, and kept the fourth for myself.

Partridges - perdices; perdiz


The country described. A proposal for correcting modern maps. The king's palace; and some account of the metropolis. The author's way of travelling. The chief temple described.

I now intend to give the reader a short description of this country, as far as I travelled in it, which was not above two thousand miles round Lorbrulgrud, the metropolis. For the queen, whom I always attended, never went farther when she accompanied the king in his progresses, and there staid till his majesty returned from viewing his frontiers.

accompanied - acompanado; acompanar

frontiers - fronteras; frontera

The whole extent of this prince's dominions reaches about six thousand miles in length, and from three to five in breadth: whence I cannot but conclude, that our geographers of Europe are in a great error, by supposing nothing but sea between Japan and California; for it was ever my opinion, that there must be a balance of earth to counterpoise the great continent of Tartary; and therefore they ought to correct their maps and charts, by joining this vast tract of land to the north-west parts of America, wherein I shall be ready to lend them my assistance.

Geographers - geógrafos; geógrafo, geógrafa

counterpoise - contrapeso

tract - tracto; extensión

The kingdom is a peninsula, terminated to the north-east by a ridge of mountains thirty miles high, which are altogether impassable, by reason of the volcanoes upon the tops: neither do the most learned know what sort of mortals inhabit beyond those mountains, or whether they be inhabited at all. On the three other sides, it is bounded by the ocean. There is not one seaport in the whole kingdom: and those parts of the coasts into which the rivers issue, are so full of pointed rocks, and the sea generally so rough, that there is no venturing with the smallest of their boats; so that these people are wholly excluded from any commerce with the rest of the world. But the large rivers are full of vessels, and abound with excellent fish; for they seldom get any from the sea, because the sea fish are of the same size with those in Europe, and consequently not worth catching; whereby it is manifest, that nature, in the production of plants and animals of so extraordinary a bulk, is wholly confined to this continent, of which I leave the reasons to be determined by philosophers.

Peninsula - península

terminated - terminado; terminar, acabar

impassable - intransitable; infranqueable

volcanoes - volcanes; volcán

inhabit - habitar, morar, vivir

bounded - atado

venturing - Aventurarse; (venture); aventura, arriesgar

excluded - excluidos; excluir

abound - abundar, ser abundante

worth - vale la pena; valor

production - producción, elaboración

confined - confinado; confinar, encorsetar, confín, raya

However, now and then they take a whale that happens to be dashed against the rocks, which the common people feed on heartily. These whales I have known so large, that a man could hardly carry one upon his shoulders; and sometimes, for curiosity, they are brought in hampers to Lorbrulgrud; I saw one of them in a dish at the king's table, which passed for a rarity, but I did not observe he was fond of it; for I think, indeed, the bigness disgusted him, although I have seen one somewhat larger in Greenland.

dashed - dashed; raya, guion largo, carrerita, gota, pizca, lanzarse

Whales - Ballenas; (whale) Ballenas

hampers - estas; estorbar, impedir, obstaculizar

rarity - raridad, rareza

Greenland - Groenlandia

The country is well inhabited, for it contains fifty-one cities, near a hundred walled towns, and a great number of villages. To satisfy my curious reader, it may be sufficient to describe Lorbrulgrud. This city stands upon almost two equal parts, on each side the river that passes through. It contains above eighty thousand houses, and about six hundred thousand inhabitants.

satisfy - satisfacer

It is in length three glomglungs (which make about fifty-four English miles,) and two and a half in breadth; as I measured it myself in the royal map made by the king's order, which was laid on the ground on purpose for me, and extended a hundred feet: I paced the diameter and circumference several times barefoot, and, computing by the scale, measured it pretty exactly.

laid on - poner encima de algo; aprovisionar

paced - a ritmo; paso

barefoot - descalzo, chuna

computing - computación, informática; (compute); computar, calcular

scale - escala

The king's palace is no regular edifice, but a heap of buildings, about seven miles round: the chief rooms are generally two hundred and forty feet high, and broad and long in proportion. A coach was allowed to Glumdalclitch and me, wherein her governess frequently took her out to see the town, or go among the shops; and I was always of the party, carried in my box; although the girl, at my own desire, would often take me out, and hold me in her hand, that I might more conveniently view the houses and the people, as we passed along the streets. I reckoned our coach to be about a square of Westminster-hall, but not altogether so high: however, I cannot be very exact. One day the governess ordered our coachman to stop at several shops, where the beggars, watching their opportunity, crowded to the sides of the coach, and gave me the most horrible spectacle that ever a European eye beheld.

coachman - Cochero

beggars - mendigos; mendigo, mendiga, pordiosero, mendicante

most horrible - el más horrible

There was a woman with a cancer in her breast, swelled to a monstrous size, full of holes, in two or three of which I could have easily crept, and covered my whole body. There was a fellow with a wen in his neck, larger than five wool-packs; and another, with a couple of wooden legs, each about twenty feet high. But the most hateful sight of all, was the lice crawling on their clothes. I could see distinctly the limbs of these vermin with my naked eye, much better than those of a European louse through a microscope, and their snouts with which they rooted like swine. They were the first I had ever beheld, and I should have been curious enough to dissect one of them, if I had had proper instruments, which I unluckily left behind me in the ship, although, indeed, the sight was so nauseous, that it perfectly turned my stomach.

Cancer - cáncer

swelled - hinchado; hinchar(se), inflar(se)

Wool - lana

lice - Piojos

crawling - Arrastrándose; (crawl) Arrastrándose

vermin - bichos; alimana, bicho, gentuza, sabandija

louse - piojo, sinvergüenza, canalla, despiojar

microscope - microscopio

snouts - hocicos; hocico, narizota, narices, boquilla, trompa, echnical

swine - cerdo, canalla

dissect - disecar, diseccionar

unluckily - desgraciadamente; desafortunadamente

Besides the large box in which I was usually carried, the queen ordered a smaller one to be made for me, of about twelve feet square, and ten high, for the convenience of travelling; because the other was somewhat too large for Glumdalclitch's lap, and cumbersome in the coach; it was made by the same artist, whom I directed in the whole contrivance. This travelling-closet was an exact square, with a window in the middle of three of the squares, and each window was latticed with iron wire on the outside, to prevent accidents in long journeys. On the fourth side, which had no window, two strong staples were fixed, through which the person that carried me, when I had a mind to be on horseback, put a leathern belt, and buckled it about his waist. This was always the office of some grave trusty servant, in whom I could confide, whether I attended the king and queen in their progresses, or were disposed to see the gardens, or pay a visit to some great lady or minister of state in the court, when Glumdalclitch happened to be out of order; for I soon began to be known and esteemed among the greatest officers, I suppose more upon account of their majesties'favour, than any merit of my own.

closet - ropero, armario, clóset

latticed - enrejado; celosía, trama, cuadrícula, retículo, checkrejilla

wire - alambre, hilo, cable

staples - grapas; de primera necesidad

horseback - a caballo

buckled - doblado; hebilla

confide - confiar

In journeys, when I was weary of the coach, a servant on horseback would buckle on my box, and place it upon a cushion before him; and there I had a full prospect of the country on three sides, from my three windows. I had, in this closet, a field-bed and a hammock, hung from the ceiling, two chairs and a table, neatly screwed to the floor, to prevent being tossed about by the agitation of the horse or the coach. And having been long used to sea-voyages, those motions, although sometimes very violent, did not much discompose me.

buckle on - abrochar

cushion - cojín, almohadón, colchón, amortiguante, banda, amortiguar

hammock - hamaca, hamaca paraguaya

screwed - jodido; tornillo, tirafondo, hélice, atornillar, enroscar

tossed - lanzado; tiro, lanzamiento, lanzar una moneda al aire

I was very desirous to see the chief temple, and particularly the tower belonging to it, which is reckoned the highest in the kingdom. Accordingly one day my nurse carried me thither, but I may truly say I came back disappointed; for the height is not above three thousand feet, reckoning from the ground to the highest pinnacle top; which, allowing for the difference between the size of those people and us in Europe, is no great matter for admiration, nor at all equal in proportion (if I rightly remember) to Salisbury steeple. But, not to detract from a nation, to which, during my life, I shall acknowledge myself extremely obliged, it must be allowed, that whatever this famous tower wants in height, is amply made up in beauty and strength: for the walls are near a hundred feet thick, built of hewn stone, whereof each is about forty feet square, and adorned on all sides with statues of gods and emperors, cut in marble, larger than the life, placed in their several niches.

belonging to it - pertencer a

disappointed - decepcionado; decepcionar, desilusionar, defraudar, quedar mal

reckoning - recuperación; cálculo

pinnacle - cumbre, pináculo, pico, ápice

rightly - verdad

detract - perjudicar; desvirtuar

acknowledge - reconocer, acusar recibo

statues - estatuas; estatua

marble - mármol, canica, balita

niches - ichos; hornacina, nicho

I measured a little finger which had fallen down from one of these statues, and lay unperceived among some rubbish, and found it exactly four feet and an inch in length. Glumdalclitch wrapped it up in her handkerchief, and carried it home in her pocket, to keep among other trinkets, of which the girl was very fond, as children at her age usually are.

fallen down - se ha caído

trinkets - baratijas; perendengue, oropel, baratija, chácharas

The king's kitchen is indeed a noble building, vaulted at top, and about six hundred feet high. The great oven is not so wide, by ten paces, as the cupola at St. Paul's: for I measured the latter on purpose, after my return. But if I should describe the kitchen grate, the prodigious pots and kettles, the joints of meat turning on the spits, with many other particulars, perhaps I should be hardly believed; at least a severe critic would be apt to think I enlarged a little, as travellers are often suspected to do.

vaulted - bóveda; sótano; bodega

cupola - cúpula

Paul - Pablo

grate - rejilla

pots - macetas; pote, cacerola, puchero; tarro; maceta, tiesto

kettles - alderas; hervidor, tetera

joints - juntas; en común, comunitario, en conjunto, articulación

turning on - encender,

spits - Escupir

severe - severo, grave, austero

critic - crítico

suspected - sospechas; barruntar, sospechar, sospechoso

To avoid which censure I fear I have run too much into the other extreme; and that if this treatise should happen to be translated into the language of Brobdingnag (which is the general name of that kingdom,) and transmitted thither, the king and his people would have reason to complain that I had done them an injury, by a false and diminutive representation.

transmitted - transmitido; transmitir

representation - representación

His majesty seldom keeps above six hundred horses in his stables: they are generally from fifty-four to sixty feet high. But, when he goes abroad on solemn days, he is attended, for state, by a military guard of five hundred horse, which, indeed, I thought was the most splendid sight that could be ever beheld, till I saw part of his army in battalia, whereof I shall find another occasion to speak.

stables - Estable

splendid - espléndido


Several adventurers that happened to the author. The execution of a criminal. The author shows his skill in navigation.

adventurers - aventureros; aventurero, aventurera

I should have lived happy enough in that country, if my littleness had not exposed me to several ridiculous and troublesome accidents; some of which I shall venture to relate. Glumdalclitch often carried me into the gardens of the court in my smaller box, and would sometimes take me out of it, and hold me in her hand, or set me down to walk.

exposed - expuesto; exponer, revelar, descubrir, exhibir

troublesome - problemático, prolijo

I remember, before the dwarf left the queen, he followed us one day into those gardens, and my nurse having set me down, he and I being close together, near some dwarf apple trees, I must needs show my wit, by a silly allusion between him and the trees, which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. Whereupon, the malicious rogue, watching his opportunity, when I was walking under one of them, shook it directly over my head, by which a dozen apples, each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel, came tumbling about my ears; one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop, and knocked me down flat on my face; but I received no other hurt, and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire, because I had given the provocation.

apple trees - manzanos

silly - bobo, tonto, ninito, infantil, apayasado, semiaturdido, tontito

allusion - alusión

tumbling - Dar volteretas; (tumble); caída, caer, revolverse

stoop - inclinarse, agacharse

Another day, Glumdalclitch left me on a smooth grass-plot to divert myself, while she walked at some distance with her governess. In the meantime, there suddenly fell such a violent shower of hail, that I was immediately by the force of it, struck to the ground: and when I was down, the hailstones gave me such cruel bangs all over the body, as if I had been pelted with tennis-balls; however, I made a shift to creep on all fours, and shelter myself, by lying flat on my face, on the lee-side of a border of lemon-thyme, but so bruised from head to foot, that I could not go abroad in ten days.

plot - argumento, trama, hilo argumental, intriga, plano

hail - Granizo, granizar; llamar, saludar

hailstones - granizo

bangs - bangs; portazo, golpe estrepitoso

pelted - pelado; tirar, lanzar

tennis-balls - (tennis-balls) Pelota de tenis

shelter - refugio, abrigo, amparo, asilo

border - frontera, borde, cenefa, orla, parterre

thyme - tomillo

bruised - herido; magullar, contusionar, mazar, machacar, macarse

go abroad - Ir al extranjero

Neither is this at all to be wondered at, because nature, in that country, observing the same proportion through all her operations, a hailstone is near eighteen hundred times as large as one in Europe; which I can assert upon experience, having been so curious as to weigh and measure them.

operations - operaciones; operación, operación

hailstone - granizo

assert - asegurar, aseverar, afirmar, ejercer; confirmar, sostener

weigh - pesar, levar, desancorar

But a more dangerous accident happened to me in the same garden, when my little nurse, believing she had put me in a secure place (which I often entreated her to do, that I might enjoy my own thoughts,) and having left my box at home, to avoid the trouble of carrying it, went to another part of the garden with her governess and some ladies of her acquaintance. While she was absent, and out of hearing, a small white spaniel that belonged to one of the chief gardeners, having got by accident into the garden, happened to range near the place where I lay: the dog, following the scent, came directly up, and taking me in his mouth, ran straight to his master wagging his tail, and set me gently on the ground. By good fortune he had been so well taught, that I was carried between his teeth without the least hurt, or even tearing my clothes.

secure - seguro, resguardado, confiable, aplomado

absent - ausente

spaniel - paniel; perro de aguas

gardeners - jardineros; jardinero, jardinera

range - rango; sierra, cordillera, hornillo, estufa, escala, gama

scent - olor, esencia, olfato, fragancia, oler

wagging - meneo; menear, panish: t-needed

tearing - desgarro; lágrima

But the poor gardener, who knew me well, and had a great kindness for me, was in a terrible fright: he gently took me up in both his hands, and asked me how I did? but I was so amazed and out of breath, that I could not speak a word. In a few minutes I came to myself, and he carried me safe to my little nurse, who, by this time, had returned to the place where she left me, and was in cruel agonies when I did not appear, nor answer when she called. She severely reprimanded the gardener on account of his dog. But the thing was hushed up, and never known at court, for the girl was afraid of the queen's anger; and truly, as to myself, I thought it would not be for my reputation, that such a story should go about.

gardener - jardinero, jardinera

agonies - agonías; agonía, angustia

severely - gravemente; severamente

reprimanded - reprendido; reprimenda, reprensión, amonestación, admonición

hushed up - callar, encubrir

This accident absolutely determined Glumdalclitch never to trust me abroad for the future out of her sight. I had been long afraid of this resolution, and therefore concealed from her some little unlucky adventures, that happened in those times when I was left by myself. Once a kite, hovering over the garden, made a stoop at me, and if I had not resolutely drawn my hanger, and run under a thick espalier, he would have certainly carried me away in his talons.

absolutely - totalmente, absolutamente

concealed - ocultos; esconder, ocultar

kite - cometa

hovering - revoloteando; cerner, dudar, hesitar, vacilar

espalier - espaldera

Another time, walking to the top of a fresh mole-hill, I fell to my neck in the hole, through which that animal had cast up the earth, and coined some lie, not worth remembering, to excuse myself for spoiling my clothes. I likewise broke my right shin against the shell of a snail, which I happened to stumble over, as I was walking alone and thinking on poor England.

mole - lunar

coined - cunado; moneda, acunar

spoiling - arruinando; expoliar, despojar, danar, arruinar, echar a perder

shin - espinilla

shell - cascarón; concha, cáscara, vaina, caparazón, casquete, terminal

snail - caracol, haragán, holgazán, gandul, tortuga

I cannot tell whether I were more pleased or mortified to observe, in those solitary walks, that the smaller birds did not appear to be at all afraid of me, but would hop about within a yard's distance, looking for worms and other food, with as much indifference and security as if no creature at all were near them. I remember, a thrush had the confidence to snatch out of my hand, with his bill, a of cake that Glumdalclitch had just given me for my breakfast. When I attempted to catch any of these birds, they would boldly turn against me, endeavouring to peck my fingers, which I durst not venture within their reach; and then they would hop back unconcerned, to hunt for worms or snails, as they did before. But one day, I took a thick cudgel, and threw it with all my strength so luckily, at a linnet, that I knocked him down, and seizing him by the neck with both my hands, ran with him in triumph to my nurse. However, the bird, who had only been stunned, recovering himself gave me so many boxes with his wings, on both sides of my head and body, though I held him at arm's-length, and was out of the reach of his claws, that I was twenty times thinking to let him go.

more pleased - más contento

solitary - solitario

hop - saltar a la pata coja

worms - lombrices; gusano, lombriz, alimana, rata

indifference - indiferencia

Thrush - HRUSH

snatch - robar; agarrar, arrebatar, arrancada, arranque

peck - picotear

hunt - cazar, buscar, caza

luckily - afortunadamente, por suerte, por fortuna, dichosamente

linnet - pardillo común; pardillo

triumph - triunfar; triunfo

stunned - aturdido; anonadar, aturdir, pasmar, atontar

recovering - recuperándose; recuperarse

claws - garras; garra

But I was soon relieved by one of our servants, who wrung off the bird's neck, and I had him next day for dinner, by the queen's command. This linnet, as near as I can remember, seemed to be somewhat larger than an English swan.

wrung - escurrido; torcer, retorcer

swan - cisne

The maids of honour often invited Glumdalclitch to their apartments, and desired she would bring me along with her, on purpose to have the pleasure of seeing and touching me. They would often strip me naked from top to toe, and lay me at full length in their bosoms; wherewith I was much disgusted because, to say the truth, a very offensive smell came from their skins; which I do not mention, or intend, to the disadvantage of those excellent ladies, for whom I have all manner of respect; but I conceive that my sense was more acute in proportion to my littleness, and that those illustrious persons were no more disagreeable to their lovers, or to each other, than people of the same quality are with us in England.

maids - sirvientas; doncella, senorita, doméstica, empleada doméstica

toe - dedo del pie, ortejo

bosoms - pechos; seno, pechera, busto

disadvantage - desventaja

lovers - amante

And, after all, I found their natural smell was much more supportable, than when they used perfumes, under which I immediately swooned away. I cannot forget, that an intimate friend of mine in Lilliput, took the freedom in a warm day, when I had used a good deal of exercise, to complain of a strong smell about me, although I am as little faulty that way, as most of my sex: but I suppose his faculty of smelling was as nice with regard to me, as mine was to that of this people. Upon this point, I cannot forbear doing justice to the queen my mistress, and Glumdalclitch my nurse, whose persons were as sweet as those of any lady in England.

supportable - soportable

perfumes - perfumes; aroma, perfume, perfumar

swooned - desmayado; desmayarse

faulty - defectuoso, imperfecto

That which gave me most uneasiness among these maids of honour (when my nurse carried me to visit then) was, to see them use me without any manner of ceremony, like a creature who had no sort of consequence: for they would strip themselves to the skin, and put on their smocks in my presence, while I was placed on their toilet, directly before their naked bodies, which I am sure to me was very far from being a tempting sight, or from giving me any other emotions than those of horror and disgust: their skins appeared so coarse and uneven, so variously coloured, when I saw them near, with a mole here and there as broad as a trencher, and hairs hanging from it thicker than packthreads, to say nothing farther concerning the rest of their persons. Neither did they at all scruple, while I was by, to discharge what they had drank, to the quantity of at least two hogsheads, in a vessel that held above three tuns.

tempting - tentador; (tempt); tentar

emotions - emociones; afecto, emoción

disgust - repugnar, dar asco, asquear, asco, repugnancia

uneven - desigual, desnivel, desnivelado, desuniforme, despatronizado

variously - Varios

scruple - escrúpulo, vacilar, escrupulizar

The handsomest among these maids of honour, a pleasant, frolicsome girl of sixteen, would sometimes set me astride upon one of her nipples, with many other tricks, wherein the reader will excuse me for not being over particular. But I was so much displeased, that I entreated Glumdalclitch to contrive some excuse for not seeing that young lady any more.

handsomest - el más guapo; apuesto, guapo, de buen parecer, lindo

frolicsome - retozón, juguetón

astride - a horcajadas

nipples - pezones; pezón

One day, a young gentleman, who was nephew to my nurse's governess, came and pressed them both to see an execution. It was of a man, who had murdered one of that gentleman's intimate acquaintance. Glumdalclitch was prevailed on to be of the company, very much against her inclination, for she was naturally tender-hearted: and, as for myself, although I abhorred such kind of spectacles, yet my curiosity tempted me to see something that I thought must be extraordinary.

nephew - sobrino

murdered - asesinado; asesinato, asesinar, cepillarse, devorar

abhorred - borrecido; aborrecer, detestar, abominar

The malefactor was fixed in a chair upon a scaffold erected for that purpose, and his head cut off at one blow, with a sword of about forty feet long. The veins and arteries spouted up such a prodigious quantity of blood, and so high in the air, that the great jet d'eau at Versailles was not equal to it for the time it lasted: and the head, when it fell on the scaffold floor, gave such a bounce as made me start, although I was at least half an English mile distant.

malefactor - malhechor, malhechora

scaffold - andamio, horca, patíbulo, cadalso, andamiar

veins - venas; vena

arteries - rterias; arteria

spouted - escupido; pico, chorro, chorrear

jet - azabache

Versailles - Versalles

bounce - rebotar, rebote

The queen, who often used to hear me talk of my sea-voyages, and took all occasions to divert me when I was melancholy, asked me whether I understood how to handle a sail or an oar, and whether a little exercise of rowing might not be convenient for my health? I answered, that I understood both very well: for although my proper employment had been to be surgeon or doctor to the ship, yet often, upon a pinch, I was forced to work like a common mariner. But I could not see how this could be done in their country, where the smallest wherry was equal to a first-rate man of war among us; and such a boat as I could manage would never live in any of their rivers. Her majesty said, if I would contrive a boat, her own joiner should make it, and she would provide a place for me to sail in. The fellow was an ingenious workman, and by my instructions, in ten days, finished a pleasure-boat with all its tackling, able conveniently to hold eight Europeans. When it was finished, the queen was so delighted, that she ran with it in her lap to the king, who ordered it to be put into a cistern full of water, with me in it, by way of trial, where I could not manage my two sculls, or little oars, for want of room.

oar - remo

employment - empleo

pinch - pellizcar, repizcar, afanar, chorizar, pellizco

mariner - marinero; (marine); marítimo, marino, infante de marina

wherry - werry; chalana

first-rate - (first-rate) de primera clase

joiner - unidor; carpintero

cistern - aljibe, cisterna

by way of trial - a modo de prueba

sculls - sculls; remo

But the queen had before contrived another project. She ordered the joiner to make a wooden trough of three hundred feet long, fifty broad, and eight deep; which, being well pitched, to prevent leaking, was placed on the floor, along the wall, in an outer room of the palace. It had a cock near the bottom to let out the water, when it began to grow stale; and two servants could easily fill it in half an hour. Here I often used to row for my own diversion, as well as that of the queen and her ladies, who thought themselves well entertained with my skill and agility. Sometimes I would put up my sail, and then my business was only to steer, while the ladies gave me a gale with their fans; and, when they were weary, some of their pages would blow my sail forward with their breath, while I showed my art by steering starboard or larboard as I pleased. When I had done, Glumdalclitch always carried back my boat into her closet, and hung it on a nail to dry.

trough - comedero (for food), abrevadero (for drinking), canaleta, valle

pitched - pitched; plantar, armar, montar

leaking - fugas; gotera, agujero, rotura, vía, pérdida, filtración, gotear

cock - polla; gallo, macho

Row - hilera, fila

stale - duro, rancio, seco

entertained - entretenido; divertir, entretener

steer - buey

larboard - A babor

Another time, one of the servants, whose office it was to fill my trough every third day with fresh water, was so careless as to let a huge frog (not perceiving it) slip out of his pail. The frog lay concealed till I was put into my boat, but then, seeing a resting-place, climbed up, and made it lean so much on one side, that I was forced to balance it with all my weight on the other, to prevent overturning. When the frog was got in, it hopped at once half the length of the boat, and then over my head, backward and forward, daubing my face and clothes with its odious slime.

careless - descuidado, irresponsable, negligente, dejado

pail - cubo

resting-place - (resting-place) un lugar de descanso

lean - esbelta; inclinarse

overturning - volcado; volcar, derrocar, casar

hopped - saltó; saltar a la pata coja

daubing - mbadurnar; (daub); pintarrajo, brochazo, manchar, untar

slime - limo, cieno, lama, légamo, baba

The largeness of its features made it appear the most deformed animal that can be conceived. However, I desired Glumdalclitch to let me deal with it alone. I banged it a good while with one of my sculls, and at last forced it to leap out of the boat.

banged - golpeado; portazo, golpe estrepitoso

But the greatest danger I ever underwent in that kingdom, was from a monkey, who belonged to one of the clerks of the kitchen. Glumdalclitch had locked me up in her closet, while she went somewhere upon business, or a visit. The weather being very warm, the closet-window was left open, as well as the windows and the door of my bigger box, in which I usually lived, because of its largeness and conveniency. As I sat quietly meditating at my table, I heard something bounce in at the closet-window, and skip about from one side to the other: whereat, although I was much alarmed, yet I ventured to look out, but not stirring from my seat; and then I saw this frolicsome animal frisking and leaping up and down, till at last he came to my box, which he seemed to view with great pleasure and curiosity, peeping in at the door and every window. I retreated to the farther corner of my room; or box; but the monkey looking in at every side, put me in such a fright, that I wanted presence of mind to conceal myself under the bed, as I might easily have done. After some time spent in peeping, grinning, and chattering, he at last espied me; and reaching one of his paws in at the door, as a cat does when she plays with a mouse, although I often shifted place to avoid him, he at length seized the lappet of my coat (which being made of that country silk, was very thick and strong), and dragged me out. He took me up in his right fore-foot and held me as a nurse does a child she is going to suckle, just as I have seen the same sort of creature do with a kitten in Europe; and when I offered to struggle he squeezed me so hard, that I thought it more prudent to submit.

clerks - ficinistas; clérigo, oficinista, secretario, escribiente

conveniency - conveniencia

meditating - meditando; meditar

skip - saltar

frisking - Cacheos; (frisk); vivaracho, juguetear, cachear

peeping - espiando; espiar

retreated - se retiró; retirarse, batirse en retirada

grinning - sonriendo; sonreír abiertamente, sonreír de oreja a oreja

chattering - Charlando; (chatter) Charlando

shifted - desplazado; turno, cambio, desviación, deslizamiento

suckle - amamantar, mamar

kitten - gatito, minino, gatita

more prudent - más prudente

I have good reason to believe, that he took me for a young one of his own species, by his often stroking my face very gently with his other paw. In these diversions he was interrupted by a noise at the closet door, as if somebody were opening it: whereupon he suddenly leaped up to the window at which he had come in, and thence upon the leads and gutters, walking upon three legs, and holding me in the fourth, till he clambered up to a roof that was next to ours. I heard Glumdalclitch give a shriek at the moment he was carrying me out. The poor girl was almost distracted: that quarter of the palace was all in an uproar; the servants ran for ladders; the monkey was seen by hundreds in the court, sitting upon the ridge of a building, holding me like a baby in one of his forepaws, and feeding me with the other, by cramming into my mouth some victuals he had squeezed out of the bag on one side of his chaps, and patting me when I would not eat; whereat many of the rabble below could not forbear laughing; neither do I think they justly ought to be blamed, for, without question, the sight was ridiculous enough to every body but myself. Some of the people threw up stones, hoping to drive the monkey down; but this was strictly forbidden, or else, very probably, my brains had been dashed out.

paw - pata, garra (gato), zarpa (león)

interrupted - interrumpido; interrumpir, interrupción

leads - llevar, conducir

gutters - canales; arroyo, cuneta, canal, canalón

clambered - trepado; trepar

shriek - gritar; alarido, chillido, chillar

distracted - distraído; distraer, despistar

uproar - alboroto; bullicio, clamor, fragor, escandalera

cramming - atiborrarse; atestar, atiborrar, embutir, chancar

squeezed out - exprimido, excluido

chaps - chaps; tío, tipo

patting - palmaditas; palmadita, caricia

blamed - culpado; culpar, responsabilizar, echar la culpa

The ladders were now applied, and mounted by several men; which the monkey observing, and finding himself almost encompassed, not being able to make speed enough with his three legs, let me drop on a ridge tile, and made his escape.

tile - teja; baldosa, azulejo

Here I sat for some time, five hundred yards from the ground, expecting every moment to be blown down by the wind, or to fall by my own giddiness, and come tumbling over and over from the ridge to the eaves; but an honest lad, one of my nurse's footmen, climbed up, and putting me into his breeches pocket, brought me down safe.

blown down - derribar

giddiness - Vértigo

footmen - los lacayos; lacayo

I was almost choked with the filthy stuff the monkey had crammed down my throat: but my dear little nurse picked it out of my mouth with a small needle, and then I fell a-vomiting, which gave me great relief. Yet I was so weak and bruised in the sides with the squeezes given me by this odious animal, that I was forced to keep my bed a fortnight.

choked - ahogado; ahogar, asfixiar

filthy - sucio, mugriento, mugroso, inmundo

stuff - cosas, bártulos, cosa, coso, materia, atiborrar, rellenar

crammed - atiborrado; atestar, atiborrar, embutir, chancar

throat - garganta, tráquea, cuello

vomiting - Vómitos; (vomit); vomitar, devolver, arrojar, vómito

squeezes - apretones; exprimir, apretar, apretujar, apuro, crisis, apretón

The king, queen, and all the court, sent every day to inquire after my health; and her majesty made me several visits during my sickness. The monkey was killed, and an order made, that no such animal should be kept about the palace.

inquire after - preguntarle a alguien por

sickness - enfermedad, dolencia

When I attended the king after my recovery, to return him thanks for his favours, he was pleased to rally me a good deal upon this adventure. He asked me, "what my thoughts and speculations were, while I lay in the monkey's paw; how I liked the victuals he gave me; his manner of feeding; and whether the fresh air on the roof had sharpened my stomach." He desired to know, "what I would have done upon such an occasion in my own country." I told his majesty, "that in Europe we had no monkeys, except such as were brought for curiosity from other places, and so small, that I could deal with a dozen of them together, if they presumed to attack me. And as for that monstrous animal with whom I was so lately engaged (it was indeed as large as an elephant), if my fears had suffered me to think so far as to make use of my hanger," (looking fiercely, and clapping my hand on the hilt, as I spoke) "when he poked his paw into my chamber, perhaps I should have given him such a wound, as would have made him glad to withdraw it with More haste than he put it in.

rally - reunión; reagrupar

speculations - especulaciones; especulación

sharpened - afilado; afilar

fiercely - con fiereza; fieramente

poked - pinchado; meter

withdraw - retirarse; retirar(se)

More haste - Más prisa

This I delivered in a firm tone, like a person who was jealous lest his courage should be called in question. However, my speech produced nothing else beside a laud laughter, which all the respect due to his majesty from those about him could not make them contain. This made me reflect, how vain an attempt it is for a man to endeavour to do himself honour among those who are out of all degree of equality or comparison with him. And yet I have seen the moral of my own behaviour very frequent in England since my return; where a little contemptible varlet, without the least title to birth, person, wit, or common sense, shall presume to look with importance, and put himself upon a foot with the greatest persons of the kingdom.

firm - firma; firme, sólido

laud - loar

attempt - intentar, tentativa, intento, ensayo

endeavour - esfuerzo; esforzarse

equality - igualdad, paridad

I was every day furnishing the court with some ridiculous story: and Glumdalclitch, although she loved me to excess, yet was arch enough to inform the queen, whenever I committed any folly that she thought would be diverting to her majesty. The girl, who had been out of order, was carried by her governess to take the air about an hour's distance, or thirty miles from town. They alighted out of the coach near a small foot-path in a field, and Glumdalclitch setting down my travelling box, I went out of it to walk. There was a cow-dung in the path, and I must need try my activity by attempting to leap over it.

furnishing - mobiliario; (furnish); amoblar, amueblar, suministrar

excess - exceso, deducible, franquicia, excesivo

cow-dung - (cow-dung) Estiércol de vaca

I took a run, but unfortunately jumped short, and found myself just in the middle up to my knees. I waded through with some difficulty, and one of the footmen wiped me as clean as he could with his handkerchief, for I was filthily bemired; and my nurse confined me to my box, till we returned home; where the queen was soon informed of what had passed, and the footmen spread it about the court: so that all the mirth for some days was at my expense.

wiped - borrada; limpiar

filthily - Asquerosamente


Several contrivances of the author to please the king and queen. He shows his skill in music. The king inquires into the state of England, which the author relates to him. The king's observations thereon.

contrivances - rtificios; aparato, artificio, artimana, estratagema, artefacto

inquires - preguntas; investigar, informarse

thereon - al respecto

I used to attend the king's levee once or twice a week, and had often seen him under the barber's hand, which indeed was at first very terrible to behold; for the razor was almost twice as long as an ordinary scythe. His majesty, according to the custom of the country, was only shaved twice a-week. I once prevailed on the barber to give me some of the suds or lather, out of which I picked forty or fifty of the strongest stumps of hair. I then took a piece of fine wood, and cut it like the back of a comb, making several holes in it at equal distances with as small a needle as I could get from Glumdalclitch.

levee - ique

barber - barbero, peluquero

shaved - afeitado; afeitarse

suds - espuma; (sud); espuma

lather - espuma

I fixed in the stumps so artificially, scraping and sloping them with my knife toward the points, that I made a very tolerable comb; which was a seasonable supply, my own being so much broken in the teeth, that it was almost useless: neither did I know any artist in that country so nice and exact, as would undertake to make me another.

artificially - artificialmente

scraping - Raspando; (scrap) Raspando

sloping - inclinado; derramar(se), verter(se)

toward - hacia, sobre, para

seasonable - Estacional

supply - suministro; proporcionar, abastecer

broken in - Interrumpido

useless - inútil, negado

And this puts me in mind of an amusement, wherein I spent many of my leisure hours. I desired the queen's woman to save for me the combings of her majesty's hair, whereof in time I got a good quantity; and consulting with my friend the cabinet-maker, who had received general orders to do little jobs for me, I directed him to make two chair-frames, no larger than those I had in my box, and to bore little holes with a fine awl, round those parts where I designed the backs and seats; through these holes I wove the strongest hairs I could pick out, just after the manner of cane chairs in England. When they were finished, I made a present of them to her majesty; who kept them in her cabinet, and used to show them for curiosities, as indeed they were the wonder of every one that beheld them.

amusement - divertimiento, esparcimiento, diversión

combings - Peinarse

awl - lezna, lesna, alesna, punzón

wove - tejer

The queen would have me sit upon one of these chairs, but I absolutely refused to obey her, protesting I would rather die than place a dishonourable part of my body on those precious hairs, that once adorned her majesty's head. Of these hairs (as I had always a mechanical genius) I likewise made a neat little purse, about five feet long, with her majesty's name deciphered in gold letters, which I gave to Glumdalclitch, by the queen's consent. To say the truth, it was more for show than use, being not of strength to bear the weight of the larger coins, and therefore she kept nothing in it but some little toys that girls are fond of.

refused - rechazado; negarse (a)

protesting - protestando; protestar, proclamar, oponerse, objetar, protesta

dishonourable - deshonroso/a

precious - preciosos; precioso

mechanical - mecánico

neat - bien; pulcro, ordenado

deciphered - descifrado; descifrar, decodificar, interpretar, resolver

The king, who delighted in music, had frequent concerts at court, to which I was sometimes carried, and set in my box on a table to hear them: but the noise was so great that I could hardly distinguish the tunes. I am confident that all the drums and trumpets of a royal army, beating and sounding together just at your ears, could not equal it.

tunes - sintonías; melodía, tonada, afinar, sintonizar

trumpets - trompetas; trompeta, barrito, berrido, trompetear

My practice was to have my box removed from the place where the performers sat, as far as I could, then to shut the doors and windows of it, and draw the window curtains; after which I found their music not disagreeable.

performers - intérpretes; artista, ejecutor, ejecutora, intérprete

I had learned in my youth to play a little upon the spinet. Glumdalclitch kept one in her chamber, and a master attended twice a-week to teach her: I called it a spinet, because it somewhat resembled that instrument, and was played upon in the same manner. A fancy came into my head, that I would entertain the king and queen with an English tune upon this instrument. But this appeared extremely difficult: for the spinet was near sixty feet long, each key being almost a foot wide, so that with my arms extended I could not reach to above five keys, and to press them down required a good smart stroke with my fist, which would be too great a labour, and to no purpose. The method I contrived was this: I prepared two round sticks, about the bigness of common cudgels; they were thicker at one end than the other, and I covered the thicker ends with pieces of a mouse's skin, that by rapping on them I might neither damage the tops of the keys nor interrupt the sound.

spinet - espineta

tune - melodía, tonada, afinar, sintonizar

rapping - rapando; golpe seco

Before the spinet a bench was placed, about four feet below the keys, and I was put upon the bench. I ran sideling upon it, that way and this, as fast as I could, banging the proper keys with my two sticks, and made a shift to play a jig, to the great satisfaction of both their majesties; but it was the most violent exercise I ever underwent; and yet I could not strike above sixteen keys, nor consequently play the bass and treble together, as other artists do; which was a great disadvantage to my performance.

Bench - banco

sideling - Dejada de lado

banging - golpeando; portazo, golpe estrepitoso

jig - giga

most violent - el más violento

bass - bajo

treble - agudos; triple

The king, who, as I before observed, was a prince of excellent understanding, would frequently order that I should be brought in my box, and set upon the table in his closet: he would then command me to bring one of my chairs out of the box, and sit down within three yards distance upon the top of the cabinet, which brought me almost to a level with his face. In this manner I had several conversations with him. I one day took the freedom to tell his majesty, "that the contempt he discovered towards Europe, and the rest of the world, did not seem answerable to those excellent qualities of mind that he was master of; that reason did not extend itself with the bulk of the body; on the contrary, we observed in our country, that the tallest persons were usually the least provided with it; that among other animals, bees and ants had the reputation of more industry, art, and sagacity, than many of the larger kinds; and that, as inconsiderable as he took me to be, I hoped I might live to do his majesty some signal service.

answerable - responsable

extend - extender, ampliar

bees - abejas; abeja

Ants - hormigas; hormiga

sagacity - sagacidad, sagaz

The king heard me with attention, and began to conceive a much better opinion of me than he had ever before. He desired "I would give him as exact an account of the government of England as I possibly could; because, as fond as princes commonly are of their own customs (for so he conjectured of other monarchs, by my former discourses), he should be glad to hear of any thing that might deserve imitation."

commonly - comúnmente

Discourses - discursos; discurso, conversación, disertar

imitation - imitación

Imagine with thyself, courteous reader, how often I then wished for the tongue of Demosthenes or Cicero, that might have enabled me to celebrate the praise of my own dear native country in a style equal to its merits and felicity.

thyself - Tú mismo

courteous - cordial, cortés

Demosthenes - Demóstenes

Cicero - Cicerón

I began my discourse by informing his majesty, that our dominions consisted of two islands, which composed three mighty kingdoms, under one sovereign, beside our plantations in America. I dwelt long upon the fertility of our soil, and the temperature of our climate. I then spoke at large upon the constitution of an English parliament; partly made up of an illustrious body called the House of Peers; persons of the noblest blood, and of the most ancient and ample patrimonies. I described that extraordinary care always taken of their education in arts and arms, to qualify them for being counsellors both to the king and kingdom; to have a share in the legislature; to be members of the highest court of judicature, whence there can be no appeal; and to be champions always ready for the defence of their prince and country, by their valour, conduct, and fidelity.

informing - informar

composed - compuesto; componer, constituir, conformar, constar

plantations - lantaciones; plantación

fertility - fecundidad; fertilidad

soil - tierra, suelo

Parliament - parlamento

peers - colegas; par, noble

noblest - el más noble; noble

ample - amplio, extenso, abundante, generoso

patrimonies - atrimonios; patrimonio

legislature - legislatura

champions - campeones; campeón, campeona, adalid, valedor, abanderado

conduct - conducción, conducta, guiar, dirigir, manejar, conducir

fidelity - fidelidad

That these were the ornament and bulwark of the kingdom, worthy followers of their most renowned ancestors, whose honour had been the reward of their virtue, from which their posterity were never once known to degenerate. To these were joined several holy persons, as part of that assembly, under the title of bishops, whose peculiar business is to take care of religion, and of those who instruct the people therein. These were searched and sought out through the whole nation, by the prince and his wisest counsellors, among such of the priesthood as were most deservedly distinguished by the sanctity of their lives, and the depth of their erudition; who were indeed the spiritual fathers of the clergy and the people.

bulwark - baluarte, amurada

worthy - Digno

ancestors - ancestros; ancestro, antepasado

holy - santo, sagrado

assembly - ensamblaje, ensamblaje, montaje, asamblea, ensamblador

bishops - obispos; obispo

sought - buscado; buscar

priesthood - sacerdocio

deservedly - Merecidamente

distinguished - istinguido; distinguir

sanctity - santidad

erudition - erudición

spiritual - espiritual, espiritual

clergy - clero

That the other part of the parliament consisted of an assembly called the House of Commons, who were all principal gentlemen, freely picked and culled out by the people themselves, for their great abilities and love of their country, to represent the wisdom of the whole nation. And that these two bodies made up the most august assembly in Europe; to whom, in conjunction with the prince, the whole legislature is committed.

culled - sacrificado; eliminar

I then descended to the courts of justice; over which the judges, those venerable sages and interpreters of the law, presided, for determining the disputed rights and properties of men, as well as for the punishment of vice and protection of innocence. I mentioned the prudent management of our treasury; the valour and achievements of our forces, by sea and land. I computed the number of our people, by reckoning how many millions there might be of each religious sect, or political party among us.

venerable - venerable

sages - sabios; salvia

interpreters - intérpretes; intérprete, trujamán, truchimán

presided - presidió; presidir

determining - determinante; determinar

disputed - discutido; disputa, contencioso

properties - propiedades; propiedad, posesión, inmueble, bien

management - administración, gestión, dirección

achievements - logros; logro, hazana, proeza, gesta, hombrada

forces - fuerzas; fuerza

religious - religioso

sect - secta, culto

political - político

I did not omit even our sports and pastimes, or any other particular which I thought might redound to the honour of my country. And I finished all with a brief historical account of affairs and events in England for about a hundred years past.

pastimes - pasatiempos; pasatiempo

brief - breve, corto, conciso, sucinto, escueto, resumen, poner al tanto

historical - histórico

This conversation was not ended under five audiences, each of several hours; and the king heard the whole with great attention, frequently taking notes of what I spoke, as well as memorandums of what questions he intended to ask me.

memorandums - memorandos; memorándum

When I had put an end to these long discources, his majesty, in a sixth audience, consulting his notes, proposed many doubts, queries, and objections, upon every article. He asked, "What methods were used to cultivate the minds and bodies of our young nobility, and in what kind of business they commonly spent the first and teachable parts of their lives? What course was taken to supply that assembly, when any noble family became extinct? What qualifications were necessary in those who are to be created new lords: whether the humour of the prince, a sum of money to a court lady, or a design of strengthening a party opposite to the public interest, ever happened to be the motive in those advancements?

discources - Recursos

queries - preguntas; consulta, pregunta, interrogante, preguntar

objections - objeciones; objeción, protesta

teachable - ensenable; ensenable

noble family - familia noble

extinct - extinguido; extinto

qualifications - cualificaciones; titulación, salvedad

court lady - jueza; doncella

strengthening - fortalecimiento; fortalecer, animar

advancements - avances; ascenso, progreso, avance de herencia

What share of knowledge these lords had in the laws of their country, and how they came by it, so as to enable them to decide the properties of their fellow-subjects in the last resort? Whether they were always so free from avarice, partialities, or want, that a bribe, or some other sinister view, could have no place among them? Whether those holy lords I spoke of were always promoted to that rank upon account of their knowledge in religious matters, and the sanctity of their lives; had never been compliers with the times, while they were common priests; or slavish prostitute chaplains to some nobleman, whose opinions they continued servilely to follow, after they were admitted into that assembly?"

enable - permitir; habilitar, posibilitar, activar

resort - esort; recurrir (a)

avarice - avaricia, codicia

partialities - parcialidades; parcialidad

bribe - soborno, coima, sobornar, cohechar, coimear

sinister - siniestro, izquierdo

promoted - promocionado; promover, ascender

compliers - cumplidor

prostitute - prostituir, prostituto, prostituta

chaplains - capellanes; capellán

servilely - Servilmente

He then desired to know, "What arts were practised in electing those whom I called commoners: whether a stranger, with a strong purse, might not influence the vulgar voters to choose him before their own landlord, or the most considerable gentleman in the neighbourhood? How it came to pass, that people were so violently bent upon getting into this assembly, which I allowed to be a great trouble and expense, often to the ruin of their families, without any salary or pension? because this appeared such an exalted strain of virtue and public spirit, that his majesty seemed to doubt it might possibly not be always sincere.

electing - elegir, electo

commoners - lebeyo

voters - votantes; votante

landlord - propietario; arrendador, casero

ruin - ruina, desbaratar, arruinar, estropear, dar al traste

exalted - exaltado; exaltar

spirit - espíritu, alma, onda, alcohol, bebida espirituosa

And he desired to know, "Whether such zealous gentlemen could have any views of refunding themselves for the charges and trouble they were at by sacrificing the public good to the designs of a weak and vicious prince, in conjunction with a corrupted ministry?" He multiplied his questions, and sifted me thoroughly upon every part of this head, proposing numberless inquiries and objections, which I think it not prudent or convenient to repeat.

zealous - celoso, ferviente

refunding - reembolsar, devolver, reembolso

sacrificing - sacrificando; sacrificar, sacrificio

vicious - panish: t-needed

corrupted - corrompido; corrupto, corromper

multiplied - multiplicado; multiplicar

sifted - cribado; tamizar, cernir, separar, juzgar

proposing - proponiendo; proponer, pedir la mano, pedir matrimonio

numberless - sin número

inquiries - consultas; inquisición, indagatoria, pesquisa

Upon what I said in relation to our courts of justice, his majesty desired to be satisfied in several points: and this I was the better able to do, having been formerly almost ruined by a long suit in chancery, which was decreed for me with costs. He asked, "What time was usually spent in determining between right and wrong, and what degree of expense? Whether advocates and orators had liberty to plead in causes manifestly known to be unjust, vexatious, or oppressive? Whether party, in religion or politics, were observed to be of any weight in the scale of justice? Whether those pleading orators were persons educated in the general knowledge of equity, or only in provincial, national, and other local customs?

ruined - arruinado; ruina, desbaratar, arruinar, estropear, dar al traste

Chancery - Cancillería

advocates - defensores; abogado, abogada, portavoz, representante, vocero

orators - radores; orador, oradora

manifestly - Manifiestamente

unjust - injusto

pleading - suplicando; (plead); rogar

general knowledge - Conocimiento general

equity - equidad, acciones, patrimonio neto

provincial - provincial, provinciano, paleto

Whether they or their judges had any part in penning those laws, which they assumed the liberty of interpreting, and glossing upon at their pleasure? Whether they had ever, at different times, pleaded for and against the same cause, and cited precedents to prove contrary opinions? Whether they were a rich or a poor corporation? Whether they received any pecuniary reward for pleading, or delivering their opinions? And particularly, whether they were ever admitted as members in the lower senate?"

assumed - asumido; suponer, dar por sentado, asumir

interpreting - interpretando; explicar, exponer, interpretar

glossing - glossing; lustre, brillo

pleaded for - rogar por

cited - Citar

precedents - precedentes; precedente

corporation - corporación, sociedad anónima

pecuniary - pecuniaria; monetario, pecuniario

delivering - entregando; liberar, parir, dar a luz, entregar

Senate - senado

He fell next upon the management of our treasury; and said, "he thought my memory had failed me, because I computed our taxes at about five or six millions a-year, and when I came to mention the issues, he found they sometimes amounted to more than double; for the notes he had taken were very particular in this point, because he hoped, as he told me, that the knowledge of our conduct might be useful to him, and he could not be deceived in his calculations. But, if what I told him were true, he was still at a loss how a kingdom could run out of its estate, like a private person." He asked me, "who were our creditors; and where we found money to pay them?" He wondered to hear me talk of such chargeable and expensive wars; "that certainly we must be a quarrelsome people, or live among very bad neighbours, and that our generals must needs be richer than our kings.

taxes - impuestos; impuesto

issues - problemas; flujo, emisión, envío, incisión, herederos

calculations - cálculos; cálculo, cálculo, cómputo, conjetura

creditors - acreedores; acreedor, acreedora

chargeable - imputable

quarrelsome - endenciero; rijoso

He asked, what business we had out of our own islands, unless upon the score of trade, or treaty, or to defend the coasts with our fleet?" Above all, he was amazed to hear me talk of a mercenary standing army, in the midst of peace, and among a free people. He said, "if we were governed by our own consent, in the persons of our representatives, he could not imagine of whom we were afraid, or against whom we were to fight; and would hear my opinion, whether a private man's house might not be better defended by himself, his children, and family, than by half-a-dozen rascals, picked up at a venture in the streets for small wages, who might get a hundred times more by cutting their throats?"

mercenary - mercenario

representatives - representantes; representante, representativo, representante

defended - defendido; defender

rascals - gamberros; pícaro, bribón, canalla

at a venture - al azar

throats - argantas; garganta, tráquea, cuello

He laughed at my "odd kind of arithmetic," as he was pleased to call it, "in reckoning the numbers of our people, by a computation drawn from the several sects among us, in religion and politics." He said, "he knew no reason why those, who entertain opinions prejudicial to the public, should be obliged to change, or should not be obliged to conceal them.

odd - raro; guacho, desparejado, desemparejado, suelto, extrano

Arithmetic - aritmética, aritmético

sects - sectas; secta, culto

prejudicial - prejuicioso, perjudicial

And as it was tyranny in any government to require the first, so it was weakness not to enforce the second: for a man may be allowed to keep poisons in his closet, but not to vend them about for cordials."

tyranny - tiranía

enforce - hacer cumplir; reforzar, intensificar, imponer (1)

poisons - venenos; veneno, ponzona, envenenar, emponzonar

vend - Vender

cordials - cordiales; cordial

He observed, "that among the diversions of our nobility and gentry, I had mentioned gaming: he desired to know at what age this entertainment was usually taken up, and when it was laid down; how much of their time it employed; whether it ever went so high as to affect their fortunes; whether mean, vicious people, by their dexterity in that art, might not arrive at great riches, and sometimes keep our very nobles in dependence, as well as habituate them to vile companions, wholly take them from the improvement of their minds, and force them, by the losses they received, to learn and practise that infamous dexterity upon others?

dependence - dependencia

habituate - habituarse

vile - vil

improvement - mejora, mejoramiento, enmienda, mejoría

losses - pérdidas; pérdida

He was perfectly astonished with the historical account gave him of our affairs during the last century; protesting "it was only a heap of conspiracies, rebellions, murders, massacres, revolutions, banishments, the very worst effects that avarice, faction, hypocrisy, perfidiousness, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy, lust, malice, and ambition, could produce."

conspiracies - conspiraciones; conspiración, contubernio, panish: t-needed

murders - asesinatos; asesinato, asesinar, cepillarse, devorar

massacres - masacres; masacre, masacrar

revolutions - revoluciones; revolución, vuelta, giro

banishments - destierros; exilio

hypocrisy - hipocresía

perfidiousness - pérfida

cruelty - crueldad

madness - locura

lust - lujuria, deseo, ganas, lujuria, alegría

His majesty, in another audience, was at the pains to recapitulate the sum of all I had spoken; compared the questions he made with the answers I had given; then taking me into his hands, and stroking me gently, delivered himself in these words, which I shall never forget, nor the manner he spoke them in: "My little friend Grildrig, you have made a most admirable panegyric upon your country; you have clearly proved, that ignorance, idleness, and vice, are the proper ingredients for qualifying a legislator; that laws are best explained, interpreted, and applied, by those whose interest and abilities lie in perverting, confounding, and eluding them. I observe among you some lines of an institution, which, in its original, might have been tolerable, but these half erased, and the rest wholly blurred and blotted by corruptions. It does not appear, from all you have said, how any one perfection is required toward the procurement of any one station among you; much less, that men are ennobled on account of their virtue; that priests are advanced for their piety or learning; soldiers, for their conduct or valour; judges, for their integrity; senators, for the love of their country; or counsellors for their wisdom. As for yourself," continued the king, "who have spent the greatest part of your life in travelling, I am well disposed to hope you may hitherto have escaped many vices of your country. But by what I have gathered from your own relation, and the answers I have with much pains wrung and extorted from you, I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.

recapitulate - recapitular

admirable - admirable, loable

panegyric - panegírico

idleness - ociosidad; inactividad, holganza, indolencia

ingredients - ingredientes; ingrediente

legislator - legislador, legisladora

perverting - pervertido, pervertir

eluding - eludiendo; eludir

Institution - institución

erased - borrado; borrar, borrarse

blurred - borrosa; desdibujar, difuminar, borrar, manchar, esfumarse

blotted - borrado; mancha, desdoro, emborronar, manchar

procurement - departamento de compras, consecución, checkadquisición

integrity - integridad

senators - senadores; senador, senadora

vices - icios; torno de banco

gathered - reunidos; juntar, recoger, recolectar, acumular, reunir

extorted - extorsionado; extorsionar

pernicious - Pernicioso

crawl - gatear; avanzar lentamente

surface - superficie


The author's love of his country. He makes a proposal of much advantage to the king, which is rejected. The king's great ignorance in politics. The learning of that country very imperfect and confined. The laws, and military affairs, and parties in the state.

Nothing but an extreme love of truth could have hindered me from concealing this part of my story. It was in vain to discover my resentments, which were always turned into ridicule; and I was forced to rest with patience, while my noble and beloved country was so injuriously treated. I am as heartily sorry as any of my readers can possibly be, that such an occasion was given: but this prince happened to be so curious and inquisitive upon every particular, that it could not consist either with gratitude or good manners, to refuse giving him what satisfaction I was able. Yet thus much I may be allowed to say in my own vindication, that I artfully eluded many of his questions, and gave to every point a more favourable turn, by many degrees, than the strictness of truth would allow.

hindered - bstaculizado; retrasar; impedir; dificultar, entorpecer

resentments - resentimientos; resentimiento, animadversión, animosidad, rencor

ridicule - ridiculizar, poner en ridículo

injuriously - perjudicialmente

inquisitive - inquisitivo, curioso

consist - consistir; componerse (de), constar (de)

refuse - rechazar; negarse (a)

eluded - ludido; eludir

more favourable - más favorable

strictness - estricto

For I have always borne that laudable partiality to my own country, which Dionysius Halicarnassensis, with so much justice, recommends to an historian: I would hide the frailties and deformities of my political mother, and place her virtues and beauties in the most advantageous light. This was my sincere endeavour in those many discourses I had with that monarch, although it unfortunately failed of success.

laudable - loable, laudable, encomiable, meritorio

partiality - parcialidad

historian - historiador, historiadora

frailties - debilidades; fragilidad

deformities - deformidades; deformidad

beauties - bellezas; belleza, hermosura, preciosidad, preciosura

most advantageous - el más ventajoso

But great allowances should be given to a king, who lives wholly secluded from the rest of the world, and must therefore be altogether unacquainted with the manners and customs that most prevail in other nations: the want of which knowledge will ever produce many prejudices, and a certain narrowness of thinking, from which we, and the politer countries of Europe, are wholly exempted.

allowances - subsidios; paga

secluded - Aislarse

unacquainted - desconocido

prevail - prevalecer, vencer

narrowness - estrechez

exempted - exento

And it would be hard indeed, if so remote a prince's notions of virtue and vice were to be offered as a standard for all mankind.

Standard - estándar, estándar, dechado, padrón, nivel

To confirm what I have now said, and further to show the miserable effects of a confined education, I shall here insert a passage, which will hardly obtain belief. In hopes to ingratiate myself further into his majesty's favour, I told him of "an invention, discovered between three and four hundred years ago, to make a certain powder, into a heap of which, the smallest spark of fire falling, would kindle the whole in a moment, although it were as big as a mountain, and make it all fly up in the air together, with a noise and agitation greater than thunder. That a proper quantity of this powder rammed into a hollow tube of brass or iron, according to its bigness, would drive a ball of iron or lead, with such violence and speed, as nothing was able to sustain its force. That the largest balls thus discharged, would not only destroy whole ranks of an army at once, but batter the strongest walls to the ground, sink down ships, with a thousand men in each, to the bottom of the sea, and when linked together by a chain, would cut through masts and rigging, divide hundreds of bodies in the middle, and lay all waste before them.

confirm - confirmar

insert - insertar, meter

belief - creencia

ingratiate - congraciarse

rammed - embestido; RAM, memoria RAM

tube - tubo, canuto

brass - latón

lead - llevar; liderar; guiar, dirigir; provocar; encabezar; principal; plomo

sustain - sostener, sustentar

ranks - rangos; rango, graduación

batter - bateador; banar

sink down - Hundirse

rigging - Arreglar; (rig) Arreglar

waste - residuos; desperdiciar, malgastar

That we often put this powder into large hollow balls of iron, and discharged them by an engine into some city we were besieging, which would rip up the pavements, tear the houses to pieces, burst and throw splinters on every side, dashing out the brains of all who came near. That I knew the ingredients very well, which were cheap and common; I understood the manner of compounding them, and could direct his workmen how to make those tubes, of a size proportionable to all other things in his majesty's kingdom, and the largest need not be above a hundred feet long; twenty or thirty of which tubes, charged with the proper quantity of powder and balls, would batter down the walls of the strongest town in his dominions in a few hours, or destroy the whole metropolis, if ever it should pretend to dispute his absolute commands." This I humbly offered to his majesty, as a small tribute of acknowledgment, in turn for so many marks that I had received, of his royal favour and protection.

besieging - Asediando; (besiege); asediar, sitiar, poner sitio, asaeteado

pavements - aceras; pavimento, asfalto

burst - reventar, romper, ráfaga, estallo, reventón

splinters - Esquirla

compounding - composición; compuesto

tubes - tubos; tubo, canuto

absolute - absoluto, completo, pleno

tribute - tributo, homenaje

acknowledgment - reconocimiento, reconocimiento

The king was struck with horror at the description I had given of those terrible engines, and the proposal I had made. "He was amazed, how so impotent and grovelling an insect as I" (these were his expressions) "could entertain such inhuman ideas, and in so familiar a manner, as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines; whereof," he said, "some evil genius, enemy to mankind, must have been the first contriver.

grovelling - Arrastrándose; (grovel); humillarse, panish: t-needed

familiar - te suena; familiar, espíritu familiar

unmoved - insensible, impasible

destructive - destructivo

contriver - contaminador

As for himself, he protested, that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature, yet he would rather lose half his kingdom, than be privy to such a secret; which he commanded me, as I valued any life, never to mention any more."

Privy - privado; cómplice

valued - valorado; valor, importancia, valorar, cifrar, apreciar

A strange effect of narrow principles and views! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration, love, and esteem; of strong parts, great wisdom, and profound learning, endowed with admirable talents, and almost adored by his subjects, should, from a nice, unnecessary scruple, whereof in Europe we can have no conception, let slip an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives, the liberties, and the fortunes of his people! Neither do I say this, with the least intention to detract from the many virtues of that excellent king, whose character, I am sensible, will, on this account, be very much lessened in the opinion of an English reader: but I take this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance, by not having hitherto reduced politics into a science, as the more acute wits of Europe have done. For, I remember very well, in a discourse one day with the king, when I happened to say, "there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government," it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion of our understandings. He professed both to abominate and despise all mystery, refinement, and intrigue, either in a prince or a minister.

possessed - poseído; poseer

procures - rocura; (procure) rocura

endowed - dotar, costear, financiar, ser bendecido, ser dotado

talents - talento, talentosos, talentoso

adored - dorado; adorar, querer

unnecessary - innecesario

conception - concepción

liberties - ibertades; libertad

wits - agudeza, ingenio, chispa, gracia

understandings - entendidos; comprensión, compromiso, avenimiento, comprensivo

professed - profesó; profesar

abominate - abominar, detestar

He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state, where an enemy, or some rival nation, were not in the case. He confined the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds, to common sense and reason, to justice and lenity, to the speedy determination of civil and criminal causes; with some other obvious topics, which are not worth considering. And he gave it for his opinion, "that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together."

rival - rival

bounds - atado

speedy - rápido, pronto

blades - cuchillas; cuchilla, hoja, cuchillo (said of a dagger), espada

more essential - más esencial

politicians - políticos; político, política

The learning of this people is very defective, consisting only in morality, history, poetry, and mathematics, wherein they must be allowed to excel.

morality - moralidad

poetry - poesía, poeticidad

But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life, to the improvement of agriculture, and all mechanical arts; so that among us, it would be little esteemed. And as to ideas, entities, abstractions, and transcendentals, I could never drive the least conception into their heads.

agriculture - agricultura

entities - entidades; entidad

abstractions - abstracciones; abstracción

transcendentals - trascendentales; trascendental

No law in that country must exceed in words the number of letters in their alphabet, which consists only of two and twenty. But indeed few of them extend even to that length. They are expressed in the most plain and simple terms, wherein those people are not mercurial enough to discover above one interpretation: and to write a comment upon any law, is a capital crime.

consists - consiste; componerse (de), constar (de)

mercurial - mercurial

interpretation - interpretación, apreciación

As to the decision of civil causes, or proceedings against criminals, their precedents are so few, that they have little reason to boast of any extraordinary skill in either.

boast - presumir; vanagloriarse, jactarse de, fanfarronear

They have had the art of printing, as well as the Chinese, time out of mind: but their libraries are not very large; for that of the king, which is reckoned the largest, does not amount to above a thousand volumes, placed in a gallery of twelve hundred feet long, whence I had liberty to borrow what books I pleased. The queen's joiner had contrived in one of Glumdalclitch's rooms, a kind of wooden machine five-and-twenty feet high, formed like a standing ladder; the steps were each fifty feet long. It was indeed a moveable pair of stairs, the lowest end placed at ten feet distance from the wall of the chamber.

moveable - movible

The book I had a mind to read, was put up leaning against the wall: I first mounted to the upper step of the ladder, and turning my face towards the book, began at the top of the page, and so walking to the right and left about eight or ten paces, according to the length of the lines, till I had gotten a little below the level of mine eyes, and then descending gradually till I came to the bottom: after which I mounted again, and began the other page in the same manner, and so turned over the leaf, which I could easily do with both my hands, for it was as thick and stiff as a pasteboard, and in the largest folios not above eighteen or twenty feet long.

descending - descendente; descender, bajar

leaf - hoja, tablero

stiff - rígido, duro, tieso, inflexible

folios - folios; folio

Their style is clear, masculine, and smooth, but not florid; for they avoid nothing more than multiplying unnecessary words, or using various expressions. I have perused many of their books, especially those in history and morality. Among the rest, I was much diverted with a little old treatise, which always lay in Glumdalclitch's bed chamber, and belonged to her governess, a grave elderly gentlewoman, who dealt in writings of morality and devotion. The book treats of the weakness of human kind, and is in little esteem, except among the women and the vulgar. However, I was curious to see what an author of that country could say upon such a subject. This writer went through all the usual topics of European moralists, showing "how diminutive, contemptible, and helpless an animal was man in his own nature; how unable to defend himself from inclemencies of the air, or the fury of wild beasts: how much he was excelled by one creature in strength, by another in speed, by a third in foresight, by a fourth in industry." He added, "that nature was degenerated in these latter declining ages of the world, and could now produce only small abortive births, in comparison of those in ancient times.

florid - Florido

multiplying - multiplicando; multiplicar

elderly - ancianos; anciano, entrado en anos

gentlewoman - Caballera

devotion - devoción, dedicación, fervor, veneración

treats - golosinas; tratar, negociar, rogar, invitar, convidar, sorpresa

Moralists - moralistas; moralista

helpless - desamparado; indefenso, incapaz

unable - incapaz

inclemencies - Inclemencia

beasts - bestias; bestia, animal, salvaje

excelled - excelente; aventajar, superar, sobresalir, distinguirse

foresight - previsión, profecía, adivinación, clarividencia

declining - declinando; declive, retroceso, decadencia

He said "it was very reasonable to think, not only that the species of men were originally much larger, but also that there must have been giants in former ages; which, as it is asserted by history and tradition, so it has been confirmed by huge bones and skulls, casually dug up in several parts of the kingdom, far exceeding the common dwindled race of men in our days." He argued, "that the very laws of nature absolutely required we should have been made, in the beginning of a size more large and robust; not so liable to destruction from every little accident, of a tile falling from a house, or a stone cast from the hand of a boy, or being drowned in a little brook." From this way of reasoning, the author drew several moral applications, useful in the conduct of life, but needless here to repeat. For my own part, I could not avoid reflecting how universally this talent was spread, of drawing lectures in morality, or indeed rather matter of discontent and repining, from the quarrels we raise with nature. And I believe, upon a strict inquiry, those quarrels might be shown as ill-grounded among us as they are among that people.

originally - originalmente, originariamente

giants - gigante, gigantesco

asserted - afirmado; asegurar, aseverar, afirmar, ejercer; confirmar

skulls - cráneos; calavera

casually - Casualmente

dug up - Desenterrado; revelado, descubierto

dwindled - disminuido; disminuir, agotarse, desaparecer, menguar

drowned - hogado; ahogarse

brook - rok; arroyo

applications - aplicaciones; aplicación, solicitud

needless - innecesario; inútil

universally - universalmente

talent - talento, talentosos, talentoso

inquiry - investigación; inquisición, indagatoria, pesquisa

I have often seen the militia of Lorbrulgrud drawn out to exercise, in a great field near the city of twenty miles square. They were in all not above twenty-five thousand foot, and six thousand horse; but it was impossible for me to compute their number, considering the space of ground they took up. A cavalier, mounted on a large steed, might be about ninety feet high. I have seen this whole body of horse, upon a word of command, draw their swords at once, and brandish them in the air. Imagination can figure nothing so grand, so surprising, and so astonishing!

militia - milicia

cavalier - caballero

steed - caballo; corcel

brandish - marcar; esgrimir, blandir

astonishing - asombroso; asombrar, sorprender, pasmar

it looked as if ten thousand flashes of lightning were darting at the same time from every quarter of the sky.

flashes - flashes; destello

lightning - un rayo; relámpago, rayo

darting - dardo, flechilla

I was curious to know how this prince, to whose dominions there is no access from any other country, came to think of armies, or to teach his people the practice of military discipline. But I was soon informed, both by conversation and reading their histories; for, in the course of many ages, they have been troubled with the same disease to which the whole race of mankind is subject; the nobility often contending for power, the people for liberty, and the king for absolute dominion.

dominion - dominio

All which, however happily tempered by the laws of that kingdom, have been sometimes violated by each of the three parties, and have more than once occasioned civil wars; the last whereof was happily put an end to by this prince's grand-father, in a general composition; and the militia, then settled with common consent, has been ever since kept in the strictest duty.

tempered - templado; temperamento, temple, templar, temperar, atemperar

violated - iolado; violar, vulnerar

occasioned - ocasionado; ocasión, ocasionar


The king and queen make a progress to the frontiers. The author attends them. The manner in which he leaves the country very particularly related. He returns to England.

I had always a strong impulse that I should some time recover my liberty, though it was impossible to conjecture by what means, or to form any project with the least hope of succeeding. The ship in which I sailed, was the first ever known to be driven within sight of that coast, and the king had given strict orders, that if at any time another appeared, it should be taken ashore, and with all its crew and passengers brought in a tumbril to Lorbrulgrud. He was strongly bent to get me a woman of my own size, by whom I might propagate the breed: but I think I should rather have died than undergone the disgrace of leaving a posterity to be kept in cages, like tame canary-birds, and perhaps, in time, sold about the kingdom, to persons of quality, for curiosities.

impulse - impulso, capricho

Canary - canario

I was indeed treated with much kindness: I was the favourite of a great king and queen, and the delight of the whole court; but it was upon such a foot as ill became the dignity of humankind. I could never forget those domestic pledges I had left behind me. I wanted to be among people, with whom I could converse upon even terms, and walk about the streets and fields without being afraid of being trod to death like a frog or a young puppy. But my deliverance came sooner than I expected, and in a manner not very common; the whole story and circumstances of which I shall faithfully relate.

humankind - la humanidad

deliverance - entrega, salvación, liberación

faithfully - fielmente

I had now been two years in this country; and about the beginning of the third, Glumdalclitch and I attended the king and queen, in a progress to the south coast of the kingdom. I was carried, as usual, in my travelling-box, which as I have already described, was a very convenient closet, of twelve feet wide. And I had ordered a hammock to be fixed, by silken ropes from the four corners at the top, to break the jolts, when a servant carried me before him on horseback, as I sometimes desired; and would often sleep in my hammock, while we were upon the road.

jolts - sacudidas; sacudir, traquetear

On the roof of my closet, not directly over the middle of the hammock, I ordered the joiner to cut out a hole of a foot square, to give me air in hot weather, as I slept; which hole I shut at pleasure with a board that drew backward and forward through a groove.

groove - surco; ranura, acanaladura, canal, estría

When we came to our journey's end, the king thought proper to pass a few days at a palace he has near Flanflasnic, a city within eighteen English miles of the seaside. Glumdalclitch and I were much fatigued: I had gotten a small cold, but the poor girl was so ill as to be confined to her chamber. I longed to see the ocean, which must be the only scene of my escape, if ever it should happen. I pretended to be worse than I really was, and desired leave to take the fresh air of the sea, with a page, whom I was very fond of, and who had sometimes been trusted with me. I shall never forget with what unwillingness Glumdalclitch consented, nor the strict charge she gave the page to be careful of me, bursting at the same time into a flood of tears, as if she had some forboding of what was to happen. The boy took me out in my box, about half an hours walk from the palace, towards the rocks on the sea-shore. I ordered him to set me down, and lifting up one of my sashes, cast many a wistful melancholy look towards the sea. I found myself not very well, and told the page that I had a mind to take a nap in my hammock, which I hoped would do me good. I got in, and the boy shut the window close down, to Keep out the cold.

seaside - la playa; costa, litoral, costero

fatigued - fatigado; fatiga, fatigar, acosar

bursting - reventar, romper, ráfaga, estallo, reventón

flood - inundación; avenida, riada, diluvio, inundar

wistful - anorante; nostálgico, melancólico

nap - siesta

Keep out - no (dejar) entrar/pasar

I soon fell asleep, and all I can conjecture is, while I slept, the page, thinking no danger could happen, went among the rocks to look for birds'eggs, having before observed him from my window searching about, and picking up one or two in the clefts. Be that as it will, I found myself suddenly awaked with a violent pull upon the ring, which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. I felt my box raised very high in the air, and then borne forward with prodigious speed. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock, but afterward the motion was easy enough. I called out several times, as loud as I could raise my voice, but all to no purpose. I looked towards my windows, and could see nothing but the clouds and sky. I heard a noise just over my head, like the clapping of wings, and then began to perceive the woful condition I was in; that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak, with an intent to let it fall on a rock, like a tortoise in a shell, and then pick out my body, and devour it: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enables him to discover his quarry at a great distance, though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board.

clefts - hendiduras; hendidura, grieta

ring - anillo

beak - pico

Tortoise - tortuga, tortuga terrestre, morrocoy

devour - devorar, jambar

quarry - cantera

In a little time, I observed the noise and flutter of wings to increase very fast, and my box was tossed up and down, like a sign in a windy day. I heard several bangs or buffets, as I thought given to the eagle (for such I am certain it must have been that held the ring of my box in his beak), and then, all on a sudden, felt myself falling perpendicularly down, for above a minute, but with such incredible swiftness, that I almost lost my breath. My fall was stopped by a terrible squash, that sounded louder to my ears than the cataract of Niagara; after which, I was quite in the dark for another minute, and then my box began to rise so high, that I could see light from the tops of the windows. I now perceived I was fallen into the sea. My box, by the weight of my body, the goods that were in, and the broad plates of iron fixed for strength at the four corners of the top and bottom, floated about five feet deep in water.

flutter - leteo; ondear, aletear

windy - viento

buffets - uffets; bofetada

perpendicularly - perpendicularmente

squash - calabaza; apretujar, aplastar

cataract - cataratas; catarata

Niagara - Niágara

floated - flotó; flotar, carroza

I did then, and do now suppose, that the eagle which flew away with my box was pursued by two or three others, and forced to let me drop, while he defended himself against the rest, who hoped to share in the prey. The plates of iron fastened at the bottom of the box (for those were the strongest) preserved the balance while it fell, and hindered it from being broken on the surface of the water. Every joint of it was well grooved; and the door did not move on hinges, but up and down like a sash, which kept my closet so tight that very little water came in. I got with much difficulty out of my hammock, having first ventured to draw back the slip-board on the roof already mentioned, contrived on purpose to let in air, for want of which I found myself almost stifled.

flew away - salir/irse volando, emprender el vuelo

prey - botín, presa

joint - en común, comunitario, en conjunto, articulación, coyuntura

grooved - ranurado; ranura, acanaladura, canal, estría

How often did I then wish myself with my dear Glumdalclitch, from whom one single hour had so far divided me! And I may say with truth, that in the midst of my own misfortunes I could not forbear lamenting my poor nurse, the grief she would suffer for my loss, the displeasure of the queen, and the ruin of her fortune. Perhaps many travellers have not been under greater difficulties and distress than I was at this juncture, expecting every moment to see my box dashed to pieces, or at least overset by the first violent blast, or rising wave. A breach in one single pane of glass would have been immediate death: nor could any thing have preserved the windows, but the strong lattice wires placed on the outside, against accidents in travelling. I saw the water ooze in at several crannies, although the leaks were not considerable, and I endeavoured to stop them as well as I could.

lamenting - Lamentándose; (lament); lamento, lamentación, lamentar

blast - ráfaga

pane - panel; cristal, vidrio

immediate - inmediata; inmediato

lattice - enrejado; celosía, trama, cuadrícula, retículo, checkrejilla

wires - cables; alambre, hilo, cable

ooze - manar, rezumar

crannies - recovecos; recoveco

leaks - fugas; gotera, agujero, rotura, vía, pérdida, filtración, gotear

I was not able to lift up the roof of my closet, which otherwise I certainly should have done, and sat on the top of it; where I might at least preserve myself some hours longer, than by being shut up (as I may call it) in the hold. Or if I escaped these dangers for a day or two, what could I expect but a miserable death of cold and hunger? I was four hours under these circumstances, expecting, and indeed wishing, every moment to be my last.

I have already told the reader that there were two strong staples fixed upon that side of my box which had no window, and into which the servant, who used to carry me on horseback, would put a leathern belt, and buckle it about his waist. Being in this disconsolate state, I heard, or at least thought I heard, some kind of grating noise on that side of my box where the staples were fixed; and soon after I began to fancy that the box was pulled or towed along the sea; for I now and then felt a sort of tugging, which made the waves rise near the tops of my windows, leaving me almost in the dark. This gave me some faint hopes of relief, although I was not able to imagine how it could be brought about.

buckle - hebilla

disconsolate - desconsolado

grating - rechinante; rejilla, reja

towed - remolcado; remolcar

tugging - Tirones; (tug); tirar, halar

I ventured to unscrew one of my chairs, which were always fastened to the floor; and having made a hard shift to screw it down again, directly under the slipping-board that I had lately opened, I mounted on the chair, and putting my mouth as near as I could to the hole, I called for help in a loud voice, and in all the languages I understood. I then fastened my handkerchief to a stick I usually carried, and thrusting it up the hole, waved it several times in the air, that if any boat or ship were near, the seamen might conjecture some unhappy mortal to be shut up in the box.

unscrew - desatornillar, destornillar, desenroscar

thrusting - Empujando; (thrust); estocada, empuje, envión, impulso, énfasis

I found no effect from all I could do, but plainly perceived my closet to be moved along; and in the space of an hour, or better, that side of the box where the staples were, and had no windows, struck against something that was hard. I apprehended it to be a rock, and found myself tossed more than ever. I plainly heard a noise upon the cover of my closet, like that of a cable, and the grating of it as it passed through the ring. I then found myself hoisted up, by degrees, at least three feet higher than I was before. Whereupon I again thrust up my stick and handkerchief, calling for help till I was almost hoarse. In return to which, I heard a great shout repeated three times, giving me such transports of joy as are not to be conceived but by those who feel them. I now heard a trampling over my head, and somebody calling through the hole with a loud voice, in the English tongue, "If there be any body below, let them speak." I answered, "I was an Englishman, drawn by ill fortune into the greatest calamity that ever any creature underwent, and begged, by all that was moving, to be delivered out of the dungeon I was in.

hoisted - izadas; izar, aparejo

thrust - estocada, empuje, envión, impulso, énfasis, propulsar, asestar

hoarse - ronco

Englishman - inglés

calamity - calamidad, panish: t-needed

dungeon - mazmorra, calabozo

The voice replied, "I was safe, for my box was fastened to their ship; and the carpenter should immediately come and saw a hole in the cover, large enough to pull me out." I answered, "that was needless, and would take up too much time; for there was no more to be done, but let one of the crew put his finger into the ring, and take the box out of the sea into the ship, and so into the captain's cabin." Some of them, upon hearing me talk so wildly, thought I was mad: others laughed; for indeed it never came into my head, that I was now got among people of my own stature and strength. The carpenter came, and in a few minutes sawed a passage about four feet square, then let down a small ladder, upon which I mounted, and thence was taken into the ship in a very weak condition.

Carpenter - carpintero, carpintera, ebanista

cabin - barraca, cabana, cabina, camarote

wildly - alocadamente, salvajemente

mad - loco, trastornado, zumbado, enfadado, enojado

sawed - Serrado

The sailors were all in amazement, and asked me a thousand questions, which I had no inclination to answer. I was equally confounded at the sight of so many pigmies, for such I took them to be, after having so long accustomed mine eyes to the monstrous objects I had left. But the captain, Mr. Thomas Wilcocks, an honest worthy Shropshire man, observing I was ready to faint, took me into his cabin, gave me a cordial to comfort me, and made me turn in upon his own bed, advising me to take a little rest, of which I had great need. Before I went to sleep, I gave him to understand that I had some valuable furniture in my box, too good to be lost: a fine hammock, a handsome field-bed, two chairs, a table, and a cabinet; that my closet was hung on all sides, or rather quilted, with silk and cotton; that if he would let one of the crew bring my closet into his cabin, I would open it there before him, and show him my goods.

amazement - asombro, sorpresa

pigmies - Cerdo

cordial - cordial

advising - asesoramiento; aconsejar, asesorar, notificar

valuable - valioso

handsome - apuesto, guapo, de buen parecer, lindo

The captain, hearing me utter these absurdities, concluded I was raving; however (I suppose to pacify me) he promised to give order as I desired, and going upon deck, sent some of his men down into my closet, whence (as I afterwards found) they drew up all my goods, and stripped off the quilting; but the chairs, cabinet, and bedstead, being screwed to the floor, were much damaged by the ignorance of the seamen, who tore them up by force. Then they knocked off some of the boards for the use of the ship, and when they had got all they had a mind for, let the hull drop into the sea, which by reason of many breaches made in the bottom and sides, sunk to rights. And, indeed, I was glad not to have been a spectator of the havoc they made, because I am confident it would have sensibly touched me, by bringing former passages into my mind, which I would rather have forgot.

absurdities - absurdos; absurdo, absurdidad

pacify - pacificar

deck - baraja

stripped off - despojado, desnudo

bedstead - cama (sin#Spanish

tore - Romper

knocked off - acabar; copiar, piratear; pirarase

breaches - nfracciones; brecha, violación, batería, boquete, disolución

sunk - Hundido; (sink); hundir, sumergir, sumergirse, lavamanos

spectator - espectador

havoc - estragos; estrago

sensibly - con sensatez; prudentemente

I slept some hours, but perpetually disturbed with dreams of the place I had left, and the dangers I had escaped. However, upon waking, I found myself much recovered. It was now about eight o'clock at night, and the captain ordered supper immediately, thinking I had already fasted too long. He entertained me with great kindness, observing me not to look wildly, or talk inconsistently: and, when we were left alone, desired I would give him a relation of my travels, and by what accident I came to be set adrift, in that monstrous wooden chest. He said "that about twelve o'clock at noon, as he was looking through his glass, he spied it at a distance, and thought it was a sail, which he had a mind to make, being not much out of his course, in hopes of buying some biscuit, his own beginning to fall short. That upon coming nearer, and finding his error, he sent out his long-boat to discover what it was; that his men came back in a fright, swearing they had seen a swimming house. That he laughed at their folly, and went himself in the boat, ordering his men to take a strong cable along with them. That the weather being calm, he rowed round me several times, observed my windows and wire lattices that defended them. That he discovered two staples upon one side, which was all of boards, without any passage for light. He then commanded his men to row up to that side, and fastening a cable to one of the staples, ordered them to tow my chest, as they called it, toward the ship. When it was there, he gave directions to fasten another cable to the ring fixed in the cover, and to raise up my chest with pulleys, which all the sailors were not able to do above two or three feet." He said, "they saw my stick and handkerchief thrust out of the hole, and concluded that some unhappy man must be shut up in the cavity.

supper - cenar; cena

inconsistently - Incoherentemente

fall short - quedarse corto; estar por debajo, no cumplir

swearing - jurando; (swear) jurando

lattices - redes; celosía, trama, cuadrícula, retículo, checkrejilla

tow - remolque; remolcar

fasten - atar, abrochar

thrust out - Expulsar

cavity - cavidad, caries

I asked, "whether he or the crew had seen any prodigious birds in the air, about the time he first discovered me." To which he answered, "that discoursing this matter with the sailors while I was asleep, one of them said, he had observed three eagles flying towards the north, but remarked nothing of their being larger than the usual size:" which I suppose must be imputed to the great height they were at; and he could not guess the reason of my question. I then asked the captain, "how far he reckoned we might be from land?" He said, "by the best computation he could make, we were at least a hundred leagues." I assured him, "that he must be mistaken by almost half, for I had not left the country whence I came above two hours before I dropped into the sea." Whereupon he began again to think that my brain was disturbed, of which he gave me a hint, and advised me to go to bed in a cabin he had provided. I assured him, "I was well refreshed with his good entertainment and company, and as much in my senses as ever I was in my life." He then grew serious, and desired to ask me freely, "whether I were not troubled in my mind by the consciousness of some enormous crime, for which I was punished, at the command of some prince, by exposing me in that chest; as great criminals, in other countries, have been forced to sea in a leaky vessel, without provisions: for although he should be sorry to have taken so ill a man into his ship, yet he would engage his word to set me safe ashore, in the first port where we arrived." He added, "that his suspicions were much increased by some very absurd speeches I had delivered at first to his sailors, and afterwards to himself, in relation to my closet or chest, as well as by my odd looks and behaviour while I was at supper."

eagles - águilas; águila

remarked - remarcado; observación, comentario

imputed - imputado; imputar

be mistaken - equivocarse

hint - insinuación; pista, indicio, indirecta, buscapié, toque

refreshed - refrescado; refrescar

consciousness - conciencia

exposing - Exposiciones

leaky - fugas; permeable

suspicions - sospechas; sospecha, suspicacia

I begged his patience to hear me tell my story, which I faithfully did, from the last time I left England, to the moment he first discovered me. And, as truth always forces its way into rational minds, so this honest worthy gentleman, who had some tincture of learning, and very good sense, was immediately convinced of my candour and veracity. But further to confirm all I had said, I entreated him to give order that my cabinet should be brought, of which I had the key in my pocket; for he had already informed me how the seamen disposed of my closet. I opened it in his own presence, and showed him the small collection of rarities I made in the country from which I had been so strangely delivered. There was the comb I had contrived out of the stumps of the king's beard, and another of the same materials, but fixed into a paring of her majesty's thumb-nail, which served for the back.

candour - Candor

disposed of - se eliminó

collection - colección, conjunto, recogida, recolección, colecta, recaudación

strangely - extranamente; extranamente

There was a collection of needles and pins, from a foot to half a yard long; four wasp stings, like joiner's tacks; some combings of the queen's hair; a gold ring, which one day she made me a present of, in a most obliging manner, taking it from her little finger, and throwing it over my head like a collar. I desired the captain would please to accept this ring in return for his civilities; which he absolutely refused. I showed him a corn that I had cut off with my own hand, from a maid of honour's toe; it was about the bigness of Kentish pippin, and grown so hard, that when I returned England, I got it hollowed into a cup, and set in silver. Lastly, I desired him to see the breeches I had then on, which were made of a mouse's skin.

pins - pasadores; alfiler

wasp - avispa

most obliging - el más servicial/ amable

ring in - llamar

hollowed - huecado; hueco

I could force nothing on him but a footman's tooth, which I observed him to examine with great curiosity, and found he had a fancy for it. He received it with abundance of thanks, more than such a trifle could deserve. It was drawn by an unskilful surgeon, in a mistake, from one of Glumdalclitch's men, who was afflicted with the tooth-ache, but it was as sound as any in his head.

footman - un lacayo; lacayo

examine - examinar, analizar, auscultar

abundance - abundancia

trifle - baratija; sopa inglesa, pizca, nadería, nimiedad, zarandaja

unskilful - poco hábil

afflicted with - afectado por

ache - dolor

I got it cleaned, and put it into my cabinet. It was about a foot long, and four inches in diameter.

The captain was very well satisfied with this plain relation I had given him, and said, "he hoped, when we returned to England, I would oblige the world by putting it on paper, and making it public." My answer was, "that we were overstocked with books of travels: that nothing could now pass which was not extraordinary; wherein I doubted some authors less consulted truth, than their own vanity, or interest, or the diversion of ignorant readers; that my story could contain little beside common events, without those ornamental descriptions of strange plants, trees, birds, and other animals; or of the barbarous customs and idolatry of savage people, with which most writers abound.

oblige - obligar

overstocked - Exceso de existencias

doubted - dudaba; dudar, duda, incertidumbre

ornamental - ornamental

barbarous - bárbaro

idolatry - idolatría

However, I thanked him for his good opinion, and promised to take the matter into my thoughts."

He said "he wondered at one thing very much, which was, to hear me speak so loud;" asking me "whether the king or queen of that country were thick of hearing?" I told him, "it was what I had been used to for above two years past, and that I admired as much at the voices of him and his men, who seemed to me only to whisper, and yet I could hear them well enough. But, when I spoke in that country, it was like a man talking in the streets, to another looking out from the top of a steeple, unless when I was placed on a table, or held in any person's hand." I told him, "I had likewise observed another thing, that, when I first got into the ship, and the sailors stood all about me, I thought they were the most little contemptible creatures I had ever beheld." For indeed, while I was in that prince's country, I could never endure to look in a glass, after mine eyes had been accustomed to such prodigious objects, because the comparison gave me so despicable a conceit of myself. The captain said, "that while we were at supper, he observed me to look at every thing with a sort of wonder, and that I often seemed hardly able to contain my laughter, which he knew not well how to take, but imputed it to some disorder in my brain.

despicable - desdenable, despreciable, bajo, rastrero

conceit - engreimiento, vanidad, presunción, ego

disorder - desorden, disturbio, desenfreno, trastorno

I answered, "it was very true; and I wondered how I could forbear, when I saw his dishes of the size of a silver three-pence, a leg of pork hardly a mouthful, a cup not so big as a nut-shell;" and so I went on, describing the rest of his household-stuff and provisions, after the same manner. For, although he queen had ordered a little equipage of all things necessary for me, while I was in her service, yet my ideas were wholly taken up with what I saw on every side of me, and I winked at my own littleness, as people do at their own faults. The captain understood my raillery very well, and merrily replied with the old English proverb, "that he doubted mine eyes were bigger than my belly, for he did not observe my stomach so good, although I had fasted all day;" and, continuing in his mirth, protested "he would have gladly given a hundred pounds, to have seen my closet in the eagle's bill, and afterwards in its fall from so great a height into the sea; which would certainly have been a most astonishing object, worthy to have the description of it transmitted to future ages:" and the comparison of Phaëton was so obvious, that he could not forbear applying it, although I did not much admire the conceit.

leg of pork - Pierna de cerdo

winked - guinó el ojo; guinar el ojo

faults - fallas; defecto, falla, culpa, falta

raillery - railería

proverb - proverbio, refrán, paremia

most astonishing - el más sorprendente

admire - admirar

The captain having been at Tonquin, was, in his return to England, driven north-eastward to the latitude of 44 degrees, and longitude of 143. But meeting a trade-wind two days after I came on board him, we sailed southward a long time, and coasting New Holland, kept our course west-south-west, and then south-south-west, till we doubled the Cape of Good Hope. Our voyage was very prosperous, but I shall not trouble the reader with a journal of it. The captain called in at one or two ports, and sent in his long-boat for provisions and fresh water; but I never went out of the ship till we came into the Downs, which was on the third day of June, 1706, about nine months after my escape.

Longitude - longitud

trade-wind - (trade-wind) vientos alisios

I offered to leave my goods in security for payment of my freight: but the captain protested he would not receive one farthing. We took a kind leave of each other, and I made him promise he would come to see me at my house in Redriff. I hired a horse and guide for five shillings, which I borrowed of the captain.

freight - carga, mercancías

shillings - chelines; chelín

As I was on the road, observing the littleness of the houses, the trees, the cattle, and the people, I began to think myself in Lilliput. I was afraid of trampling on every traveller I met, and often called aloud to have them stand out of the way, so that I had like to have gotten one or two broken heads for my impertinence.

heads for - Dirigirse a

When I came to my own house, for which I was forced to inquire, one of the servants opening the door, I bent down to go in, (like a goose under a gate,) for fear of striking my head. My wife run out to embrace me, but I stooped lower than her knees, thinking she could otherwise never be able to reach my mouth. My daughter kneeled to ask my blessing, but I could not see her till she arose, having been so long used to stand with my head and eyes erect to above sixty feet; and then I went to take her up with one hand by the waist.

goose - ganso

striking - sorprendente; llamativo, imponente

Embrace - abrazar, abrazo

stooped - encorvado; inclinarse, agacharse

kneeled - de rodillas; arrodillarse

blessing - bendición; (bless); bendición

arose - surgió; surgir, levantarse, provenir, aparecer

I looked down upon the servants, and one or two friends who were in the house, as if they had been pigmies and I a giant. I told my wife, "she had been too thrifty, for I found she had starved herself and her daughter to nothing." In short, I behaved myself so unaccountably, that they were all of the captain's opinion when he first saw me, and concluded I had lost my wits. This I mention as an instance of the great power of habit and prejudice.

giant - gigante, gigantesco

thrifty - ahorrador, ahorrativo, económico

starved - muerto de hambre; morir de hambre, hambrear

unaccountably - inexplicablemente

great power - un gran poder

prejudice - prejuicios; prejuicio, perjudicar, prejuiciar

In a little time, I and my family and friends came to a right understanding: but my wife protested "I should never go to sea any more;" although my evil destiny so ordered, that she had not power to hinder me, as the reader may know hereafter. In the mean time, I here conclude the second part of my unfortunate voyages.

destiny - destino, sino

unfortunate - desafortunado, desgraciado



The author sets out on his third voyage. Is taken by pirates. The malice of a Dutchman. His arrival at an island. He is received into Laputa.

sets out - salir de viaje, empezar; exponer, presentar; diponer

pirates - piratas; pirata, bucanero, barco pirata, piratear

Dutchman - holandés, neerlandés

I had not been at home above ten days, when Captain William Robinson, a Cornish man, commander of the Hopewell, a stout ship of three hundred tons, came to my house. I had formerly been surgeon of another ship where he was master, and a fourth part owner, in a voyage to the Levant. He had always treated me more like a brother, than an inferior officer; and, hearing of my arrival, made me a visit, as I apprehended only out of friendship, for nothing passed more than what is usual after long absences. But repeating his visits often, expressing his joy to find I me in good health, asking, "whether I were now settled for life?" adding, "that he intended a voyage to the East Indies in two months," at last he plainly invited me, though with some apologies, to be surgeon of the ship; "that I should have another surgeon under me, beside our two mates; that my salary should be double to the usual pay; and that having experienced my knowledge in sea-affairs to be at least equal to his, he would enter into any engagement to follow my advice, as much as if I had shared in the command.

stout - cerveza; sólido, fuerte

part owner - copropietario, socio

absences - ausencias; ausencia, falta, ausencia de hierro

apologies - disculpas; disculpa, excusa

mates - companeros; aparear, acoplar

engagement - compromiso, conexión, atención, noviazgo

He said so many other obliging things, and I knew him to be so honest a man, that I could not reject this proposal; the thirst I had of seeing the world, notwithstanding my past misfortunes, continuing as violent as ever. The only difficulty that remained, was to persuade my wife, whose consent however I at last obtained, by the prospect of advantage she proposed to her children.

reject - rechazar, desestimar, artículo defectuoso, marginado, marginada

persuade - persuadir

We set out the 5th day of August, 1706, and arrived at Fort St. George the 11th of April, 1707. We staid there three weeks to refresh our crew, many of whom were sick. From thence we went to Tonquin, where the captain resolved to continue some time, because many of the goods he intended to buy were not ready, nor could he expect to be dispatched in several months.

fort - fuerte, fortaleza

George - Jorge

refresh - refrescar

Therefore, in hopes to defray some of the charges he must be at, he bought a sloop, loaded it with several sorts of goods, wherewith the Tonquinese usually trade to the neighbouring islands, and putting fourteen men on board, whereof three were of the country, he appointed me master of the sloop, and gave me power to traffic, while he transacted his affairs at Tonquin.

defray - pagar; costear

sloop - un balandro; balandra, chalupa

loaded - cargado; carga

transacted - transacciones; negociar; tramitar

We had not sailed above three days, when a great storm arising, we were driven five days to the north-north-east, and then to the east: after which we had fair weather, but still with a pretty strong gale from the west. Upon the tenth day we were chased by two pirates, who soon overtook us; for my sloop was so deep laden, that she sailed very slow, neither were we in a condition to defend ourselves.

arising - ue surge; (arise); surgir, levantarse, provenir, aparecer

tenth - diez; décimo, décimo, décima

chased - perseguido; perseguir

overtook - delantó; rebasar, sobrepasar, adelantar, alcanzar, superar

We were boarded about the same time by both the pirates, who entered furiously at the head of their men; but finding us all prostrate upon our faces (for so I gave order), they pinioned us with strong ropes, and setting guard upon us, went to search the sloop.

furiously - furiosamente

prostrate - postrado, acostado boca abajo

pinioned - pinón

I observed among them a Dutchman, who seemed to be of some authority, though he was not commander of either ship. He knew us by our countenances to be Englishmen, and jabbering to us in his own language, swore we should be tied back to back and thrown into the sea. I spoken Dutch tolerably well; I told him who we were, and begged him, in consideration of our being Christians and Protestants, of neighbouring countries in strict alliance, that he would move the captains to take some pity on us.

jabbering - farfullando; (jabber) farfullando

Christians - cristianos; cristiano, cristiana, Cristián

Protestants - protestantes; protestante

alliance - alianza

This inflamed his rage; he repeated his threatenings, and turning to his companions, spoke with great vehemence in the Japanese language, as I suppose, often using the word Christianos.

vehemence - vehemencia, hervor

Japanese language - Idioma japonés

The largest of the two pirate ships was commanded by a Japanese captain, who spoke a little Dutch, but very imperfectly. He came up to me, and after several questions, which I answered in great humility, he said, "we should not die." I made the captain a very low bow, and then, turning to the Dutchman, said, "I was sorry to find more mercy in a heathen, than in a brother christian." But I had soon reason to repent those foolish words: for that malicious reprobate, having often endeavoured in vain to persuade both the captains that I might be thrown into the sea (which they would not yield to, after the promise made me that I should not die), however, prevailed so far, as to have a punishment inflicted on me, worse, in all human appearance, than death itself.

pirate - pirata, bucanero, barco pirata, piratear

Japanese - japonés, nipón, japonés, japonesa, nipón

humility - humildad

heathen - pagano, bárbaro, pagano, pagana

Christian - cristiano, cristiana, Cristián

repent - arrepentirse

reprobate - reprobado

yield - ceder

My men were sent by an equal division into both the pirate ships, and my sloop new manned. As to myself, it was determined that I should be set adrift in a small canoe, with paddles and a sail, and four days'provisions; which last, the Japanese captain was so kind to double out of his own stores, and would permit no man to search me. I got down into the canoe, while the Dutchman, standing upon the deck, loaded me with all the curses and injurious terms his language could afford.

Division - división, parte

canoe - canoa

deck - cubierta

curses - maldiciones; maldecir

afford - pagar; costear, permitirse

About an hour before we saw the pirates I had taken an observation, and found we were in the latitude of 46 N. and longitude of 183. When I was at some distance from the pirates, I discovered, by my pocket-glass, several islands to the south-east. I set up my sail, the wind being fair, with a design to reach the nearest of those islands, which I made a shift to do, in about three hours.

It was all rocky: however I got many birds'eggs; and, striking fire, I kindled some heath and dry sea-weed, by which I roasted my eggs. I ate no other supper, being resolved to spare my provisions as much as I could. I passed the night under the shelter of a rock, strewing some heath under me, and slept pretty well.

Heath - páramo, brezal, brezo

weed - mala hierba; (wee) mala hierba

Roasted - asar, rostir, planchar, brindis cómico, vejamen, carne asada

passed the night - pasar la noche

strewing - Esparcir; (strew); esparcir

The next day I sailed to another island, and thence to a third and fourth, sometimes using my sail, and sometimes my paddles. But, not to trouble the reader with a particular account of my distresses, let it suffice, that on the fifth day I arrived at the last island in my sight, which lay south-south-east to the former.

distresses - ngustias; aflicción, angustia, desasosiego, ansiedad

This island was at a greater distance than I expected, and I did not reach it in less than five hours. I encompassed it almost round, before I could find a convenient place to land in; which was a small creek, about three times the wideness of my canoe. I found the island to be all rocky, only a little intermingled with tufts of grass, and sweet-smelling herbs. I took out my small provisions and after having refreshed myself, I secured the remainder in a cave, whereof there were great numbers; I gathered plenty of eggs upon the rocks, and got a quantity of dry sea-weed, and parched grass, which I designed to kindle the next day, and roast my eggs as well as I could, for I had about me my flint, steel, match, and burning-glass. I lay all night in the cave where I had lodged my provisions. My bed was the same dry grass and sea-weed which I intended for fuel. I slept very little, for the disquiets of my mind prevailed over my weariness, and kept me awake. I considered how impossible it was to preserve my life in so desolate a place, and how miserable my end must be: yet found myself so listless and desponding, that I had not the heart to rise; and before I could get spirits enough to creep out of my cave, the day was far advanced.

wideness - amplitud

tufts - mechones; mechón

herbs - hierbas; hierba culinaria, planta medicinal, hierba

cave - cueva, caverna

parched - eseca; torrefacer, agostar

roast - asar, rostir, planchar, brindis cómico, vejamen, carne asada

Flint - pedernal, sílex, piedra

lodged - alojado; cabana, barraca, caseta, logia, madriguera

fuel - combustible

awake - despierto; despertar(se)

listless - lánguido; apático, indiferente

desponding - desanimado; (despond) desanimado

I walked awhile among the rocks: the sky was perfectly clear, and the sun so hot, that I was forced to turn my face from it: when all on a sudden it became obscure, as I thought, in a manner very different from what happens by the interposition of a cloud. I turned back, and perceived a vast opaque body between me and the sun moving forwards towards the island: it seemed to be about two miles high, and hid the sun six or seven minutes; but I did not observe the air to be much colder, or the sky more darkened, than if I had stood under the shade of a mountain. As it approached nearer over the place where I was, it appeared to be a firm substance, the bottom flat, smooth, and shining very bright, from the reflection of the sea below. I stood upon a height about two hundred yards from the shore, and saw this vast body descending almost to a parallel with me, at less than an English mile distance. I took out my pocket perspective, and could plainly discover numbers of people moving up and down the sides of it, which appeared to be sloping; but what those people where doing I was not able to distinguish.

obscure - oscuro; obscuro, esconder, ocultar

interposition - interposición

opaque - opaco

darkened - oscurecido; oscurecer, obscurecer

shade - sombra, persiana, umbral, tono, matiz, sombrear, matizar

approached - se acercó; acercarse, aproximarse

shining - brillante; espinilla

sloping - inclinado; pendiente, cuesta, desnivel, inclinación, ojo chueco

The natural love of life gave me some inward motion of joy, and I was ready to entertain a hope that this adventure might, some way or other, help to deliver me from the desolate place and condition I was in. But at the same time the reader can hardly conceive my astonishment, to behold an island in the air, inhabited by men, who were able (as it should seem) to raise or sink, or put it into progressive motion, as they pleased. But not being at that time in a disposition to philosophise upon this phenomenon, I rather chose to observe what course the island would take, because it seemed for awhile to stand still. Yet soon after, it advanced nearer, and I could see the sides of it encompassed with several gradations of galleries, and stairs, at certain intervals, to descend from one to the other.

inward - hacia dentro; interior, adentro

sink - hundir, sumergir, sumergirse, lavamanos, fregadero, desagüe

progressive - progresista, progresivo, progresista

philosophise - filosofar

phenomenon - fenómeno

stand still - estar quieto

intervals - intervalos; intervalo

descend from - descender de

In the lowest gallery, I beheld some people fishing with long angling rods, and others looking on. I waved my cap (for my hat was long since worn out) and my handkerchief toward the island; and upon its nearer approach, I called and shouted with the utmost strength of my voice; and then looking circumspectly, I beheld a crowd gather to that side which was most in my view. I found by their pointing towards me and to each other, that they plainly discovered me, although they made no return to my shouting. But I could see four or five men running in great haste, up the stairs, to the top of the island, who then disappeared. I happened rightly to conjecture, that these were sent for orders to some person in authority upon this occasion.

angling - pescar con cana; pesca con cana; (angle); anglo

rods - barras; barra, rodillo, cana, vara, bastón, verga, barra

cap - gorra

circumspectly - Circunstancialmente

gather - reunirnos; juntar, recoger, recolectar, acumular, reunir

The number of people increased, and, in less than half all hour, the island was moved and raised in such a manner, that the lowest gallery appeared in a parallel of less then a hundred yards distance from the height where I stood. I then put myself in the most supplicating posture, and spoke in the humblest accent, but received no answer. Those who stood nearest over against me, seemed to be persons of distinction, as I supposed by their habit.

humblest - más humilde; humilde

They conferred earnestly with each other, looking often upon me. At length one of them called out in a clear, polite, smooth dialect, not unlike in sound to the Italian: and therefore I returned an answer in that language, hoping at least that the cadence might be more agreeable to his ears. Although neither of us understood the other, yet my meaning was easily known, for the people saw the distress I was in.

cadence - cadencia, cadencia

They made signs for me to come down from the rock, and go towards the shore, which I accordingly did; and the flying island being raised to a convenient height, the verge directly over me, a chain was let down from the lowest gallery, with a seat fastened to the bottom, to which I fixed myself, and was drawn up by pulleys.

verge - margen, borde; arcén


The humours and dispositions of the Laputians described. An account of their learning. Of the king and his court. The author's reception there. The inhabitants subject to fear and disquietudes. An account of the women.

humours - humores; humor, seguir la corriente

disquietudes - inquietudes; ansia, inquietud, angustia, ansiedad, congoja

At my alighting, I was surrounded with a crowd of people, but those who stood nearest seemed to be of better quality. They beheld me with all the marks and circumstances of wonder; neither indeed was I much in their debt, having never till then seen a race of mortals so singular in their shapes, habits, and countenances. Their heads were all reclined, either to the right, or the left; one of their eyes turned inward, and the other directly up to the zenith. Their outward garments were adorned with the figures of suns, moons, and stars; interwoven with those of fiddles, flutes, harps, trumpets, guitars, harpsichords, and many other instruments of music, unknown to us in Europe. I observed, here and there, many in the habit of servants, with a blown bladder, fastened like a flail to the end of a stick, which they carried in their hands. In each bladder was a small quantity of dried peas, or little pebbles, as I was afterwards informed. With these bladders, they now and then flapped the mouths and ears of those who stood near them, of which practice I could not then conceive the meaning. It seems the minds of these people are so taken up with intense speculations, that they neither can speak, nor attend to the discourses of others, without being roused by some external taction upon the organs of speech and hearing; for which reason, those persons who are able to afford it always keep a flapper (the original is climenole) in their family, as one of their domestics; nor ever walk abroad, or make visits, without him. And the business of this officer is, when two, three, or more persons are in company, gently to strike with his bladder the mouth of him who is to speak, and the right ear of him or them to whom the speaker addresses himself.

alighting - saliendo; apearse de

surrounded - rodeado; circundar, envolver, cercar, rodear

debt - deuda, pufo

reclined - reclinado; reclinarse

zenith - el cenit; cenit, apogeo

garments - prendas de vestir; prenda, prenda de vestir

flutes - flautas; flauta

harpsichords - clavicordios; clavicordio; clavicémbalo

flail - maleta; mayal, mayal de armas, sacudirse, agitarse, debatirse

peas - Guisantes; (pea) Guisantes

pebbles - guijarros; guijarro, canto pelado, canto rodado, china, empedrar

bladders - ejigas; vejiga, cubi, barrica plástica, bota

flapped - leteó; solapa; faldón

intense - intenso

external - externa; externo

taction - Tacción

organs - órganos; órgano, publicación oficial

This flapper is likewise employed diligently to attend his master in his walks, and upon occasion to give him a soft flap on his eyes; because he is always so wrapped up in cogitation, that he is in manifest danger of falling down every precipice, and bouncing his head against every post; and in the streets, of justling others, or being justled himself into the kennel.

flap - solapa; faldón

cogitation - consideración; cogitación

falling down - caerse, colapsar, fracasar

precipice - precipicio

bouncing - rebotando; rebotar, rebote

kennel - perrera; caseta de perro

It was necessary to give the reader this information, without which he would be at the same loss with me to understand the proceedings of these people, as they conducted me up the stairs to the top of the island, and from thence to the royal palace.

conducted - conducido; conducción, conducta, guiar, dirigir, manejar

While we were ascending, they forgot several times what they were about, and left me to myself, till their memories were again roused by their flappers; for they appeared altogether unmoved by the sight of my foreign habit and countenance, and by the shouts of the vulgar, whose thoughts and minds were more disengaged.

ascending - ascendente; subir, ascender

disengaged - desconectado; desenganchar, desatar, liberar, retirar

At last we entered the palace, and proceeded into the chamber of presence, where I saw the king seated on his throne, attended on each side by persons of prime quality. Before the throne, was a large table filled with globes and spheres, and mathematical instruments of all kinds. His majesty took not the least notice of us, although our entrance was not without sufficient noise, by the concourse of all persons belonging to the court. But he was then deep in a problem; and we attended at least an hour, before he could solve it. There stood by him, on each side, a young page with flaps in their hands, and when they saw he was at leisure, one of them gently struck his mouth, and the other his right ear; at which he startled like one awaked on the sudden, and looking towards me and the company I was in, recollected the occasion of our coming, whereof he had been informed before. He spoke some words, whereupon immediately a young man with a flap came up to my side, and flapped me gently on the right ear; but I made signs, as well as I could, that I had no occasion for such an instrument; which, as I afterwards found, gave his majesty, and the whole court, a very mean opinion of my understanding.

throne - trono

spheres - esferas; esfera, bola

entrance - entrada

flaps - solapas; solapa; faldón

startled - sorprendido; sobresaltarse, alarmarse, espantarse, evitar

recollected - recuerdas; recordar, acordarse de

The king, as far as I could conjecture, asked me several questions, and I addressed myself to him in all the languages I had. When it was found I could neither understand nor be understood, I was conducted by his order to an apartment in his palace (this prince being distinguished above all his predecessors for his hospitality to strangers), where two servants were appointed to attend me. My dinner was brought, and four persons of quality, whom I remembered to have seen very near the king's person, did me the honour to dine with me. We had two courses, of three dishes each. In the first course, there was a shoulder of mutton cut into an equilateral triangle, a piece of beef into a rhomboides, and a pudding into a cycloid. The second course was two ducks trussed up in the form of fiddles; sausages and puddings resembling flutes and hautboys, and a breast of veal in the shape of a harp. The servants cut our bread into cones, cylinders, parallelograms, and several other mathematical figures.

predecessors - redecesores; predecesor, antecesor

strangers - Extrano

equilateral - equilátero

triangle - triángulo

rhomboides - Romboides

cycloid - cicloide

ducks - patos; hundir, sumergir

trussed - enrejado; faja para hernia, cercha

sausages - salchichas; embutido, salchicha, salchichón, checkchorizo

puddings - postres; pudin, pudín

veal - ternera

harp - arpa, harpa

cones - onos; cono, cono, estróbilo, checkcucurucho, checkbarquillo

cylinders - cilindros; cilindro, bombona

parallelograms - paralelogramos; paralelogramo

While we were at dinner, I made bold to ask the names of several things in their language, and those noble persons, by the assistance of their flappers, delighted to give me answers, hoping to raise my admiration of their great abilities if I could be brought to converse with them. I was soon able to call for bread and drink, or whatever else I wanted.

After dinner my company withdrew, and a person was sent to me by the king's order, attended by a flapper. He brought with him pen, ink, and paper, and three or four books, giving me to understand by signs, that he was sent to teach me the language. We sat together four hours, in which time I wrote down a great number of words in columns, with the translations over against them; I likewise made a shift to learn several short sentences; for my tutor would order one of my servants to fetch something, to turn about, to make a bow, to sit, or to stand, or walk, and the like. Then I took down the sentence in writing. He showed me also, in one of his books, the figures of the sun, moon, and stars, the zodiac, the tropics, and polar circles, together with the denominations of many plains and solids. He gave me the names and descriptions of all the musical instruments, and the general terms of art in playing on each of them.

translations - traducciones; traducción, transmisión, traslación

turn about - dar la vuelta

Zodiac - zodíaco

tropics - rópicos; trópico

polar - polar

denominations - enominaciones; denominación

plains - lanuras; sencillo; liso; sin ornamentos; llano (persona)

solids - sólidos; sólido, masivo, macizo, continuo, junto, sólido, cuerpo

After he had left me, I placed all my words, with their interpretations, in alphabetical order. And thus, in a few days, by the help of a very faithful memory, I got some insight into their language. The word, which I interpret the flying or floating island, is in the original Laputa, whereof I could never learn the true etymology. Lap, in the old obsolete language, signifies high; and untuh, a governor; from which they say, by corruption, was derived Laputa, from Lapuntuh. But I do not approve of this derivation, which seems to be a little strained. I ventured to offer to the learned among them a conjecture of my own, that Laputa was quasi lap outed; lap, signifying properly, the dancing of the sunbeams in the sea, and outed, a wing; which, however, I shall not obtrude, but submit to the judicious reader.

interpretations - interpretaciones; interpretación, apreciación

alphabetical order - Orden alfabético

insight - percepción; introspección, perspicacia, agudeza, deducción

floating - flotante, flotador; (float); flotar, carroza

etymology - etimología

obsolete - obsoleto

signifies - significar, senalar, checksuponer, checkrepresentar

governor - gobernador, gobernadora

corruption - corrupción, corruptela, dano de datos

derived - derivado; derivar

approve - aprobar; tener un buen concepto de

derivation - derivación, derivada

properly - orrectamente; como es debido, como corresponde, como toca

sunbeams - rayos de sol; rayo de sol

obtrude - obstruir; imponer, checkimponerse, checksobresalir

judicious - uiciosa; juicioso

Those to whom the king had entrusted me, observing how ill I was clad, ordered a tailor to come next morning, and take measure for a suit of clothes. This operator did his office after a different manner from those of his trade in Europe. He first took my altitude by a quadrant, and then, with a rule and compasses, described the dimensions and outlines of my whole body, all which he entered upon paper; and in six days brought my clothes very ill made, and quite out of shape, by happening to mistake a figure in the calculation.

entrusted - onfiado; encomendar, confiar

tailor to - a medida

measure for - medida para

operator - operador

compasses - brújulas; brújula

dimensions - dimensiones; dimensión

outlines - contornos; contorno, esbozo, resumen, delinear, resumir

calculation - cálculo, cálculo, cómputo, conjetura

But my comfort was, that I observed such accidents very frequent, and little regarded.

During my confinement for want of clothes, and by an indisposition that held me some days longer, I much enlarged my dictionary; and when I went next to court, was able to understand many things the king spoke, and to return him some kind of answers. His majesty had given orders, that the island should move north-east and by east, to the vertical point over Lagado, the metropolis of the whole kingdom below, upon the firm earth. It was about ninety leagues distant, and our voyage lasted four days and a half. I was not in the least sensible of the progressive motion made in the air by the island.

indisposition - indisposición; achaque

vertical - vertical

On the second morning, about eleven o'clock, the king himself in person, attended by his nobility, courtiers, and officers, having prepared all their musical instruments, played on them for three hours without intermission, so that I was quite stunned with the noise; neither could I possibly guess the meaning, till my tutor informed me. He said that, the people of their island had their ears adapted to hear "the music of the spheres, which always played at certain periods, and the court was now prepared to bear their part, in whatever instrument they most excelled."

intermission - intermisión, intermedio

In our journey towards Lagado, the capital city, his majesty ordered that the island should stop over certain towns and villages, from whence he might receive the petitions of his subjects. And to this purpose, several packthreads were let down, with small weights at the bottom.

On these packthreads the people strung their petitions, which mounted up directly, like the scraps of paper fastened by school boys at the end of the string that holds their kite. Sometimes we received wine and victuals from below, which were drawn up by pulleys.

strung - encordado; cordel, mecate, usic, cadena, cuerda, enhebrar

scraps - restos; pedacito, retazo

Their houses are very ill built, the walls bevil, without one right angle in any apartment; and this defect arises from the contempt they bear to practical geometry, which they despise as vulgar and mechanic; those instructions they give being too refined for the intellects of their workmen, which occasions perpetual mistakes. And although they are dexterous enough upon a piece of paper, in the management of the rule, the pencil, and the divider, yet in the common actions and behaviour of life, I have not seen a more clumsy, awkward, and unhandy people, nor so slow and perplexed in their conceptions upon all other subjects, except those of mathematics and music.

right angle - Ángulo recto

arises from - surgir de

practical - práctico

geometry - geometría, geometría

mechanic - mecánico

refined - refinado; refinar, perfeccionar

intellects - inteligencias; intelecto

divider - divisor; separador

clumsy - patoso, torpe, desmanado, bruto

awkward - torpe, desmanado, embarazoso, delicado, incómodo, tímido

unhandy - Inmanejable

perplexed - perplejo; confundir, desconcertar

They are very bad reasoners, and vehemently given to opposition, unless when they happen to be of the right opinion, which is seldom their case. Imagination, fancy, and invention, they are wholly strangers to, nor have any words in their language, by which those ideas can be expressed; the whole compass of their thoughts and mind being shut up within the two forementioned sciences.

reasoners - Razonador

vehemently - con vehemencia; vehementemente

opposition - oposición

forementioned - Mencionado

Most of them, and especially those who deal in the astronomical part, have great faith in judicial astrology, although they are ashamed to own it publicly. But what I chiefly admired, and thought altogether unaccountable, was the strong disposition I observed in them towards news and politics, perpetually inquiring into public affairs, giving their judgments in matters of state, and passionately disputing every inch of a party opinion.

astronomical - astronómico

Faith - fe, confianza

judicial astrology - astrología judicial

unaccountable - irresponsable; panish: t-needed

judgments - juicios; juicio

passionately - con pasión; apasionadamente

disputing - discutiendo; disputa, contencioso

I have indeed observed the same disposition among most of the mathematicians I have known in Europe, although I could never discover the least analogy between the two sciences; unless those people suppose, that because the smallest circle has as many degrees as the largest, therefore the regulation and management of the world require no more abilities than the handling and turning of a globe; but I rather take this quality to spring from a very common infirmity of human nature, inclining us to be most curious and conceited in matters where we have least concern, and for which we are least adapted by study or nature.

analogy - una analogía; analogía

regulation - reglamento, regulación

handling - manipulación; (handle) manipulación

spring from - surgir de

infirmity - enfermedad

inclining - Inclinándose; (incline) Inclinándose

most curious - más curioso

conceited - envanecido; engreimiento, vanidad, presunción, ego

They are so perpetually alarmed with the apprehensions of these, and the like impending dangers, that they can neither sleep quietly in their beds, nor have any relish for the common pleasures and amusements of life. When they meet an acquaintance in the morning, the first question is about the sun's health, how he looked at his setting and rising, and what hopes they have to avoid the stroke of the approaching comet.

relish - saborear

pleasures - laceres; placer, voluptuosidad, gustar

amusements - diversiones; divertimiento, esparcimiento, diversión

comet - cometa

This conversation they are apt to run into with the same temper that boys discover in delighting to hear terrible stories of spirits and hobgoblins, which they greedily listen to, and dare not go to bed for fear.

delighting - disfrutando; deleite, regocijo, delicia, placer

The women of the island have abundance of vivacity: they, contemn their husbands, and are exceedingly fond of strangers, whereof there is always a considerable number from the continent below, attending at court, either upon affairs of the several towns and corporations, or their own particular occasions, but are much despised, because they want the same endowments.

vivacity - vivacidad

contemn - despreciar, menospreciar

exceedingly - excesivamente; extremadamente, sumamente, sobremanera, asaz

corporations - corporaciones; corporación, sociedad anónima

despised - despreciado; desdenar

Among these the ladies choose their gallants: but the vexation is, that they act with too much ease and security; for the husband is always so rapt in speculation, that the mistress and lover may proceed to the greatest familiarities before his face, if he be but provided with paper and implements, and without his flapper at his side.

gallants - galanes; gallardo, intrépido

rapt - extasiado; absorto, embelesado

speculation - especulación

lover - amante

familiarities - familiaridades; intimidad, impertinencia, familiaridad

implements - implementos; implemento, herramienta, instrumento, implementar

The wives and daughters lament their confinement to the island, although I think it the most delicious spot of ground in the world; and although they live here in the greatest plenty and magnificence, and are allowed to do whatever they please, they long to see the world, and take the diversions of the metropolis, which they are not allowed to do without a particular license from the king; and this is not easy to be obtained, because the people of quality have found, by frequent experience, how hard it is to persuade their women to return from below.

lament - lamento

the people of quality - la gente de calidad

I was told that a great court lady, who had several children,-is married to the prime minister, the richest subject in the kingdom, a very graceful person, extremely fond of her, and lives in the finest palace of the island,-went down to Lagado on the pretence of health, there hid herself for several months, till the king sent a warrant to search for her; and she was found in an obscure eating-house all in rags, having pawned her clothes to maintain an old deformed footman, who beat her every day, and in whose company she was taken, much against her will. And although her husband received her with all possible kindness, and without the least reproach, she soon after contrived to steal down again, with all her jewels, to the same gallant, and has not been heard of since.

eating-house - (eating-house) restaurante; comedor

rags - trapos; trapo

pawned - empenado; empenar

gallant - galante; gallardo, intrépido

This may perhaps pass with the reader rather for an European or English story, than for one of a country so remote. But he may please to consider, that the caprices of womankind are not limited by any climate or nation, and that they are much more uniform, than can be easily imagined.

caprices - aprichos; capricho

more uniform - más uniforme

In about a month's time, I had made a tolerable proficiency in their language, and was able to answer most of the king's questions, when I had the honour to attend him.

proficiency - proficiencia; suficiencia, pericia, habilidad, aptitud

His majesty discovered not the least curiosity to inquire into the laws, government, history, religion, or manners of the countries where I had been; but confined his questions to the state of mathematics, and received the account I gave him with great contempt and indifference, though often roused by his flapper on each side.


A phenomenon solved by modern philosophy and astronomy. The Laputians'great improvements in the latter. The king's method of suppressing insurrections.

astronomy - astronomía

improvements - mejoras; mejora, mejoramiento, enmienda, mejoría

suppressing - suprimiendo; reprimar, contener, ocultar, suprimir

insurrections - insurrecciones; insurrección

I desired leave of this prince to see the curiosities of the island, which he was graciously pleased to grant, and ordered my tutor to attend me. I chiefly wanted to know, to what cause, in art or in nature, it owed its several motions, whereof I will now give a philosophical account to the reader.

philosophical - filosófica; filosófico

The flying or floating island is exactly circular, its diameter 7837 yards, or about four miles and a half, and consequently contains ten thousand acres. It is three hundred yards thick. The bottom, or under surface, which appears to those who view it below, is one even regular plate of adamant, shooting up to the height of about two hundred yards. Above it lie the several minerals in their usual order, and over all is a coat of rich mould, ten or twelve feet deep. The declivity of the upper surface, from the circumference to the centre, is the natural cause why all the dews and rains, which fall upon the island, are conveyed in small rivulets toward the middle, where they are emptied into four large basins, each of about half a mile in circuit, and two hundred yards distant from the centre.

circular - circular

acres - acres; acre

adamant - constante; firme, categórico, inflexible, impenetrable

shooting - disparando; tiroteo, tiro; (shoot) disparando; tiroteo, tiro

minerals - minerales; mineral

mould - moho; mantillo

dews - rocío

rivulets - riachuelos; riachuelo

basins - uencas; pileta, lavabo, lavamanos, jofaina

circuit - circuito

From these basins the water is continually exhaled by the sun in the daytime, which effectually prevents their overflowing. Besides, as it is in the power of the monarch to raise the island above the region of clouds and vapours, he can prevent the falling of dews and rain whenever he pleases. For the highest clouds cannot rise above two miles, as naturalists agree, at least they were never known to do so in that country.

continually - continuadamente, continuamente

exhaled - exhalado; espirar, exhalar

daytime - durante el día; día

effectually - eficazmente

overflowing - desbordante; (overflow); desbordamiento, aliviadero, escape

vapours - vapores; vapor

At the centre of the island there is a chasm about fifty yards in diameter, whence the astronomers descend into a large dome, which is therefore called flandona gagnole, or the astronomer's cave, situated at the depth of a hundred yards beneath the upper surface of the adamant. In this cave are twenty lamps continually burning, which, from the reflection of the adamant, cast a strong light into every part. The place is stored with great variety of sextants, quadrants, telescopes, astrolabes, and other astronomical instruments.

chasm - abismo; garganta, canón, barranco, barranca

astronomers - astrónomos; astrónomo, astrónoma

dome - cúpula, domo

sextants - sextantes; sextante, panish: t-needed

quadrants - uadrantes; cuadrante

telescopes - telescopios; telescopio

astrolabes - astrolabios; astrolabio

But the greatest curiosity, upon which the fate of the island depends, is a loadstone of a prodigious size, in shape resembling a weaver's shuttle. It is in length six yards, and in the thickest part at least three yards over. This magnet is sustained by a very strong axle of adamant passing through its middle, upon which it plays, and is poised so exactly that the weakest hand can turn it. It is hooped round with a hollow cylinder of adamant, four feet yards in diameter, placed horizontally, and supported by eight adamantine feet, each six yards high. In the middle of the concave side, there is a groove twelve inches deep, in which the extremities of the axle are lodged, and turned round as there is occasion.

loadstone - Piedra de carga

weaver - tejedor, tejedora

shuttle - transbordador; lanzadera, bus de cortesía, transportar

magnet - iman; imán, magnete

sustained - sostenido; sostener, sustentar

axle - eje

poised - preparado; contrapeso, ponderación, poise

hooped - hooped; aro

cylinder - cilindro, bombona

horizontally - horizontalmente

adamantine - Adamantina

concave - cóncavo

The stone cannot be removed from its place by any force, because the hoop and its feet are one continued piece with that body of adamant which constitutes the bottom of the island.

Hoop - aro

constitutes - constituye; constituir

By means of this loadstone, the island is made to rise and fall, and move from one place to another. For, with respect to that part of the earth over which the monarch presides, the stone is endued at one of its sides with an attractive power, and at the other with a repulsive. Upon placing the magnet erect, with its attracting end towards the earth, the island descends; but when the repelling extremity points downwards, the island mounts directly upwards.

presides - presidir

endued - Soportar

repulsive - repulsivo

attracting - atrayendo; atraer, llamar

Descends - desciende; descender, bajar

repelling - repelente; (repel); repeler

extremity - extremidad

mounts - montajes; montar

When the position of the stone is oblique, the motion of the island is so too: for in this magnet, the forces always act in lines parallel to its direction.

oblique - oblicua; oblicuo

By this oblique motion, the island is conveyed to different parts of the monarch's dominions. To explain the manner of its progress, let A B represent a line drawn across the dominions of Balnibarbi, let the line c d represent the loadstone, of which let d be the repelling end, and c the attracting end, the island being over C: let the stone be placed in position c d, with its repelling end downwards; then the island will be driven upwards obliquely towards D. When it is arrived at D, let the stone be turned upon its axle, till its attracting end points towards E, and then the island will be carried obliquely towards E; where, if the stone be again turned upon its axle till it stands in the position E F, with its repelling point downwards, the island will rise obliquely towards F, where, by directing the attracting end towards G, the island may be carried to G, and from G to H, by turning the stone, so as to make its repelling extremity to point directly downward.

obliquely - oblicuamente

And thus, by changing the situation of the stone, as often as there is occasion, the island is made to rise and fall by turns in an oblique direction, and by those alternate risings and fallings (the obliquity being not considerable) is conveyed from one part of the dominions to the other.

turns in - acostarse, ir a la cama; devolver, entregar

alternate - suplente; alterno, sustituta, sustituto, alternar

risings - subidas; rebelión, levantamiento, alzamiento, ascensión, ascenso

fallings - Cayendo

But it must be observed, that this island cannot move beyond the extent of the dominions below, nor can it rise above the height of four miles.

For which the astronomers (who have written large systems concerning the stone) assign the following reason: that the magnetic virtue does not extend beyond the distance of four miles, and that the mineral, which acts upon the stone in the bowels of the earth, and in the sea about six leagues distant from the shore, is not diffused through the whole globe, but terminated with the limits of the king's dominions; and it was easy, from the great advantage of such a superior situation, for a prince to bring under his obedience whatever country lay within the attraction of that magnet.

assign - asignar, designar, ceder

magnetic - magnético

mineral - mineral

bowels - intestinos; intestino grueso, tripa, intestino, entranas

diffused - difusa; difundir(se)

limits - límites; límite

Attraction - atracción

When the stone is put parallel to the plane of the horizon, the island stands still; for in that case the extremities of it, being at equal distance from the earth, act with equal force, the one in drawing downwards, the other in pushing upwards, and consequently no motion can ensue.

ensue - sucede algo; seguirse, resultar

This loadstone is under the care of certain astronomers, who, from time to time, give it such positions as the monarch directs. They spend the greatest part of their lives in observing the celestial bodies, which they do by the assistance of glasses, far excelling ours in goodness. For, although their largest telescopes do not exceed three feet, they magnify much more than those of a hundred with us, and show the stars with greater clearness. This advantage has enabled them to extend their discoveries much further than our astronomers in Europe; for they have made a catalogue of ten thousand fixed stars, whereas the largest of ours do not contain above one third part of that number.

celestial bodies - cuerpo celeste

excelling - sobresaliendo; (excel); aventajar, superar, sobresalir

goodness - bondad

magnify - aumentar; magnificar

clearness - claridad

catalogue - catálogo, calendario universitario, catalogar

fixed stars - estrellas fijas

They have likewise discovered two lesser stars, or satellites, which revolve about Mars; whereof the innermost is distant from the centre of the primary planet exactly three of his diameters, and the outermost, five; the former revolves in the space of ten hours, and the latter in twenty-one and a half; so that the squares of their periodical times are very near in the same proportion with the cubes of their distance from the centre of Mars; which evidently shows them to be governed by the same law of gravitation that influences the other heavenly bodies.

satellites - satélites; satélite

Mars - Marte; (Mar) Marte

innermost - más interior

primary - primario, primarias, primaria, primero, básico

diameters - diámetros; diámetro

revolves - girar, rotar

cubes - cubos; cubo

evidently - evidentemente

law of gravitation - ley de la gravitación

influences - influencias; influencia, influir, influenciar

heavenly bodies - Cuerpos celestes

They have observed ninety-three different comets, and settled their periods with great exactness. If this be true (and they affirm it with great confidence) it is much to be wished, that their observations were made public, whereby the theory of comets, which at present is very lame and defective, might be brought to the same perfection with other arts of astronomy.

comets - cometas; cometa

theory - teoría

lame - cojo

The king would be the most absolute prince in the universe, if he could but prevail on a ministry to join with him; but these having their estates below on the continent, and considering that the office of a favourite has a very uncertain tenure, would never consent to the enslaving of their country.

estates - incas; propiedad, inmueble, bien, estamento, finca

uncertain - incierto

tenure - tenencia, antigüedad, titularidad, arrendamiento

enslaving - esclavizar

But there is still indeed a more weighty reason, why the kings of this country have been always averse from executing so terrible an action, unless upon the utmost necessity.

weighty - pesado, de peso, importante

averse - averso; opuesto

executing - ejecutando; ejecutar, ajusticiar, arrancar

For, if the town intended to be destroyed should have in it any tall rocks, as it generally falls out in the larger cities, a situation probably chosen at first with a view to prevent such a catastrophe; or if it abound in high spires, or pillars of stone, a sudden fall might endanger the bottom or under surface of the island, which, although it consist, as I have said, of one entire adamant, two hundred yards thick, might happen to crack by too great a shock, or burst by approaching too near the fires from the houses below, as the backs, both of iron and stone, will often do in our chimneys. Of all this the people are well apprised, and understand how far to carry their obstinacy, where their liberty or property is concerned. And the king, when he is highest provoked, and most determined to press a city to rubbish, orders the island to descend with great gentleness, out of a pretence of tenderness to his people, but, indeed, for fear of breaking the adamantine bottom; in which case, it is the opinion of all their philosophers, that the loadstone could no longer hold it up, and the whole mass would fall to the ground.

falls out - se cae

catastrophe - una catástrofe; catástrofe

spires - espiras; aguja

crack - rajarse, resquebrajarse

shock - conmoción, golpe

chimneys - chimeneas; chimenea, tubo

apprised - Aprender

obstinacy - testarudez, porfía, terquedad, obstinación

property - propiedad, posesión, inmueble, bien

provoked - provocado; provocar

most determined - el más decidido

mass - montón, masa

By a fundamental law of this realm, neither the king, nor either of his two eldest sons, are permitted to leave the island; nor the queen, till she is past child-bearing.


The author leaves Laputa; is conveyed to Balnibarbi; arrives at the metropolis. A description of the metropolis, and the country adjoining. The author hospitably received by a great lord. His conversation with that lord.

arrives at - llegar a

adjoining - colindante; lindar

hospitably - hospitalariamente

Although I cannot say that I was ill treated in this island, yet I must confess I thought myself too much neglected, not without some degree of contempt; for neither prince nor people appeared to be curious in any part of knowledge, except mathematics and music, wherein I was far their inferior, and upon that account very little regarded.

neglected - desatendida; descuidar, negligir, desoír, hacer caso omiso

On the other side, after having seen all the curiosities of the island, I was very desirous to leave it, being heartily weary of those people. They were indeed excellent in two sciences for which I have great esteem, and wherein I am not unversed; but, at the same time, so abstracted and involved in speculation, that I never met with such disagreeable companions.

unversed - sin experiencia

abstracted - abstraído; resumen, extracto, abstracción, arte abstracto

I conversed only with women, tradesmen, flappers, and court-pages, during two months of my abode there; by which, at last, I rendered myself extremely contemptible; yet these were the only people from whom I could ever receive a reasonable answer.

conversed - conversado; conversar, charlar

tradesmen - omerciantes; artesano

abode - Morada; (abide); quedar, permanecer, resistir, aguantar

I had obtained, by hard study, a good degree of knowledge in their language: I was weary of being confined to an island where I received so little countenance, and resolved to leave it with the first opportunity.

There was a great lord at court, nearly related to the king, and for that reason alone used with respect. He was universally reckoned the most ignorant and stupid person among them. He had performed many eminent services for the crown, had great natural and acquired parts, adorned with integrity and honour; but so ill an ear for music, that his detractors reported, "he had been often known to beat time in the wrong place;" neither could his tutors, without extreme difficulty, teach him to demonstrate the most easy proposition in the mathematics.

acquired - dquirido; obtener, adquirir

beat time - luchar con el tiempo; batir un récord, marcar el compás

tutors - tutores; tutor

demonstrate - demostrar, manifestar, evidenciar

proposition - propuesta, proposición

He was pleased to show me many marks of favour, often did me the honour of a visit, desired to be informed in the affairs of Europe, the laws and customs, the manners and learning of the several countries where I had travelled. He listened to me with great attention, and made very wise observations on all I spoke. He had two flappers attending him for state, but never made use of them, except at court and in visits of ceremony, and would always command them to withdraw, when we were alone together.

I entreated this illustrious person, to intercede in my behalf with his majesty, for leave to depart; which he accordingly did, as he was pleased to tell me, with regret: for indeed he had made me several offers very advantageous, which, however, I refused, with expressions of the highest acknowledgment.

regret - lamentar, pena, pesar, arrepentimiento

On the 16th of February I took leave of his majesty and the court. The king made me a present to the value of about two hundred pounds English, and my protector, his kinsman, as much more, together with a letter of recommendation to a friend of his in Lagado, the metropolis. The island being then hovering over a mountain about two miles from it, I was let down from the lowest gallery, in the same manner as I had been taken up.

protector - protector, protectora, valedor

recommendation - recomendación, recomendación

The continent, as far as it is subject to the monarch of the flying island, passes under the general name of Balnibarbi; and the metropolis, as I said before, is called Lagado.

I felt some little satisfaction in finding myself on firm ground. I walked to the city without any concern, being clad like one of the natives, and sufficiently instructed to converse with them. I soon found out the person's house to whom I was recommended, presented my letter from his friend the grandee in the island, and was received with much kindness. This great lord, whose name was Munodi, ordered me an apartment in his own house, where I continued during my stay, and was entertained in a most hospitable manner.

grandee - grande

hospitable - hospitalario

The next morning after my arrival, he took me in his chariot to see the town, which is about half the bigness of London; but the houses very strangely built, and most of them out of repair. The people in the streets walked fast, looked wild, their eyes fixed, and were generally in rags.

chariot - carroza; quadriga, biga, carro

We passed through one of the town gates, and went about three miles into the country, where I saw many labourers working with several sorts of tools in the ground, but was not able to conjecture what they were about: neither did observe any expectation either of corn or grass, although the soil appeared to be excellent. I could not forbear admiring at these odd appearances, both in town and country; and I made bold to desire my conductor, that he would be pleased to explain to me, what could be meant by so many busy heads, hands, and faces, both in the streets and the fields, because I did not discover any good effects they produced; but, on the contrary, I never knew a soil so unhappily cultivated, houses so ill contrived and so ruinous, or a people whose countenances and habit expressed so much misery and want.

admiring - admirando; admirar

conductor - director, revisor, guarda, inspector, conductor

Unhappily - Infelizmente

ruinous - ruinoso

misery - miseria, sinvivir, desgracia, desdicha, infortunio

This lord Munodi was a person of the first rank, and had been some years governor of Lagado; but, by a cabal of ministers, was discharged for insufficiency. However, the king treated him with tenderness, as a well-meaning man, but of a low contemptible understanding.

insufficiency - insuficiencia

When I gave that free censure of the country and its inhabitants, he made no further answer than by telling me, "that I had not been long enough among them to form a judgment; and that the different nations of the world had different customs;" with other common topics to the same purpose. But, when we returned to his palace, he asked me "how I liked the building, what absurdities I observed, and what quarrel I had with the dress or looks of his domestics?" This he might safely do; because every thing about him was magnificent, regular, and polite.

quarrel - discutir; pelea, rina

I answered, "that his excellency's prudence, quality, and fortune, had exempted him from those defects, which folly and beggary had produced in others." He said, "if I would go with him to his country-house, about twenty miles distant, where his estate lay, there would be more leisure for this kind of conversation." I told his excellency "that I was entirely at his disposal;" and accordingly we set out next morning.

During our journey he made me observe the several methods used by farmers in managing their lands, which to me were wholly unaccountable; for, except in some very few places, I could not discover one ear of corn or blade of grass. But, in three hours travelling, the scene was wholly altered; we came into a most beautiful country; farmers'houses, at small distances, neatly built; the fields enclosed, containing vineyards, corn-grounds, and meadows. Neither do I remember to have seen a more delightful prospect.

blade - cuchilla, hoja, cuchillo (said of a dagger), espada, pala, aspa

vineyards - inedos; vinedo, vina

meadows - praderas; prado, vega

more delightful - más encantador

His excellency observed my countenance to clear up; he told me, with a sigh, "that there his estate began, and would continue the same, till we should come to his house: that his countrymen ridiculed and despised him, for managing his affairs no better, and for setting so ill an example to the kingdom; which, however, was followed by very few, such as were old, and wilful, and weak like himself."

clear up - limpiar; despejar(se); aclarar

sigh - suspiro; suspirar

countrymen - ompatriotas; paisano, paisana, compatriota, campesino, campesina

ridiculed - idiculizado; ridiculizar, poner en ridículo

We came at length to the house, which was indeed a noble structure, built according to the best rules of ancient architecture. The fountains, gardens, walks, avenues, and groves, were all disposed with exact judgment and taste. I gave due praises to every thing I saw, whereof his excellency took not the least notice till after supper; when, there being no third companion, he told me with a very melancholy air "that he doubted he must throw down his houses in town and country, to rebuild them after the present mode; destroy all his plantations, and cast others into such a form as modern usage required, and give the same directions to all his tenants, unless he would submit to incur the censure of pride, singularity, affectation, ignorance, caprice, and perhaps increase his majesty's displeasure; that the admiration I appeared to be under would cease or diminish, when he had informed me of some particulars which, probably, I never heard of at court, the people there being too much taken up in their own speculations, to have regard to what passed here below.

fountains - fuentes; fuente, chafariz, fontana

avenues - ías; avenida, vía, camino

groves - arboledas; arboleda

rebuild - reconstruir

mode - modo

usage - uso, usanza

tenants - arrendatarios; inquilino, arrendatario

Singularity - singularidad

affectation - afectación

caprice - capricho

cease - cesar, parar, terminar

diminish - disminuir, diminuir, disminuirse, diminuirse

The sum of his discourse was to this effect: "That about forty years ago, certain persons went up to Laputa, either upon business or diversion, and, after five months continuance, came back with a very little smattering in mathematics, but full of volatile spirits acquired in that airy region: that these persons, upon their return, began to dislike the management of every thing below, and fell into schemes of putting all arts, sciences, languages, and mechanics, upon a new foot. To this end, they procured a royal patent for erecting an academy of projectors in Lagado; and the humour prevailed so strongly among the people, that there is not a town of any consequence in the kingdom without such an academy. In these colleges the professors contrive new rules and methods of agriculture and building, and new instruments, and tools for all trades and manufactures; whereby, as they undertake, one man shall do the work of ten; a palace may be built in a week, of materials so durable as to last for ever without repairing. All the fruits of the earth shall come to maturity at whatever season we think fit to choose, and increase a hundred fold more than they do at present; with innumerable other happy proposals. The only inconvenience is, that none of these projects are yet brought to perfection; and in the mean time, the whole country lies miserably waste, the houses in ruins, and the people without food or clothes. By all which, instead of being discouraged, they are fifty times more violently bent upon prosecuting their schemes, driven equally on by hope and despair: that as for himself, being not of an enterprising spirit, he was content to go on in the old forms, to live in the houses his ancestors had built, and act as they did, in every part of life, without innovation: that some few other persons of quality and gentry had done the same, but were looked on with an eye of contempt and ill-will, as enemies to art, ignorant, and ill common-wealth's men, preferring their own ease and sloth before the general improvement of their country.

volatile - volátil, inestible

airy - aireado; airoso

dislike - aversión, disgusto, antipatía, desagradar, no gustar

patent - patente

manufactures - fabricantes; fabricar, producir

durable - duradera; duradero, durable, perdurable

maturity - madurez, vencimiento

fold - doblar, plegar

innumerable - innumerables; innumerable, incontable

proposals - propuestas; propuesta

miserably - miserablemente

ruins - ruinas; ruina, desbaratar, arruinar, estropear, dar al traste

discouraged - desanimado; descorazonar, acobardar, desalentar, persuadir

prosecuting - procesamiento; procesar

despair - desesperar, desesperanzar, desesperación, desesperanza

innovation - innovación

ill-will - (ill-will) mala voluntad, malas intenciones

wealth - prosperidad, riqueza

sloth - pereza, perezoso

His lordship added, "That he would not, by any further particulars, prevent the pleasure I should certainly take in viewing the grand academy, whither he was resolved I should go." He only desired me to observe a ruined building, upon the side of a mountain about three miles distant, of which he gave me this account: "That he had a very convenient mill within half a mile of his house, turned by a current from a large river, and sufficient for his own family, as well as a great number of his tenants; that about seven years ago, a club of those projectors came to him with proposals to destroy this mill, and build another on the side of that mountain, on the long ridge whereof a long canal must be cut, for a repository of water, to be conveyed up by pipes and engines to supply the mill, because the wind and air upon a height agitated the water, and thereby made it fitter for motion, and because the water, descending down a declivity, would turn the mill with half the current of a river whose course is more upon a level.

current - corriente, actual

Canal - canal

repository - repositorio, depositorio

pipes - tuberías; caramillo, flauta ), tubo de órgano, tubería, tubo

agitated - agitado; agitar, perturbar

He said, "that being then not very well with the court, and pressed by many of his friends, he complied with the proposal; and after employing a hundred men for two years, the work miscarried, the projectors went off, laying the blame entirely upon him, railing at him ever since, and putting others upon the same experiment, with equal assurance of success, as well as equal disappointment."

laying - colocación; (lay) colocación

blame - culpar, responsabilizar, echar la culpa

railing - barandilla; (rail); barandilla

assurance - seguridad; certidumbre, confianza

disappointment - decepción, desilusión, chasco

In a few days we came back to town; and his excellency, considering the bad character he had in the academy, would not go with me himself, but recommended me to a friend of his, to bear me company thither. My lord was pleased to represent me as a great admirer of projects, and a person of much curiosity and easy belief; which, indeed, was not without truth; for I had myself been a sort of projector in my younger days.

admirer - admirador, admiradora

projector - proyector


The author permitted to see the grand academy of Lagado. The academy largely described. The arts wherein the professors employ themselves.

This academy is not an entire single building, but a continuation of several houses on both sides of a street, which growing waste, was purchased and applied to that use.

continuation - continuación

purchased - comprado; compra, adquisición, comprar

I was received very kindly by the warden, and went for many days to the academy. Every room has in it one or more projectors; and I believe I could not be in fewer than five hundred rooms.

warden - alcaide; director

The first man I saw was of a meagre aspect, with sooty hands and face, his hair and beard long, ragged, and singed in several places. His clothes, shirt, and skin, were all of the same colour. He has been eight years upon a project for extracting sunbeams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in phials hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the air in raw inclement summers. He told me, he did not doubt, that, in eight years more, he should be able to supply the governor's gardens with sunshine, at a reasonable rate: but he complained that his stock was low, and entreated me "to give him something as an encouragement to ingenuity, especially since this had been a very dear season for cucumbers.

meagre - escaso, pobre

aspect - aspecto

sooty - hollín; fuliginoso, tiznado, hollinoso, holliniento

ragged - Desgarrado; (rag) Desgarrado

singed - chamuscado; chamuscar

extracting - extrayendo; extracto, fragmento, pasaje, extraer, sacar

cucumbers - pepinos; pepino

phials - Fial

hermetically sealed - sellado herméticamente

raw - cruda; crudo, en carne viva, bruto

inclement - inclemente, destemplado, desapacible, tempestuoso

sunshine - sol, luz del sol

I made him a small present, for my lord had furnished me with money on purpose, because he knew their practice of begging from all who go to see them.

I went into another chamber, but was ready to hasten back, being almost overcome with a horrible stink. My conductor pressed me forward, conjuring me in a whisper "to give No offence, which would be highly resented;" and therefore I durst not so much as stop my nose. The projector of this cell was the most ancient student of the academy; his face and beard were of a pale yellow; his hands and clothes daubed over with filth. When I was presented to him, he gave me a close embrace, a compliment I could well have excused.

hasten back - apresurarse a volver, volver con prisa

stink - heder, apestar, cantar, oler a podrido (3), tufo, hedor

conjuring - conjuros; (conjure) conjuros

No offence - sin ofender; no te lo tomes mal

pale yellow - amarillo pálido

filth - suciedad; mugre, porquería, inmundicia, bascosidad

compliment - cumplido, felicitar, cumplimentar

His employment, from his first coming into the academy, was an operation to reduce human excrement to its original food, by separating the several parts, removing the tincture which it receives from the gall, making the odour exhale, and scumming off the saliva. He had a weekly allowance, from the society, of a vessel filled with human ordure, about the bigness of a Bristol barrel.

gall - bilis, hiel

odour - olor

exhale - espirar, exhalar

scumming - Escoria; (scum); escoria, gentuza, canalla

saliva - saliva

ordure - ordenanza; esterco

I saw another at work to calcine ice into gunpowder; who likewise showed me a treatise he had written concerning the malleability of fire, which he intended to publish.

calcine - calcinar

gunpowder - Pólvora

malleability - maleabilidad

There was a most ingenious architect, who had contrived a new method for building houses, by beginning at the roof, and working downward to the foundation; which he justified to me, by the like practice of those two prudent insects, the bee and the spider.

foundation - fundación, cimiento, base

bee - abeja

There was a man born blind, who had several apprentices in his own condition: their employment was to mix colours for painters, which their master taught them to distinguish by feeling and smelling. It was indeed my misfortune to find them at that time not very perfect in their lessons, and the professor himself happened to be generally mistaken. This artist is much encouraged and esteemed by the whole fraternity.

blind - ciego, invidente, celosía, persiana, ciega, ciego, cegar

Mix - mezclar

Fraternity - hermandad, fraternidad, confraternidad

In another apartment I was highly pleased with a projector who had found a device of ploughing the ground with hogs, to save the charges of ploughs, cattle, and labour. The method is this: in an acre of ground you bury, at six inches distance and eight deep, a quantity of acorns, dates, chestnuts, and other mast or vegetables, whereof these animals are fondest; then you drive six hundred or more of them into the field, where, in a few days, they will root up the whole ground in search of their food, and make it fit for sowing, at the same time manuring it with their dung: it is true, upon experiment, they found the charge and trouble very great, and they had little or no crop.

ploughing - arado; arada; (plough); arado, Carro Mayor, arar, labrar

hogs - cerdos; cerdo, puerco, marrano

ploughs - arados; arado, Carro Mayor, arar, labrar, barbechar

Acre - acre

acorns - ellotas; bellota

chestnuts - castanas; castana, castano, marrón

fondest - más carino; carinoso, afectuoso

root - raíz

manuring - cultivar, estercolar, abonar, estiércol, abono

dung - estiércol

crop - cultivo; cosecha

However it is not doubted, that this invention may be capable of great improvement.

I went into another room, where the walls and ceiling were all hung round with cobwebs, except a narrow passage for the artist to go in and out. At my entrance, he called aloud to me, "not to disturb his webs." He lamented "the fatal mistake the world had been so long in, of using silkworms, while we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former, because they understood how to weave, as well as spin." And he proposed further, "that by employing spiders, the charge of dyeing silks should be wholly saved;" whereof I was fully convinced, when he showed me a vast number of flies most beautifully coloured, wherewith he fed his spiders, assuring us "that the webs would take a tincture from them; and as he had them of all hues, he hoped to fit everybody's fancy, as soon as he could find proper food for the flies, of certain gums, oils, and other glutinous matter, to give a strength and consistence to the threads.

cobwebs - webs; telarana

disturb - perturbar, molestar

silkworms - gusanos de seda; gusano de seda

weave - tejer; trenzar

spin - hacer girar

Dyeing - Tenido; (dye) Tenido

beautifully - bonito; bellamente

assuring - aseguro; asegurar

hues - atices; color; matiz

gums - encías; encía

There was an astronomer, who had undertaken to place a sun-dial upon the great weathercock on the town-house, by adjusting the annual and diurnal motions of the earth and sun, so as to answer and coincide with all accidental turnings of the wind.

astronomer - astrónomo, astrónoma

undertaken - emprendido; emprender, acometer

dial - marcar

weathercock - veleta

town-house - (town-house) residencia urbana, palacete, casa adosada, finca

adjusting - ajustando; ajustar, arreglar, regular, adaptar

diurnal - diurno

coincide - coinciden; coincidir

accidental - accidental, casual, imprevisto, fortuito

turnings - vueltas; bocacalle

I was complaining of a small fit of the colic, upon which my conductor led me into a room where a great physician resided, who was famous for curing that disease, by contrary operations from the same instrument. He had a large pair of bellows, with a long slender muzzle of ivory: this he conveyed eight inches up the anus, and drawing in the wind, he affirmed he could make the guts as lank as a dried bladder. But when the disease was more stubborn and violent, he let in the muzzle while the bellows were full of wind, which he discharged into the body of the patient; then withdrew the instrument to replenish it, clapping his thumb strongly against the orifice of then fundament; and this being repeated three or four times, the adventitious wind would rush out, bringing the noxious along with it, (like water put into a pump), and the patient recovered.

colic - cólicos; cólico

physician - médico, médica, facultativo

resided - residía; residir

curing - curado; chucho, quiltro

pair of bellows - un par de fuelles

muzzle - bocina; hocico, bozal, boca, amordazar, censurar

anus - ano; (Anu); ano

affirmed - afirmado; afirmar

guts - tripas, tripa, agallas, pelotas; (gut); tripa, panza, maría

lank - delgado, flaco

bladder - la vejiga; vejiga, cubi, barrica plástica, bota

more stubborn - más obstinado

discharged into - descargado en

replenish - rellenar, reponer

orifice - orificio

fundament - fundamento

adventitious - aventicia; exógeno, aleatorio, adquirido, ectópico, adventicio

rush - prisa; precipitarse, lanzarse, correr, ir rápidamente

noxious - nocivo, danino

pump - bomba

I saw him try both experiments upon a dog, but could not discern any effect from the former. After the latter the animal was ready to burst, and made so violent a discharge as was very offensive to me and my companion. The dog died on the spot, and we left the doctor endeavouring to recover him, by the same operation.

I visited many other apartments, but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed, being studious of brevity.

brevity - brevedad, concisión

I had hitherto seen only one side of the academy, the other being appropriated to the advancers of speculative learning, of whom I shall say something, when I have mentioned one illustrious person more, who is called among them "the universal artist." He told us "he had been thirty years employing his thoughts for the improvement of human life." He had two large rooms full of wonderful curiosities, and fifty men at work. Some were condensing air into a dry tangible substance, by extracting the nitre, and letting the aqueous or fluid particles percolate; others softening marble, for pillows and pin-cushions; others petrifying the hoofs of a living horse, to preserve them from foundering.

advancers - avanzador

speculative - especulativo

condensing - condensación; condensar, condensarse

tangible - tangible, palpable

aqueous - acuoso

fluid - líquido; fluido

particles - partículas; partícula

percolate - colarse; filtrarse

softening - ablandamiento; (soften); ablandar, suavizar

pillows - almohadas; almohada

petrifying - petrificante; petrificar

hoofs - cascos; pezuna, casco

foundering - Fundador

The artist himself was at that time busy upon two great designs; the first, to sow land with chaff, wherein he affirmed the true seminal virtue to be contained, as he demonstrated by several experiments, which I was not skilful enough to comprehend. The other was, by a certain composition of gums, minerals, and vegetables, outwardly applied, to prevent the growth of wool upon two young lambs; and he hoped, in a reasonable time to propagate the breed of naked sheep, all over the kingdom.

sow - sembrar

chaff - paja, barcia, exico, pienso

seminal - seminal, germinal, influyente

demonstrated - demostrado; demostrar, manifestar, evidenciar

growth - crecimiento

lambs - corderos; cordero, carne de cordero, borrego, borrega

We crossed a walk to the other part of the academy, where, as I have already said, the projectors in speculative learning resided.

The first professor I saw, was in a very large room, with forty pupils about him. After salutation, observing me to look earnestly upon a frame, which took up the greatest part of both the length and breadth of the room, he said, "Perhaps I might wonder to see him employed in a project for improving speculative knowledge, by practical and mechanical operations. But the world would soon be sensible of its usefulness; and he flattered himself, that a more noble, exalted thought never sprang in any other man's head. Every one knew how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences; whereas, by his contrivance, the most ignorant person, at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour, might write books in philosophy, poetry, politics, laws, mathematics, and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study." He then led me to the frame, about the sides, whereof all his pupils stood in ranks. It was twenty feet square, placed in the middle of the room. The superfices was composed of several bits of wood, about the bigness of a die, but some larger than others.

pupils - alumnos; alumno

be sensible of - Ser consciente de

usefulness - utilidad

flattered - te sientes halagado; halagar, adular

attaining - lograr, conseguir

theology - teología

They were all linked together by slender wires. These bits of wood were covered, on every square, with paper pasted on them; and on these papers were written all the words of their language, in their several moods, tenses, and declensions; but without any order. The professor then desired me "to observe; for he was going to set his engine at work." The pupils, at his command, took each of them hold of an iron handle, whereof there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame; and giving them a sudden turn, the whole disposition of the words was entirely changed. He then commanded six-and-thirty of the lads, to read the several lines softly, as they appeared upon the frame; and where they found three or four words together that might make part of a sentence, they dictated to the four remaining boys, who were scribes. This work was repeated three or four times, and at every turn, the engine was so contrived, that the words shifted into new places, as the square bits of wood moved upside down.

moods - stados de ánimo; humor

tenses - iempos; tiempo

declensions - declinaciones; declinación, declinación

lads - chicos; nino, chico, mozo, mozalbete

dictated - ictado; orden, ordenar, dictar

scribes - escribanos; escriba, amanuense, escribano, escriba

upside - al alza; lado bueno, lado positivo, lado favorable

The frame

He assured me "that this invention had employed all his thoughts from his youth; that he had emptied the whole vocabulary into his frame, and made the strictest computation of the general proportion there is in books between the numbers of particles, nouns, and verbs, and other parts of speech."

vocabulary - vocabulario, léxico

nouns - ustantivos; sustantivo, nombre substantivo, nombre sustantivo

verbs - verbos; verbo

I made my humblest acknowledgment to this illustrious person, for his great communicativeness; and promised, "if ever I had the good fortune to return to my native country, that I would do him justice, as the sole inventor of this wonderful machine;" the form and contrivance of which I desired leave to delineate on paper, as in the figure here annexed.

communicativeness - comunicatividad

inventor - inventor, inventora, inventriz

delineate - delinear

annexed - Anexo

I told him, "although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other, who had thereby at least this advantage, that it became a controversy which was the right owner; yet I would take such caution, that he should have the honour entire, without a rival."

We next went to the school of languages, where three professors sat in consultation upon improving that of their own country.

consultation - consulta

The first project was, to shorten discourse, by cutting polysyllables into one, and leaving out verbs and participles, because, in reality, all things imaginable are but norms.

shorten - acortar, abreviar, reducir, acortarse

polysyllables - polisílabo

leaving out - Dejar fuera, excluir, omitir

participles - participios; participio

reality - realidad

imaginable - imaginable, concebible

norms - Norma

The other project was, a scheme for entirely abolishing all words whatsoever; and this was urged as a great advantage in point of health, as well as brevity. For it is plain, that every word we speak is, in some degree, a diminution of our lunge by corrosion, and, consequently, contributes to the shortening of our lives. An expedient was therefore offered, "that since words are only names for things, it would be more convenient for all men to carry about them such things as were necessary to express a particular business they are to discourse on." And this invention would certainly have taken place, to the great ease as well as health of the subject, if the women, in conjunction with the vulgar and illiterate, had not threatened to raise a rebellion unless they might be allowed the liberty to speak with their tongues, after the manner of their forefathers; such constant irreconcilable enemies to science are the common people.

scheme - squema; régimen, proyecto, ardid, artimana, maquinación

abolishing - abolir, suprimir, abrogar, quitar, destrozar

urged - te urge; impulso, impulsar, urgir, aguijonear, apresurar

diminution - disminución

lunge - embestida, lanzarse

corrosion - corrosión

contributes - contribuye; contribuir

illiterate - analfabeto, iletrado, ágrafo, analfabeto, analfabeta

rebellion - rebelión, insurrección

forefathers - antepasados; ancestro, antepasado, ascendiente, predecesor

irreconcilable - irreconciliables; irreconciliable

However, many of the most learned and wise adhere to the new scheme of expressing themselves by things; which has only this inconvenience attending it, that if a man's business be very great, and of various kinds, he must be obliged, in proportion, to carry a greater bundle of things upon his back, unless he can afford one or two strong servants to attend him. I have often beheld two of those sages almost sinking under the weight of their packs, like pedlars among us, who, when they met in the street, would lay down their loads, open their sacks, and hold conversation for an hour together; then put up their implements, help each other to resume their burdens, and take their leave.

adhere - pegarse, adherirse

sinking - se hunde; hundimiento, naufragio; (sink); hundir, sumergir

pedlars - vendedor ambulante

sacks - sacos; saco

resume - resumen; reanudar

burdens - argas; carga

But for short conversations, a man may carry implements in his pockets, and under his arms, enough to supply him; and in his house, he cannot be at a loss. Therefore the room where company meet who practise this art, is full of all things, ready at hand, requisite to furnish matter for this kind of artificial converse.

requisite - requisito; necesario

furnish - amoblar, amueblar, suministrar, proporcionar, dotar

artificial - artificial

Another great advantage proposed by this invention was, that it would serve as a universal language, to be understood in all civilised nations, whose goods and utensils are generally of the same kind, or nearly resembling, so that their uses might easily be comprehended. And thus ambassadors would be qualified to treat with foreign princes, or ministers of state, to whose tongues they were utter strangers.

civilised - civilizado; civilizar, desasnar

utensils - utensilios; utensilio

I was at the mathematical school, where the master taught his pupils after a method scarce imaginable to us in Europe. The proposition, and demonstration, were fairly written on a thin wafer, with ink composed of a cephalic tincture. This, the student was to swallow upon a fasting stomach, and for three days following, eat nothing but bread and water. As the wafer digested, the tincture mounted to his brain, bearing the proposition along with it.

scarce - escaso

demonstration - demostración, manifestación

fairly - justamente; francamente, abiertamente, bastante

wafer - oblea, hostia

cephalic - cefálica; cefálico

digested - igerido; digerir

But the success has not hitherto been answerable, partly by some error in the quantum or composition, and partly by the perverseness of lads, to whom this bolus is so nauseous, that they generally steal aside, and discharge it upwards, before it can operate; neither have they been yet persuaded to use so long an abstinence, as the prescription requires.

quantum - cantidad, cuanto, cuántico

perverseness - perversidad

bolus - bolo alimenticio, bolo

abstinence - vigilia, abstinencia

prescription - recetas; receta, remedios recetados, medicinas, prescripción


A further account of the academy. The author proposes some improvements, which are honourably received.

proposes - proponer, pedir la mano, pedir matrimonio, proponer matrimonio

honourably - honorablemente

In the school of political projectors, I was but ill entertained; the professors appearing, in my judgment, wholly out of their senses, which is a scene that never fails to make me melancholy. These unhappy people were proposing schemes for persuading monarchs to choose favourites upon the score of their wisdom, capacity, and virtue; of teaching ministers to consult the public good; of rewarding merit, great abilities, eminent services; of instructing princes to know their true interest, by placing it on the same foundation with that of their people; of choosing for employments persons qualified to exercise them, with many other wild, impossible chimeras, that never entered before into the heart of man to conceive; and confirmed in me the old observation, "that there is nothing so extravagant and irrational, which some philosophers have not maintained for truth.

persuading - persuadir

rewarding - gratificante; recompensa

instructing - instruyendo; instruir

extravagant - extravagante

irrational - irracional

maintained - mantenido; mantener, sostener

But, however, I shall so far do justice to this part of the Academy, as to acknowledge that all of them were not so visionary. There was a most ingenious doctor, who seemed to be perfectly versed in the whole nature and system of government. This illustrious person had very usefully employed his studies, in finding out effectual remedies for all diseases and corruptions to which the several kinds of public administration are subject, by the vices or infirmities of those who govern, as well as by the licentiousness of those who are to obey. For instance: whereas all writers and reasoners have agreed, that there is a strict universal resemblance between the natural and the political body; can there be any thing more evident, than that the health of both must be preserved, and the diseases cured, by the same prescriptions? It is allowed, that senates and great councils are often troubled with redundant, ebullient, and other peccant humours; with many diseases of the head, and more of the heart; with strong convulsions, with grievous contractions of the nerves and sinews in both hands, but especially the right; with spleen, flatus, vertigos, and deliriums; with scrofulous tumours, full of fetid purulent matter; with sour frothy ructations: with canine appetites, and crudeness of digestion, besides many others, needless to mention.

usefully - útilmente

effectual - eficaz

remedies - remedios; remedio, recurso, remediar

public administration - la administración pública

infirmities - enfermedades; enfermedad

licentiousness - lujuria; licenciosidad, libertinaje, puterío

more evident - más evidente

cured - curado; chucho, quiltro

prescriptions - recetas; receta, remedios recetados, medicinas, prescripción

senates - senados; senado

redundant - superfluo, redundante

ebullient - excitante; entusiasta, extático, jubiloso, alborozado, bullente

convulsions - convulsiones; convulsión

contractions - contracciones; contracción, contracción

nerves - nervio, coraje, descaro, frescura, nervios

spleen - bazo, esplín

flatus - plano; flato, ventosidad

deliriums - delirios; delirio

tumours - umores; tumor

fetid - fétido

purulent - purulento

ructations - uctaciones

canine - canino, perruno

crudeness - crudeza

digestion - digestión, descomposición, putrefacción, asimilación

This doctor therefore proposed, "that upon the meeting of the senate, certain physicians should attend it the three first days of their sitting, and at the close of each day's debate feel the pulses of every senator; after which, having maturely considered and consulted upon the nature of the several maladies, and the methods of cure, they should on the fourth day return to the senate house, attended by their apothecaries stored with proper medicines; and before the members sat, administer to each of them lenitives, aperitives, abstersives, corrosives, restringents, palliatives, laxatives, cephalalgics, icterics, apophlegmatics, acoustics, as their several cases required; and, according as these medicines should operate, repeat, alter, or omit them, at the next meeting."

pulses - pulsos; pulso

senator - senador, senadora

maladies - ales; mal

cure - curar, remediar

apothecaries - boticario

administer - administrar

lenitives - enitivo

aperitives - Aperitivos

abstersives - Abstersivos

corrosives - corrosivos; corrosivo

restringents - Restringente

palliatives - paliativos; paliativo

laxatives - laxantes; laxante, laxante

cephalalgics - cefalálgicos

icterics - Ictericia

apophlegmatics - Apoflegmáticos

acoustics - acústico, acústica

This project could not be of any great expense to the public; and might in my poor opinion, be of much use for the despatch of business, in those countries where senates have any share in the legislative power; beget unanimity, shorten debates, open a few mouths which are now closed, and close many more which are now open; curb the petulancy of the young, and correct the positiveness of the old; rouse the stupid, and damp the pert.

legislative - legislativo

beget - engendrar, concebir

unanimity - unanimidad

petulancy - Pequenería

positiveness - positividad

rouse - revivir; despertar

damp - húmedo, humedad, amortiguar

Again: because it is a general complaint, that the favourites of princes are troubled with short and weak memories; the same doctor proposed, "that whoever attended a first minister, after having told his business, with the utmost brevity and in the plainest words, should, at his departure, give the said minister a tweak by the nose, or a kick in the belly, or tread on his corns, or lug him thrice by both ears, or run a pin into his breech; or pinch his arm black and blue, to prevent forgetfulness; and at every levee day, repeat the same operation, till the business were done, or absolutely refused.

complaint - queja, denuncia, problema, afección

plainest - más sencillo; sencillo; liso; sin ornamentos; llano (persona)

tweak - retocar, retoque

kick - patear; dar un puntapié, golpear con el pie, dar una patada a

tread - pisada; pisar, pisotear, hollar

corns - allos; cereales (maíz, trigo, avena)

lug - lugar; arrastrar

breech - de nalgas; culata

forgetfulness - desmemoria, mala memoria, poca memoria, memoria de pollo, olvido

He likewise directed, "that every senator in the great council of a nation, after he had delivered his opinion, and argued in the defence of it, should be obliged to give his vote directly contrary; because if that were done, the result would infallibly terminate in the good of the public."

vote - voto, votar

When parties in a state are violent, he offered a wonderful contrivance to reconcile them. The method is this: You take a hundred leaders of each party; you dispose them into couples of such whose heads are nearest of a size; then let two nice operators saw off the occiput of each couple at the same time, in such a manner that the brain may be equally divided. Let the occiputs, thus cut off, be interchanged, applying each to the head of his opposite party-man. It seems indeed to be a work that requires some exactness, but the professor assured us, "that if it were dexterously performed, the cure would be infallible.

reconcile - reconciliar, avenir

dispose - disponer; deshacerse

operators - operadores; operador

saw off - serruchar

occiputs - occipucio, colodrillo

interchanged - intercambiado; intercambiar, reemplazar, intercambio

dexterously - diestramente, con destreza

infallible - infalible

For he argued thus: "that the two half brains being left to debate the matter between themselves within the space of one skull, would soon come to a good understanding, and produce that moderation, as well as regularity of thinking, so much to be wished for in the heads of those, who imagine they come into the world only to watch and govern its motion: and as to the difference of brains, in quantity or quality, among those who are directors in faction, the doctor assured us, from his own knowledge, that "it was a perfect trifle."

skull - cráneo; calavera

moderation - moderación

regularity - regularidad, periodicidad

I heard a very warm debate between two professors, about the most commodious and effectual ways and means of raising money, without grieving the subject. The first affirmed, "the justest method would be, to lay a certain tax upon vices and folly; and the sum fixed upon every man to be rated, after the fairest manner, by a jury of his neighbours." The second was of an opinion directly contrary; "to tax those qualities of body and mind, for which men chiefly value themselves; the rate to be more or less, according to the degrees of excelling; the decision whereof should be left entirely to their own breast." The highest tax was upon men who are the greatest favourites of the other sex, and the assessments, according to the number and nature of the favours they have received; for which, they are allowed to be their own vouchers.

commodious - confortable; espacioso, amplio

grieving - duelo; afligirse, acongojarse

tax - impuestos; impuesto

jury - jurado

assessments - evaluaciones; evaluación, valoración

vouchers - vales; cupón, vale

Wit, valour, and politeness, were likewise proposed to be largely taxed, and collected in the same manner, by every person's giving his own word for the quantum of what he possessed. But as to honour, justice, wisdom, and learning, they should not be taxed at all; because they are qualifications of so singular a kind, that no man will either allow them in his neighbour or value them in himself.

politeness - educación, cortesía

taxed - impuesto

possessed - Posees

The women were proposed to be taxed according to their beauty and skill in dressing, wherein they had the same privilege with the men, to be determined by their own judgment. But constancy, chastity, good sense, and good nature, were not rated, because they would not bear the charge of collecting.

privilege - privilegio, privilegiar

constancy - constancia, constancia

chastity - castidad

good nature - Buen carácter, buena gente

To keep senators in the interest of the crown, it was proposed that the members should raffle for employment; every man first taking an oath, and giving security, that he would vote for the court, whether he won or not; after which, the losers had, in their turn, the liberty of raffling upon the next vacancy.

raffle - rifa

losers - perdedores; perdedor, fracasado, pringado

raffling - Rifa; (raffle) Rifa

Thus, hope and expectation would be kept alive; none would complain of broken promises, but impute their disappointments wholly to fortune, whose shoulders are broader and stronger than those of a ministry.

impute - imputar

disappointments - decepciones; decepción, desilusión, chasco

Another professor showed me a large paper of instructions for discovering plots and conspiracies against the government.

plots - tramas; argumento, trama, hilo argumental, intriga, plano

He advised great statesmen to examine into the diet of all suspected persons; their times of eating; upon which side they lay in bed; with which hand they wipe their posteriors; take a strict view of their excrements, and, from the colour, the odour, the taste, the consistence, the crudeness or maturity of digestion, form a judgment of their thoughts and designs; because men are never so serious, thoughtful, and intent, as when they are at stool, which he found by frequent experiment; for, in such conjunctures, when he used, merely as a trial, to consider which was the best way of murdering the king, his ordure would have a tincture of green; but quite different, when he thought only of raising an insurrection, or burning the metropolis.

statesmen - stadistas; estadista

wipe - limpiar

posteriors - posteriores; trasero, posterior, trasero

excrements - excrementos; excremento

thoughtful - pensativo; detallista, minucioso, meticuloso, cortés

merely - simplemente; meramente, puramente, solamente, sólo

murdering - asesinando; asesinato, asesinar, cepillarse, devorar

insurrection - insurrección

The whole discourse was written with great acuteness, containing many observations, both curious and useful for politicians; but, as I conceived, not altogether complete. This I ventured to tell the author, and offered, if he pleased, to supply him with some additions.

additions - adiciones; adición, anadidura, suma

He received my proposition with more compliance than is usual among writers, especially those of the projecting species, professing "he would be glad to receive further information."

professing - profesando; profesar

further information - más información

I told him, "that in the kingdom of Tribnia, [454a] by the natives called Langdon, [454b] where I had sojourned some time in my travels, the bulk of the people consist in a manner wholly of discoverers, witnesses, informers, accusers, prosecutors, evidences, swearers, together with their several subservient and subaltern instruments, all under the colours, the conduct, and the pay of ministers of state, and their deputies. The plots, in that kingdom, are usually the workmanship of those persons who desire to raise their own characters of profound politicians; to restore new vigour to a crazy administration; to stifle or divert general discontents; to fill their coffers with forfeitures; and raise, or sink the opinion of public credit, as either shall best answer their private advantage. It is first agreed and settled among them, what suspected persons shall be accused of a plot; then, effectual care is taken to secure all their letters and papers, and put the owners in chains.

sojourned - permaneció; estadía, estada

discoverers - descubridores; descubridor

witnesses - testigos; testimonio, testigo, prueba, testificar, probar

accusers - acusadores; acusador, acusadora

prosecutors - fiscales; acusador, fiscal

subservient - sumiso; servil

subaltern - subalterno, subalterno

workmanship - trabajo; calidad de artesano, calidad de fabricación, hechura

restore - restablecer, restaurar

vigour - vigor, vivacidad, vigor, lozanía, fuerza, energía

stifle - asfixiar; ahogar, sofocar

discontents - escontentos; descontento

coffers - cofre, casetón, arcas

owners - propietarios; propietario, dueno, poseedor

These papers are delivered to a set of artists, very dexterous in finding out the mysterious meanings of words, syllables, and letters: for instance, they can discover a close stool, to signify a privy council; a flock of geese, a senate; a lame dog, an invader; the plague, a standing army; a buzzard, a prime minister; the gout, a high priest; a gibbet, a secretary of state; a chamber pot, a committee of grandees; a sieve, a court lady; a broom, a revolution; a mouse-trap, an employment; a bottomless pit, a treasury; a sink, a court; a cap and bells, a favourite; a broken reed, a court of justice; an empty tun, a general; a running sore, the administration. [455]

mysterious - misterioso

meanings - Qué significa

syllables - sílabas; sílaba

privy council - consejo privado

flock - rebano, bandada

invader - invasor, invasora

buzzard - zopilote; ratonero común, busardo

gout - gota

priest - sacerdote, cura, padre, párroco; (prey); botín, presa

gibbet - la horca; horca, patíbulo, cadalso

chamber pot - Orinal

committee - comité, comisión

grandees - grandes; grande

sieve - amiz; cedazo, rom solids, criba, cribar, colar

broom - una escoba; escoba

revolution - revolución, vuelta, giro

trap - trampa

bottomless - sin fondo

pit - hoyo, foso, fosa

bells - campanas; campana

reed - lengüeta; junco, cana

sore - dolorido; doloroso

"When this method fails, they have two others more effectual, which the learned among them call acrostics and anagrams. First, they can decipher all initial letters into political meanings. Thus N, shall signify a plot; B, a regiment of horse; L, a fleet at sea; or, secondly, by transposing the letters of the alphabet in any suspected paper, they can lay open the deepest designs of a discontented party.

acrostics - acrósticos; acróstico

anagrams - anagramas; anagrama

decipher - descifrar, decodificar, interpretar, resolver

initial - inicial, iniciales

regiment - regimiento

lay open - revelar

discontented - descontento

So, for example, if I should say, in a letter to a friend, 'Our brother Tom has just got the piles,'a skilful decipherer would discover, that the same letters which compose that sentence, may be analysed into the following words, 'resist ---, a plot is brought home-The tour.' And this is the anagrammatic method."

piles - pilas; montón, pila

decipherer - Descifrador

compose - componer, constituir, conformar, constar, panish: t-needed

analysed - analizado; analizar

resist - resistir

The professor made me great acknowledgments for communicating these observations, and promised to make honourable mention of me in his treatise.

I saw nothing in this country that could invite me to a longer continuance, and began to think of returning home to England.

returning home - volver a casa


The author leaves Lagado: arrives at Maldonada. No ship ready. He takes a short voyage to Glubbdubdrib. His reception by the governor.

The continent, of which this kingdom is apart, extends itself, as I have reason to believe, eastward, to that unknown tract of America westward of California; and north, to the Pacific Ocean, which is not above a hundred and fifty miles from Lagado; where there is a good port, and much commerce with the great island of Luggnagg, situated to the north-west about 29 degrees north latitude, and 140 longitude. This island of Luggnagg stands south-eastward of Japan, about a hundred leagues distant. There is a strict alliance between the Japanese emperor and the king of Luggnagg; which affords frequent opportunities of sailing from one island to the other.

apart - aparte, separadamente

extends - se extiende; extender, ampliar

Pacific - pacífico; pacífica

affords - ermite; costear, permitirse

I determined therefore to direct my course this way, in order to my return to Europe. I hired two mules, with a guide, to show me the way, and carry my small baggage. I took leave of my noble protector, who had shown me so much favour, and made me a generous present at my departure.

mules - mulas; mula

baggage - equipaje

My journey was without any accident or adventure worth relating. When I arrived at the port of Maldonada (for so it is called) there was no ship in the harbour bound for Luggnagg, nor likely to be in some time. The town is about as large as Portsmouth.

I soon fell into some acquaintance, and was very hospitably received. A gentleman of distinction said to me, "that since the ships bound for Luggnagg could not be ready in less than a month, it might be no disagreeable amusement for me to take a trip to the little island of Glubbdubdrib, about five leagues off to the south-west." He offered himself and a friend to accompany me, and that I should be provided with a small convenient bark for the voyage.

accompany - acompanar; acompanar

bark - corteza; ladrido

Glubbdubdrib, as nearly as I can interpret the word, signifies the island of sorcerers or magicians. It is about one third as large as the Isle of Wight, and extremely fruitful: it is governed by the head of a certain tribe, who are all magicians. This tribe marries only among each other, and the eldest in succession is prince or governor.

sorcerers - hechiceros; brujo, hechicero, sortílego, mago

Magicians - magos; mago, fenómeno, checkhechicero

Isle - isla

fruitful - fértil, prolífico, productivo, fructífero

tribe - tribu

succession - sucesión

He has a noble palace, and a park of about three thousand acres, surrounded by a wall of hewn stone twenty feet high. In this park are several small enclosures for cattle, corn, and gardening.

enclosures - ecintos; encierro, cercamiento, recinto, reparto, clausura

The governor and his family are served and attended by domestics of a kind somewhat unusual. By his skill in necromancy he has a power of calling whom he pleases from the dead, and commanding their service for twenty-four hours, but no longer; nor can he call the same persons up again in less than three months, except upon very extraordinary occasions.

necromancy - nigromancia, necromancia

When we arrived at the island, which was about eleven in the morning, one of the gentlemen who accompanied me went to the governor, and desired admittance for a stranger, who came on purpose to have the honour of attending on his highness. This was immediately granted, and we all three entered the gate of the palace between two rows of guards, armed and dressed after a very antic manner, and with something in their countenances that made my flesh creep with a horror I cannot express. We passed through several apartments, between servants of the same sort, ranked on each side as before, till we came to the chamber of presence; where, after three profound obeisances, and a few general questions, we were permitted to sit on three stools, near the lowest step of his highness's throne. He understood the language of Balnibarbi, although it was different from that of this island. He desired me to give him some account of my travels; and, to let me see that I should be treated without ceremony, he dismissed all his attendants with a turn of his finger; at which, to my great astonishment, they vanished in an instant, like visions in a dream when we awake on a sudden.

rows - filas; hilera, fila

ranked - clasificado; rango, graduación

vanished - desaparecido; desvanecerse, desaparecer, anularse

visions - visiones; vista, visión

I could not recover myself in some time, till the governor assured me, "that I should receive no hurt:" and observing my two companions to be under no concern, who had been often entertained in the same manner, I began to take courage, and related to his highness a short history of my several adventures; yet not without some hesitation, and frequently looking behind me to the place where I had seen those domestic spectres. I had the honour to dine with the governor, where a new set of ghosts served up the meat, and waited at table. I now observed myself to be less terrified than I had been in the morning. I stayed till sunset, but humbly desired his highness to excuse me for not accepting his invitation of lodging in the palace. My two friends and I lay at a private house in the town adjoining, which is the capital of this little island; and the next morning we returned to pay our duty to the governor, as he was pleased to command us.

spectres - espectros; espectro, fantasma

ghosts - fantasmas; fantasma, espectro, espíritu, aparecido

terrified - aterrorizado; aterrar

sunset - puesta de sol; puesta del sol, ocaso, atardecer

After this manner we continued in the island for ten days, most part of every day with the governor, and at night in our lodging. I soon grew so familiarized to the sight of spirits, that after the third or fourth time they gave me no emotion at all: or, if I had any apprehensions left, my curiosity prevailed over them. For his highness the governor ordered me "to call up whatever persons I would choose to name, and in whatever numbers, among all the dead from the beginning of the world to the present time, and command them to answer any questions I should think fit to ask; with this condition, that my questions must be confined within the compass of the times they lived in.

familiarized - familiarizado; familiarizar

emotion - afecto, emoción

And one thing I might depend upon, that they would certainly tell me the truth, for lying was a talent of no use in the lower world."

I made my humble acknowledgments to his highness for so great a favour. We were in a chamber, from whence there was a fair prospect into the park. And because my first inclination was to be entertained with scenes of pomp and magnificence, I desired to see Alexander the Great at the head of his army, just after the battle of Arbela: which, upon a motion of the governor's finger, immediately appeared in a large field, under the window where we stood. Alexander was called up into the room: it was with great difficulty that I understood his Greek, and had but little of my own. He assured me upon his honour "that he was not poisoned, but died of a bad fever by excessive drinking.

pomp - propaganda; boato, pompa

Alexander - Alejandro

battle - batalla

Greek - griego, griego, griega

fever - fiebre, calentura

Next, I saw Hannibal passing the Alps, who told me "he had not a drop of vinegar in his camp."

Hannibal - Aníbal

Alps - Alpes; (alp); Alpes

vinegar - vinagre

I saw Cćsar and Pompey at the head of their troops, just ready to engage. I saw the former, in his last great triumph. I desired that the senate of Rome might appear before me, in one large chamber, and an assembly of somewhat a later age in counterview, in another. The first seemed to be an assembly of heroes and demigods; the other, a knot of pedlars, pick-pockets, highwayman, and bullies.

Pompey - Pompeyo

Rome - Roma

counterview - contravista

demigods - demigodos; semidiós

knot - nudo

highwayman - hombre de la carretera; bandolero, salteador

bullies - matones; bravucón, abusón, matón, abusador

The governor, at my request, gave the sign for Cćsar and Brutus to advance towards us. I was struck with a profound veneration at the sight of Brutus, and could easily discover the most consummate virtue, the greatest intrepidity and firmness of mind, the truest love of his country, and general benevolence for mankind, in every lineament of his countenance.

Brutus - Bruto

consummate - panish: t-needed

firmness - firmeza

benevolence - benevolencia

I observed, with much pleasure, that these two persons were in good intelligence with each other; and Cćsar freely confessed to me, "that the greatest actions of his own life were not equal, by many degrees, to the glory of taking it away." I had the honour to have much conversation with Brutus; and was told, "that his ancestor Junius, Socrates, Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More, and himself were perpetually together:" a sextumvirate, to which all the ages of the world cannot add a seventh.

ancestor - ancestro, antepasado

Socrates - Sócrates

sextumvirate - sextumvirato

It would be tedious to trouble the reader with relating what vast numbers of illustrious persons were called up to gratify that insatiable desire I had to see the world in every period of antiquity placed before me. I chiefly fed mine eyes with beholding the destroyers of tyrants and usurpers, and the restorers of liberty to oppressed and injured nations.

destroyers - destructores; destructor

tyrants - tiranos; tirano

usurpers - usurpadores; usurpador

restorers - restauradores; restaurador

oppressed - primidos; oprimir

injured - lastimado; herir, lastimar

But it is impossible to express the satisfaction I received in my own mind, after such a manner as to make it a suitable entertainment to the reader.


A further account of Glubbdubdrib. Ancient and modern history corrected.

Having a desire to see those ancients who were most renowned for wit and learning, I set apart one day on purpose. I proposed that Homer and Aristotle might appear at the head of all their commentators; but these were so numerous, that some hundreds were forced to attend in the court, and outward rooms of the palace. I knew, and could distinguish those two heroes, at first sight, not only from the crowd, but from each other. Homer was the taller and comelier person of the two, walked very erect for one of his age, and his eyes were the most quick and piercing I ever beheld. Aristotle stooped much, and made use of a staff. His visage was meagre, his hair lank and thin, and his voice hollow. I soon discovered that both of them were perfect strangers to the rest of the company, and had never seen or heard of them before; and I had a whisper from a ghost who shall be nameless, "that these commentators always kept in the most distant quarters from their principals, in the lower world, through a consciousness of shame and guilt, because they had so horribly misrepresented the meaning of those authors to posterity." I introduced Didymus and Eustathius to Homer, and prevailed on him to treat them better than perhaps they deserved, for he soon found they wanted a genius to enter into the spirit of a poet.

commentators - comentaristas; comentador, comentadora, comentarista

comelier - comelier; lindo

piercing - pirsin, perforación, punzante; (pierce); pirsin, perforación

ghost - fantasma, espectro, espíritu, aparecido

nameless - innominado, sin nombre

principals - directores; principal, capital, director, directora

guilt - culpa, culpabilidad

horribly - horriblemente

misrepresented - ergiversado; incurrir en falsedad

poet - poeta, poetisa

But Aristotle was out of all patience with the account I gave him of Scotus and Ramus, as I presented them to him; and he asked them, "whether the rest of the tribe were as great dunces as themselves?"

dunces - tontos; tonto de capirote

I then desired the governor to call up Descartes and Gassendi, with whom I prevailed to explain their systems to Aristotle. This great philosopher freely acknowledged his own mistakes in natural philosophy, because he proceeded in many things upon conjecture, as all men must do; and he found that Gassendi, who had made the doctrine of Epicurus as palatable as he could, and the vortices of Descartes, were equally to be exploded.

acknowledged - reconocido; reconocer, acusar recibo

Epicurus - Epicuro

palatable - sabroso, apetecible, regular

vortices - Vórtices

exploded - explotó; explotar, explosionar, reventar

He predicted the same fate to attraction, whereof the present learned are such zealous asserters. He said, "that new systems of nature were but new fashions, which would vary in every age; and even those, who pretend to demonstrate them from mathematical principles, would flourish but a short period of time, and be out of vogue when that was determined."

asserters - asegurador

vary - variar

flourish - florecer, prosperar, ademanes, floritura, floreo, ornamento

vogue - de moda; boga

I spent five days in conversing with many others of the ancient learned. I saw most of the first Roman emperors. I prevailed on the governor to call up Heliogabalus's cooks to dress us a dinner, but they could not show us much of their skill, for want of materials. A helot of Agesilaus made us a dish of Spartan broth, but I was not able to get down a second spoonful.

Roman - romano, romano, romana, Román

helot - ilota

broth - caldo

spoonful - cucharada

The two gentlemen, who conducted me to the island, were pressed by their private affairs to return in three days, which I employed in seeing some of the modern dead, who had made the greatest figure, for two or three hundred years past, in our own and other countries of Europe; and having been always a great admirer of old illustrious families, I desired the governor would call up a dozen or two of kings, with their ancestors in order for eight or nine generations. But my disappointment was grievous and unexpected. For, instead of a long train with royal diadems, I saw in one family two fiddlers, three spruce courtiers, and an Italian prelate. In another, a barber, an abbot, and two cardinals. I have too great a veneration for crowned heads, to dwell any longer on so nice a subject. But as to counts, marquises, dukes, earls, and the like, I was not so scrupulous. And I confess, it was not without some pleasure, that I found myself able to trace the particular features, by which certain families are distinguished, up to their originals.

generations - generaciones; generación, generación, linaje

diadems - diademas; diadema

spruce - abeto; pícea

prelate - prelado

Abbot - abad

cardinals - cardenales; cardinal, número cardinal, cardenal

crowned - coronado; corona

marquises - Marquesa

Dukes - dukes; duque

earls - condes; conde

I could plainly discover whence one family derives a long chin; why a second has abounded with knaves for two generations, and fools for two more; why a third happened to be crack-brained, and a fourth to be sharpers; whence it came, what Polydore Virgil says of a certain great house, Nec vir fortis, nec foemina casta; how cruelty, falsehood, and cowardice, grew to be characteristics by which certain families are distinguished as much as by their coats of arms; who first brought the pox into a noble house, which has lineally descended scrofulous tumours to their posterity. Neither could I wonder at all this, when I saw such an interruption of lineages, by pages, lackeys, valets, coachmen, gamesters, fiddlers, players, captains, and pickpockets.

derives - derivar

knaves - bribones; paje, mozo, bellaco, villano, sota

sharpers - más nítida

Virgil - Virgilio

cowardice - cobardía

characteristics - características; característico, característica

lineally - En línea

interruption - interrupción, paréntesis

lineages - inajes; linaje, estirpe

lackeys - lacayos; lacayo

valets - valets; edecán, mánager, aparcacoches

gamesters - Jugador

players - jugadores; jugador, jugadora, actor, instrumentista

pickpockets - carteristas; carterista, bolsista, bolsear

I was chiefly disgusted with modern history. For having strictly examined all the persons of greatest name in the courts of princes, for a hundred years past, I found how the world had been misled by prostitute writers, to ascribe the greatest exploits in war, to cowards; the wisest counsel, to fools; sincerity, to flatterers; Roman virtue, to betrayers of their country; piety, to atheists; chastity, to sodomites; truth, to informers: how many innocent and excellent persons had been condemned to death or banishment by the practising of great ministers upon the corruption of judges, and the malice of factions: how many villains had been exalted to the highest places of trust, power, dignity, and profit: how great a share in the motions and events of courts, councils, and senates might be challenged by bawds, whores, pimps, parasites, and buffoons.

misled - enganado; propiciar equivocarse, desencaminar, enganar

ascribe - ascribir; imputar, atribuir, adscribir

exploits - hazanas; hazana, proeza, gesta, heroicidad

counsel - consulta, consejo, abogado

sincerity - sinceridad

flatterers - lisonjeros; lisonjeador, lisonjero, adulador

betrayers - traidores; confidente, delator, oreja, traidor

atheists - ateos; ateo, atea

banishment - destierro; exilio

factions - facciones; facción

villains - villanos; villano

challenged - desafiado; desafío, reto, disputa, impedimento

bawds - Idiota

whores - putas; puta, prostituta, zorra, fulana

pimps - chulo

parasites - parásitos; parásito

buffoons - bufones; bufón, panish: t-needed

How low an opinion I had of human wisdom and integrity, when I was truly informed of the springs and motives of great enterprises and revolutions in the world, and of the contemptible accidents to which they owed their success.

Here I discovered the roguery and ignorance of those who pretend to write anecdotes, or secret history; who send so many kings to their graves with a cup of poison; will repeat the discourse between a prince and chief minister, where no witness was by; unlock the thoughts and cabinets of ambassadors and secretaries of state; and have the perpetual misfortune to be mistaken. Here I discovered the true causes of many great events that have surprised the world; how a whore can govern the back-stairs, the back-stairs a council, and the council a senate. A general confessed, in my presence, "that he got a victory purely by the force of cowardice and ill conduct;" and an admiral, "that, for want of proper intelligence, he beat the enemy, to whom he intended to betray the fleet.

anecdotes - anécdotas; anécdota, chascarrillo

graves - umbas; tumba

poison - veneno, ponzona, envenenar, emponzonar

witness - testimonio, testigo, prueba, testificar, probar, presenciar

unlock - abrir, abrir con llave, desatrancar, desbloquear

cabinets - armarios; armario, gabinete, vestidor, consejo

whore - puta, prostituta, zorra, fulana

victory - Victoria

purely - Puramente

Three kings protested to me, "that in their whole reigns they never did once prefer any person of merit, unless by mistake, or treachery of some minister in whom they confided; neither would they do it if they were to live again:" and they showed, with great strength of reason, "that the royal throne could not be supported without corruption, because that positive, confident, restiff temper, which virtue infused into a man, was a perpetual clog to public business."

Reigns - reigns; reinado, reinar

by mistake - por error

treachery - traición; alevosía

confided - confiado; confiar

clog - zueco, bloqueo, obstrucción, obstruir, azolvar, bloquear

I had the curiosity to inquire in a particular manner, by what methods great numbers had procured to themselves high titles of honour, and prodigious estates; and I confined my inquiry to a very modern period: however, without grating upon present times, because I would be sure to give no offence even to foreigners (for I hope the reader need not be told, that I do not in the least intend my own country, in what I say upon this occasion,) a great number of persons concerned were called up; and, upon a very slight examination, discovered such a scene of infamy, that I cannot reflect upon it without some seriousness. Perjury, oppression, subornation, fraud, pandarism, and the like infirmities, were among the most excusable arts they had to mention; and for these I gave, as it was reasonable, great allowance.

examination - examen, examinación

infamy - infamia

seriousness - seriedad, gravedad

perjury - perjurio

oppression - opresión

subornation - subornación

pandarism - PANDARISMO

But when some confessed they owed their greatness and wealth to sodomy, or incest; others, to the prostituting of their own wives and daughters; others, to the betraying of their country or their prince; some, to poisoning; more to the perverting of justice, in order to destroy the innocent, I hope I may be pardoned, if these discoveries inclined me a little to abate of that profound veneration, which I am naturally apt to pay to persons of high rank, who ought to be treated with the utmost respect due to their sublime dignity, by us their inferiors.

greatness - grandeza

sodomy - sodomía

Incest - incesto

prostituting - prostituyéndose; prostituir, prostituto, prostituta

betraying - traicionando; traicionar, entregar, vender, delatar, demostrar

poisoning - envenenar, envenenamiento; (poison); veneno, ponzona, envenenar

abate - reducir; disminuir, amainar

inferiors - inferiores; inferior

I had often read of some great services done to princes and states, and desired to see the persons by whom those services were performed. Upon inquiry I was told, "that their names were to be found on no record, except a few of them, whom history has represented as the vilest of rogues and traitors." As to the rest, I had never once heard of them. They all appeared with dejected looks, and in the meanest habit; most of them telling me, "they died in poverty and disgrace, and the rest on a scaffold or a gibbet.

vilest - más vil; vil

rogues - pícaros; canalla, granuja, vago

traitors - traidores; traidor, traidora

dejected - desanimado

poverty - pobreza, pauperismo

Among others, there was one person, whose case appeared a little singular. He had a youth about eighteen years old standing by his side. He told me, "he had for many years been commander of a ship; and in the sea fight at Actium had the good fortune to break through the enemy's great line of battle, sink three of their capital ships, and take a fourth, which was the sole cause of Antony's flight, and of the victory that ensued; that the youth standing by him, his only son, was killed in the action." He added, "that upon the confidence of some merit, the war being at an end, he went to Rome, and solicited at the court of Augustus to be preferred to a greater ship, whose commander had been killed; but, without any regard to his pretensions, it was given to a boy who had never seen the sea, the son of Libertina, who waited on one of the emperor's mistresses.

ensued - siguió; seguirse, resultar

solicited - solicitado; solicitar, cortejar

Augustus - Augusto

pretensions - Pretensión

mistresses - amantes; duena, maestra, querida, amante, barragana, manceba

Returning back to his own vessel, he was charged with neglect of duty, and the ship given to a favourite page of Publicola, the vice-admiral; whereupon he retired to a poor farm at a great distance from Rome, and there ended his life." I was so curious to know the truth of this story, that I desired Agrippa might be called, who was admiral in that fight. He appeared, and confirmed the whole account: but with much more advantage to the captain, whose modesty had extenuated or concealed a great part of his merit.

neglect - descuido; descuidar, negligir, desoír, hacer caso omiso

Agrippa - Agripa

extenuated - Extenuar

I was surprised to find corruption grown so high and so quick in that empire, by the force of luxury so lately introduced; which made me less wonder at many parallel cases in other countries, where vices of all kinds have reigned so much longer, and where the whole praise, as well as pillage, has been engrossed by the chief commander, who perhaps had the least title to either.

luxury - lujo, capricho, extravagancia

pillage - paqueo; saquear, saqueo, pillaje

engrossed - absorto; acaparar, arramblar, apandar, alzarse con

I descended so low, as to desire some English yeoman of the old stamp might be summoned to appear; once so famous for the simplicity of their manners, diet, and dress; for justice in their dealings; for their true spirit of liberty; for their valour, and love of their country.

yeoman - jeoman; terrateniente, edecán

summoned - convocado; convocar

simplicity - simplicidad, sencillez, llano

dealings - tratando

Neither could I be wholly unmoved, after comparing the living with the dead, when I considered how all these pure native virtues were prostituted for a piece of money by their grand-children; who, in selling their votes and managing at elections, have acquired every vice and corruption that can possibly be learned in a court.

prostituted - prostituida; prostituir, prostituto, prostituta

votes - votos; voto, votar

elections - elección, elecciones


The author returns to Maldonada. Sails to the kingdom of Luggnagg. The author confined. He is sent for to court. The manner of his admittance. The king's great lenity to his subjects.

The day of our departure being come, I took leave of his highness, the Governor of Glubbdubdrib, and returned with my two companions to Maldonada, where, after a fortnight's waiting, a ship was ready to sail for Luggnagg. The two gentlemen, and some others, were so generous and kind as to furnish me with provisions, and see me on board. I was a month in this voyage. We had one violent storm, and were under a necessity of steering westward to get into the trade wind, which holds for above sixty leagues.

On the 21st of April, 1708, we sailed into the river of Clumegnig, which is a seaport town, at the south-east point of Luggnagg. We cast anchor within a league of the town, and made a signal for a pilot. Two of them came on board in less than half an hour, by whom we were guided between certain shoals and rocks, which are very dangerous in the passage, to a large basin, where a fleet may ride in safety within a cable's length of the town-wall.

shoals - bancos; banco, cardumen

basin - cuenca; pileta, lavabo, lavamanos, jofaina

safety - seguridad, seguro

Some of our sailors, whether out of treachery or inadvertence, had informed the pilots "that I was a stranger, and great traveller;" whereof these gave notice to a custom-house officer, by whom I was examined very strictly upon my landing. This officer spoke to me in the language of Balnibarbi, which, by the force of much commerce, is generally understood in that town, especially by seamen and those employed in the customs. I gave him a short account of some particulars, and made my story as plausible and consistent as I could; but I thought it necessary to disguise my country, and call myself a Hollander; because my intentions were for Japan, and I knew the Dutch were the only Europeans permitted to enter into that kingdom. I therefore told the officer, "that having been shipwrecked on the coast of Balnibarbi, and cast on a rock, I was received up into Laputa, or the flying island (of which he had often heard), and was now endeavouring to get to Japan, whence I might find a convenience of returning to my own country.

inadvertence - inadvertencia

gave notice - avisar, notificar; presentar la renuncia

custom-house - (custom-house) aduana

plausible - es plausible; probable, plausible

The officer said, "I must be confined till he could receive orders from court, for which he would write immediately, and hoped to receive an answer in a fortnight." I was carried to a convenient lodging with a sentry placed at the door; however, I had the liberty of a large garden, and was treated with humanity enough, being maintained all the time at the king's charge. I was invited by several persons, chiefly out of curiosity, because it was reported that I came from countries very remote, of which they had never heard.

sentry - centinela

humanity - la humanidad; humanidad

I hired a young man, who came in the same ship, to be an interpreter; he was a native of Luggnagg, but had lived some years at Maldonada, and was a perfect master of both languages. By his assistance, I was able to hold a conversation with those who came to visit me; but this consisted only of their questions, and my answers.

The despatch came from court about the time we expected. It contained a warrant for conducting me and my retinue to Traldragdubh, or Trildrogdrib (for it is pronounced both ways as near as I can remember), by a party of ten horse. All my retinue was that poor lad for an interpreter, whom I persuaded into my service, and, at my humble request, we had each of us a mule to ride on. A messenger was despatched half a day's journey before us, to give the king notice of my approach, and to desire, "that his majesty would please to appoint a day and hour, when it would by his gracious pleasure that I might have the honour to lick the dust before his footstool." This is the court style, and I found it to be more than matter of form: for, upon my admittance two days after my arrival, I was commanded to crawl upon my belly, and lick the floor as I advanced; but, on account of my being a stranger, care was taken to have it made so clean, that the dust was not offensive. However, this was a peculiar grace, not allowed to any but persons of the highest rank, when they desire an admittance. Nay, sometimes the floor is strewed with dust on purpose, when the person to be admitted happens to have powerful enemies at court; and I have seen a great lord with his mouth so crammed, that when he had crept to the proper distance from the throne; he was not able to speak a word.

conducting - conduciendo; conducción, conducta, guiar, dirigir, manejar

mule - mula

appoint - equipar, determinar, fijar, designar, nombrar

lick - lamer

footstool - reposapiés, escabel

strewed - esparcido; esparcir

Neither is there any remedy; because it is capital for those, who receive an audience to spit or wipe their mouths in his majesty's presence. There is indeed another custom, which I cannot altogether approve of: when the king has a mind to put any of his nobles to death in a gentle indulgent manner, he commands the floor to be strewed with a certain brown powder of a deadly composition, which being licked up, infallibly kills him in twenty-four hours. But in justice to this prince's great clemency, and the care he has of his subjects'lives (wherein it were much to be wished that the Monarchs of Europe would imitate him), it must be mentioned for his honour, that strict orders are given to have the infected parts of the floor well washed after every such execution, which, if his domestics neglect, they are in danger of incurring his royal displeasure. I myself heard him give directions, that one of his pages should be whipped, whose turn it was to give notice about washing the floor after an execution, but maliciously had omitted it; by which neglect a young lord of great hopes, coming to an audience, was unfortunately poisoned, although the king at that time had no design against his life. But this good prince was so gracious as to forgive the poor page his whipping, upon promise that he would do so no more, without special orders.

spit - Escupir

deadly - mortal, letal, mortífero

licked - lamido; lamer

infected - infectado; infectar, contagiar, alborotar

incurring - en qué incurre; incurrir

To return from this digression. When I had crept within four yards of the throne, I raised myself gently upon my knees, and then striking my forehead seven times against the ground, I pronounced the following words, as they had been taught me the night before, Inckpling gloffthrobb squut serummblhiop mlashnalt zwin tnodbalkuffh slhiophad gurdlubh asht. This is the compliment, established by the laws of the land, for all persons admitted to the king's presence. It may be rendered into English thus: "May your celestial majesty outlive the sun, eleven moons and a half!

digression - intercambio; digresión, divagación

squut - Chiflado

tnodbalkuffh - nodbalkuffh

slhiophad - esliófada

asht - Ceniza

established - establecido; establecer, instaurar, nombrar

celestial - celestial, celeste

outlive - sobrevivir (a)

To this the king returned some answer, which, although I could not understand, yet I replied as I had been directed: Fluft drin yalerick dwuldom prastrad mirpush, which properly signifies, "My tongue is in the mouth of my friend;" and by this expression was meant, that I desired leave to bring my interpreter; whereupon the young man already mentioned was accordingly introduced, by whose intervention I answered as many questions as his majesty could put in above an hour. I spoke in the Balnibarbian tongue, and my interpreter delivered my meaning in that of Luggnagg.

intervention - intervención

The king was much delighted with my company, and ordered his bliffmarklub, or high-chamberlain, to appoint a lodging in the court for me and my interpreter; with a daily allowance for my table, and a large purse of gold for my common expenses.

I staid three months in this country, out of perfect obedience to his majesty; who was pleased highly to favour me, and made me very honourable offers. But I thought it more consistent with prudence and justice to pass the remainder of my days with my wife and family.

more consistent - Más consistente/congruente


The Luggnaggians commended. A particular description of the Struldbrugs, with many conversations between the author and some eminent persons upon that subject.

The Luggnaggians are a polite and generous people; and although they are not without some share of that pride which is peculiar to all Eastern countries, yet they show themselves courteous to strangers, especially such who are countenanced by the court. I had many acquaintance, and among persons of the best fashion; and being always attended by my interpreter, the conversation we had was not disagreeable.

eastern - oriental, esteno

countenanced - aceptado; semblante, apariencia, expresión, rostro

One day, in much good company, I was asked by a person of quality, "whether I had seen any of their struldbrugs, or immortals?" I said, "I had not;" and desired he would explain to me "what he meant by such an appellation, applied to a mortal creature." He told me "that sometimes, though very rarely, a child happened to be born in a family, with a red circular spot in the forehead, directly over the left eyebrow, which was an infallible mark that it should never die." The spot, as he described it, "was about the compass of a silver threepence, but in the course of time grew larger, and changed its colour; for at twelve years old it became green, so continued till five and twenty, then turned to a deep blue: at five and forty it grew coal black, and as large as an English shilling; but never admitted any further alteration." He said, "these births were so rare, that he did not believe there could be above eleven hundred struldbrugs, of both sexes, in the whole kingdom; of which he computed about fifty in the metropolis, and, among the rest, a young girl born; about three years ago: that these productions were not peculiar to any family, but a mere effect of chance; and the children of the struldbrugs themselves were equally mortal with the rest of the people.

immortals - inmortales; inmortal, inmortal

rarely - rara vez, poco frecuentemente, raramente

eyebrow - ceja

threepence - Tres peniques

coal - carbón, hulla, brasa

shilling - chelines; chelín; (shill); testaferro, hombre de paja

alteration - alteración, cambio, modificación

productions - producciones; producción, elaboración

I freely own myself to have been struck with inexpressible delight, upon hearing this account: and the person who gave it me happening to understand the Balnibarbian language, which I spoke very well, I could not forbear breaking out into expressions, perhaps a little too extravagant. I cried out, as in a rapture, "Happy nation, where every child hath at least a chance for being immortal! Happy people, who enjoy so many living examples of ancient virtue, and have masters ready to instruct them in the wisdom of all former ages! but happiest, beyond all comparison, are those excellent struldbrugs, who, being born exempt from that universal calamity of human nature, have their minds free and disengaged, without the weight and depression of spirits caused by the continual apprehensions of death!" I discovered my admiration that I had not observed any of these illustrious persons at court; the black spot on the forehead being so remarkable a distinction, that I could not have easily overlooked it: and it was impossible that his majesty, a most judicious prince, should not provide himself with a good number of such wise and able counsellors.

inexpressible - inexpresable

breaking out - estallar; escapar; librar(se)

rapture - arrebatamiento

immortal - inmortal, inmortal

exempt - exento

depression - depresión, área de baja presión

black spot - punto negro

remarkable - notable, remarcable, destacable

overlooked - pasado por alto; mirador, pasar por alto, otear

Yet perhaps the virtue of those reverend sages was too strict for the corrupt and libertine manners of a court: and we often find by experience, that young men are too opinionated and volatile to be guided by the sober dictates of their seniors. However, since the king was pleased to allow me access to his royal person, I was resolved, upon the very first occasion, to deliver my opinion to him on this matter freely and at large, by the help of my interpreter; and whether he would please to take my advice or not, yet in one thing I was determined, that his majesty having frequently offered me an establishment in this country, I would, with great thankfulness, accept the favour, and pass my life here in the conversation of those superior beings the struldbrugs, if they would please to admit me."

Reverend - reverendo

libertine - libertino

opinionated - opinante; obstinado, terco, ergotista, dogmático

sober - sobrio, sereno, apagado

dictates - orden, ordenar, dictar

seniors - personas mayores; anciano, alto cargo, experimentado, senor

thankfulness - gratitud, agradecimiento

beings - seres; ser, criatura, existencia

admit - admitir, dar entrada, dejar entrar, reconocer, permitir

The gentleman to whom I addressed my discourse, because (as I have already observed) he spoke the language of Balnibarbi, said to me, with a sort of a smile which usually arises from pity to the ignorant, "that he was glad of any occasion to keep me among them, and desired my permission to explain to the company what I had spoke." He did so, and they talked together for some time in their own language, whereof I understood not a syllable, neither could I observe by their countenances, what impression my discourse had made on them. After a short silence, the same person told me, "that his friends and mine (so he thought fit to express himself) were very much pleased with the judicious remarks I had made on the great happiness and advantages of immortal life, and they were desirous to know, in a particular manner, what scheme of living I should have formed to myself, if it had fallen to my lot to have been born a struldbrug.

arises - surge; surgir, levantarse, provenir, aparecer

remarks - observaciones; observación, comentario

fallen to - tocarle a alguien hacer algo, corresponder a

I answered, "it was easy to be eloquent on so copious and delightful a subject, especially to me, who had been often apt to amuse myself with visions of what I should do, if I were a king, a general, or a great lord: and upon this very case, I had frequently run over the whole system how I should employ myself, and pass the time, if I were sure to live for ever.

eloquent - elocuente

delightful - delicioso

amuse - entretener, distraer, divertir

"That, if it had been my good fortune to come into the world a struldbrug, as soon as I could discover my own happiness, by understanding the difference between life and death, I would first resolve, by all arts and methods, whatsoever, to procure myself riches. In the pursuit of which, by thrift and management, I might reasonably expect, in about two hundred years, to be the wealthiest man in the kingdom. In the second place, I would, from my earliest youth, apply myself to the study of arts and sciences, by which I should arrive in time to excel all others in learning. Lastly, I would carefully record every action and event of consequence, that happened in the public, impartially draw the characters of the several successions of princes and great ministers of state, with my own observations on every point.

resolve - tomar la decisión de, resolver

pursuit - persecución

thrift - parsimonia, parquedad, economía, ahorro

wealthiest - los más ricos; adinerado, rico, próspero, acomodado

successions - sucesiones; sucesión

I would exactly set down the several changes in customs, language, fashions of dress, diet, and diversions. By all which acquirements, I should be a living treasure of knowledge and wisdom, and certainly become the oracle of the nation.

acquirements - adquisición

treasure - tesoro, atesorar

"I would never marry after threescore, but live in a hospitable manner, yet still on the saving side. I would entertain myself in forming and directing the minds of hopeful young men, by convincing them, from my own remembrance, experience, and observation, fortified by numerous examples, of the usefulness of virtue in public and private life.

threescore - treinta

hopeful - esperanzado, esperanzador

convincing - convincente; convencer

fortified - fortificado; fortalecer, panish: t-needed

But my choice and constant companions should be a set of my own immortal brotherhood; among whom, I would elect a dozen from the most ancient, down to my own contemporaries. Where any of these wanted fortunes, I would provide them with convenient lodges round my own estate, and have some of them always at my table; only mingling a few of the most valuable among you mortals, whom length of time would harden me to lose with little or no reluctance, and treat your posterity after the same manner; just as a man diverts himself with the annual succession of pinks and tulips in his garden, without regretting the loss of those which withered the preceding year.

brotherhood - fraternidad, hermandad

elect - elegir, electo

contemporaries - ontemporáneos; contemporario, contemporáneo

lodges - posadas; cabana, barraca, caseta, logia, madriguera

mingling - mezclando; (mingle); mezclar

harden - Se endurece

reluctance - reticencia; reluctancia

tulips - tulipanes; tulipán

regretting - lamentando; lamentar, pena, pesar, arrepentimiento

withered - se marchitó; marchitar(se)

preceding year - ano anterior

"These struldbrugs and I would mutually communicate our observations and memorials, through the course of time; remark the several gradations by which corruption steals into the world, and oppose it in every step, by giving perpetual warning and instruction to mankind; which, added to the strong influence of our own example, would probably prevent that continual degeneracy of human nature so justly complained of in all ages.

mutually - mutuamente

remark - observación, comentario

oppose - oponerse; oponer

degeneracy - degeneración

"Add to this, the pleasure of seeing the various revolutions of states and empires; the changes in the lower and upper world; ancient cities in ruins, and obscure villages become the seats of kings; famous rivers lessening into shallow brooks; the ocean leaving one coast dry, and overwhelming another; the discovery of many countries yet unknown; barbarity overrunning the politest nations, and the most barbarous become civilized.

brooks - brooks; arroyo

overwhelming - avasallador; agobiar, abrumar, checkagobiar

overrunning - rebasamiento; exceder, checkrebasar, checkinvadir

civilized - civilizado; civilizar

I should then see the discovery of the longitude, the perpetual motion, the universal medicine, and many other great inventions, brought to the utmost perfection.

"What wonderful discoveries should we make in astronomy, by outliving and confirming our own predictions; by observing the progress and return of comets, with the changes of motion in the sun, moon, and stars!"

outliving - sobrevivir (a)

confirming - Confirmando; (confirm); confirmar

predictions - predicciones; predicción

I enlarged upon many other topics, which the natural desire of endless life, and sublunary happiness, could easily furnish me with. When I had ended, and the sum of my discourse had been interpreted, as before, to the rest of the company, there was a good deal of talk among them in the language of the country, not without some laughter at my expense. At last, the same gentleman who had been my interpreter, said, "he was desired by the rest to set me right in a few mistakes, which I had fallen into through the common imbecility of human nature, and upon that allowance was less answerable for them. That this breed of struldbrugs was peculiar to their country, for there were no such people either in Balnibarbi or Japan, where he had the honour to be ambassador from his majesty, and found the natives in both those kingdoms very hard to believe that the fact was possible: and it appeared from my astonishment when he first mentioned the matter to me, that I received it as a thing wholly new, and scarcely to be credited.

endless - interminable, sin fin, infinito

sublunary - Sublunar

imbecility - imbecilidad

ambassador - embajador, embajadora

scarcely - apenas, difícilmente

That in the two kingdoms above mentioned, where, during his residence, he had conversed very much, he observed long life to be the universal desire and wish of mankind. That whoever had one foot in the grave was sure to hold back the other as strongly as he could. That the oldest had still hopes of living one day longer, and looked on death as the greatest evil, from which nature always prompted him to retreat. Only in this island of Luggnagg the appetite for living was not so eager, from the continual example of the struldbrugs before their eyes.

prompted - impulsado; rápido, pronto, puntual, pie, entrada, senal

retreat - retirarse, batirse en retirada

eager - ávido, ansioso, deseoso

"That the system of living contrived by me, was unreasonable and unjust; because it supposed a perpetuity of youth, health, and vigour, which no man could be so foolish to hope, however extravagant he may be in his wishes. That the question therefore was not, whether a man would choose to be always in the prime of youth, attended with prosperity and health; but how he would pass a perpetual life under all the usual disadvantages which old age brings along with it. For although few men will avow their desires of being immortal, upon such hard conditions, yet in the two kingdoms before mentioned, of Balnibarbi and Japan, he observed that every man desired to put off death some time longer, let it approach ever so late: and he rarely heard of any man who died willingly, except he were incited by the extremity of grief or torture.

unreasonable - no es razonable; irrazonable

perpetuity - perpetuidad

prosperity - prosperidad

disadvantages - desventajas; desventaja

desires - deseos; desear, deseo, gana

willingly - de buena gana

incited - incitado; incitar, concitar

And he appealed to me, whether in those countries I had travelled, as well as my own, I had not observed the same general disposition."

appealed - apelado; suplicar, rogar

After this preface, he gave me a particular account of the struldbrugs among them. He said, "they commonly acted like mortals till about thirty years old; after which, by degrees, they grew melancholy and dejected, increasing in both till they came to fourscore. This he learned from their own confession: for otherwise, there not being above two or three of that species born in an age, they were too few to form a general observation by. When they came to fourscore years, which is reckoned the extremity of living in this country, they had not only all the follies and infirmities of other old men, but many more which arose from the dreadful prospect of never dying. They were not only opinionative, peevish, covetous, morose, vain, talkative, but incapable of friendship, and dead to all natural affection, which never descended below their grandchildren. Envy and impotent desires are their prevailing passions.

confession - confesión

arose from - surgir de

dreadful - terrible; espantoso, espantosa

opinionative - opinativo

peevish - malhumorado; quejica, quejicoso, alaraco, alharaquiento

talkative - hablador, conversador

grandchildren - nietos; nieto

prevailing - revaleciendo; prevalecer, vencer

But those objects against which their envy seems principally directed, are the vices of the younger sort and the deaths of the old. By reflecting on the former, they find themselves cut off from all possibility of pleasure; and whenever they see a funeral, they lament and repine that others have gone to a harbour of rest to which they themselves never can hope to arrive. They have no remembrance of anything but what they learned and observed in their youth and middle-age, and even that is very imperfect; and for the truth or particulars of any fact, it is safer to depend on common tradition, than upon their best recollections. The least miserable among them appear to be those who turn to dotage, and entirely lose their memories; these meet with more pity and assistance, because they want many bad qualities which abound in others.

principally - principalmente

funeral - funeral

lament - lamento, lamentación, lamentar

recollections - Recuerdo

dotage - senilidad

"If a struldbrug happen to marry one of his own kind, the marriage is dissolved of course, by the courtesy of the kingdom, as soon as the younger of the two comes to be fourscore; for the law thinks it a reasonable indulgence, that those who are condemned, without any fault of their own, to a perpetual continuance in the world, should not have their misery doubled by the load of a wife.

marriage - matrimonio, boda, casamiento, unión

Dissolved - disuelto; disolver

courtesy - cortesía, de cortesía

fault - defecto, falla, culpa, falta

"As soon as they have completed the term of eighty years, they are looked on as dead in law; their heirs immediately succeed to their estates; only a small pittance is reserved for their support; and the poor ones are maintained at the public charge.

heirs - herederos; heredero, sucesor, checkheredera

pittance - una miseria; miseria

reserved - reservado; reserva, reservar

After that period, they are held incapable of any employment of trust or profit; they cannot purchase lands, or take leases; neither are they allowed to be witnesses in any cause, either civil or criminal, not even for the decision of meers and bounds.

purchase - compra, adquisición, comprar

leases - arrendamientos; contrato de arrendamiento

"The language of this country being always upon the flux, the struldbrugs of one age do not understand those of another; neither are they able, after two hundred years, to hold any conversation (farther than by a few general words) with their neighbours the mortals; and thus they lie under the disadvantage of living like foreigners in their own country."

flux - fundente, flujo

This was the account given me of the struldbrugs, as near as I can remember.

I afterwards saw five or six of different ages, the youngest not above two hundred years old, who were brought to me at several times by some of my friends; but although they were told, "that I was a great traveller, and had seen all the world," they had not the least curiosity to ask me a question; only desired "I would give them slumskudask," or a token of remembrance; which is a modest way of begging, to avoid the law, that strictly forbids it, because they are provided for by the public, although indeed with a very scanty allowance.

slumskudask - lumskudask

token - sena, recuerdo, ficha, prenda, símbolo, simbólico, cosmético

forbids - prohíbe; prohibir, vedar, vetar, negar

They were the most mortifying sight I ever beheld; and the women more horrible than the men. Besides the usual deformities in extreme old age, they acquired an additional ghastliness, in proportion to their number of years, which is not to be described; and among half a dozen, I soon distinguished which was the eldest, although there was not above a century or two between them.

mortifying - mortificante; mortificar, matar

more horrible - más horrible

additional - adicional, extra, de más

ghastliness - hastliness

The reader will easily believe, that from what I had hear and seen, my keen appetite for perpetuity of life was much abated. I grew heartily ashamed of the pleasing visions I had formed; and thought no tyrant could invent a death into which I would not run with pleasure, from such a life.

keen - con ganas; entusiasta

tyrant - tirano

The king heard of all that had passed between me and my friends upon this occasion, and rallied me very pleasantly; wishing I could send a couple of struldbrugs to my own country, to arm our people against the fear of death; but this, it seems, is forbidden by the fundamental laws of the kingdom, or else I should have been well content with the trouble and expense of transporting them.

pleasantly - agradablemente

I could not but agree, that the laws of this kingdom relative to the struldbrugs were founded upon the strongest reasons, and such as any other country would be under the necessity of enacting, in the like circumstances.

relative - relativo, familiar, pariente, parienta, parentela

enacting - romulgando; promulgar, interpretar, hacer efecto, actuar

Otherwise, as avarice is the necessary consequence of old age, those immortals would in time become proprietors of the whole nation, and engross the civil power, which, for want of abilities to manage, must end in the ruin of the public.

proprietors - propietarios; propietario

engross - absorber; acaparar, arramblar, apandar, alzarse con


The author leaves Luggnagg, and sails to Japan. From thence he returns in a Dutch ship to Amsterdam, and from Amsterdam to England.

Amsterdam - Amsterdam

There is indeed a perpetual commerce between this kingdom and the great empire of Japan; and it is very probable, that the Japanese authors may have given some account of the struldbrugs; but my stay in Japan was so short, and I was so entirely a stranger to the language, that I was not qualified to make any inquiries. But I hope the Dutch, upon this notice, will be curious and able enough to supply my defects.

His majesty having often pressed me to accept some employment in his court, and finding me absolutely determined to return to my native country, was pleased to give me his license to depart; and honoured me with a letter of recommendation, under his own hand, to the Emperor of Japan.

He likewise presented me with four hundred and forty-four large pieces of gold (this nation delighting in even numbers), and a red diamond, which I sold in England for eleven hundred pounds.

diamond - diamante

On the 6th of May, 1709, I took a solemn leave of his majesty, and all my friends. This prince was so gracious as to order a guard to conduct me to Glanguenstald, which is a royal port to the south-west part of the island. In six days I found a vessel ready to carry me to Japan, and spent fifteen days in the voyage. We landed at a small port-town called Xamoschi, situated on the south-east part of Japan; the town lies on the western point, where there is a narrow strait leading northward into along arm of the sea, upon the north-west part of which, Yedo, the metropolis, stands. At landing, I showed the custom-house officers my letter from the king of Luggnagg to his imperial majesty. They knew the seal perfectly well; it was as broad as the palm of my hand. The impression was, A king lifting up a lame beggar from the earth. The magistrates of the town, hearing of my letter, received me as a public minister. They provided me with carriages and servants, and bore my charges to Yedo; where I was admitted to an audience, and delivered my letter, which was opened with great ceremony, and explained to the Emperor by an interpreter, who then gave me notice, by his majesty's order, "that I should signify my request, and, whatever it were, it should be granted, for the sake of his royal brother of Luggnagg." This interpreter was a person employed to transact affairs with the Hollanders. He soon conjectured, by my countenance, that I was a European, and therefore repeated his majesty's commands in Low Dutch, which he spoke perfectly well. I answered, as I had before determined, "that I was a Dutch merchant, shipwrecked in a very remote country, whence I had travelled by sea and land to Luggnagg, and then took shipping for Japan; where I knew my countrymen often traded, and with some of these I hoped to get an opportunity of returning into Europe: I therefore most humbly entreated his royal favour, to give order that I should be conducted in safety to Nangasac.

Strait - estrecho, paso, aprieto

seal - sello

beggar - mendigo, mendiga, pordiosero, mendicante

magistrates - magistrados; magistrado, togado

sake - por, por motivo de; por el bien de

transact - realizar transacciones; negociar; tramitar

merchant - comerciante, mercader

traded - comerciado; comercio, gremio, compraventa, comerciar, mercadear

To this I added another petition, "that for the sake of my patron the king of Luggnagg, his majesty would condescend to excuse my performing the ceremony imposed on my countrymen, of trampling upon the crucifix: because I had been thrown into his kingdom by my misfortunes, without any intention of trading." When this latter petition was interpreted to the Emperor, he seemed a little surprised; and said, "he believed I was the first of my countrymen who ever made any scruple in this point; and that he began to doubt, whether I was a real Hollander, or not; but rather suspected I must be a Christian. However, for the reasons I had offered, but chiefly to gratify the king of Luggnagg by an uncommon mark of his favour, he would comply with the singularity of my humour; but the affair must be managed with dexterity, and his officers should be commanded to let me pass, as it were by forgetfulness. For he assured me, that if the secret should be discovered by my countrymen the Dutch, they would cut my throat in the voyage." I returned my thanks, by the interpreter, for so unusual a favour; and some troops being at that time on their march to Nangasac, the commanding officer had orders to convey me safe thither, with particular instructions about the business of the crucifix.

condescend to - condescender

imposed - impuesto; imponer

crucifix - crucifijo

trading - Comercio; (trad) Comercio

convey - transmitir; transportar, trasladar, comunicar, expresar

On the 9th day of June, 1709, I arrived at Nangasac, after a very long and troublesome journey. I soon fell into the company of some Dutch sailors belonging to the Amboyna, of Amsterdam, a stout ship of 450 tons. I had lived long in Holland, pursuing my studies at Leyden, and I spoke Dutch well. The seamen soon knew whence I came last: they were curious to inquire into my voyages and course of life. I made up a story as short and probable as I could, but concealed the greatest part. I knew many persons in Holland. I was able to invent names for my parents, whom I pretended to be obscure people in the province of Gelderland. I would have given the captain (one Theodorus Vangrult) what he pleased to ask for my voyage to Holland; but understanding I was a surgeon, he was contented to take half the usual rate, on condition that I would serve him in the way of my calling.

contented - contento; satisfecho

on condition - condición

Before we took shipping, I was often asked by some of the crew, whether I had performed the ceremony above mentioned? I evaded the question by general answers; "that I had satisfied the Emperor and court in all particulars." However, a malicious rogue of a skipper went to an officer, and pointing to me, told him, "I had not yet trampled on the crucifix;" but the other, who had received instructions to let me pass, gave the rascal twenty strokes on the shoulders with a bamboo; after which I was no more troubled with such questions.

evaded - evadido; evadir, soslayar, dar esquinazo, burlar, checkeludir

skipper - capitán

trampled - pisoteado; pisotear, hollar, maltratar, humillar, ofender

rascal - granuja; pícaro, bribón, canalla

strokes - golpes; golpe

bamboo - bambú

Nothing happened worth mentioning in this voyage. We sailed with a fair wind to the Cape of Good Hope, where we staid only to take in fresh water. On the 10th of April, 1710, we arrived safe at Amsterdam, having lost only three men by sickness in the voyage, and a fourth, who fell from the foremast into the sea, not far from the coast of Guinea.

foremast - el trinquete; palo de trinquete

guinea - Guinea

From Amsterdam I soon after set sail for England, in a small vessel belonging to that city.

On the 16th of April we put in at the Downs. I landed next morning, and saw once more my native country, after an absence of five years and six months complete. I went straight to Redriff, where I arrived the same day at two in the afternoon, and found my wife and family in good health.



The author sets out as captain of a ship. His men conspire against him, confine him a long time to his cabin, and set him on shore in an unknown land. He travels up into the country. The Yahoos, a strange sort of animal, described. The author meets two Houyhnhnms.

I continued at home with my wife and children about five months, in a very happy condition, if I could have learned the lesson of knowing when I was well. I left my poor wife big with child, and accepted an advantageous offer made me to be captain of the Adventurer, a stout merchantman of 350 tons: for I understood navigation well, and being grown weary of a surgeon's employment at sea, which, however, I could exercise upon occasion, I took a skilful young man of that calling, one Robert Purefoy, into my ship.

adventurer - aventurero, aventurera

Robert - Roberto

We set sail from Portsmouth upon the 7th day of September, 1710; on the 14th we met with Captain Pocock, of Bristol, at Teneriffe, who was going to the bay of Campechy to cut logwood. On the 16th, he was parted from us by a storm; I heard since my return, that his ship foundered, and none escaped but one cabin boy. He was an honest man, and a good sailor, but a little too positive in his own opinions, which was the cause of his destruction, as it has been with several others; for if he had followed my advice, he might have been safe at home with his family at this time, as well as myself.

bay - bahía

logwood - leno; palo campeche, palo tinta

foundered - Fundador

I had several men who died in my ship of calentures, so that I was forced to get recruits out of Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands, where I touched, by the direction of the merchants who employed me; which I had soon too much cause to repent: for I found afterwards, that most of them had been buccaneers. I had fifty hands onboard; and my orders were, that I should trade with the Indians in the South-Sea, and make what discoveries I could. These rogues, whom I had picked up, debauched my other men, and they all formed a conspiracy to seize the ship, and secure me; which they did one morning, rushing into my cabin, and binding me hand and foot, threatening to throw me overboard, if I offered to stir. I told them, "I was their prisoner, and would submit." This they made me swear to do, and then they unbound me, only fastening one of my legs with a chain, near my bed, and placed a sentry at my door with his piece charged, who was commanded to shoot me dead if I attempted my liberty.

calentures - calenturas; calentura

recruits - reclutas; reemplazo, recluta, contratado, reclutar, reemplazar

leeward - a sotavento; sotavento

Indians - indios; indio, hindú, indígena, indio, india

debauched - disfrazado; corrupción

conspiracy - conspiración, contubernio, panish: t-needed

rushing - Prisa; (rush) Prisa

binding - enlazando; vinculante, lomo, unión; (bind); atar, atar (tie)

threatening - amenazante; amenazador; (threaten); amenazar

They sent me own victuals and drink, and took the government of the ship to themselves. Their design was to turn pirates and, plunder the Spaniards, which they could not do till they got more men. But first they resolved to sell the goods the ship, and then go to Madagascar for recruits, several among them having died since my confinement. They sailed many weeks, and traded with the Indians; but I knew not what course they took, being kept a close prisoner in my cabin, and expecting nothing less than to be murdered, as they often threatened me.

plunder - saquear, saqueo, botín

Spaniards - espanoles; espanol, espanola

Upon the 9th day of May, 1711, one James Welch came down to my cabin, and said, "he had orders from the captain to set me ashore." I expostulated with him, but in vain; neither would he so much as tell me who their new captain was. They forced me into the long-boat, letting me put on my best suit of clothes, which were as good as new, and take a small bundle of linen, but no arms, except my hanger; and they were so civil as not to search my pockets, into which I conveyed what money I had, with some other little necessaries. They rowed about a league, and then set me down on a strand. I desired them to tell me what country it was. They all swore, "they knew no more than myself;" but said, "that the captain" (as they called him) "was resolved, after they had sold the lading, to get rid of me in the first place where they could discover land.

Welch - panish: t-needed

expostulated - expostulado; expostular

Strand - varar

lading - Cargamento; (lad); nino, chico, mozo, mozalbete

rid - cabalgar; librar

They pushed off immediately, advising me to Make haste for fear of being overtaken by the tide, and so bade me farewell.

pushed off - empujado, rechazado

Make haste - Apresurarse, darse prisa

overtaken - uperado; rebasar, sobrepasar, adelantar, alcanzar, superar

In this desolate condition I advanced forward, and soon got upon firm ground, where I sat down on a bank to rest myself, and consider what I had best do. When I was a little refreshed, I went up into the country, resolving to deliver myself to the first savages I should meet, and purchase my life from them by some bracelets, glass rings, and other toys, which sailors usually provide themselves with in those voyages, and whereof I had some about me. The land was divided by long rows of trees, not regularly planted, but naturally growing; there was great plenty of grass, and several fields of oats. I walked very circumspectly, for fear of being surprised, or suddenly shot with an arrow from behind, or on either side. I fell into a beaten road, where I saw many tracts of human feet, and some of cows, but most of horses. At last I beheld several animals in a field, and one or two of the same kind sitting in trees. Their shape was very singular and deformed, which a little discomposed me, so that I lay down behind a thicket to observe them better. Some of them coming forward near the place where I lay, gave me an opportunity of distinctly marking their form. Their heads and breasts were covered with a thick hair, some frizzled, and others lank; they had beards like goats, and a long ridge of hair down their backs, and the fore parts of their legs and feet; but the rest of their bodies was bare, so that I might see their skins, which were of a brown buff colour. They had no tails, nor any hair at all on their buttocks, except about the anus, which, I presume, nature had placed there to defend them as they sat on the ground, for this posture they used, as well as lying down, and often stood on their hind feet. They climbed high trees as nimbly as a squirrel, for they had strong extended claws before and behind, terminating in sharp points, and hooked. They would often spring, and bound, and leap, with prodigious agility.

savages - salvajes; salvaje

bracelets - pulseras; brazalete, pulsera

rings - anillos; anillo

regularly - con regularidad; regularmente, comúnmente

arrow - flecha

hind - detrás; cierva

tracts - tractos; extensión

thicket - matorral, bosquecillo

breasts - senos; pecho, seno, teta, corazón, pechuga

goats - cabras; cabra, chivo, libidinoso, libidinosa

bare - desnudo, descubierto

tails - colas; cola

buttocks - nalgas; nalga

nimbly - con agilidad

squirrel - ardilla

terminating - terminar, acabar

The females were not so large as the males; they had long lank hair on their heads, but none on their faces, nor any thing more than a sort of down on the rest of their bodies, except about the anus and pudenda. The dugs hung between their fore feet, and often reached almost to the ground as they walked. The hair of both sexes was of several colours, brown, red, black, and yellow. Upon the whole, I never beheld, in all my travels, so disagreeable an animal, or one against which I naturally conceived so strong an antipathy. So that, thinking I had seen enough, full of contempt and aversion, I got up, and pursued the beaten road, hoping it might direct me to the cabin of some Indian. I had not got far, when I met one of these creatures full in my way, and coming up directly to me. The ugly monster, when he saw me, distorted several ways, every feature of his visage, and stared, as at an object he had never seen before; then approaching nearer, lifted up his fore-paw, whether out of curiosity or mischief I could not tell; but I drew my hanger, and gave him a good blow with the flat side of it, for I durst not strike with the edge, fearing the inhabitants might be provoked against me, if they should come to know that I had killed or maimed any of their cattle. When the beast felt the smart, he drew back, and roared so loud, that a herd of at least forty came flocking about me from the next field, howling and making odious faces; but I ran to the body of a tree, and leaning my back against it, kept them off by waving my hanger. Several of this cursed brood, getting hold of the branches behind, leaped up into the tree, whence they began to discharge their excrements on my head; however, I escaped pretty well by sticking close to the stem of the tree, but was almost stifled with the filth, which fell about me on every side.

antipathy - antipatía, aversión

aversion - aversión

Indian - indio, hindú, indígena, indio, india

ugly - feo, callo

distorted - distorsionado; deformar, distorsionar, tergiversar, desvirtuar

maimed - mutilado; mutilar

flocking - Rebano; (floc) Rebano

howling - aullando; (howl); aullido, aullar, ganir

brood - cría, polluelo, prole, empollar, proteger

stem - tallo; CTIM

In the midst of this distress, I observed them all to run away on a sudden as fast as they could; at which I ventured to leave the tree and pursue the road, wondering what it was that could put them into this fright. But looking on my left hand, I saw a horse walking softly in the field; which my persecutors having sooner discovered, was the cause of their flight. The horse started a little, when he came near me, but soon recovering himself, looked full in my face with manifest tokens of wonder; he viewed my hands and feet, walking round me several times. I would have pursued my journey, but he placed himself directly in the way, yet looking with a very mild aspect, never offering the least violence.

persecutors - perseguidor

We stood gazing at each other for some time; at last I took the boldness to reach my hand towards his neck with a design to stroke it, using the common style and whistle of jockeys, when they are going to handle a strange horse. But this animal seemed to receive my civilities with disdain, shook his head, and bent his brows, softly raising up his right fore-foot to remove my hand. Then he neighed three or four times, but in so different a cadence, that I almost began to think he was speaking to himself, in some language of his own.

gazing at - mirando

whistle - silbar; silbato, pito, chifle, pitido

jockeys - jockeys; jinete, yóquey, yoqui

disdain - desdén, desprecio, desdeno, desdenar, despreciar

brows - cejas; (brow) cejas

neighed - relinchó; relincho, relinchido, relinchar

While he and I were thus employed, another horse came up; who applying himself to the first in a very formal manner, they gently struck each other's right hoof before, neighing several times by turns, and varying the sound, which seemed to be almost articulate. They went some paces off, as if it were to confer together, walking side by side, backward and forward, like persons deliberating upon some affair of weight, but often turning their eyes towards me, as it were to watch that I might not escape. I was amazed to see such actions and behaviour in brute beasts; and concluded with myself, that if the inhabitants of this country were endued with a proportionable degree of reason, they must needs be the wisest people upon earth.

varying - variando; variar

confer - conferir, debatir, consultar

deliberating - deliberando; deliberado, a propósito, prudente, deliberar

brute - bruto; animal, bestia

This thought gave me so much comfort, that I resolved to go forward, until I could discover some house or village, or meet with any of the natives, leaving the two horses to discourse together as they pleased. But the first, who was a dapple gray, observing me to steal off, neighed after me in so expressive a tone, that I fancied myself to understand what he meant; whereupon I turned back, and came near to him to expect his farther commands: but concealing my fear as much as I could, for I began to be in some pain how this adventure might terminate; and the reader will easily believe I did not much like my present situation.

dapple - tordo, animal de piel moteada, moteado, habado, motear, salpicar

Gray - Gris

expressive - expresivo

fancied - te apetece; capricho, antojo

The two horses came up close to me, looking with great earnestness upon my face and hands. The gray steed rubbed my hat all round with his right fore-hoof, and discomposed it so much that I was forced to adjust it better by taking it off and settling it again; whereat, both he and his companion (who was a brown bay) appeared to be much surprised: the latter felt the lappet of my coat, and finding it to hang loose about me, they both looked with new signs of wonder.

earnestness - seriedad

settling - asentarse; sedimento, decantación

He stroked my right hand, seeming to admire the softness and colour; but he squeezed it so hard between his hoof and his pastern, that I was forced to roar; after which they both touched me with all possible tenderness. They were under great perplexity about my shoes and stockings, which they felt very often, neighing to each other, and using various gestures, not unlike those of a philosopher, when he would attempt to solve some new and difficult phenomenon.

stroked - acariciado; golpe

softness - suavidad, molicie

pastern - pastilla; cuartilla

roar - rugir, bramar, rugido, bramido

perplexity - perplejidad

Upon the whole, the behaviour of these animals was so orderly and rational, so acute and judicious, that I at last concluded they must needs be magicians, who had thus metamorphosed themselves upon some design, and seeing a stranger in the way, resolved to divert themselves with him; or, perhaps, were really amazed at the sight of a man so very different in habit, feature, and complexion, from those who might probably live in so remote a climate. Upon the strength of this reasoning, I ventured to address them in the following manner: "Gentlemen, if you be conjurers, as I have good cause to believe, you can understand my language; therefore I make bold to let your worships know that I am a poor distressed Englishman, driven by his misfortunes upon your coast; and I entreat one of you to let me ride upon his back, as if he were a real horse, to some house or village where I can be relieved.

metamorphosed - metamorfoseado; metamorfosear, metamorfar

distressed - angustiado; aflicción, angustia, desasosiego, ansiedad

entreat - rogar, suplicar, invitar, compartir, negociar, conversar

In return of which favour, I will make you a present of this knife and bracelet," taking them out of my pocket. The two creatures stood silent while I spoke, seeming to listen with great attention, and when I had ended, they neighed frequently towards each other, as if they were engaged in serious conversation. I plainly observed that their language expressed the passions very well, and the words might, with little pains, be resolved into an alphabet more easily than the Chinese.

bracelet - brazalete, pulsera

silent - silencioso, callar, checkcallado

I could frequently distinguish the word Yahoo, which was repeated by each of them several times: and although it was impossible for me to conjecture what it meant, yet while the two horses were busy in conversation, I endeavoured to practise this word upon my tongue; and as soon as they were silent, I boldly pronounced Yahoo in a loud voice, imitating at the same time, as near as I could, the neighing of a horse; at which they were both visibly surprised; and the gray repeated the same word twice, as if he meant to teach me the right accent; wherein I spoke after him as well as I could, and found myself perceivably to improve every time, though very far from any degree of perfection.

imitating - imitando; imitar

visibly - visiblemente, a ojos vistas

perceivably - Percibiblemente

Then the bay tried me with a second word, much harder to be pronounced; but reducing it to the English orthography, may be spelt thus, Houyhnhnm. I did not succeed in this so well as in the former; but after two or three farther trials, I had better fortune; and they both appeared amazed at my capacity.

orthography - ortografía

trials - pruebas; proceso, juicio

After some further discourse, which I then conjectured might relate to me, the two friends took their leaves, with the same compliment of striking each other's hoof; and the gray made me signs that I should walk before him; wherein I thought it prudent to comply, till I could find a better director.

When I offered to slacken my pace, he would cry hhuun hhuun: I guessed his meaning, and gave him to understand, as well as I could, "that I was weary, and not able to walk faster;" upon which he would stand awhile to let me rest.

slacken - aflojar

pace - paso


The author conducted by a Houyhnhnm to his house. The house described. The author's reception. The food of the Houyhnhnms. The author in distress for want of meat. Is at last relieved. His manner of feeding in this country.

Having travelled about three miles, we came to a long kind of building, made of timber stuck in the ground, and wattled across; the roof was low and covered with straw. I now began to be a little comforted; and took out some toys, which travellers usually carry for presents to the savage Indians of America, and other parts, in hopes the people of the house would be thereby encouraged to receive me kindly. The horse made me a sign to go in first; it was a large room with a smooth clay floor, and a rack and manger, extending the whole length on one side. There were three nags and two mares, not eating, but some of them sitting down upon their hams, which I very much wondered at; but wondered more to see the rest employed in domestic business; these seemed but ordinary cattle. However, this confirmed my first opinion, that a people who could so far civilise brute animals, must needs excel in wisdom all the nations of the world.

travelled about - viajar, recorrer

wattled - wattled; zarzo, barbilla, carúncula, mamella, papada, acacia

clay - arcilla, barro

rack - estante

manger - camarero; pesebre

Nags - rameras; reganar, dar la lata a alguien

mares - yeguas; estropear, echar a perder

hams - jamones; jamón

civilise - civilizar, desasnar

excel in - destacar en

The gray came in just after, and thereby prevented any ill treatment which the others might have given me. He neighed to them several times in a style of authority, and received answers.

Beyond this room there were three others, reaching the length of the house, to which you passed through three doors, opposite to each other, in the manner of a vista. We went through the second room towards the third. Here the gray walked in first, beckoning me to attend: I waited in the second room, and got ready my presents for the master and mistress of the house; they were two knives, three bracelets of false pearls, a small looking-glass, and a bead necklace. The horse neighed three or four times, and I waited to hear some answers in a human voice, but I heard no other returns than in the same dialect, only one or two a little shriller than his. I began to think that this house must belong to some person of great note among them, because there appeared so much ceremony before I could gain admittance. But, that a man of quality should be served all by horses, was beyond my comprehension.

vista - vista

got ready - Prepararse, arreglarse

pearls - perlas; perla, parisienne

bead - perla; cuenta, gota

necklace - collar

shriller - más encogido; estridente

gain - ganar, adquirir, obtener, conseguir

comprehension - comprensión, entendimiento

I feared my brain was disturbed by my sufferings and misfortunes. I roused myself, and looked about me in the room where I was left alone: this was furnished like the first, only after a more elegant manner. I rubbed my eyes often, but the same objects still occurred. I pinched my arms and sides to awake myself, hoping I might be in a dream. I then absolutely concluded, that all these appearances could be nothing else but necromancy and magic. But I had no time to pursue these reflections; for the gray horse came to the door, and made me a sign to follow him into the third room where I saw a very comely mare, together with a colt and foal, sitting on their haunches upon mats of straw, not unartfully made, and perfectly neat and clean.

sufferings - ufrimientos; sufrido, sufriente, sufrimiento

more elegant - más elegante

occurred - ocurrió; ocurrir, acaecer, presentar

magic - magia, mágico, embrujar

mare - yegua

Colt - potranco, potro

foal - potranco, potro, potra, potrillo

haunches - ncas; anca, cuadril

mats - esteras; estera, felpudo

unartfully - sin entusiasmo

The mare soon after my entrance rose from her mat, and coming up close, after having nicely observed my hands and face, gave me a most contemptuous look; and turning to the horse, I heard the word Yahoo often repeated betwixt them; the meaning of which word I could not then comprehend, although it was the first I had learned to pronounce.

mat - estera, felpudo

often repeated - repetido a menudo

But I was soon better informed, to my everlasting mortification; for the horse, beckoning to me with his head, and repeating the hhuun, hhuun, as he did upon the road, which I understood was to attend him, led me out into a kind of court, where was another building, at some distance from the house. Here we entered, and I saw three of those detestable creatures, which I first met after my landing, feeding upon roots, and the flesh of some animals, which I afterwards found to be that of asses and dogs, and now and then a cow, dead by accident or disease. They were all tied by the neck with strong withes fastened to a beam; they held their food between the claws of their fore feet, and tore it with their teeth.

better informed - mejor informado

everlasting - perpetua; inmarcesible

roots - raíces; raíz

asses - Culos; (ass) Culos

beam - rayo; viga, timón, radio

The master horse ordered a sorrel nag, one of his servants, to untie the largest of these animals, and take him into the yard. The beast and I were brought close together, and by our countenances diligently compared both by master and servant, who thereupon repeated several times the word Yahoo. My horror and astonishment are not to be described, when I observed in this abominable animal, a perfect human figure: the face of it indeed was flat and broad, the nose depressed, the lips large, and the mouth wide; but these differences are common to all savage nations, where the lineaments of the countenance are distorted, by the natives suffering their infants to lie grovelling on the earth, or by carrying them on their backs, nuzzling with their face against the mothers'shoulders. The fore-feet of the Yahoo differed from my hands in nothing else but the length of the nails, the coarseness and brownness of the palms, and the hairiness on the backs.

Nag - reganar, dar la lata a alguien

Untie - desatar, desamarrar, desligar, soltar, desatarse

thereupon - sobre eso; entonces

abominable - abominable, aborrecible

lips - labios; labio, labro

suffering - sufrido, sufriente, sufrimiento; (suffer); sufrir, penar

nuzzling - abrazos; frotar la nariz

differed - diferían; ser distinto

nails - unas; una

coarseness - Grosura

brownness - Marrón

hairiness - vellosidad

There was the same resemblance between our feet, with the same differences; which I knew very well, though the horses did not, because of my shoes and stockings; the same in every part of our bodies except as to hairiness and colour, which I have already described.

The great difficulty that seemed to stick with the two horses, was to see the rest of my body so very different from that of a Yahoo, for which I was obliged to my clothes, whereof they had no conception. The sorrel nag offered me a root, which he held (after their manner, as we shall describe in its proper place) between his hoof and pastern; I took it in my hand, and, having smelt it, returned it to him again as civilly as I could. He brought out of the Yahoos'kennel a piece of ass's flesh; but it smelt so offensively that I turned from it with loathing: he then threw it to the Yahoo, by whom it was greedily devoured. He afterwards showed me a wisp of hay, and a fetlock full of oats; but I shook my head, to signify that neither of these were food for me. And indeed I now apprehended that I must absolutely starve, if I did not get to some of my own species; for as to those filthy Yahoos, although there were few greater lovers of mankind at that time than myself, yet I confess I never saw any sensitive being so detestable on all accounts; and the more I came near them the more hateful they grew, while I stayed in that country.

civilly - civilmente

ass - culo; asno, burro

loathing - odio, asco, repugnancia, repelo; (loathe); detestar, repugnar

wisp - brizna, mechón, voluta, jirón

fetlock - menudillo

oats - avena

sensitive - sensible, sensitivo, susceptible

This the master horse observed by my behaviour, and therefore sent the Yahoo back to his kennel. He then put his fore-hoof to his mouth, at which I was much surprised, although he did it with ease, and with a motion that appeared perfectly natural, and made other signs, to know what I would eat; but I could not return him such an answer as he was able to apprehend; and if he had understood me, I did not see how it was possible to contrive any way for finding myself nourishment. While we were thus engaged, I observed a cow passing by, whereupon I pointed to her, and expressed a desire to go and milk her. This had its effect; for he led me back into the house, and ordered a mare-servant to open a room, where a good store of milk lay in earthen and wooden vessels, after a very orderly and cleanly manner. She gave me a large bowlful, of which I drank very heartily, and found myself well refreshed.

passing by - pasando por aquí

cleanly - limpiamente

bowlful - Un cuenco

About noon, I saw coming towards the house a kind of vehicle drawn like a sledge by four Yahoos. There was in it an old steed, who seemed to be of quality; he alighted with his hind-feet forward, having by accident got a hurt in his left fore-foot. He came to dine with our horse, who received him with great civility. They dined in the best room, and had oats boiled in milk for the second course, which the old horse ate warm, but the rest cold. Their mangers were placed circular in the middle of the room, and divided into several partitions, round which they sat on their haunches, upon bosses of straw.

sledge - trineo

dined - cenamos; cenar

mangers - gestores; pesebre

partitions - particiones; parte, partición, partir

In the middle was a large rack, with angles answering to every partition of the manger; so that each horse and mare ate their own hay, and their own mash of oats and milk, with much decency and regularity. The behaviour of the young colt and foal appeared very modest, and that of the master and mistress extremely cheerful and complaisant to their guest. The gray ordered me to stand by him; and much discourse passed between him and his friend concerning me, as I found by the stranger's often looking on me, and the frequent repetition of the word Yahoo.

angles - ángulos; anglo

partition - parte, partición, partir

mash - puré; triturar, machacar

complaisant - complaciente

repetition - repetición

I happened to wear my gloves, which the master gray observing, seemed perplexed, discovering signs of wonder what I had done to my fore-feet. He put his hoof three or four times to them, as if he would signify, that I should reduce them to their former shape, which I presently did, pulling off both my gloves, and putting them into my pocket.

This occasioned farther talk; and I saw the company was pleased with my behaviour, whereof I soon found the good effects. I was ordered to speak the few words I understood; and while they were at dinner, the master taught me the names for oats, milk, fire, water, and some others, which I could readily pronounce after him, having from my youth a great facility in learning languages.

When dinner was done, the master horse took me aside, and by signs and words made me understand the concern he was in that I had nothing to eat. Oats in their tongue are called hlunnh. This word I pronounced two or three times; for although I had refused them at first, yet, upon second thoughts, I considered that I could contrive to make of them a kind of bread, which might be sufficient, with milk, to keep me alive, till I could make my escape to some other country, and to creatures of my own species. The horse immediately ordered a white mare servant of his family to bring me a good quantity of oats in a sort of wooden tray. These I heated before the fire, as well as I could, and rubbed them till the husks came off, which I made a shift to winnow from the grain. I ground and beat them between two stones; then took water, and made them into a paste or cake, which I toasted at the fire and eat warm with milk. It was at first a very insipid diet, though common enough in many parts of Europe, but grew tolerable by time; and having been often reduced to hard fare in my life, this was not the first experiment I had made how easily nature is satisfied. And I cannot but observe, that I never had one hours sickness while I stayed in this island. It is true, I sometimes made a shift to catch a rabbit, or bird, by springs made of Yahoo's hairs; and I often gathered wholesome herbs, which I boiled, and ate as salads with my bread; and now and then, for a rarity, I made a little butter, and drank the whey.

tray - bandeja

husks - cáscaras; cáscara (cereales), vaina (judías, por ej.)

winnow - ganar; ahechar, cribar, separar

grain - grano

paste - pasta, masa, paté, budín, engrudo, cola, pegar, engrudar

toasted - tostado; tostar

insipid - insípido, insulso, soso, cursi

fare - tarifa, precio del billete

rabbit - conejo

wholesome - saludable, sano, íntegro

whey - suero

I was at first at a great loss for salt, but custom soon reconciled me to the want of it; and I am confident that the frequent use of salt among us is an effect of luxury, and was first introduced only as a provocative to drink, except where it is necessary for preserving flesh in long voyages, or in places remote from great markets; for we observe no animal to be fond of it but man, and as to myself, when I left this country, it was a great while before I could endure the taste of it in anything that I ate.

provocative - provocador, provocativo

be fond of - Ser aficionado a

This is enough to say upon the subject of my diet, wherewith other travellers fill their books, as if the readers were personally concerned whether we fare well or ill. However, it was necessary to mention this matter, lest the world should think it impossible that I could find sustenance for three years in such a country, and among such inhabitants.

personally - personalmente

fare well - prosperar, desenvolverse

When it grew towards evening, the master horse ordered a place for me to lodge in; it was but six yards from the house and separated from the stable of the Yahoos. Here I got some straw, and covering myself with my own clothes, slept very sound. But I was in a short time better accommodated, as the reader shall know hereafter, when I come to treat more particularly about my way of living.

towards evening - al atardecer, al anochecer

accommodated - comodado; acomodar, acoger, albergar, satisfacer, adaptar


The author studies to learn the language. The Houyhnhnm, his master, assists in teaching him. The language described. Several Houyhnhnms of quality come out of curiosity to see the author. He gives his master a short account of his voyage.

assists - ayudar, asistir

My principal endeavour was to learn the language, which my master (for so I shall henceforth call him), and his children, and every servant of his house, were desirous to teach me; for they looked upon it as a prodigy, that a brute animal should discover such marks of a rational creature. I pointed to every thing, and inquired the name of it, which I wrote down in my journal-book when I was alone, and corrected my bad accent by desiring those of the family to pronounce it often.

inquired - preguntó; investigar, informarse

In this employment, a sorrel nag, one of the under-servants, was very ready to assist me.

In speaking, they pronounced through the nose and throat, and their language approaches nearest to the High-Dutch, or German, of any I know in Europe; but is much more graceful and significant. The emperor Charles V. made almost the same observation, when he said "that if he were to speak to his horse, it should be in High-Dutch."

approaches - enfoques; acercarse, aproximarse

German - alemán, alemana, germano, germana

significant - significativo, importante

Charles - Carlos

The curiosity and impatience of my master were so great, that he spent many hours of his leisure to instruct me. He was convinced (as he afterwards told me) that I must be a Yahoo; but my teachableness, civility, and cleanliness, astonished him; which were qualities altogether opposite to those animals. He was most perplexed about my clothes, reasoning sometimes with himself, whether they were a part of my body: for I never pulled them off till the family were asleep, and got them on before they waked in the morning. My master was eager to learn "whence I came; how I acquired those appearances of reason, which I discovered in all my actions; and to know my story from my own mouth, which he hoped he should soon do by the great proficiency I made in learning and pronouncing their words and sentences.

teachableness - ensenabilidad

To help my memory, I formed all I learned into the English alphabet, and writ the words down, with the translations. This last, after some time, I ventured to do in my master's presence. It cost me much trouble to explain to him what I was doing; for the inhabitants have not the least idea of books or literature.

literature - literatura, literatura

In about ten weeks time, I was able to understand most of his questions; and in three months, could give him some tolerable answers. He was extremely curious to know "from what part of the country I came, and how I was taught to imitate a rational creature; because the Yahoos (whom he saw I exactly resembled in my head, hands, and face, that were only visible), with some appearance of cunning, and the strongest disposition to mischief, were observed to be the most unteachable of all brutes." I answered, "that I came over the sea, from a far place, with many others of my own kind, in a great hollow vessel made of the bodies of trees: that my companions forced me to land on this coast, and then left me to shift for myself.

It was with some difficulty, and by the help of many signs, that I brought him to understand me. He replied, "that I must needs be mistaken, or that I said the thing which was not;" for they have no word in their language to express lying or falsehood. "He knew it was impossible that there could be a country beyond the sea, or that a parcel of brutes could move a wooden vessel whither they pleased upon water. He was sure no Houyhnhnm alive could make such a vessel, nor would trust Yahoos to manage it."

parcel - paquete, parcela, hatajo, embalar, parcelar

manage it - Gestionarlo

The word Houyhnhnm, in their tongue, signifies a horse, and, in its etymology, the perfection of nature. I told my master, "that I was at a loss for expression, but would improve as fast as I could; and hoped, in a short time, I should be able to tell him wonders." He was pleased to direct his own mare, his colt, and foal, and the servants of the family, to take all opportunities of instructing me; and every day, for two or three hours, he was at the same pains himself. Several horses and mares of quality in the neighbourhood came often to our house, upon the report spread of "a wonderful Yahoo, that could speak like a Houyhnhnm, and seemed, in his words and actions, to discover some glimmerings of reason.

mares - yeguas; yegua

glimmerings - Resplandeciente

These delighted to converse with me: they put many questions, and received such answers as I was able to return. By all these advantages I made so great a progress, that, in five months from my arrival I understood whatever was spoken, and could express myself tolerably well.

The Houyhnhnms, who came to visit my master out of a design of seeing and talking with me, could hardly believe me to be a right Yahoo, because my body had a different covering from others of my kind. They were astonished to observe me without the usual hair or skin, except on my head, face, and hands; but I discovered that secret to my master upon an accident which happened about a fortnight before.

I have already told the reader, that every night, when the family were gone to bed, it was my custom to strip, and cover myself with my clothes. It happened, one morning early, that my master sent for me by the sorrel nag, who was his valet. When he came I was fast asleep, my clothes fallen off on one side, and my shirt above my waist. I awaked at the noise he made, and observed him to deliver his message in some disorder; after which he went to my master, and in a great fright gave him a very confused account of what he had seen. This I presently discovered, for, going as soon as I was dressed to pay my attendance upon his honour, he asked me "the meaning of what his servant had reported, that I was not the same thing when I slept, as I appeared to be at other times; that his vale assured him, some part of me was white, some yellow, at least not so white, and some brown.

valet - vale; edecán, mánager, aparcacoches

fallen off - se ha caído

I had hitherto concealed the secret of my dress, in order to distinguish myself, as much as possible, from that cursed race of Yahoos; but now I found it in vain to do so any longer. Besides, I considered that my clothes and shoes would soon wear out, which already were in a declining condition, and must be supplied by some contrivance from the hides of Yahoos, or other brutes; whereby the whole secret would be known. I therefore told my master, "that in the country whence I came, those of my kind always covered their bodies with the hairs of certain animals prepared by art, as well for decency as to avoid the inclemencies of air, both hot and cold; of which, as to my own person, I would give him immediate conviction, if he pleased to command me: only desiring his excuse, if I did not expose those parts that nature taught us to conceal.

wear out - gastar(se), deteriorar, agotar

expose - exponer, revelar, descubrir, exhibir

He said, "my discourse was all very strange, but especially the last part; for he could not understand, why nature should teach us to conceal what nature had given; that neither himself nor family were ashamed of any parts of their bodies; but, however, I might do as I pleased." Whereupon I first unbuttoned my coat, and pulled it off. I did the same with my waistcoat. I drew off my shoes, stockings, and breeches. I let my shirt down to my waist, and drew up the bottom; fastening it like a girdle about my middle, to hide my nakedness.

unbuttoned - desabrochado; desabotonar

nakedness - desnudez

My master observed the whole performance with great signs of curiosity and admiration. He took up all my clothes in his pastern, one piece after another, and examined them diligently; he then stroked my body very gently, and looked round me several times; after which, he said, it was plain I must be a perfect Yahoo; but that I differed very much from the rest of my species in the softness, whiteness, and smoothness of my skin; my want of hair in several parts of my body; the shape and shortness of my claws behind and before; and my affectation of walking continually on my two hinder feet.

whiteness - blancura, albor, albura

He desired to see no more; and gave me leave to put on my clothes again, for I was shuddering with cold.

shuddering - Temblores; (shudder); escalofrío

I expressed my uneasiness at his giving me so often the appellation of Yahoo, an odious animal, for which I had so utter a hatred and contempt: I begged he would forbear applying that word to me, and make the same order in his family and among his friends whom he suffered to see me. I requested likewise, "that the secret of my having a false covering to my body, might be known to none but himself, at least as long as my present clothing should last; for as to what the sorrel nag, his valet, had observed, his honour might command him to conceal it.

All this my master very graciously consented to; and thus the secret was kept till my clothes began to wear out, which I was forced to supply by several contrivances that shall hereafter be mentioned. In the meantime, he desired "I would go on with my utmost diligence to learn their language, because he was more astonished at my capacity for speech and reason, than at the figure of my body, whether it were covered or not;" adding, "that he waited with some impatience to hear the wonders which I promised to tell him.

diligence - diligencia, esmero

Thenceforward he doubled the pains he had been at to instruct me: he brought me into all company, and made them treat me with civility; "because," as he told them, privately, "this would put me into good humour, and make me more diverting."

Thenceforward - Desde entonces

Every day, when I waited on him, beside the trouble he was at in teaching, he would ask me several questions concerning myself, which I answered as well as I could, and by these means he had already received some general ideas, though very imperfect. It would be tedious to relate the several steps by which I advanced to a more regular conversation; but the first account I gave of myself in any order and length was to this purpose:

more regular - más regular

"That I came from a very far country, as I already had attempted to tell him, with about fifty more of my own species; that we travelled upon the seas in a great hollow vessel made of wood, and larger than his honour's house. I described the ship to him in the best terms I could, and explained, by the help of my handkerchief displayed, how it was driven forward by the wind. That upon a quarrel among us, I was set on shore on this coast, where I walked forward, without knowing whither, till he delivered me from the persecution of those execrable Yahoos." He asked me, "who made the ship, and how it was possible that the Houyhnhnms of my country would leave it to the management of brutes?" My answer was, "that I durst proceed no further in my relation, unless he would give me his word and honour that he would not be offended, and then I would tell him the wonders I had so often promised." He agreed; and I went on by assuring him, that the ship was made by creatures like myself; who, in all the countries I had travelled, as well as in my own, were the only governing rational animals; and that upon my arrival hither, I was as much astonished to see the Houyhnhnms act like rational beings, as he, or his friends, could be, in finding some marks of reason in a creature he was pleased to call a Yahoo; to which I owned my resemblance in every part, but could not account for their degenerate and brutal nature.

persecution - persecución

execrable - excrable; execrable

brutal - brutal

I said farther, "that if good fortune ever restored me to my native country, to relate my travels hither, as I resolved to do, everybody would believe, that I said the thing that was not, that I invented the story out of my own head; and (with all possible respect to himself, his family, and friends, and under his promise of not being offended) our countrymen would hardly think it probable that a Houyhnhnm should be the presiding creature of a nation, and a Yahoo the brute."

resolved to do - resuelto a hacer

presiding - presidiendo; presidir


The Houyhnhnm's notion of truth and falsehood. The author's discourse disapproved by his master. The author gives a more particular account of himself, and the accidents of his voyage.

notion - noción, ganas, intención

more particular - más particular

My master heard me with great appearances of uneasiness in his countenance; because doubting, or not believing, are so little known in this country, that the inhabitants cannot tell how to behave themselves under such circumstances. And I remember, in frequent discourses with my master concerning the nature of manhood in other parts of the world, having occasion to talk of lying and false representation, it was with much difficulty that he comprehended what I meant, although he had otherwise a most acute judgment. For he argued thus: "that the use of speech was to make us understand one another, and to receive information of facts; now, if any one said the thing which was not, these ends were defeated, because I cannot properly be said to understand him; and I am so far from receiving information, that he leaves me worse than in ignorance; for I am led to believe a thing black, when it is white, and short, when it is long.

doubting - Dudando; (doubt); dudar, duda, incertidumbre

manhood - humanidad, virilidad, masculinidad, hombría

most acute - el más agudo

defeated - derrotado; vencer, derrotar

And these were all the notions he had concerning that faculty of lying, so perfectly well understood, and so universally practised, among human creatures.

To return from this digression. When I asserted that the Yahoos were the only governing animals in my country, which my master said was altogether past his conception, he desired to know, "whether we had Houyhnhnms among us, and what was their employment?" I told him, "we had great numbers; that in summer they grazed in the fields, and in winter were kept in houses with hay and oats, where Yahoo servants were employed to rub their skins smooth, comb their manes, pick their feet, serve them with food, and make their beds." "I understand you well," said my master: "it is now very plain, from all you have spoken, that whatever share of reason the Yahoos pretend to, the Houyhnhnms are your masters; I heartily wish our Yahoos would be so tractable." I begged "his honour would please to excuse me from proceeding any further, because I was very certain that the account he expected from me would be highly displeasing." But he insisted in commanding me to let him know the best and the worst. I told him "he should be obeyed." I owned "that the Houyhnhnms among us, whom we called horses, were the most generous and comely animals we had; that they excelled in strength and swiftness; and when they belonged to persons of quality, were employed in travelling, racing, or drawing chariots; they were treated with much kindness and care, till they fell into diseases, or became foundered in the feet; but then they were sold, and used to all kind of drudgery till they died; after which their skins were stripped, and sold for what they were worth, and their bodies left to be devoured by dogs and birds of prey.

grazed - pasto; rasguno, aranazo, rasguno, pastear, apacentar, pacer

Rub - frotación, frotamiento, frote, frotar

manes - manos; crin, melena

obeyed - obedecer

most generous - el más generoso

chariots - carrozas; quadriga, biga, carro

But the common race of horses had not so good fortune, being kept by farmers and carriers, and other mean people, who put them to greater labour, and fed them worse." I described, as well as I could, our way of riding; the shape and use of a bridle, a saddle, a spur, and a whip; of harness and wheels. I added, "that we fastened plates of a certain hard substance, called iron, at the bottom of their feet, to preserve their hoofs from being broken by the stony ways, on which we often travelled."

carriers - transportistas; transportista, companía de transportes

saddle - silla de montar; (bici) sillín, silla (de montar)

spur - espolear; espuela

My master, after some expressions of great indignation, wondered "how we dared to venture upon a Houyhnhnm's back; for he was sure, that the weakest servant in his house would be able to shake off the strongest Yahoo; or by lying down and rolling on his back, squeeze the brute to death." I answered "that our horses were trained up, from three or four years old, to the several uses we intended them for; that if any of them proved intolerably vicious, they were employed for carriages; that they were severely beaten, while they were young, for any mischievous tricks; that the males, designed for the common use of riding or draught, were generally castrated about two years after their birth, to take down their spirits, and make them more tame and gentle; that they were indeed sensible of rewards and punishments; but his honour would please to consider, that they had not the least tincture of reason, any more than the Yahoos in this country.

dared - se atrevió; atraverse, osar

shake off - Sacudir

rolling - rodando; rolar; (roll) rodando; rolar

intolerably - intolerablemente

castrated - castrado; castrar

more tame - más manso

rewards - recompensas; recompensa

punishments - castigos; castigo, penitencia, checkpenitencia

It put me to the pains of many circumlocutions, to give my master a right idea of what I spoke; for their language does not abound in variety of words, because their wants and passions are fewer than among us. But it is impossible to express his noble resentment at our savage treatment of the Houyhnhnm race; particularly after I had explained the manner and use of castrating horses among us, to hinder them from propagating their kind, and to render them more servile. He said, "if it were possible there could be any country where Yahoos alone were endued with reason, they certainly must be the governing animal; because reason in time will always prevail against brutal strength. But, considering the frame of our bodies, and especially of mine, he thought no creature of equal bulk was so ill-contrived for employing that reason in the common offices of life;" whereupon he desired to know "whether those among whom I lived resembled me, or the Yahoos of his country?" I assured him, "that I was as well shaped as most of my age; but the younger, and the females, were much more soft and tender, and the skins of the latter generally as white as milk." He said, "I differed indeed from other Yahoos, being much more cleanly, and not altogether so deformed; but, in point of real advantage, he thought I differed for the worse: that my nails were of no use either to my fore or hinder feet; as to my fore feet, he could not properly call them by that name, for he never observed me to walk upon them; that they were too soft to bear the ground; that I generally went with them uncovered; neither was the covering I sometimes wore on them of the same shape, or so strong as that on my feet behind: that I could not walk with any security, for if either of my hinder feet slipped, I must inevitably fail." He then began to find fault with other parts of my body: "the flatness of my face, the prominence of my nose, mine eyes placed directly in front, so that I could not look on either side without turning my head: that I was not able to feed myself, without lifting one of my fore-feet to my mouth: and therefore nature had placed those joints to answer that necessity.

circumlocutions - circunlocución, rodeos, ambages, circunloquios

castrating - castración; castrar

render - renderizar; dejar, volver

more cleanly - más limpio

uncovered - descubierto; destapar

wore on - llevar encima; tener puesto algo; poner de los nervios

slipped - se resbaló; resbalar

inevitably - inevitablemente, indefectiblemente

flatness - planeza; planicidad, planaridad, aburrición, matidez

prominence - protagonismo; prominencia, protuberancia

He knew not what could be the use of those several clefts and divisions in my feet behind; that these were too soft to bear the hardness and sharpness of stones, without a covering made from the skin of some other brute; that my whole body wanted a fence against heat and cold, which I was forced to put on and off every day, with tediousness and trouble: and lastly, that he observed every animal in this country naturally to abhor the Yahoos, whom the weaker avoided, and the stronger drove from them. So that, supposing us to have the gift of reason, he could not see how it were possible to cure that natural antipathy, which every creature discovered against us; nor consequently how we could tame and render them serviceable. However, he would," as he said, "debate the matter no farther, because he was more desirous to know my own story, the country where I was born, and the several actions and events of my life, before I came hither."

divisions - divisiones; división, parte

fence - valla; cerca, cerramiento, barda, perista

tediousness - tedio; prolijidad

abhor - aborrecer, detestar, abominar

more desirous - más deseoso

I said, "my birth was of honest parents, in an island called England; which was remote from his country, as many days'journey as the strongest of his honour's servants could travel in the annual course of the sun; that I was bred a surgeon, whose trade it is to cure wounds and hurts in the body, gotten by accident or violence; that my country was governed by a female man, whom we called queen; that I left it to get riches, whereby I might maintain myself and family, when I should return; that, in my last voyage, I was commander of the ship, and had about fifty Yahoos under me, many of which died at sea, and I was forced to supply them by others picked out from several nations; that our ship was twice in danger of being sunk, the first time by a great storm, and the second by striking against a rock." Here my master interposed, by asking me, "how I could persuade strangers, out of different countries, to venture with me, after the losses I had sustained, and the hazards I had run?" I said, "they were fellows of desperate fortunes, forced to fly from the places of their birth on account of their poverty or their crimes. Some were undone by lawsuits; others spent all they had in drinking, whoring, and gaming; others fled for treason; many for murder, theft, poisoning, robbery, perjury, forgery, coining false money, for committing rapes, or sodomy; for flying from their colours, or deserting to the enemy; and most of them had broken prison; none of these durst return to their native countries, for fear of being hanged, or of starving in a jail; and therefore they were under the necessity of seeking a livelihood in other places.

wounds - Herida

interposed - interpuesto; interponer, intercalar, mediar, interrumpir

hazards - peligros; riesgo, peligro, arriesgar, peligrar, aventurar

lawsuits - demandas; proceso judicial, proceso, pleito, litigio

whoring - prostitución; puta, prostituta, zorra, fulana

robbery - robo

Forgery - forjadura, falsificación

rapes - violaciones; violación

native countries - país de origen

hanged - Colgado

jail - cárcel, prisión, presidio, penal

seeking - buscando; buscar

livelihood - sustento

During this discourse, my master was pleased to interrupt me several times. I had made use of many circumlocutions in describing to him the nature of the several crimes for which most of our crew had been forced to fly their country. This labour took up several days'conversation, before he was able to comprehend me. He was wholly at a loss to know what could be the use or necessity of practising those vices. To clear up which, I endeavoured to give some ideas of the desire of power and riches; of the terrible effects of lust, intemperance, malice, and envy. All this I was forced to define and describe by putting cases and making suppositions. After which, like one whose imagination was struck with something never seen or heard of before, he would lift up his eyes with amazement and indignation.

intemperance - intemperancia

define - determinar, definir, definirse, aclarar, describir

suppositions - suposiciones; suposición

Power, government, war, law, punishment, and a thousand other things, had no terms wherein that language could express them, which made the difficulty almost insuperable, to give my master any conception of what I meant. But being of an excellent understanding, much improved by contemplation and converse, he at last arrived at a competent knowledge of what human nature, in our parts of the world, is capable to perform, and desired I would give him some particular account of that land which we call Europe, but especially of my own country.

insuperable - insuperable

contemplation - contemplación

competent - competente


The author at his master's command, informs him of the state of England. The causes of war among the princes of Europe. The author begins to explain the English constitution.

informs - informar

The reader may please to observe, that the following extract of many conversations I had with my master, contains a summary of the most material points which were discoursed at several times for above two years; his honour often desiring fuller satisfaction, as I farther improved in the Houyhnhnm tongue. I laid before him, as well as I could, the whole state of Europe; I discoursed of trade and manufactures, of arts and sciences; and the answers I gave to all the questions he made, as they arose upon several subjects, were a fund of conversation not to be exhausted. But I shall here only set down the substance of what passed between us concerning my own country, reducing it in order as well as I can, without any regard to time or other circumstances, while I strictly adhere to truth.

extract - extracto, fragmento, pasaje, extraer, sacar

summary - sumario, apurado, a todo dar, resumen, sumario

discoursed - discutido; discurso, conversación, disertar

exhausted - exhausto; agotar, cansar, tubo de escape, gas de escape

My only concern is, that I shall hardly be able to do justice to my master's arguments and expressions, which must needs suffer by my want of capacity, as well as by a translation into our barbarous English.

In obedience, therefore, to his honour's commands, I related to him the Revolution under the Prince of Orange; the long war with France, entered into by the said prince, and renewed by his successor, the present queen, wherein the greatest powers of Christendom were engaged, and which still continued: I computed, at his request, "that about a million of Yahoos might have been killed in the whole progress of it; and perhaps a hundred or more cities taken, and five times as many ships burnt or sunk.

renewed - renovado; reanudar, renovar, reiniciar, recomenzar

successor - sucesor, sucesora

Christendom - cristiandad

He asked me, "what were the usual causes or motives that made one country go to war with another?" I answered "they were innumerable; but I should only mention a few of the chief. Sometimes the ambition of princes, who never think they have land or people enough to govern; sometimes the corruption of ministers, who engage their master in a war, in order to stifle or divert the clamour of the subjects against their evil administration. Difference in opinions has cost many millions of lives: for instance, whether flesh be bread, or bread be flesh; whether the juice of a certain berry be blood or wine; whether whistling be a vice or a virtue; whether it be better to kiss a post, or throw it into the fire; what is the best colour for a coat, whether black, white, red, or gray; and whether it should be long or short, narrow or wide, dirty or clean; with many more.

clamour - clamor, griterío

berry - baya

whistling - Silbando; (whistle); silbato, pito, chifle, pitido

Neither are any wars so furious and bloody, or of so long a continuance, as those occasioned by difference in opinion, especially if it be in things indifferent.

furious - furioso

indifferent - indiferente

"Sometimes the quarrel between two princes is to decide which of them shall dispossess a third of his dominions, where neither of them pretend to any right. Sometimes one prince quarrels with another for fear the other should quarrel with him. Sometimes a war is entered upon, because the enemy is too strong; and sometimes, because he is too weak. Sometimes our neighbours want the things which we have, or have the things which we want, and we both fight, till they take ours, or give us theirs. It is a very justifiable cause of a war, to invade a country after the people have been wasted by famine, destroyed by pestilence, or embroiled by factions among themselves. It is justifiable to enter into war against our nearest ally, when one of his towns lies convenient for us, or a territory of land, that would render our dominions round and complete. If a prince sends forces into a nation, where the people are poor and ignorant, he may lawfully put half of them to death, and make slaves of the rest, in order to civilize and reduce them from their barbarous way of living.

dispossess - despojar, desposeer

justifiable - justificable

wasted - desperdiciado; desperdiciar, malgastar

pestilence - peste; pestilencia

embroiled - enredado; enredar, involucrar, entrometer

territory - territorio

lawfully - legalmente

slaves - esclavos; esclavo, esclava, checkesclava

civilize - civilizar

It is a very kingly, honourable, and frequent practice, when one prince desires the assistance of another, to secure him against an invasion, that the assistant, when he has driven out the invader, should seize on the dominions himself, and kill, imprison, or banish, the prince he came to relieve. Alliance by blood, or marriage, is a frequent cause of war between princes; and the nearer the kindred is, the greater their disposition to quarrel; poor nations are hungry, and rich nations are proud; and pride and hunger will ever be at variance. For these reasons, the trade of a soldier is held the most honourable of all others; because a soldier is a Yahoo hired to kill, in cold blood, as many of his own species, who have never offended him, as possibly he can.

kingly - rey

driven out - marcharse; expulsar, echar algo/a alguien

imprison - encarcelar, aprisionar

banish - desterrar

relieve - aliviar, relevar

kindred - pariente; etnia

variance - varianza

"There is likewise a kind of beggarly princes in Europe, not able to make war by themselves, who hire out their troops to richer nations, for so much a day to each man; of which they keep three-fourths to themselves, and it is the best part of their maintenance: such are those in many northern parts of Europe."

beggarly - Mendigo

hire out - Alquilar

Northern - septentrional, norteno, boreal

"What you have told me," said my master, "upon the subject of war, does indeed discover most admirably the effects of that reason you pretend to: however, it is happy that the shame is greater than the danger; and that nature has left you utterly incapable of doing much mischief. For, your mouths lying flat with your faces, you can hardly bite each other to any purpose, unless by consent.

admirably - admirablemente

Then as to the claws upon your feet before and behind, they are so short and tender, that one of our Yahoos would drive a dozen of yours before him. And therefore, in recounting the numbers of those who have been killed in battle, I cannot but think you have said the thing which is not."

recounting - recuento; relatar

I could not forbear shaking my head, and smiling a little at his ignorance. And being no stranger to the art of war, I gave him a description of cannons, culverins, muskets, carabines, pistols, bullets, powder, swords, bayonets, battles, sieges, retreats, attacks, undermines, countermines, bombardments, sea fights, ships sunk with a thousand men, twenty thousand killed on each side, dying groans, limbs flying in the air, smoke, noise, confusion, trampling to death under horses'feet, flight, pursuit, victory; fields strewed with carcases, left for food to dogs and wolves and birds of prey; plundering, stripping, ravishing, burning, and destroying.

cannons - canones; canón

culverins - culverinas; culebrina

muskets - mosquetes; mosquete

carabines - Carabina

bayonets - bayonetas; bayoneta

battles - batallas; batalla

sieges - asedios; sitio, asedio

retreats - retiros; retirarse, batirse en retirada

undermines - socavar, desvirtuar

countermines - contrarrestar

bombardments - ombardeos; bombardeo

groans - gimoteos; gemido, grunido, gemir, grunir

wolves - lobos; lobo, mujeriego, devorar, engullir

plundering - saquear, saqueo, botín

stripping - Desnudando; (strip) Desnudando

And to set forth the valour of my own dear countrymen, I assured him, "that I had seen them blow up a hundred enemies at once in a siege, and as many in a ship, and beheld the dead bodies drop down in pieces from the clouds, to the great diversion of the spectators."

forth - adelante

siege - sitio, asedio

dead bodies - cadáveres

I was going on to more particulars, when my master commanded me silence. He said, "whoever understood the nature of Yahoos, might easily believe it possible for so vile an animal to be capable of every action I had named, if their strength and cunning equalled their malice. But as my discourse had increased his abhorrence of the whole species, so he found it gave him a disturbance in his mind to which he was wholly a stranger before. He thought his ears, being used to such abominable words, might, by degrees, admit them with less detestation: that although he hated the Yahoos of this country, yet he no more blamed them for their odious qualities, than he did a gnnayh (a bird of prey) for its cruelty, or a sharp stone for cutting his hoof. But when a creature pretending to reason could be capable of such enormities, he dreaded lest the corruption of that faculty might be worse than brutality itself. He seemed therefore confident, that, instead of reason we were only possessed of some quality fitted to increase our natural vices; as the reflection from a troubled stream returns the image of an ill shapen body, not only larger but more distorted.

equalled - igualado; igual, igualar, equivaler

pretending - fingiendo; fingir, de mentirijillas

enormities - enormidades; perversidad, enormidad, gigantez

dreaded - temido; temer, pavor, temor

brutality - brutalidad

stream - corriente, flujo, arroyo, fluir, recibir flujo, (2) checkcorrer

shapen - Formen

He added, "that he had heard too much upon the subject of war, both in this and some former discourses. There was another point, which a little perplexed him at present. I had informed him, that some of our crew left their country on account of being ruined by law; that I had already explained the meaning of the word; but he was at a loss how it should come to pass, that the law, which was intended for every man's preservation, should be any man's ruin.

Therefore he desired to be further satisfied what I meant by law, and the dispensers thereof, according to the present practice in my own country; because he thought nature and reason were sufficient guides for a reasonable animal, as we pretended to be, in showing us what he ought to do, and what to avoid."

dispensers - distribuidores; dispensador

thereof - de eso; de esta, de esto, de ella, de ello

I assured his honour, "that the law was a science in which I had not much conversed, further than by employing advocates, in vain, upon some injustices that had been done me: however, I would give him all the satisfaction I was able."

injustices - injusticias; injusticia

I said, "there was a society of men among us, bred up from their youth in the art of proving, by words multiplied for the purpose, that white is black, and black is white, according as they are paid. To this society all the rest of the people are slaves. For example, if my neighbour has a mind to my cow, he has a lawyer to prove that he ought to have my cow from me. I must then hire another to defend my right, it being against all rules of law that any man should be allowed to speak for himself. Now, in this case, I, who am the right owner, lie under two great disadvantages: first, my lawyer, being practised almost from his cradle in defending falsehood, is quite out of his element when he would be an advocate for justice, which is an unnatural office he always attempts with great awkwardness, if not with ill-will. The second disadvantage is, that my lawyer must proceed with great caution, or else he will be reprimanded by the judges, and abhorred by his brethren, as one that would lessen the practice of the law.

defending - defendiendo; defender

element - elemento

advocate - abogado, abogada, portavoz, representante, vocero, recomendar

awkwardness - incomodidad; torpeza

lessen - menoscabar, disminuir, reducir, aminorar

And therefore I have but two methods to preserve my cow. The first is, to gain over my adversary's lawyer with a double fee, who will then betray his client by insinuating that he hath justice on his side. The second way is for my lawyer to make my cause appear as unjust as he can, by allowing the cow to belong to my adversary: and this, if it be skilfully done, will certainly bespeak the favour of the bench. Now your honour is to know, that these judges are persons appointed to decide all controversies of property, as well as for the trial of criminals, and picked out from the most dexterous lawyers, who are grown old or lazy; and having been biassed all their lives against truth and equity, lie under such a fatal necessity of favouring fraud, perjury, and oppression, that I have known some of them refuse a large bribe from the side where justice lay, rather than injure the faculty, by doing any thing unbecoming their nature or their office.

adversary - adversario, adversaria

fee - tasa; honorario, tarifa, cuota

client - cliente

insinuating - insinuando; insinuar

skilfully - con habilidad

controversies - ontroversias; controversia, polémica

grown old - envejecido

biassed - con prejuicios; inclinación, predisposición, parcialidad

injure - herir, lastimar

"It is a maxim among these lawyers that whatever has been done before, may legally be done again: and therefore they take special care to record all the decisions formerly made against common justice, and the general reason of mankind. These, under the name of precedents, they produce as authorities to justify the most iniquitous opinions; and the judges never fail of directing accordingly.

legally - legalmente

authorities - autoridad, policía, autoridades, fuerzas del orden, autorización

iniquitous - pecaminoso, inicuo, injusto

"In the trial of persons accused for crimes against the state, the method is much more short and commendable: the judge first sends to sound the disposition of those in power, after which he can easily hang or save a criminal, strictly preserving all due forms of law."

Here my master interposing, said, "it was a pity, that creatures endowed with such prodigious abilities of mind, as these lawyers, by the description I gave of them, must certainly be, were not rather encouraged to be instructors of others in wisdom and knowledge." In answer to which I assured his honour, "that in all points out of their own trade, they were usually the most ignorant and stupid generation among us, the most despicable in common conversation, avowed enemies to all knowledge and learning, and equally disposed to pervert the general reason of mankind in every other subject of discourse as in that of their own profession.

interposing - interponiéndose; interponer, intercalar, mediar, interrumpir

generation - generación, generación, linaje

pervert - pervertido, pervertir

profession - profesión, gremio, profesión de fe


A continuation of the state of England under Queen Anne. The character of a first minister of state in European courts.

My master was yet wholly at a loss to understand what motives could incite this race of lawyers to perplex, disquiet, and weary themselves, and engage in a confederacy of injustice, merely for the sake of injuring their fellow-animals; neither could he comprehend what I meant in saying, they did it for hire. Whereupon I was at much pains to describe to him the use of money, the materials it was made of, and the value of the metals; "that when a Yahoo had got a great store of this precious substance, he was able to purchase whatever he had a mind to; the finest clothing, the noblest houses, great tracts of land, the most costly meats and drinks, and have his choice of the most beautiful females.

incite - incitar, concitar

perplex - perplejidad; confundir, desconcertar

disquiet - inquietud, inquietar

confederacy - confederación

injustice - injusticia

injuring - herir, lastimar

for hire - se alquila

costly - costoso, caro

Therefore since money alone was able to perform all these feats, our Yahoos thought they could never have enough of it to spend, or to save, as they found themselves inclined, from their natural bent either to profusion or avarice; that the rich man enjoyed the fruit of the poor man's labour, and the latter were a thousand to one in proportion to the former; that the bulk of our people were forced to live miserably, by labouring every day for small wages, to make a few live plentifully."

feats - hazanas; hazana, proeza

profusion - profusión

I enlarged myself much on these, and many other particulars to the same purpose; but his honour was still to seek; for he went upon a supposition, that all animals had a title to their share in the productions of the earth, and especially those who presided over the rest. Therefore he desired I would let him know, "what these costly meats were, and how any of us happened to want them?" Whereupon I enumerated as many sorts as came into my head, with the various methods of dressing them, which could not be done without sending vessels by sea to every part of the world, as well for liquors to drink as for sauces and innumerable other conveniences. I assured him "that this whole globe of earth must be at least three times gone round before one of our better female Yahoos could get her breakfast, or a cup to put it in." He said "that must needs be a miserable country which cannot furnish food for its own inhabitants. But what he chiefly wondered at was, how such vast tracts of ground as I described should be wholly without fresh water, and the people put to the necessity of sending over the sea for drink.

supposition - suposición

enumerated - enumerado; enumerar

gone round - girar, dar vueltas, circular

I replied "that England (the dear place of my nativity) was computed to produce three times the quantity of food more than its inhabitants are able to consume, as well as liquors extracted from grain, or pressed out of the fruit of certain trees, which made excellent drink, and the same proportion in every other convenience of life. But, in order to feed the luxury and intemperance of the males, and the vanity of the females, we sent away the greatest part of our necessary things to other countries, wHence, in return, we brought the materials of diseases, folly, and vice, to spend among ourselves. Hence it follows of necessity, that vast numbers of our people are compelled to seek their livelihood by begging, robbing, stealing, cheating, pimping, flattering, suborning, forswearing, forging, gaming, lying, fawning, hectoring, voting, scribbling, star-gazing, poisoning, whoring, canting, libelling, freethinking, and the like occupations:" every one of which terms I was at much pains to make him understand.

nativity - natividad; navidad, nacimiento

extracted - extraído; extracto, fragmento, pasaje, extraer, sacar

sent away - se ha enviado lejos

hence - de aquí, por lo tanto, por eso, de ahí

compelled - obligado; obligar, forzar, compeler

robbing - robando; robar

cheating - haciendo trampas; enganar, estafar, timar

pimping - chulo

flattering - palanqueador; halagar, adular

forging - Forja; (forge) Forja

hectoring - insultando; intimidar, tiranizar

voting - voto, votar

gazing - mirando; observar, mirar fijamente

libelling - calumnias; (libel); libelo, calumnia, difamación

freethinking - librepensamiento

occupations - ocupaciones; ocupación

"But beside all this, the bulk of our people supported themselves by furnishing the necessities or conveniences of life to the rich and to each other. For instance, when I am at home, and dressed as I ought to be, I carry on my body the workmanship of a hundred tradesmen; the building and furniture of my house employ as many more, and five times the number to adorn my wife."

adorn - adornar, engalanar

I was going on to tell him of another sort of people, who get their livelihood by attending the sick, having, upon some occasions, informed his honour that many of my crew had died of diseases. But here it was with the utmost difficulty that I brought him to apprehend what I meant. "He could easily conceive, that a Houyhnhnm, grew weak and heavy a few days before his death, or by some accident might hurt a limb; but that nature, who works all things to perfection, should suffer any pains to breed in our bodies, he thought impossible, and desired to know the reason of so unaccountable an evil.

I told him "we fed on a thousand things which operated contrary to each other; that we ate when we were not hungry, and drank without the provocation of thirst; that we sat whole nights drinking strong liquors, without eating a bit, which disposed us to sloth, inflamed our bodies, and precipitated or prevented digestion; that prostitute female Yahoos acquired a certain malady, which bred rottenness in the bones of those who fell into their embraces; that this, and many other diseases, were propagated from father to son; so that great numbers came into the world with complicated maladies upon them; that it would be endless to give him a catalogue of all diseases incident to human bodies, for they would not be fewer than five or six hundred, spread over every limb and joint-in short, every part, external and intestine, having diseases appropriated to itself.

operated - operado; operar, obrar, trabajar, influir; controlar

precipitated - precipitado

malady - malestar; mal

rottenness - pudrición; podredumbre

embraces - abrazos; abrazar, abrazo

complicated - complicado; complicar

To remedy which, there was a sort of people bred up among us in the profession, or pretence, of curing the sick. And because I had some skill in the faculty, I would, in gratitude to his honour, let him know the whole mystery and method by which they proceed.

curing - curado; curar, remediar

"Their fundamental is, that all diseases arise from repletion; whence they conclude, that a great evacuation of the body is necessary, either through the natural passage or upwards at the mouth. Their next business is from herbs, minerals, gums, oils, shells, salts, juices, sea-weed, excrements, barks of trees, serpents, toads, frogs, spiders, dead men's flesh and bones, birds, beasts, and fishes, to form a composition, for smell and taste, the most abominable, nauseous, and detestable, they can possibly contrive, which the stomach immediately rejects with loathing, and this they call a vomit; or else, from the same store-house, with some other poisonous additions, they command us to take in at the orifice above or below (just as the physician then happens to be disposed) a medicine equally annoying and disgustful to the bowels; which, relaxing the belly, drives down all before it; and this they call a purge, or a clyster.

arise - surgir, levantarse, provenir, aparecer

evacuation - evacuación

shells - conchas; concha, cáscara, vaina, caparazón, casquete, terminal

barks - ladridos; ladrido

serpents - serpientes; serpiente

toads - sapos; sapo, sapa

most abominable - el más abominable

rejects - rechazar, desestimar, artículo defectuoso, marginado, marginada

vomit - vomitar, devolver, arrojar, vómito

annoying - molesto; molestar, agobiar, jorobar

disgustful - Asqueroso

purge - purga, purgar, relevar, exonerar

For nature (as the physicians allege) having intended the superior anterior orifice only for the intromission of solids and liquids, and the inferior posterior for ejection, these artists ingeniously considering that in all diseases nature is forced out of her seat, therefore, to replace her in it, the body must be treated in a manner directly contrary, by interchanging the use of each orifice; forcing solids and liquids in at the anus, and making evacuations at the mouth.

anterior - anterior

intromission - Intromisión

liquids - líquidos; líquido, líquida

posterior - trasero, posterior, trasero

ejection - expulsión; eyección

ingeniously - ingeniosamente

interchanging - intercambiando; intercambiar, reemplazar, intercambio

forcing - forzando; fuerza

evacuations - evacuaciones; evacuación

"But, besides real diseases, we are subject to many that are only imaginary, for which the physicians have invented imaginary cures; these have their several names, and so have the drugs that are proper for them; and with these our female Yahoos are always infested.

imaginary - imaginario

cures - curas; curar, remediar

"They are likewise of special use to husbands and wives who are grown weary of their mates; to eldest sons, to great ministers of state, and often to princes."

I had formerly, upon occasion, discoursed with my master upon the nature of government in general, and particularly of our own excellent constitution, deservedly the wonder and envy of the whole world. But having here accidentally mentioned a minister of state, he commanded me, some time after, to inform him, "what species of Yahoo I particularly meant by that appellation."

I told him, "that a first or chief minister of state, who was the person I intended to describe, was the creature wholly exempt from joy and grief, love and hatred, pity and anger; at least, makes use of no other passions, but a violent desire of wealth, power, and titles; that he applies his words to all uses, except to the indication of his mind; that he never tells a truth but with an intent that you should take it for a lie; nor a lie, but with a design that you should take it for a truth; that those he speaks worst of behind their backs are in the surest way of preferment; and whenever he begins to praise you to others, or to yourself, you are from that day forlorn.

indication - indicación

preferment - Preferencia

forlorn - abandonado, desamparado, desesperado

The worst mark you can receive is a promise, especially when it is confirmed with an oath; after which, every wise man retires, and gives over all hopes.

retires - se retira; retirarse, jubilarse

"There are three methods, by which a man may rise to be chief minister. The first is, by knowing how, with prudence, to dispose of a wife, a daughter, or a sister; the second, by betraying or undermining his predecessor; and the third is, by a furious zeal, in public assemblies, against the corruption's of the court. But a wise prince would rather choose to employ those who practise the last of these methods; because such zealots prove always the most obsequious and subservient to the will and passions of their master.

undermining - ocavar; (undermine); socavar, desvirtuar

predecessor - predecesor, antecesor

assemblies - sambleas; ensamblaje, ensamblaje, montaje, asamblea, ensamblador

zealots - zelotes; fanático, zelota, zelote

obsequious - sobsequioso; servil, apatronado, obsequioso, sumiso

That these ministers, having all employments at their disposal, preserve themselves in power, by bribing the majority of a senate or great council; and at last, by an expedient, called an act of indemnity" (whereof I described the nature to him), "they secure themselves from after-reckonings, and retire from the public laden with the spoils of the nation.

bribing - soborno, coima, sobornar, cohechar, coimear

indemnity - indemnización, indemnidad

reckonings - cuentas; cálculo, estimación

retire - retirarse, jubilarse

spoils - otín; expoliar, despojar, danar, arruinar, echar a perder

"The palace of a chief minister is a seminary to breed up others in his own trade: the pages, lackeys, and porters, by imitating their master, become ministers of state in their several districts, and learn to excel in the three principal ingredients, of insolence, lying, and bribery.

seminary - seminario

porters - porteros; mozo de equipajes, maletero

districts - distritos; distrito, distrito

insolence - insolencia

bribery - soborno, cohecho, coima, sobornar

Accordingly, they have a subaltern court paid to them by persons of the best rank; and sometimes by the force of dexterity and impudence, arrive, through several gradations, to be successors to their lord.

successors - sucesores; sucesor, sucesora

"He is usually governed by a decayed wench, or favourite footman, who are the tunnels through which all graces are conveyed, and may properly be called, in the last resort, the governors of the kingdom."

decayed - decayó; descomposición, deterioración, putrefacción, podredumbre

wench - mujerzuela; moza, criada, prostituta, negra, ir de putas

tunnels - túneles; túnel

graces - gracias; (grace); gracias, benedícite, gracia, donaire, merced

governors - gobernadores; gobernador, gobernadora

One day, in discourse, my master, having heard me mention the nobility of my country, was pleased to make me a compliment which I could not pretend to deserve: "that he was sure I must have been born of some noble family, because I far exceeded in shape, colour, and cleanliness, all the Yahoos of his nation, although I seemed to fail in strength and agility, which must be imputed to my different way of living from those other brutes; and besides I was not only endowed with the faculty of speech, but likewise with some rudiments of reason, to a degree that, with all his acquaintance, I passed for a prodigy.

exceeded - excedido; sobrepasar, pasarse, exceder

He made me observe, "that among the Houyhnhnms, the white, the sorrel, and the iron-gray, were not so exactly shaped as the bay, the dapple-gray, and the black; nor born with equal talents of mind, or a capacity to improve them; and therefore continued always in the condition of servants, without ever aspiring to match out of their own race, which in that country would be reckoned monstrous and unnatural."

aspiring - aspirando; aspirar, ambicionar

I made his honour my most humble acknowledgments for the good opinion he was pleased to conceive of me, but assured him at the same time, "that my birth was of the lower sort, having been born of plain honest parents, who were just able to give me a tolerable education; that nobility, among us, was altogether a different thing from the idea he had of it; that our young noblemen are bred from their childhood in idleness and luxury; that, as soon as years will permit, they consume their vigour, and contract odious diseases among lewd females; and when their fortunes are almost ruined, they marry some woman of mean birth, disagreeable person, and unsound constitution (merely for the sake of money), whom they hate and despise.

conceive of - concebir

noblemen - nobles; noble

childhood - infancia, ninez

contract - contrato; contraer

unsound - insano

That the productions of such marriages are generally scrofulous, rickety, or deformed children; by which means the family seldom continues above three generations, unless the wife takes care to provide a healthy father, among her neighbours or domestics, in order to improve and continue the breed. That a weak diseased body, a meagre countenance, and sallow complexion, are the true marks of noble blood; and a healthy robust appearance is so disgraceful in a man of quality, that the world concludes his real father to have been a groom or a coachman. The imperfections of his mind run parallel with those of his body, being a composition of spleen, dullness, ignorance, caprice, sensuality, and pride.

marriages - matrimonios; matrimonio, boda, casamiento, unión

rickety - desvencijado; enclenque

sallow - cetrino, amarillento

disgraceful - vergonzoso, deshonroso, escandaloso, ignominioso

concludes - concluye; concluir

groom - novio; mozo de cuadra

imperfections - imperfecciones; imperfección

sensuality - sensualidad

"Without the consent of this illustrious body, no law can be enacted, repealed, or altered: and these nobles have likewise the decision of all our possessions, without appeal." [514]

repealed - derogado; derogar


The author's great love of his native country. His master's observations upon the constitution and administration of England, as described by the author, with parallel cases and comparisons. His master's observations upon human nature.

comparisons - comparaciones; comparación

The reader may be disposed to wonder how I could prevail on myself to give so free a representation of my own species, among a race of mortals who are already too apt to conceive the vilest opinion of humankind, from that entire congruity between me and their Yahoos. But I must freely confess, that the many virtues of those excellent quadrupeds, placed in opposite view to human corruptions, had so far opened my eyes and enlarged my understanding, that I began to view the actions and passions of man in a very different light, and to think the honour of my own kind not worth managing; which, besides, it was impossible for me to do, before a person of so acute a judgment as my master, who daily convinced me of a thousand faults in myself, whereof I had not the least perception before, and which, with us, would never be numbered even among human infirmities.

congruity - congruencia

perception - percepción

I had likewise learned, from his example, an utter detestation of all falsehood or disguise; and truth appeared so amiable to me, that I determined upon sacrificing every thing to it.

amiable - amable, afable

Let me deal so candidly with the reader as to confess that there was yet a much stronger motive for the freedom I took in my representation of things. I had not yet been a year in this country before I contracted such a love and veneration for the inhabitants, that I entered on a firm resolution never to return to humankind, but to pass the rest of my life among these admirable Houyhnhnms, in the contemplation and practice of every virtue, where I could have no example or incitement to vice. But it was decreed by fortune, my perpetual enemy, that so great a felicity should not fall to my share. However, it is now some comfort to reflect, that in what I said of my countrymen, I extenuated their faults as much as I durst before so strict an examiner; and upon every article gave as favourable a turn as the matter would bear.

candidly - con franqueza; cándidamente

incitement - incitación

Examiner - examinador

For, indeed, who is there alive that will not be swayed by his bias and partiality to the place of his birth?

swayed - nfluido; balanceo, influencia, influjo, preponderancia

bias - prejuicios; inclinación, predisposición, parcialidad, prejuicio

I have related the substance of several conversations I had with my master during the greatest part of the time I had the honour to be in his service; but have, indeed, for brevity sake, omitted much more than is here set down.

When I had answered all his questions, and his curiosity seemed to be ful