les - les, (LE) les
Victor - Victor
Hugo - hugo
So long as there shall exist, by virtue of law and custom, decrees of damnation pronounced by society, artificially creating hells amid the civilization of earth, and adding the element of human fate to divine destiny; so long as the three great problems of the century"the degradation of man through pauperism, the corruption of woman through hunger, the crippling of children through lack of light"are unsolved; so long as social asphyxia is possible in any part of the world;"in other words, and with a still wider significance, so long as ignorance and poverty exist on earth, books of the nature of Les MisĂ©rables cannot fail to be of use.
virtue - la vertu, vertu
decrees - décrets, décret, ordonnance, décréter
damnation - damnation
artificially - artificiellement
amid - amid, au milieu de, parmi, entre
fate - le destin, destin, destinée, sort
divine - divine, divin
destiny - destin, destinée, sort
degradation - dégradation
pauperism - le paupérisme, paupérisme
corruption - corruption, pourriture, concussion
crippling - paralysant, estropié, infirme, estropier, bridé
unsolved - non résolue
asphyxia - l'asphyxie, asphyxie
ignorance - l'ignorance, ignorance
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE, 1862.
BOOK FIRST"A JUST MAN
CHAPTER I"M. MYRIEL
In 1815, M. Charles-FranĂ§ois-Bienvenu Myriel was Bishop of D"" He was an old man of about seventy-five years of age; he had occupied the see of D"" since 1806.
Charles - charles
bishop - éveque, eveque
Although this detail has no connection whatever with the real substance of what we are about to relate, it will not be superfluous, if merely for the sake of exactness in all points, to mention here the various rumors and remarks which had been in circulation about him from the very moment when he arrived in the diocese.
superfluous - superflue, superflu
merely - simplement, uniquement, seulement
sake - du saké, dans l'intéret de qqn
exactness - l'exactitude, exactitude
Rumors - rumeurs, rumeur, bruit
Circulation - circulation
diocese - diocese, diocese, éparchie
True or false, that which is said of men often occupies as important a place in their lives, and above all in their destinies, as that which they do. M. Myriel was the son of a councillor of the Parliament of Aix; hence he belonged to the nobility of the bar.
destinies - destins, destin
councillor - conseiller, conseillere, French: conseiller municipal
Aix - Aix
nobility - la noblesse, noblesse
It was said that his father, destining him to be the heir of his own post, had married him at a very early age, eighteen or twenty, in accordance with a custom which is rather widely prevalent in parliamentary families. In spite of this marriage, however, it was said that Charles Myriel created a great deal of talk.
heir - héritier, héritiere, successeur, successeuse
accordance - accord, accordance
prevalent - répandu, prévalent
parliamentary - parlementaire
He was well formed, though rather short in stature, elegant, graceful, intelligent; the whole of the first portion of his life had been devoted to the world and to gallantry.
graceful - gracieux
gallantry - la galanterie, courage, galanterie
The Revolution came; events succeeded each other with precipitation; the parliamentary families, decimated, pursued, hunted down, were dispersed. M. Charles Myriel emigrated to Italy at the very beginning of the Revolution. There his wife died of a malady of the chest, from which she had long suffered. He had no children. What took place next in the fate of M. Myriel?
precipitation - des précipitations, précipitation
decimated - décimé, décimer
dispersed - dispersé, disperser, qualifier
emigrated - émigré, émigrer
Italy - l'italie, Italie
malady - maladie
The ruin of the French society of the olden days, the fall of his own family, the tragic spectacles of '93, which were, perhaps, even more alarming to the emigrants who viewed them from a distance, with the magnifying powers of terror,"did these cause the ideas of renunciation and solitude to germinate in him?
olden - se décatir
spectacles - lunettes, spectacle
more alarming - plus alarmant
emigrants - émigrants, émigré, émigrée, émigrant, émigrante
magnifying - grossissant, agrandir
renunciation - renoncement, renonciation
solitude - la solitude, solitude
Was he, in the midst of these distractions, these affections which absorbed his life, suddenly smitten with one of those mysterious and terrible blows which sometimes overwhelm, by striking to his heart, a man whom public catastrophes would not shake, by striking at his existence and his fortune? No one could have told: all that was known was, that when he returned from Italy he was a priest.
midst - centre, milieu
distractions - des distractions, distraction, folie
smitten - amoureux, frapper
overwhelm - l'écrasement, abreuver, accabler, envahir
catastrophes - des catastrophes, catastrophe
In 1804, M. Myriel was the CurĂ© of B"" [Brignolles]. He was already advanced in years, and lived in a very retired manner.
About the epoch of the coronation, some petty affair connected with his curacy"just what, is not precisely known"took him to Paris. Among other powerful persons to whom he went to solicit aid for his parishioners was M. le Cardinal Fesch. One day, when the Emperor had come to visit his uncle, the worthy CurĂ©, who was waiting in the anteroom, found himself present when His Majesty passed.
epoch - époque, ere, période, singularité, évenement
coronation - couronnement
petty - petit, insignifiant, mesquin
curacy - la curatelle, vicariat
parishioners - paroissiens, paroissien, paroissienne
le - LE
cardinal - cardinal, rouge cardinal
Emperor - l'empereur, empereur
worthy - digne
anteroom - attente
Majesty - majesté
Napoleon, on finding himself observed with a certain curiosity by this old man, turned round and said abruptly:"
curiosity - curiosité
abruptly - brusquement, abruptement, tout d'un coup, précipitamment
"Who is this good man who is staring at me?"
"Sire," said M. Myriel, "you are looking at a good man, and I at a great man. Each of us can profit by it."
sire - sire, saillir
That very evening, the Emperor asked the Cardinal the name of the CurĂ©, and some time afterwards M. Myriel was utterly astonished to learn that he had been appointed Bishop of D""
utterly - tout a fait
astonished - étonné, étonner, surprendre
appointed - nommés, fixer, gloss
What truth was there, after all, in the stories which were invented as to the early portion of M. Myriel's life? No one knew. Very few families had been acquainted with the Myriel family before the Revolution.
M. Myriel had to undergo the fate of every newcomer in a little town, where there are many mouths which talk, and very few heads which think. He was obliged to undergo it although he was a bishop, and because he was a bishop.
newcomer - nouveau venu, nouvel arrivé, débutant, débutante
obliged - obligée, imposer, obliger, rendre service
But after all, the rumors with which his name was connected were rumors only,"noise, sayings, words; less than words"palabres, as the energetic language of the South expresses it.
sayings - des dictons, dicton
energetic - énergique, énergétique
However that may be, after nine years of episcopal power and of residence in D"", all the stories and subjects of conversation which engross petty towns and petty people at the outset had fallen into profound oblivion. No one would have dared to mention them; no one would have dared to recall them.
episcopal - épiscopal
residence - résidence, siege social
engross - engloutir, grossoyer, accaparer, rafler, s'emparer de
outset - départ, début
profound - profond
oblivion - l'oubli, oubli, néant
M. Myriel had arrived at D"" accompanied by an elderly spinster, Mademoiselle Baptistine, who was his sister, and ten years his junior.
spinster - fileuse, vieille fille
Mademoiselle - mademoiselle
Their only domestic was a female servant of the same age as Mademoiselle Baptistine, and named Madame Magloire, who, after having been the servant of M. le CurĂ©, now assumed the double title of maid to Mademoiselle and housekeeper to Monseigneur.
maid - femme de ménage, demoiselle, jeune fille, bonne
housekeeper - femme de ménage, gouvernante, ménagere
Monseigneur - monseigneur
Mademoiselle Baptistine was a long, pale, thin, gentle creature; she realized the ideal expressed by the word "respectable"; for it seems that a woman must needs be a mother in order to be venerable.
respectable - respectable, convenable
She had never been pretty; her whole life, which had been nothing but a succession of holy deeds, had finally conferred upon her a sort of pallor and transparency; and as she advanced in years she had acquired what may be called the beauty of goodness. What had been leanness in her youth had become transparency in her maturity; and this diaphaneity allowed the angel to be seen.
succession - succession
deeds - des actes, acte, action, ouvre, exploit, haut fait, prouesse
conferred - conféré, conférer, accorder, décerner
pallor - pâleur
transparency - la transparence, transparence
leanness - la maigreur
maturity - maturité
diaphaneity - diaphanéité
angel - ange
She was a soul rather than a virgin. Her person seemed made of a shadow; there was hardly sufficient body to provide for sex; a little matter enclosing a light; large eyes forever drooping;"a mere pretext for a soul's remaining on the earth.
Virgin - vierge
drooping - en train de tomber, tomber, s'affaisser, bec
mere - simple
pretext - prétexte
Madame Magloire was a little, fat, white old woman, corpulent and bustling; always out of breath,"in the first place, because of her activity, and in the next, because of her asthma.
corpulent - corpulent
bustling - en pleine effervescence, animé
asthma - l'asthme, asthme
On his arrival, M. Myriel was installed in the episcopal palace with the honors required by the Imperial decrees, which class a bishop immediately after a major-general. The mayor and the president paid the first call on him, and he, in turn, paid the first call on the general and the prefect.
Imperial - impérial, royal
prefect - préfet
The installation over, the town waited to see its bishop at work.
CHAPTER II"M. MYRIEL BECOMES M. WELCOME
The episcopal palace of D"" adjoins the hospital.
adjoins - est contiguë, adjoindre, toucher
The episcopal palace was a huge and beautiful house, built of stone at the beginning of the last century by M. Henri Puget, Doctor of Theology of the Faculty of Paris, AbbĂ© of Simore, who had been Bishop of D"" in 1712. This palace was a genuine seignorial residence.
theology - la théologie, théologie
faculty - la faculté, faculté
Everything about it had a grand air,"the apartments of the Bishop, the drawing-rooms, the chambers, the principal courtyard, which was very large, with walks encircling it under arcades in the old Florentine fashion, and gardens planted with magnificent trees. In the dining-room, a long and superb gallery which was situated on the ground floor and opened on the gardens, M.
chambers - chambres, chambre, piece, salle
courtyard - cour
encircling - encerclant, ceignant, (encircle), encercler
arcades - arcades, arcade, galerie marchande, salle d'arcade
dining - dîner, vacarme
superb - superbe
situated - situé, situer
Henri Puget had entertained in state, on July 29, 1714, My Lords Charles BrĂ»lart de Genlis, archbishop; Prince d'Embrun; Antoine de Mesgrigny, the capuchin, Bishop of Grasse; Philippe de VendĂ´me, Grand Prior of France, AbbĂ© of saint HonorĂ© de LĂ©rins; FranĂ§ois de Berton de Crillon, bishop, Baron de Vence; CĂ©sar de Sabran de Forcalquier, bishop, Seignor of GlandĂ¨ve; and Jean Soanen, Priest of the Oratory, preacher in ordinary to the king, bishop, Seignor of Senez. The portraits of these seven reverend personages decorated this apartment; and this memorable date, the 29th of July, 1714, was there engraved in letters of gold on a table of white marble.
archbishop - archeveque, archeveque
Capuchin - capucin
saint - Saint
Baron - baron
oratory - L'art oratoire
preacher - precheur, prédicateur, precheur
Reverend - révérend
personages - personnages, personnage
engraved - gravé, graver
marble - marbre, bille, grillot, marbrer
The hospital was a low and narrow building of a single story, with a small garden.
Three days after his arrival, the Bishop visited the hospital. The visit ended, he had the director requested to be so good as to come to his house.
"Monsieur the director of the hospital," said he to him, "how many sick people have you at the present moment?"
monsieur - Monsieur
"That was the number which I counted," said the Bishop.
"The beds," pursued the director, "are very much crowded against each other."
"That is what I observed."
"The halls are nothing but rooms, and it is with difficulty that the air can be changed in them."
"So it seems to me."
"And then, when there is a ray of sun, the garden is very small for the convalescents."
ray - rayon, émission
"That was what I said to myself."
"In case of epidemics,"we have had the typhus fever this year; we had the sweating sickness two years ago, and a hundred patients at times,"we know not what to do."
epidemics - des épidémies, épidémie, épidémique
typhus - le typhus, typhus
sweating - transpiration, (sweat)
sickness - maladie
"That is the thought which occurred to me."
"What would you have, Monseigneur?" said the director. "One must resign one's self."
This conversation took place in the gallery dining-room on the ground floor.
dining - dîner
The Bishop remained silent for a moment; then he turned abruptly to the director of the hospital.
"Monsieur," said he, "how many beds do you think this hall alone would hold?"
"Monseigneur's dining-room?" exclaimed the stupefied director.
exclaimed - s'est exclamé, exclamer
stupefied - stupéfait, stupéfier, abrutir, hébéter, sidérer, abasourdir
The Bishop cast a glance round the apartment, and seemed to be taking measures and calculations with his eyes.
glance - regard, jeter un coup d’oil
calculations - calculs, calcul
"It would hold full twenty beds," said he, as though speaking to himself. Then, raising his voice:"
"Hold, Monsieur the director of the hospital, I will tell you something. There is evidently a mistake here. There are thirty-six of you, in five or six small rooms. There are three of us here, and we have room for sixty. There is some mistake, I tell you; you have my house, and I have yours. Give me back my house; you are at home here."
evidently - évidemment, de toute évidence, manifestement
small rooms - des petites pieces
On the following day the thirty-six patients were installed in the Bishop's palace, and the Bishop was settled in the hospital.
M. Myriel had no property, his family having been ruined by the Revolution. His sister was in receipt of a yearly income of five hundred francs, which sufficed for her personal wants at the vicarage. M. Myriel received from the State, in his quality of bishop, a salary of fifteen thousand francs. On the very day when he took up his abode in the hospital, M.
yearly - annuel, annuellement, annuaire
francs - francs, franc
sufficed - suffisent, suffire, suffire 2, fr
vicarage - le presbytere, vicariat
abode - domicile, demeure, (abide), endurer, tolérer
Myriel settled on the disposition of this sum once for all, in the following manner. We transcribe here a note made by his own hand:"
disposition - disposition, tempérament
transcribe - transcrire
NOTE ON THE REGULATION OF MY household expenses.
household expenses - Dépenses ménageres
For the little seminary1,500 livres
Society of the mission100 "
For the Lazarists of Montdidier100 "
Lazarists - les lazaristes, lazariste
Seminary for foreign missions in Paris200 "
seminary - séminaire
Congregation of the Holy Spirit150 "
congregation - la congrégation, rassemblement, assemblée des fideles
Religious establishments of the Holy Land100 "
establishments - établissements, établissement
Charitable maternity societies300 "
charitable - charitable
Extra, for that of Arles50 "
Work for the amelioration of prisons400 "
amelioration - amélioration
Work for the relief and delivery of prisoners500 "
To liberate fathers of families incarcerated for debt1,000 "
liberate - libérer
incarcerated - incarcéré, incarcérer, imprisonner
Addition to the salary of the poor teachers of the diocese2,000 "
Public granary of the Hautes-Alpes100 "
granary - grenier, grenier a grain
Congregation of the ladies of D"", of Manosque, and of Sisteron,
for the gratuitous instruction of poor girls1,500 "
gratuitous - gratuit
For the poor6,000 "
My personal expenses1,000 "
M. Myriel made no change in this arrangement during the entire period that he occupied the see of D"" As has been seen, he called it regulating his household expenses.
This arrangement was accepted with absolute submission by Mademoiselle Baptistine. This holy woman regarded Monseigneur of D"" as at one and the same time her brother and her bishop, her friend according to the flesh and her superior according to the Church. She simply loved and venerated him. When he spoke, she bowed; when he acted, she yielded her adherence.
submission - soumission
flesh - de la chair, chair, peau, viande, corps, pulpe
superior - supérieur
venerated - vénéré, vénérer
bowed - incliné, (s')incliner devant, saluer d'un signe de tete
yielded - cédé, céder
adherence - l'adhésion, adhésion, observance
Their only servant, Madame Magloire, grumbled a little. It will be observed that Monsieur the Bishop had reserved for himself only one thousand livres, which, added to the pension of Mademoiselle Baptistine, made fifteen hundred francs a year. On these fifteen hundred francs these two old women and the old man subsisted.
grumbled - grommelé, grondement, gargouillement, grognement
pension - pension, retraite, (demi) pension, pensioner, pensionner
subsisted - subsisté, subsister
And when a village curate came to D"", the Bishop still found means to entertain him, thanks to the severe economy of Madame Magloire, and to the intelligent administration of Mademoiselle Baptistine.
curate - conservateur, vicaire
One day, after he had been in D"" about three months, the Bishop said:"
"And still I am quite cramped with it all!"
cramped - a l'étroit, crampe
"I should think so!" exclaimed Madame Magloire. "Monseigneur has not even claimed the allowance which the department owes him for the expense of his carriage in town, and for his journeys about the diocese. It was customary for bishops in former days."
allowance - l'allocation, indemnité, jeu
carriage - transport, rench: t-needed r, carrosse, port, chariot
customary - coutumier, habituel, d'usage
bishops - éveques, éveque
"Hold!" cried the Bishop, "you are quite right, Madame Magloire."
And he made his demand.
Some time afterwards the General Council took this demand under consideration, and voted him an annual sum of three thousand francs, under this heading: Allowance to M. the Bishop for expenses of carriage, expenses of posting, and expenses of pastoral visits.
pastoral - pastorale, pastoral
This provoked a great outcry among the local burgesses; and a senator of the Empire, a former member of the Council of the Five Hundred which favored the 18 Brumaire, and who was provided with a magnificent senatorial office in the vicinity of the town of D"", wrote to M.
provoked - provoquée, provoquer
outcry - tollé, levée de boucliers
Brumaire - brumaire
senatorial - sénatoriale
vicinity - proximité, voisinage, vicinité, environs
Bigot de PrĂ©ameneu, the minister of public worship, a very angry and confidential note on the subject, from which we extract these authentic lines:"
bigot - bigot, sectaire, intolérant, fanatique intolérant
worship - culte, adoration, vénération, vénérer, adorer
confidential - confidentiel
authentic - authentique
"Expenses of carriage? What can be done with it in a town of less than four thousand inhabitants? Expenses of journeys? What is the use of these trips, in the first place? Next, how can the posting be accomplished in these mountainous parts? There are no roads. No one travels otherwise than on horseback. Even the bridge between Durance and ChĂ˘teau-Arnoux can barely support ox-teams.
mountainous - montagneux
horseback - a cheval, a cheval
durance - durance
ox - ox, boeuf
These priests are all thus, greedy and avaricious. This man played the good priest when he first came. Now he does like the rest; he must have a carriage and a posting-chaise, he must have luxuries, like the bishops of the olden days. Oh, all this priesthood! Things will not go well, M. le Comte, until the Emperor has freed us from these black-capped rascals. Down with the Pope!
greedy - avaricieux, cupide, avide, gourmand
avaricious - avaricieux, avare
priesthood - le sacerdoce, sacerdoce, pretrise
rascals - des vauriens, racaille, canaille, coquin, crapule, filou
pope - pape
[Matters were getting embroiled with Rome.] For my part, I am for CĂ¦sar alone." Etc., etc.
embroiled - embrigadé, embourber
Rome - rome
etc - etc
On the other hand, this affair afforded great delight to Madame Magloire. "Good," said she to Mademoiselle Baptistine; "Monseigneur began with other people, but he has had to wind up with himself, after all. He has regulated all his charities. Now here are three thousand francs for us! At last!"
wind - vent, emmailloter, détortiller, langer, enrouler
That same evening the Bishop wrote out and handed to his sister a memorandum conceived in the following terms:"
memorandum - mémorandum
conceived - conçu, concevoir, tomber enceinte
EXPENSES OF CARRIAGE AND CIRCUIT.
For furnishing meat soup to the patients in the hospital1,500 livres
furnishing - l'ameublement, fournissant, (furnish), meubler, fournir, livrer
For the maternity charitable society of Aix250 "
charitable society - Association caritative
For the maternity charitable society of Draguignan250 "
For foundlings500 "
For orphans500 "
Such was M. Myriel's budget.
As for the chance episcopal perquisites, the fees for marriage bans, dispensations, private baptisms, sermons, benedictions, of churches or chapels, marriages, etc., the Bishop levied them on the wealthy with all the more asperity, since he bestowed them on the needy.
perquisites - des avantages indirects, gratification, émolument, don, cadeau
dispensations - dispenses, dérogation, dispense
baptisms - les baptemes, bapteme
Sermons - sermons, sermon
benedictions - bénédictions, bénédiction
chapels - chapelles, chapelle
levied - prélevée, prélever, percevoir
asperity - l'aspérité, aspérité
bestowed - accordé, disposer de, accorder, remettre, conférer
needy - dans le besoin, nécessiteux
After a time, offerings of money flowed in. Those who had and those who lacked knocked at M. Myriel's door,"the latter in search of the alms which the former came to deposit. In less than a year the Bishop had become the treasurer of all benevolence and the cashier of all those in distress.
offerings - offres, offre, offrande
knocked at - frappé
alms - l'aumône, aumône
treasurer - ministre du budget, trésorier, trésoriere
benevolence - la bienveillance, bienveillance, bénévolence
cashier - caissier
distress - la détresse, détresse
Considerable sums of money passed through his hands, but nothing could induce him to make any change whatever in his mode of life, or add anything superfluous to his bare necessities.
induce - induire
bare - a nu, dénudé, dégarnir, nu
Far from it. As there is always more wretchedness below than there is brotherhood above, all was given away, so to speak, before it was received. It was like water on dry soil; no matter how much money he received, he never had any. Then he stripped himself.
wretchedness - la misere
brotherhood - la fraternité, fraternité, confrérie
stripped - dépouillé, enlever
The usage being that bishops shall announce their baptismal names at the head of their charges and their pastoral letters, the poor people of the country-side had selected, with a sort of affectionate instinct, among the names and prenomens of their bishop, that which had a meaning for them; and they never called him anything except Monseigneur Bienvenu [Welcome].
baptismal - baptistaire
affectionate - affectueux
instinct - l'instinct, instinct
We will follow their example, and will also call him thus when we have occasion to name him. Moreover, this appellation pleased him.
"I like that name," said he. "Bienvenu makes up for the Monseigneur."
We do not claim that the portrait herewith presented is probable; we confine ourselves to stating that it resembles the original.
confine - enfermer, confiner, limite
resembles - ressemble, ressembler
CHAPTER III"A HARD BISHOPRIC FOR A GOOD BISHOP
bishopric - éveché, éveché, épiscopat
The Bishop did not omit his pastoral visits because he had converted his carriage into alms. The diocese of D"" is a fatiguing one. There are very few plains and a great many mountains; hardly any roads, as we have just seen; thirty-two curacies, forty-one vicarships, and two hundred and eighty-five auxiliary chapels. To visit all these is quite a task.
omit - omettre
fatiguing - fatiguant, fatigue, épuisement, corvée, fatiguer
curacies - curies, vicariat
Auxiliary - auxiliaire
The Bishop managed to do it. He went on foot when it was in the neighborhood, in a tilted spring-cart when it was on the plain, and on a donkey in the mountains. The two old women accompanied him. When the trip was too hard for them, he went alone.
neighborhood - voisinage, environs, quartier, checkvoisinage
tilted - incliné, pencher
cart - chariot, charrette
donkey - l'âne, âne
One day he arrived at Senez, which is an ancient episcopal city. He was mounted on an ass. His purse, which was very dry at that moment, did not permit him any other equipage. The mayor of the town came to receive him at the gate of the town, and watched him dismount from his ass, with scandalized eyes. Some of the citizens were laughing around him.
ass - cul, aliboron, ane, âne
purse - sac a main, bourse, portemonnaie, portefeuille, sac a main
equipage - l'équipement, bagages, fourgons, train des équipages
dismount - démonter, descendre
"Monsieur the Mayor," said the Bishop, "and Messieurs Citizens, I perceive that I shock you. You think it very arrogant in a poor priest to ride an animal which was used by Jesus Christ. I have done so from necessity, I assure you, and not from vanity."
Christ - le christ, Christ, Messie, bon Dieu de merde
vanity - la vanité, vanité
In the course of these trips he was kind and indulgent, and talked rather than preached. He never went far in search of his arguments and his examples. He quoted to the inhabitants of one district the example of a neighboring district. In the cantons where they were harsh to the poor, he said: "Look at the people of BrianĂ§on!
indulgent - indulgent
preached - preché, precher, proclamer
cantons - cantons, Canton, Kouang-toung
harsh - sévere, sévere, rude, cruel, dur, checkdure
They have conferred on the poor, on widows and orphans, the right to have their meadows mown three days in advance of every one else. They rebuild their houses for them gratuitously when they are ruined. Therefore it is a country which is blessed by God. For a whole century, there has not been a single murderer among them."
widows - les veuves, veuve
Orphans - les orphelins, orphelin, orpheline
meadows - prairies, pré
mown - fauché, (mow) fauché
gratuitously - gratuitement
blessed - bienheureux, béni, (bless)
murderer - meurtrier, meurtriere, assassin, assassine
In villages which were greedy for profit and harvest, he said: "Look at the people of Embrun!
harvest - la récolte, récolte, moisson, récolter, moissonner, recueillir
If, at the harvest season, the father of a family has his son away on service in the army, and his daughters at service in the town, and if he is ill and incapacitated, the curĂ© recommends him to the prayers of the congregation; and on Sunday, after the mass, all the inhabitants of the village"men, women, and children"go to the poor man's field and do his harvesting for him, and carry his straw and his grain to his granary." To families divided by questions of money and inheritance he said: "Look at the mountaineers of Devolny, a country so wild that the nightingale is not heard there once in fifty years. Well, when the father of a family dies, the boys go off to seek their fortunes, leaving the property to the girls, so that they may find husbands." To the cantons which had a taste for lawsuits, and where the farmers ruined themselves in stamped paper, he said: "Look at those good peasants in the valley of Queyras! There are three thousand souls of them. Mon Dieu! it is like a little republic. Neither judge nor bailiff is known there. The mayor does everything. He allots the imposts, taxes each person conscientiously, judges quarrels for nothing, divides inheritances without charge, pronounces sentences gratuitously; and he is obeyed, because he is a just man among simple men." To villages where he found no schoolmaster, he quoted once more the people of Queyras: "Do you know how they manage?" he said. "Since a little country of a dozen or fifteen hearths cannot always support a teacher, they have schoolmasters who are paid by the whole valley, who make the round of the villages, spending a week in this one, ten days in that, and instruct them. These teachers go to the fairs. I have seen them there. They are to be recognized by the quill pens which they wear in the cord of their hat. Those who teach reading only have one pen; those who teach reading and reckoning have two pens; those who teach reading, reckoning, and Latin have three pens. But what a disgrace to be ignorant! Do like the people of Queyras!"
harvesting - la récolte, récolte, moisson, récolter
straw - paille, fétu, jaune paille
mountaineers - les alpinistes, montagnard, montagnarde, alpiniste
nightingale - rossignol
lawsuits - poursuites judiciaires, poursuite judiciaire, proces, poursuite
farmers - agriculteurs, agriculteur, fermier
peasants - paysans, paysan, paysanne, rustique
mon - Mon
republic - république
bailiff - huissier, huissier de justice
allots - allots, attribuer
conscientiously - consciencieusement
quarrels - querelles, dispute
inheritances - les héritages, héritage
hearths - foyers, âtre, foyer, foyers-p
instruct - instruire, enseigner, apprendre
quill - plume d'oie, plume, piquant, épine
cord - corde, cordon
Latin - latine
disgrace - la disgrâce, honte, disgrâce, ignominie
ignorant - ignorant
Thus he discoursed gravely and paternally; in default of examples, he invented parables, going directly to the point, with few phrases and many images, which characteristic formed the real eloquence of Jesus Christ. And being convinced himself, he was persuasive.
discoursed - discuté, discours, conversation
gravely - gravement
paternally - paternellement
default - par défaut, défaut, rench: t-needed r
parables - paraboles, parabole
eloquence - l'éloquence, éloquence
persuasive - persuasif, convaincant
CHAPTER IV"WORKS CORRESPONDING TO WORDS
corresponding - correspondant, correspondre (...a qqchose)
His conversation was gay and affable. He put himself on a level with the two old women who had passed their lives beside him. When he laughed, it was the laugh of a schoolboy. Madame Magloire liked to call him Your Grace [Votre Grandeur]. One day he rose from his armchair, and went to his library in search of a book. This book was on one of the upper shelves.
affable - affable, aimable, doux
schoolboy - éleve, écolier
grace - bénédicité, grâces, grâce, miséricorde
grandeur - grandeur, splendeur
armchair - fauteuil, chaise bourrée
As the bishop was rather short of stature, he could not reach it. "Madame Magloire," said he, "fetch me a chair. My greatness [grandeur] does not reach as far as that shelf."
fetch - chercher, apporter, aveignez, amener, aveignent, apportons
greatness - la grandeur, grandeur
One of his distant relatives, Madame la Comtesse de LĂ´, rarely allowed an opportunity to escape of enumerating, in his presence, what she designated as "the expectations" of her three sons. She had numerous relatives, who were very old and near to death, and of whom her sons were the natural heirs.
la - La
enumerating - l'énumération, énoncer, dénombrer
designated - désignée, désigner
heirs - héritiers, héritier, héritiere, successeur, successeuse
The youngest of the three was to receive from a grandaunt a good hundred thousand livres of income; the second was the heir by entail to the title of the Duke, his uncle; the eldest was to succeed to the peerage of his grandfather. The Bishop was accustomed to listen in silence to these innocent and pardonable maternal boasts.
grandaunt - grand-tante
entail - impliquer, comporter
Duke - duke, duc
peerage - la pairie, pairie
accustomed - habitué, accoutumer
pardonable - pardonnable
maternal - maternelle
boasts - des fanfaronnades, se vanter (de)
On one occasion, however, he appeared to be more thoughtful than usual, while Madame de LĂ´ was relating once again the details of all these inheritances and all these "expectations." She interrupted herself impatiently: "Mon Dieu, cousin! What are you thinking about?" "I am thinking," replied the Bishop, "of a singular remark, which is to be found, I believe, in St.
more thoughtful - plus réfléchi
impatiently - avec impatience
singular - singulier
Augustine,"'Place your hopes in the man from whom you do not inherit.'"
Augustine - augustine, Augustin
At another time, on receiving a notification of the decease of a gentleman of the country-side, wherein not only the dignities of the dead man, but also the feudal and noble qualifications of all his relatives, spread over an entire page: "What a stout back Death has!" he exclaimed.
notification - notification
decease - déces, déces, décéder, expirer, mourir, trépasser
wherein - ou
dignities - dignités, dignité, forme, rang
feudal - féodal
noble - noble, aristocrate, aristocratique
stout - stout, solide
"What a strange burden of titles is cheerfully imposed on him, and how much wit must men have, in order thus to press the tomb into the service of vanity!"
burden - charge, accablement, alourdissons, alourdir, alourdissez
cheerfully - réjouie
wit - wit, esprit
tomb - tombe, tombeau
He was gifted, on occasion, with a gentle raillery, which almost always concealed a serious meaning. In the course of one Lent, a youthful vicar came to D"", and preached in the cathedral. He was tolerably eloquent. The subject of his sermon was charity.
raillery - persiflage
concealed - dissimulée, dissimuler, cacher
youthful - juvénile, jeune
Vicar - curé, vicaire
cathedral - cathédrale, coupole
tolerably - de maniere tolérable
eloquent - éloquent
sermon - sermon
He urged the rich to give to the poor, in order to avoid hell, which he depicted in the most frightful manner of which he was capable, and to win paradise, which he represented as charming and desirable. Among the audience there was a wealthy retired merchant, who was somewhat of a usurer, named M.
depicted - représenté, représenter, décrire
frightful - effrayante, effrayant
paradise - le paradis, paradis, cieux
desirable - souhaitable, désirable
merchant - marchand, marchande
usurer - usurier, usuriere
GĂ©borand, who had amassed two millions in the manufacture of coarse cloth, serges, and woollen galloons. Never in his whole life had M. GĂ©borand bestowed alms on any poor wretch. After the delivery of that sermon, it was observed that he gave a sou every Sunday to the poor old beggar-women at the door of the cathedral. There were six of them to share it.
amassed - amassés, amasser
coarse - grossier, brut, vulgaire
serges - serges, serge
woollen - lainage
wretch - malheureux, malheureux/-euse
sou - sou
beggar - gueux, mendiant, mendiante, queteux
One day the Bishop caught sight of him in the act of bestowing this charity, and said to his sister, with a smile, "There is M. GĂ©borand purchasing paradise for a sou."
bestowing - l'effusion, disposer de, accorder, remettre, conférer
When it was a question of charity, he was not to be rebuffed even by a refusal, and on such occasions he gave utterance to remarks which induced reflection. Once he was begging for the poor in a drawing-room of the town; there was present the Marquis de Champtercier, a wealthy and avaricious old man, who contrived to be, at one and the same time, an ultra-royalist and an ultra-Voltairian.
rebuffed - rebuffé, rebuffade
refusal - refus
utterance - énoncé
induced - induite, induire
reflection - réflexion, reflet, eaning 4
contrived - artificiel, combiner, inventer
ultra - ultra
Royalist - royaliste
This variety of man has actually existed. When the Bishop came to him, he touched his arm, "You must give me something, M. le Marquis." The Marquis turned round and answered dryly, "I have poor people of my own, Monseigneur." "Give them to me," replied the Bishop.
One day he preached the following sermon in the cathedral:"
"My very dear brethren, my good friends, there are thirteen hundred and twenty thousand peasants'dwellings in France which have but three openings; eighteen hundred and seventeen thousand hovels which have but two openings, the door and one window; and three hundred and forty-six thousand cabins besides which have but one opening, the door.
brethren - freres
hovels - des taudis, taudis
And this arises from a thing which is called the tax on doors and windows. Just put poor families, old women and little children, in those buildings, and behold the fevers and maladies which result! Alas! God gives air to men; the law sells it to them. I do not blame the law, but I bless God.
behold - regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila
maladies - maladies, maladie
Alas - hélas, hélas!, (ala) hélas
bless - bénir, bénis, bénissez, bénissent, bénissons
In the department of the IsĂ¨re, in the Var, in the two departments of the Alpes, the Hautes, and the Basses, the peasants have not even wheelbarrows; they transport their manure on the backs of men; they have no candles, and they burn resinous sticks, and bits of rope dipped in pitch. That is the state of affairs throughout the whole of the hilly country of DauphinĂ©.
Var - VAr
basses - basses, basse
wheelbarrows - brouettes, brouette
manure - du fumier, fumier, purin
resinous - résineux
dipped - trempé, tremper
hilly - vallonné
They make bread for six months at one time; they bake it with dried cow-dung. In the winter they break this bread up with an axe, and they soak it for twenty-four hours, in order to render it eatable. My brethren, have pity! behold the suffering on all sides of you!"
cow-dung - (cow-dung) de la bouse de vache
axe - hache
soak - tremper, faire tremper, immerger, éponger
render - l'équarrissage, rendre
eatable - mangeable
Born a ProvenĂ§al, he easily familiarized himself with the dialect of the south. He said, "En bĂ©! moussu, sĂ©s sagĂ©?" as in lower Languedoc; "OntĂ© anaras passa?" as in the Basses-Alpes; "Puerte un bouen moutu embe un bouen fromage grase," as in upper DauphinĂ©. This pleased the people extremely, and contributed not a little to win him access to all spirits.
familiarized - familiarisé, familiariser
dialect - dialecte, patois
en - en
un - un, ONU
fromage - fromage
He was perfectly at home in the thatched cottage and in the mountains. He understood how to say the grandest things in the most vulgar of idioms. As he spoke all tongues, he entered into all hearts.
thatched - au toit de chaume, chaume
vulgar - vulgaire, obscene
idioms - idiomes, idiome, idiotisme
Moreover, he was the same towards people of the world and towards the lower classes. He condemned nothing in haste and without taking circumstances into account. He said, "Examine the road over which the fault has passed."
lower classes - les classes inférieures
condemned - condamnée, condamner, déclarer coupable
haste - hâte
Being, as he described himself with a smile, an ex-sinner, he had none of the asperities of austerity, and he professed, with a good deal of distinctness, and without the frown of the ferociously virtuous, a doctrine which may be summed up as follows:"
sinner - pécheur, pécheresse
asperities - aspérités, aspérité
austerity - l'austérité, austérité
distinctness - distinction
frown - froncer les sourcils
ferociously - férocement
virtuous - vertueux
doctrine - doctrine
"Man has upon him his flesh, which is at once his burden and his temptation. He drags it with him and yields to it. He must watch it, check it, repress it, and obey it only at the last extremity. There may be some fault even in this obedience; but the fault thus committed is venial; it is a fall, but a fall on the knees which may terminate in prayer.
temptation - la tentation, tentation
yields - des rendements, céder
repress - réprimer
extremity - l'extrémité, extrémité
obedience - l'obéissance, obéissance
venial - véniel
terminate - résilier, terminer
"To be a saint is the exception; to be an upright man is the rule. Err, fall, sin if you will, but be upright.
Saint - Saint
upright - debout, integre, montant
err - err, errons, errez, errent
sin - péché, mal
"The least possible sin is the law of man. No sin at all is the dream of the angel. All which is terrestrial is subject to sin. Sin is a gravitation."
terrestrial - terrestre
Gravitation - gravitation
When he saw everyone exclaiming very loudly, and growing angry very quickly, "Oh! oh!" he said, with a smile; "to all appearance, this is a great crime which all the world commits. These are hypocrisies which have taken fright, and are in haste to make protest and to put themselves under shelter."
exclaiming - s'exclamer, exclamer
hypocrisies - hypocrisies, hypocrisie, faux-culterie
taken fright - pris peur
He was indulgent towards women and poor people, on whom the burden of human society rest. He said, "The faults of women, of children, of the feeble, the indigent, and the ignorant, are the fault of the husbands, the fathers, the masters, the strong, the rich, and the wise."
feeble - faible
indigent - nécessiteux, indigent
He said, moreover, "Teach those who are ignorant as many things as possible; society is culpable, in that it does not afford instruction gratis; it is responsible for the night which it produces. This soul is full of shadow; sin is therein committed. The guilty one is not the person who has committed the sin, but the person who has created the shadow."
culpable - coupable
gratis - gratis
Therein - dans
It will be perceived that he had a peculiar manner of his own of judging things: I suspect that he obtained it from the Gospel.
peculiar - particulier, extraordinaire, bizarre, curieux
gospel - l'évangile, évangile
One day he heard a criminal case, which was in preparation and on the point of trial, discussed in a drawing-room. A wretched man, being at the end of his resources, had coined counterfeit money, out of love for a woman, and for the child which he had had by her. Counterfeiting was still punishable with death at that epoch.
wretched - misérable
counterfeit money - de l'argent contrefait
counterfeiting - la contrefaçon, contrefait, contrefaçon, contrefaire
punishable - punissable
The woman had been arrested in the act of passing the first false piece made by the man. She was held, but there were no proofs except against her. She alone could accuse her lover, and destroy him by her confession. She denied; they insisted. She persisted in her denial. Thereupon an idea occurred to the attorney for the crown.
lover - amante, amant, maîtresse
confession - confession
persisted - persisté, persister
denial - négation, dénégation, refus, déni, rejet
thereupon - a ce sujet, sur ce, la-dessus
attorney - juriste, avocat, avocate, mandataire
crown - couronne, couronner
He invented an infidelity on the part of the lover, and succeeded, by means of fragments of letters cunningly presented, in persuading the unfortunate woman that she had a rival, and that the man was deceiving her. Thereupon, exasperated by jealousy, she denounced her lover, confessed all, proved all.
infidelity - l'infidélité, infidélité
cunningly - astucieusement, ingénieusement, d'une maniere rusée
deceiving - trompeuse, tromper, leurrer, séduire
exasperated - exaspéré, exaspérer
jealousy - jalousie, envie
denounced - dénoncé, dénoncer, qualifier
The man was ruined. He was shortly to be tried at Aix with his accomplice. They were relating the matter, and each one was expressing enthusiasm over the cleverness of the magistrate. By bringing jealousy into play, he had caused the truth to burst forth in wrath, he had educed the justice of revenge. The Bishop listened to all this in silence. When they had finished, he inquired,"
accomplice - complice, comparse, compere
cleverness - l'ingéniosité
magistrate - magistrat
burst - l'éclatement, éclater, faire éclater, rompre, briser
forth - avant, en avant
wrath - colere, fureur, courroux, ire, colere
revenge - la vengeance, vengeance, revanche, venger
inquired - a demandé, enqueter, renseigner
"Where are this man and woman to be tried?"
"At the Court of Assizes."
He went on, "And where will the advocate of the crown be tried?"
advocate - défenseur des droits de l'homme, avocat, avocate, portearole
A tragic event occurred at D"" A man was condemned to death for murder. He was a wretched fellow, not exactly educated, not exactly ignorant, who had been a mountebank at fairs, and a writer for the public. The town took a great interest in the trial. On the eve of the day fixed for the execution of the condemned man, the chaplain of the prison fell ill.
mountebank - mountebank
eve - veille
execution - l'exécution, exécution
chaplain - aumônier, chapelain
fell ill - Tomber malade
A priest was needed to attend the criminal in his last moments. They sent for the curĂ©. It seems that he refused to come, saying, "That is no affair of mine. I have nothing to do with that unpleasant task, and with that mountebank: I, too, am ill; and besides, it is not my place." This reply was reported to the Bishop, who said, "Monsieur le CurĂ© is right: it is not his place; it is mine."
refused - refusé, refuser de
He went instantly to the prison, descended to the cell of the "mountebank," called him by name, took him by the hand, and spoke to him. He passed the entire day with him, forgetful of food and sleep, praying to God for the soul of the condemned man, and praying the condemned man for his own. He told him the best truths, which are also the most simple.
descended - descendu, descendre
forgetful - oublieux
He was father, brother, friend; he was bishop only to bless. He taught him everything, encouraged and consoled him. The man was on the point of dying in despair. Death was an abyss to him. As he stood trembling on its mournful brink, he recoiled with horror. He was not sufficiently ignorant to be absolutely indifferent.
consoled - consolé, consoler
dying - teignant, mourant, (dye) teignant
despair - le désespoir, désespérer, désespoir
abyss - l'abîme, abîme, précipice, abysse, gouffre
mournful - triste, affligé, éploré, mélancolique, lugubre
brink - au bord du gouffre, bord, lisiere
recoiled - a reculé, recul, reculer
indifferent - indifférent
His condemnation, which had been a profound shock, had, in a manner, broken through, here and there, that wall which separates us from the mystery of things, and which we call life. He gazed incessantly beyond this world through these fatal breaches, and beheld only darkness. The Bishop made him see light.
condemnation - condamnation
broken through - Réussi a franchir
gazed - regardé, fixer
incessantly - sans cesse
fatal - fatale, fatal
breaches - des infractions, infraction, violation, breche, brouille
beheld - a été observée, regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila
On the following day, when they came to fetch the unhappy wretch, the Bishop was still there. He followed him, and exhibited himself to the eyes of the crowd in his purple camail and with his episcopal cross upon his neck, side by side with the criminal bound with cords.
camail - camail
cords - cordons, corde, cordon
He mounted the tumbril with him, he mounted the scaffold with him. The sufferer, who had been so gloomy and cast down on the preceding day, was radiant. He felt that his soul was reconciled, and he hoped in God.
tumbril - tumbril, charrette, charrette des condamnés
scaffold - échafaudage, échafaud, échafauder
sufferer - souffrant, malade
gloomy - morose, lugubre, sombre, terne, maussade
reconciled - réconciliés, réconcilier, concilier
The Bishop embraced him, and at the moment when the knife was about to fall, he said to him: "God raises from the dead him whom man slays; he whom his brothers have rejected finds his Father once more. Pray, believe, enter into life: the Father is there." When he descended from the scaffold, there was something in his look which made the people draw aside to let him pass.
slays - tue, tuer
They did not know which was most worthy of admiration, his pallor or his serenity. On his return to the humble dwelling, which he designated, with a smile, as his palace, he said to his sister, "I have just officiated pontifically."
admiration - l'admiration, admiration
serenity - la sérénité, sérénité
humble - humble
dwelling - logement, demeure, (dwell), résider, s'appesantir sur
pontifically - pontificalement
Since the most sublime things are often those which are the least understood, there were people in the town who said, when commenting on this conduct of the Bishop, "It is affectation."
sublime - sublime, auguste
affectation - affectation
This, however, was a remark which was confined to the drawing-rooms. The populace, which perceives no jest in holy deeds, was touched, and admired him.
confined - confiné, confiner, limite
populace - population, bas peuple, plebe
jest - jest, plaisanter
As for the Bishop, it was a shock to him to have beheld the guillotine, and it was a long time before he recovered from it.
guillotine - guillotine
In fact, when the scaffold is there, all erected and prepared, it has something about it which produces hallucination.
erected - érigé, droit, dressé
hallucination - hallucination, illusion
One may feel a certain indifference to the death penalty, one may refrain from pronouncing upon it, from saying yes or no, so long as one has not seen a guillotine with one's own eyes: but if one encounters one of them, the shock is violent; one is forced to decide, and to take part for or against. Some admire it, like de Maistre; others execrate it, like Beccaria.
indifference - l'indifférence, indifférence
refrain - refrain
execrate - exécuter, exécrer
The guillotine is the concretion of the law; it is called vindicate; it is not neutral, and it does not permit you to remain neutral. He who sees it shivers with the most mysterious of shivers. All social problems erect their interrogation point around this chopping-knife. The scaffold is a vision.
vindicate - blanchir, faire valoir, défendre, revendiquer, affirmer
shivers - des frissons, frissonner
most mysterious - le plus mystérieux
erect - en érection, fonder, érigeons, érigent, érigez, arborer, ériger
interrogation point - Point dinterrogation
The scaffold is not a piece of carpentry; the scaffold is not a machine; the scaffold is not an inert bit of mechanism constructed of wood, iron and cords.
carpentry - la menuiserie, charpenterie
It seems as though it were a being, possessed of I know not what sombre initiative; one would say that this piece of carpenter's work saw, that this machine heard, that this mechanism understood, that this wood, this iron, and these cords were possessed of will.
sombre - sombre
Carpenter - menuisier, menuisiere, charpentier, charpentiere
In the frightful meditation into which its presence casts the soul the scaffold appears in terrible guise, and as though taking part in what is going on.
meditation - méditation
guise - guise, configuration
The scaffold is the accomplice of the executioner; it devours, it eats flesh, it drinks blood; the scaffold is a sort of monster fabricated by the judge and the carpenter, a spectre which seems to live with a horrible vitality composed of all the death which it has inflicted.
executioner - exécuteur des hautes ouvres, bourreau
devours - dévore, dévorer
fabricated - fabriqué, fabriquer, controuver
spectre - spectre
vitality - vitalité
inflicted - infligé, infliger
Therefore, the impression was terrible and profound; on the day following the execution, and on many succeeding days, the Bishop appeared to be crushed. The almost violent serenity of the funereal moment had disappeared; the phantom of social justice tormented him. He, who generally returned from all his deeds with a radiant satisfaction, seemed to be reproaching himself.
crushed - écrasé, barricade, béguin, amourette, faible, coup de cour
funereal - funebre
phantom - fantôme
tormented - tourmenté, tourment, tourmenter
reproaching - des reproches, reproche, opprobre, reprocher
At times he talked to himself, and stammered lugubrious monologues in a low voice. This is one which his sister overheard one evening and preserved: "I did not think that it was so monstrous. It is wrong to become absorbed in the divine law to such a degree as not to perceive human law. Death belongs to God alone. By what right do men touch that unknown thing?"
stammered - balbutié, balbutier, bégayer, bégaiement
lugubrious - lugubre
monologues - monologues, monologue
monstrous - monstrueux
In course of time these impressions weakened and probably vanished. Nevertheless, it was observed that the Bishop thenceforth avoided passing the place of execution.
weakened - affaibli, affaiblir
vanished - disparue, disparaître, s'évanouir, s'annuler
thenceforth - désormais
M. Myriel could be summoned at any hour to the bedside of the sick and dying. He did not ignore the fact that therein lay his greatest duty and his greatest labor. Widowed and orphaned families had no need to summon him; he came of his own accord. He understood how to sit down and hold his peace for long hours beside the man who had lost the wife of his love, of the mother who had lost her child.
summoned - convoqué, convoquer
bedside - au chevet du malade
labor - travail
widowed - veuve
orphaned - orphelin, orpheline
accord - accord, entente, accorder
As he knew the moment for silence he knew also the moment for speech. Oh, admirable consoler! He sought not to efface sorrow by forgetfulness, but to magnify and dignify it by hope. He said:"
admirable - admirable
consoler - consoler, consolateur
efface - effacer, s'effacer
sorrow - peine, chagrin
magnify - agrandir
dignify - dignité, honorer
"Have a care of the manner in which you turn towards the dead. Think not of that which perishes. Gaze steadily. You will perceive the living light of your well-beloved dead in the depths of heaven." He knew that faith is wholesome.
turn towards - Tourner vers
perishes - périt, périr
gaze - regard, fixer
beloved - bien-aimé, chéri, amant, amante, (belove)
wholesome - salubre, sain, vertueux
He sought to counsel and calm the despairing man, by pointing out to him the resigned man, and to transform the grief which gazes upon a grave by showing him the grief which fixes its gaze upon a star.
counsel - conseil, expertise, plan, projet, conseiller
despairing - désespéré, désespérer, désespoir
grief - le chagrin, douleur, peine
gazes - regards, fixer
grave - tombe
CHAPTER V"MONSEIGNEUR BIENVENU MADE HIS CASSOCKS LAST TOO LONG
Cassocks - cassocks, soutane
The private life of M. Myriel was filled with the same thoughts as his public life. The voluntary poverty in which the Bishop of D"" lived, would have been a solemn and charming sight for any one who could have viewed it close at hand.
thoughts - réflexions, idée, pensée
solemn - solennel
Like all old men, and like the majority of thinkers, he slept little. This brief slumber was profound. In the morning he meditated for an hour, then he said his mass, either at the cathedral or in his own house. His mass said, he broke his fast on rye bread dipped in the milk of his own cows. Then he set to work.
thinkers - penseurs, penseur, penseuse, intellectuel
slumber - sommeil, somnolence, somnoler
meditated - médité, méditer
rye - du seigle, seigle
A Bishop is a very busy man: he must every day receive the secretary of the bishopric, who is generally a canon, and nearly every day his vicars-general. He has congregations to reprove, privileges to grant, a whole ecclesiastical library to examine,"prayer-books, diocesan catechisms, books of hours, etc.
Canon - canon
vicars - vicaires, curé, vicaire
congregations - les congrégations, rassemblement, assemblée des fideles
reprove - réprouver, reprocher, gronder
privileges - privileges, privilege, privilégier
Ecclesiastical - ecclésiastique
diocesan - diocésain
catechisms - les catéchismes, catéchisme
,"charges to write, sermons to authorize, curĂ©s and mayors to reconcile, a clerical correspondence, an administrative correspondence; on one side the State, on the other the Holy See; and a thousand matters of business.
authorize - autoriser
reconcile - se réconcilier, réconcilier
clerical - administratif, clérical
correspondence - correspondance, chronique
administrative - administrative
What time was left to him, after these thousand details of business, and his offices and his breviary, he bestowed first on the necessitous, the sick, and the afflicted; the time which was left to him from the afflicted, the sick, and the necessitous, he devoted to work. Sometimes he dug in his garden; again, he read or wrote.
breviary - bréviaire
necessitous - nécessaire
He had but one word for both these kinds of toil; he called them gardening. "The mind is a garden," said he.
toil - labeur, travailler
Towards midday, when the weather was fine, he went forth and took a stroll in the country or in town, often entering lowly dwellings.
midday - midi, (de) midi
stroll - promenade, flânerie, balade, promener
lowly - faible, humble
He was seen walking alone, buried in his own thoughts, his eyes cast down, supporting himself on his long cane, clad in his wadded purple garment of silk, which was very warm, wearing purple stockings inside his coarse shoes, and surmounted by a flat hat which allowed three golden tassels of large bullion to droop from its three points.
cane - canne, tige, bastonnade, canne blanche, bâtonner
garment - de l'habillement, vetement
stockings - bas
surmounted - surmonté, surmonter
tassels - des pompons, panicule
bullion - lingots, lingot
droop - tomber, s'affaisser, bec
It was a perfect festival wherever he appeared. One would have said that his presence had something warming and luminous about it. The children and the old people came out to the doorsteps for the Bishop as for the sun. He bestowed his blessing, and they blessed him. They pointed out his house to any one who was in need of anything.
luminous - lumineux
doorsteps - pas de porte, seuil
blessing - la bénédiction, bénédiction, grâce, troupeau, harde
comforter - couette, consolateur
Here and there he halted, accosted the little boys and girls, and smiled upon the mothers. He visited the poor so long as he had any money; when he no longer had any, he visited the rich.
halted - arreté, (s')arreter
accosted - accosté, accoster
As he made his cassocks last a long while, and did not wish to have it noticed, he never went out in the town without his wadded purple cloak. This inconvenienced him somewhat in summer.
cloak - cape, pelisse, pelerine
inconvenienced - genés, dérangement, désagrément
On his return, he dined. The dinner resembled his breakfast.
dined - dîné, vacarme
resembled - ressemblait, ressembler
At half-past eight in the evening he supped with his sister, Madame Magloire standing behind them and serving them at table. Nothing could be more frugal than this repast. If, however, the Bishop had one of his curĂ©s to supper, Madame Magloire took advantage of the opportunity to serve Monseigneur with some excellent fish from the lake, or with some fine game from the mountains.
more frugal - plus frugale
repast - repas
supper - dîner, souper
Every curĂ© furnished the pretext for a good meal: the Bishop did not interfere. With that exception, his ordinary diet consisted only of vegetables boiled in water, and oil soup. Thus it was said in the town, when the Bishop does not indulge in the cheer of a curĂ©, he indulges in the cheer of a trappist.
furnished - meublé, meubler, fournir, livrer
interfere - meler
indulges in - s'y adonne
Trappist - trappiste
After supper he conversed for half an hour with Mademoiselle Baptistine and Madame Magloire; then he retired to his own room and set to writing, sometimes on loose sheets, and again on the margin of some folio. He was a man of letters and rather learned.
conversed - conversé, converser
folio - folio
He left behind him five or six very curious manuscripts; among others, a dissertation on this verse in Genesis, In the beginning, the spirit of God floated upon the waters.
manuscripts - manuscrits, manuscrit
dissertation - dissertation
verse - vers, strophe
Genesis - la genese, genese
With this verse he compares three texts: the Arabic verse which says, The winds of God blew; Flavius Josephus who says, A wind from above was precipitated upon the earth; and finally, the Chaldaic paraphrase of Onkelos, which renders it, A wind coming from God blew upon the face of the waters.
winds - vents, vent
precipitated - précipité
Chaldaic - Chaldaique
paraphrase - paraphrase, paraphraser
renders - les rendus, rendre
In another dissertation, he examines the theological works of Hugo, Bishop of PtolemaĂŻs, great-grand-uncle to the writer of this book, and establishes the fact, that to this bishop must be attributed the divers little works published during the last century, under the pseudonym of Barleycourt.
attributed - attribuée, attribut, épithete or déterminant
divers - des plongeurs, plongeur, plongeuse
pseudonym - nom de guerre, pseudonyme
Sometimes, in the midst of his reading, no matter what the book might be which he had in his hand, he would suddenly fall into a profound meditation, whence he only emerged to write a few lines on the pages of the volume itself. These lines have often no connection whatever with the book which contains them.
whence - pourquoi, d'ou
We now have under our eyes a note written by him on the margin of a quarto entitled Correspondence of Lord Germain with Generals Clinton, Cornwallis, and the Admirals on the American station. Versailles, PoinĂ§ot, book-seller; and Paris, Pissot, bookseller, Quai des Augustins.
quarto - quarto
entitled - habilité, intituler
admirals - amiraux, amiral
Versailles - Versailles
bookseller - libraire
Quai - quai
des - DES
Here is the note:"
"Oh, you who are!
"Ecclesiastes calls you the All-powerful; the Maccabees call you the Creator; the Epistle to the Ephesians calls you liberty; Baruch calls you Immensity; the Psalms call you Wisdom and Truth; John calls you Light; the Books of Kings call you Lord; Exodus calls you Providence; Leviticus, Sanctity; Esdras, Justice; the creation calls you God; man calls you Father; but Solomon calls you Compassion, and that is the most beautiful of all your names."
all-powerful - (all-powerful) tout puissant
creator - créateur, créatrice, rench: t-needed r
epistle - épître, épitre
liberty - liberté
immensity - immensité
Psalms - les psaumes, psaume
Exodus - exodus, Exode
Providence - la providence, Providence
Leviticus - leviticus, Lévitique
sanctity - sainteté
Solomon - salomon, Solayman
compassion - la compassion, compassion
Toward nine o'clock in the evening the two women retired and betook themselves to their chambers on the first floor, leaving him alone until morning on the ground floor.
toward - vers, envers, pour, pres de
It is necessary that we should, in this place, give an exact idea of the dwelling of the Bishop of D""
CHAPTER VI"WHO GUARDED HIS HOUSE FOR HIM
The house in which he lived consisted, as we have said, of a ground floor, and one story above; three rooms on the ground floor, three chambers on the first, and an attic above. Behind the house was a garden, a quarter of an acre in extent. The two women occupied the first floor; the Bishop was lodged below.
attic - grenier, combles, mansarde
Acre - acre
lodged - déposé, cabane, maison du portier, loge, rench: -neededr, loger
The first room, opening on the street, served him as dining-room, the second was his bedroom, and the third his oratory. There was no exit possible from this oratory, except by passing through the bedroom, nor from the bedroom, without passing through the dining-room. At the end of the suite, in the oratory, there was a detached alcove with a bed, for use in cases of hospitality.
suite - suite
detached - détaché, détacher
alcove - alcôve
hospitality - l'hospitalité, hospitalité, hôtellerie-restauration
The Bishop offered this bed to country curates whom business or the requirements of their parishes brought to D""
offered - proposé, offrir, proposer
curates - conservateurs, vicaire
parishes - les paroisses, paroisse (noun), paroissial (adjective)
The pharmacy of the hospital, a small building which had been added to the house, and abutted on the garden, had been transformed into a kitchen and cellar. In addition to this, there was in the garden a stable, which had formerly been the kitchen of the hospital, and in which the Bishop kept two cows.
pharmacy - pharmacie, officine
cellar - cave
No matter what the quantity of milk they gave, he invariably sent half of it every morning to the sick people in the hospital.
invariably - invariablement
"I am paying my tithes," he said.
tithes - dîmes, dîme
His bedroom was tolerably large, and rather difficult to warm in bad weather. As wood is extremely dear at D"", he hit upon the idea of having a compartment of boards constructed in the cow-shed. Here he passed his evenings during seasons of severe cold: he called it his winter salon.
hit upon - Draguer
compartment - compartiment, terrasse
shed - hangar, verser, stand, kiosque, échoppe
salon - salon, salon de coiffure, salon de beauté, institut de beauté
In this winter salon, as in the dining-room, there was no other furniture than a square table in white wood, and four straw-seated chairs. In addition to this the dining-room was ornamented with an antique sideboard, painted pink, in water colors. Out of a similar sideboard, properly draped with white napery and imitation lace, the Bishop had constructed the altar which decorated his oratory.
ornamented - orné, ornement, ornement musical
antique - ancien, antique
sideboard - le buffet, buffet
draped - drapé, draper
napery - napery
imitation - imitation
lace - dentelle, pointue
altar - l'autel, autel
His wealthy penitents and the sainted women of D"" had more than once assessed themselves to raise the money for a new altar for Monseigneur's oratory; on each occasion he had taken the money and had given it to the poor. "The most beautiful of altars," he said, "is the soul of an unhappy creature consoled and thanking God."
penitents - pénitents, pénitent
sainted - saintes, Saint
altars - les autels, autel
In his oratory there were two straw prie-Dieu, and there was an armchair, also in straw, in his bedroom.
When, by chance, he received seven or eight persons at one time, the prefect, or the general, or the staff of the regiment in garrison, or several pupils from the little seminary, the chairs had to be fetched from the winter salon in the stable, the prie-Dieu from the oratory, and the armchair from the bedroom: in this way as many as eleven chairs could be collected for the visitors.
regiment - régiment
garrison - garnison
fetched - fouillé, aller chercher
A room was dismantled for each new guest.
dismantled - démantelé, démonter, démanteler
It sometimes happened that there were twelve in the party; the Bishop then relieved the embarrassment of the situation by standing in front of the chimney if it was winter, or by strolling in the garden if it was summer.
embarrassment - de l'embarras, embarras, (etre la) honte (de)
chimney - cheminée
strolling - se promener, (stroll), promenade, flânerie, balade, promener
There was still another chair in the detached alcove, but the straw was half gone from it, and it had but three legs, so that it was of service only when propped against the wall.
propped - étayé, support
Mademoiselle Baptistine had also in her own room a very large easy-chair of wood, which had formerly been gilded, and which was covered with flowered pekin; but they had been obliged to hoist this bergĂ¨re up to the first story through the window, as the staircase was too narrow; it could not, therefore, be reckoned among the possibilities in the way of furniture.
gilded - doré, dorer
pekin - pékin
Hoist - treuil, hisser
staircase - escalier
Mademoiselle Baptistine's ambition had been to be able to purchase a set of drawing-room furniture in yellow Utrecht velvet, stamped with a rose pattern, and with mahogany in swan's neck style, with a sofa.
Utrecht - utrecht
velvet - du velours, velours, duvet (on skin), velours (on antlers)
mahogany - acajou, mahagoni
swan - cygne
sofa - canapé, sofa
But this would have cost five hundred francs at least, and in view of the fact that she had only been able to lay by forty-two francs and ten sous for this purpose in the course of five years, she had ended by renouncing the idea. However, who is there who has attained his ideal?
lay by - Mettre de côté
sous - sous, (sou) sous
renouncing - renoncement, renoncer a
attained - atteint, atteindre
Nothing is more easy to present to the imagination than the Bishop's bedchamber.
bedchamber - chambre a coucher
A glazed door opened on the garden; opposite this was the bed,"a hospital bed of iron, with a canopy of green serge; in the shadow of the bed, behind a curtain, were the utensils of the toilet, which still betrayed the elegant habits of the man of the world: there were two doors, one near the chimney, opening into the oratory; the other near the bookcase, opening into the dining-room.
glazed - vitrifié, glaçure, émail, glacis, glaçage, givre
canopy - d'auvent, dais, baldaquin, voute, marquise, canopée
serge - serge
utensils - ustensiles, ustensile, ustensile de cuisine
betrayed - trahi, trahir, livrer
bookcase - bibliotheque, bibliotheque
The bookcase was a large cupboard with glass doors filled with books; the chimney was of wood painted to represent marble, and habitually without fire.
habitually - de maniere habituelle
In the chimney stood a pair of firedogs of iron, ornamented above with two garlanded vases, and flutings which had formerly been silvered with silver leaf, which was a sort of episcopal luxury; above the chimney-piece hung a crucifix of copper, with the silver worn off, fixed on a background of threadbare velvet in a wooden frame from which the gilding had fallen; near the glass door a large table with an inkstand, loaded with a confusion of papers and with huge volumes; before the table an armchair of straw; in front of the bed a prie-Dieu, borrowed from the oratory.
garlanded - en guirlande, guirlande, rench: -neededr
vases - vases, vase
crucifix - croix, crucifix
copper - cuivre
threadbare - filiforme, élimé
Two portraits in oval frames were fastened to the wall on each side of the bed. Small gilt inscriptions on the plain surface of the cloth at the side of these figures indicated that the portraits represented, one the AbbĂ© of Chaliot, bishop of Saint Claude; the other, the AbbĂ© Tourteau, vicar-general of Agde, abbĂ© of Grand-Champ, order of CĂ®teaux, diocese of Chartres.
oval - ovale
gilt - doré, dorure, (gild) doré
inscriptions - inscriptions, inscription, légende, dédicace
champ - champion, mâchonner
When the Bishop succeeded to this apartment, after the hospital patients, he had found these portraits there, and had left them. They were priests, and probably donors"two reasons for respecting them. All that he knew about these two persons was, that they had been appointed by the king, the one to his bishopric, the other to his benefice, on the same day, the 27th of April, 1785.
Donors - les donateurs, donateur, donneur
Madame Magloire having taken the pictures down to dust, the Bishop had discovered these particulars written in whitish ink on a little square of paper, yellowed by time, and attached to the back of the portrait of the AbbĂ© of Grand-Champ with four wafers.
whitish - blanchâtre
wafers - gaufrettes, gaufrette, hostie, oublie, pain a cacheter, wafer
At his window he had an antique curtain of a coarse woollen stuff, which finally became so old, that, in order to avoid the expense of a new one, Madame Magloire was forced to take a large seam in the very middle of it. This seam took the form of a cross. The Bishop often called attention to it: "How delightful that is!" he said.
seam - couture
delightful - délicieux
All the rooms in the house, without exception, those on the ground floor as well as those on the first floor, were white-washed, which is a fashion in barracks and hospitals.
Barracks - les casernes, caserne, (barrack) les casernes
However, in their latter years, Madame Magloire discovered beneath the paper which had been washed over, paintings, ornamenting the apartment of Mademoiselle Baptistine, as we shall see further on. Before becoming a hospital, this house had been the ancient Parliament house of the Bourgeois. Hence this decoration.
beneath - dessous
paintings - peintures, peinture, toile, art pictural
ornamenting - l'ornementation, ornement, ornement musical
Parliament house - Le Parlement
bourgeois - bourgeois, roturier
The chambers were paved in red bricks, which were washed every week, with straw mats in front of all the beds. Altogether, this dwelling, which was attended to by the two women, was exquisitely clean from top to bottom. This was the sole luxury which the Bishop permitted. He said, "That takes nothing from the poor."
paved - pavé, paver
mats - tapis, (petit) tapis
exquisitely - de maniere exquise
sole - unique, seul, semelle, plante, sole
It must be confessed, however, that he still retained from his former possessions six silver knives and forks and a soup-ladle, which Madame Magloire contemplated every day with delight, as they glistened splendidly upon the coarse linen cloth.
soup-ladle - (soup-ladle) une louche a soupe
contemplated - envisagée, envisager, étudier, contempler
glistened - a brillé, reluire
splendidly - magnifiquement
linen - le linge, toile, lin, linge
And since we are now painting the Bishop of D"" as he was in reality, we must add that he had said more than once, "I find it difficult to renounce eating from silver dishes."
renounce - renoncer
To this silverware must be added two large candlesticks of massive silver, which he had inherited from a great-aunt. These candlesticks held two wax candles, and usually figured on the Bishop's chimney-piece. When he had any one to dinner, Madame Magloire lighted the two candles and set the candlesticks on the table.
silverware - l'argenterie, argenterie, couverts
candlesticks - chandeliers, chandelier
wax - la cire, cirons, cirez, cire, cirer, cirent
In the Bishop's own chamber, at the head of his bed, there was a small cupboard, in which Madame Magloire locked up the six silver knives and forks and the big spoon every night. But it is necessary to add, that the key was never removed.
chamber - chambre, piece, salle
The garden, which had been rather spoiled by the ugly buildings which we have mentioned, was composed of four alleys in cross-form, radiating from a tank. Another walk made the circuit of the garden, and skirted the white wall which enclosed it. These alleys left behind them four square plots rimmed with box.
alleys - les allées, ruelle, allée
radiating - rayonnant, irradier
rimmed - bordé, jante, bord
In three of these, Madame Magloire cultivated vegetables; in the fourth, the Bishop had planted some flowers; here and there stood a few fruit-trees. Madame Magloire had once remarked, with a sort of gentle malice: "Monseigneur, you who turn everything to account, have, nevertheless, one useless plot. It would be better to grow salads there than bouquets.
cultivated - cultivé, cultiver
malice - malveillance, méchanceté
bouquets - bouquets, bouquet
" "Madame Magloire," retorted the Bishop, "you are mistaken. The beautiful is as useful as the useful." He added after a pause, "More so, perhaps."
retorted - a rétorqué, rétorquer
are mistaken - Se tromper
This plot, consisting of three or four beds, occupied the Bishop almost as much as did his books. He liked to pass an hour or two there, trimming, hoeing, and making holes here and there in the earth, into which he dropped seeds. He was not as hostile to insects as a gardener could have wished to see him.
trimming - le rognage, émondage, (trim), tailler, compenser, compensation
hoeing - le binage, binette
hostile - hostile
gardener - jardinier, jardiniere
Moreover, he made no pretensions to botany; he ignored groups and consistency; he made not the slightest effort to decide between Tournefort and the natural method; he took part neither with the buds against the cotyledons, nor with Jussieu against LinnĂ¦us. He did not study plants; he loved flowers.
Botany - la botanique, botanique
consistency - cohérence, consistance
buds - bourgeons, bourgeon
cotyledons - cotylédons, cotylédon
He respected learned men greatly; he respected the ignorant still more; and, without ever failing in these two respects, he watered his flower-beds every summer evening with a tin watering-pot painted green.
The house had not a single door which could be locked. The door of the dining-room, which, as we have said, opened directly on the cathedral square, had formerly been ornamented with locks and bolts like the door of a prison. The Bishop had had all this ironwork removed, and this door was never fastened, either by night or by day, with anything except the latch.
bolts - boulons, verrou
ironwork - la ferronnerie, ferronnerie
latch - le loquet, loquet
All that the first passer-by had to do at any hour, was to give it a push. At first, the two women had been very much tried by this door, which was never fastened, but Monsieur de D"" had said to them, "Have bolts put on your rooms, if that will please you." They had ended by sharing his confidence, or by at least acting as though they shared it.
much tried - beaucoup essayé
Madame Magloire alone had frights from time to time. As for the Bishop, his thought can be found explained, or at least indicated, in the three lines which he wrote on the margin of a Bible, "This is the shade of difference: the door of the physician should never be shut, the door of the priest should always be open."
frights - des frayeurs, peur, effroi
Bible - la bible, Bible
physician - médecin, femme médecin, docteur
On another book, entitled Philosophy of the Medical Science, he had written this other note: "Am not I a physician like them? I also have my patients, and then, too, I have some whom I call my unfortunates."
Again he wrote: "Do not inquire the name of him who asks a shelter of you. The very man who is embarrassed by his name is the one who needs shelter."
inquire - demander, enqueter
is embarrassed - est gené
It chanced that a worthy curĂ©, I know not whether it was the curĂ© of Couloubroux or the curĂ© of Pompierry, took it into his head to ask him one day, probably at the instigation of Madame Magloire, whether Monsieur was sure that he was not committing an indiscretion, to a certain extent, in leaving his door unfastened day and night, at the mercy of any one who should choose to enter, and whether, in short, he did not fear lest some misfortune might occur in a house so little guarded. The Bishop touched his shoulder, with gentle gravity, and said to him, "Nisi Dominus custodierit domum, in vanum vigilant qui custodiunt eam," Unless the Lord guard the house, in vain do they watch who guard it.
instigation - l'instigation
indiscretion - indiscrétion
unfastened - non fermé, défaire
mercy - la pitié, miséricorde, pitié
misfortune - malchance, mésaventure, malheur
gravity - la gravité, gravité, pesanteur
nisi - nisi
vigilant - vigilant
vain - vaine, rench: vaniteux, frivole, vain, futile
Then he spoke of something else.
He was fond of saying, "There is a bravery of the priest as well as the bravery of a colonel of dragoons,"only," he added, "ours must be tranquil."
bravery - la bravoure, courage
Colonel - colonel
Dragoons - les dragons, dragon, pigeon dragon
tranquil - tranquille
It is here that a fact falls naturally into place, which we must not omit, because it is one of the sort which show us best what sort of a man the Bishop of D"" was.
After the destruction of the band of Gaspard BĂ¨s, who had infested the gorges of Ollioules, one of his lieutenants, Cravatte, took refuge in the mountains. He concealed himself for some time with his bandits, the remnant of Gaspard BĂ¨s's troop, in the county of Nice; then he made his way to PiĂ©dmont, and suddenly reappeared in France, in the vicinity of Barcelonette.
gorges - gorges, gorge
lieutenants - lieutenants, lieutenant, qualifier
refuge - refuge
bandits - des bandits, voleur, voleuse, bandit, bandite
remnant - vestige, reste
reappeared - réapparaît, réapparaître
He was first seen at Jauziers, then at Tuiles. He hid himself in the caverns of the Joug-de-l'Aigle, and thence he descended towards the hamlets and villages through the ravines of Ubaye and Ubayette.
caverns - cavernes, caverne, grotte
thence - d'ou, des lors
hamlets - hameaux, hameau
ravines - les ravins, ravin
He even pushed as far as Embrun, entered the cathedral one night, and despoiled the sacristy. His highway robberies laid waste the country-side. The gendarmes were set on his track, but in vain. He always escaped; sometimes he resisted by main force. He was a bold wretch. In the midst of all this terror the Bishop arrived. He was making his circuit to Chastelar.
sacristy - sacristie
highway robberies - grand banditisme
gendarmes - gendarmes, gendarme
The mayor came to meet him, and urged him to retrace his steps. Cravatte was in possession of the mountains as far as Arche, and beyond; there was danger even with an escort; it merely exposed three or four unfortunate gendarmes to no purpose.
escort - escorte, escorter
"Therefore," said the Bishop, "I intend to go without escort."
"You do not really mean that, Monseigneur!" exclaimed the mayor.
"I do mean it so thoroughly that I absolutely refuse any gendarmes, and shall set out in an hour."
refuse - refuser, refusons, refusent, refusez
"Monseigneur, you will not do that!"
"There exists yonder in the mountains," said the Bishop, "a tiny community no bigger than that, which I have not seen for three years. They are my good friends, those gentle and honest shepherds. They own one goat out of every thirty that they tend. They make very pretty woollen cords of various colors, and they play the mountain airs on little flutes with six holes.
yonder - la-bas, la-bas
shepherds - bergers, berger, bergere, pasteur, pâtre, qualifier
goat - chevre, chevre, bouc, bique
flutes - flutes, flute
They need to be told of the good God now and then. What would they say to a bishop who was afraid? What would they say if I did not go?"
"But the brigands, Monseigneur?"
brigands - des brigands, brigand, bandit
"Hold," said the Bishop, "I must think of that. You are right. I may meet them. They, too, need to be told of the good God."
"But, Monseigneur, there is a band of them! A flock of wolves!"
flock - troupeau
wolves - loups, loup, tombeur, dévorer, engloutir
"Monsieur le maire, it may be that it is of this very flock of wolves that Jesus has constituted me the shepherd. Who knows the ways of Providence?"
constituted - constitué, constituer
shepherd - berger, bergere, pasteur, pâtre
"They will rob you, Monseigneur."
"I have nothing."
"They will kill you."
"An old goodman of a priest, who passes along mumbling his prayers? Bah! To what purpose?"
mumbling - marmonner, marmonnant, (mumble)
Bah - bah
"Oh, mon Dieu! what if you should meet them!"
"I should beg alms of them for my poor."
"Do not go, Monseigneur. In the name of Heaven! You are risking your life!"
"Monsieur le maire," said the Bishop, "is that really all? I am not in the world to guard my own life, but to guard souls."
They had to allow him to do as he pleased. He set out, accompanied only by a child who offered to serve as a guide. His obstinacy was bruited about the country-side, and caused great consternation.
obstinacy - l'obstination, entetement, obstination
consternation - consternation, sidération, accablement, prostration
He would take neither his sister nor Madame Magloire. He traversed the mountain on mule-back, encountered no one, and arrived safe and sound at the residence of his "good friends," the shepherds. He remained there for a fortnight, preaching, administering the sacrament, teaching, exhorting. When the time of his departure approached, he resolved to chant a Te Deum pontifically.
traversed - traversé, franchir, traverser
mule - mule, mulet
fortnight - quinze jours, deux semaines, quinzaine
preaching - la prédication, prechant, (preach), precher, proclamer
administering - administrer, gérer
sacrament - sacrement
exhorting - l'exhortation, exhorter
chant - chant, chanter
He mentioned it to the curĂ©. But what was to be done? There were no episcopal ornaments. They could only place at his disposal a wretched village sacristy, with a few ancient chasubles of threadbare damask adorned with imitation lace.
ornaments - ornements, ornement, ornement musical
disposal - l'élimination, disposition, élimination
chasubles - chasubles, chasuble
damask - damas, lie-de-vin
adorned - orné, décorer, orner, parer
"Bah!" said the Bishop. "Let us announce our Te Deum from the pulpit, nevertheless, Monsieur le CurĂ©. Things will arrange themselves."
te - Te
pulpit - chaire
They instituted a search in the churches of the neighborhood. All the magnificence of these humble parishes combined would not have sufficed to clothe the chorister of a cathedral properly.
magnificence - magnificence
chorister - choriste, choureur, choureuse
While they were thus embarrassed, a large chest was brought and deposited in the presbytery for the Bishop, by two unknown horsemen, who departed on the instant.
horsemen - cavaliers, cavalier
The chest was opened; it contained a cope of cloth of gold, a mitre ornamented with diamonds, an archbishop's cross, a magnificent crosier,"all the pontifical vestments which had been stolen a month previously from the treasury of Notre Dame d'Embrun. In the chest was a paper, on which these words were written, "From Cravatte to Monseigneur Bienvenu."
mitre - l'onglet, mitre
crosier - crosse
pontifical - pontificale, pontifical
treasury - trésor public, trésorerie
"Did not I say that things would come right of themselves?" said the Bishop. Then he added, with a smile, "To him who contents himself with the surplice of a curate, God sends the cope of an archbishop."
Contents - contenu, satisfait
surplice - le surplis, surplis
"Monseigneur," murmured the curĂ©, throwing back his head with a smile. "God"or the Devil."
murmured - murmuré, murmure, rumeur, souffle, murmurer
throwing back - Lancer en arriere
devil - Diable, Satan, type
The Bishop looked steadily at the curĂ©, and repeated with authority, "God!"
When he returned to Chastelar, the people came out to stare at him as at a curiosity, all along the road. At the priest's house in Chastelar he rejoined Mademoiselle Baptistine and Madame Magloire, who were waiting for him, and he said to his sister: "Well! was I in the right? The poor priest went to his poor mountaineers with empty hands, and he returns from them with his hands full.
I set out bearing only my faith in God; I have brought back the treasure of a cathedral."
That evening, before he went to bed, he said again: "Let us never fear robbers nor murderers. Those are dangers from without, petty dangers. Let us fear ourselves. Prejudices are the real robbers; vices are the real murderers. The great dangers lie within ourselves. What matters it what threatens our head or our purse! Let us think only of that which threatens our soul."
robbers - des voleurs, brigand, bandit
murderers - meurtriers, meurtrier, meurtriere, assassin, assassine
prejudices - préjugés, préjugé, idée préconçue, préjudice
vices - vices, étau
Then, turning to his sister: "Sister, never a precaution on the part of the priest, against his fellow-man. That which his fellow does, God permits. Let us confine ourselves to prayer, when we think that a danger is approaching us. Let us pray, not for ourselves, but that our brother may not fall into sin on our account."
precaution - précaution
However, such incidents were rare in his life. We relate those of which we know; but generally he passed his life in doing the same things at the same moment. One month of his year resembled one hour of his day.
As to what became of "the treasure" of the cathedral of Embrun, we should be embarrassed by any inquiry in that direction. It consisted of very handsome things, very tempting things, and things which were very well adapted to be stolen for the benefit of the unfortunate. Stolen they had already been elsewhere.
inquiry - demande, enquete
handsome - beau
tempting - tentant, (tempt), tenter, attirer
Half of the adventure was completed; it only remained to impart a new direction to the theft, and to cause it to take a short trip in the direction of the poor. However, we make no assertions on this point.
impart - donner, communiquer, transmettre
assertions - affirmations, assertion, qualifier
Only, a rather obscure note was found among the Bishop's papers, which may bear some relation to this matter, and which is couched in these terms, "The question is, to decide whether this should be turned over to the cathedral or to the hospital."
obscure - obscure, obscur, sibyllin, obscurcir
couched - couché, canapé
CHAPTER VIII"PHILOSOPHY AFTER DRINKING
The senator above mentioned was a clever man, who had made his own way, heedless of those things which present obstacles, and which are called conscience, sworn faith, justice, duty: he had marched straight to his goal, without once flinching in the line of his advancement and his interest.
senator - sénateur, sénatrice
above mentioned - mentionné ci-dessus
heedless - sans se soucier des autres, insouciant, inattentif, négligent
conscience - conscience
flinching - flancher, tressaillir
advancement - l'avancement, progres, avancement d'hoirie
He was an old attorney, softened by success; not a bad man by any means, who rendered all the small services in his power to his sons, his sons-in-law, his relations, and even to his friends, having wisely seized upon, in life, good sides, good opportunities, good windfalls. Everything else seemed to him very stupid.
softened - adoucie, adoucir
rendered - rendu, rendre
wisely - a bon escient, sagement, savamment
seized - saisi, saisir
windfalls - des bénéfices exceptionnels, aubaine
He was intelligent, and just sufficiently educated to think himself a disciple of Epicurus; while he was, in reality, only a product of Pigault-Lebrun. He laughed willingly and pleasantly over infinite and eternal things, and at the "crotchets of that good old fellow the Bishop." He even sometimes laughed at him with an amiable authority in the presence of M. Myriel himself, who listened to him.
disciple - disciple
Epicurus - épicure
willingly - volontairement, volontiers
pleasantly - agréablement
infinite - infini, un nombre infini de
eternal - éternelle, éternel
crotchets - crochets, noire
amiable - aimable, avenant, affable
On some semi-official occasion or other, I do not recollect what, Count*** [this senator] and M. Myriel were to dine with the prefect. At dessert, the senator, who was slightly exhilarated, though still perfectly dignified, exclaimed:"
semi - semi
recollect - se souvenir, se ressaisir
dine - dîner
dessert - dessert
dignified - digne, honorer
"Egad, Bishop, let's have a discussion. It is hard for a senator and a bishop to look at each other without winking. We are two augurs. I am going to make a confession to you. I have a philosophy of my own."
egad - egad
winking - clin d'oil, (wink) clin d'oil
augurs - augures, augure, augurer
"And you are right," replied the Bishop. "As one makes one's philosophy, so one lies on it. You are on the bed of purple, senator."
The senator was encouraged, and went on:"
"Let us be good fellows."
"Good devils even," said the Bishop.
devils - diables, Diable, Satan, type
"I declare to you," continued the senator, "that the Marquis d'Argens, Pyrrhon, Hobbes, and M. Naigeon are no rascals. I have all the philosophers in my library gilded on the edges."
philosophers - philosophes, philosophe
"Like yourself, Count," interposed the Bishop.
interposed - interposée, interposer, intercaler, interrompre, couper
The senator resumed:"
resumed - reprise, reprendre
"I hate Diderot; he is an ideologist, a declaimer, and a revolutionist, a believer in God at bottom, and more bigoted than Voltaire. Voltaire made sport of Needham, and he was wrong, for Needham's eels prove that God is useless. A drop of vinegar in a spoonful of flour paste supplies the fiat lux. Suppose the drop to be larger and the spoonful bigger; you have the world. Man is the eel.
ideologist - idéologue
declaimer - déclamateur
revolutionist - révolutionnaire
believer - croyant, croyante
bigoted - bigot
eels - anguilles, anguille
vinegar - vinaigre
spoonful - cuillerée
paste - pâte, strass, stras, coller
Then what is the good of the Eternal Father? The Jehovah hypothesis tires me, Bishop. It is good for nothing but to produce shallow people, whose reasoning is hollow. Down with that great All, which torments me! Hurrah for Zero which leaves me in peace!
Jehovah - jéhovah
torments - tourments, tourment, tourmenter
Between you and me, and in order to empty my sack, and make confession to my pastor, as it behooves me to do, I will admit to you that I have good sense. I am not enthusiastic over your Jesus, who preaches renunciation and sacrifice to the last extremity. 'Tis the counsel of an avaricious man to beggars. Renunciation; why? Sacrifice; to what end?
sack - sac, ficher, résilier
pastor - pasteur
preaches - preche, precher, proclamer
sacrifice - sacrifier, sacrifice, offrande
Tis - tis, (Ti) tis
beggars - mendiants, gueux, mendiant, mendiante, queteux
I do not see one wolf immolating himself for the happiness of another wolf. Let us stick to nature, then. We are at the top; let us have a superior philosophy. What is the advantage of being at the top, if one sees no further than the end of other people's noses? Let us live merrily. Life is all.
wolf - loup, tombeur, dévorer, engloutir
immolating - l'immolation, immoler, sacrifier
merrily - joyeusement, gaiement
That man has another future elsewhere, on high, below, anywhere, I don't believe; not one single word of it. Ah! sacrifice and renunciation are recommended to me; I must take heed to everything I do; I must cudgel my brains over good and evil, over the just and the unjust, over the fas and the nefas. Why? Because I shall have to render an account of my actions. When? After death.
heed - attention, observer, surveiller, preter attention
Cudgel - cudgel, gourdin
unjust - injuste
fas - fas, fa
What a fine dream! After my death it will be a very clever person who can catch me. Have a handful of dust seized by a shadow-hand, if you can. Let us tell the truth, we who are initiated, and who have raised the veil of Isis: there is no such thing as either good or evil; there is vegetation. Let us seek the real. Let us get to the bottom of it. Let us go into it thoroughly. What the deuce!
handful - poignée, manipule
initiated - initié, commencer, démarrer, initier
veil - voile, voiler
vegetation - la végétation, végétation
deuce - deux
let us go to the bottom of it! We must scent out the truth; dig in the earth for it, and seize it. Then it gives you exquisite joys. Then you grow strong, and you laugh. I am square on the bottom, I am. Immortality, Bishop, is a chance, a waiting for dead men's shoes. Ah! what a charming promise! trust to it, if you like! What a fine lot Adam has!
scent - parfum, odeur, odorat, sentir
seize - saisir, emparer
exquisite - exquis
immortality - l'immortalité, immortalité
Adam - adam
We are souls, and we shall be angels, with blue wings on our shoulder-blades. Do come to my assistance: is it not Tertullian who says that the blessed shall travel from sTar to star? Very well. We shall be the grasshoppers of the stars. And then, besides, we shall see God. Ta, ta, ta! What twaddle all these paradises are! God is a nonsensical monster. I would not say that in the Moniteur, egad!
angels - anges, ange
blades - lames, lame
ta - ta, merci
grasshoppers - sauterelles, sauterelle, petit scarabée
twaddle - des balivernes, fadaise, sornette
paradises - paradis, cieux-p
nonsensical - absurde
but I may whisper it among friends. Inter pocula. To sacrifice the world to paradise is to let slip the prey for the shadow. Be the dupe of the infinite! I'm not such a fool. I am a nought. I call myself Monsieur le Comte Nought, senator. Did I exist before my birth? No. Shall I exist after death? No. What am I? A little dust collected in an organism. What am I to do on this earth?
inter - inter, enterrer
prey - la proie, butin, prise, proie
dupe - dupe
nought - rien, zéro
organism - organisme
The choice rests with me: suffer or enjoy. Whither will suffering lead me? To nothingness; but I shall have suffered. Whither will enjoyment lead me? To nothingness; but I shall have enjoyed myself. My choice is made. One must eat or be eaten. I shall eat. It is better to be the tooth than the grass. Such is my wisdom.
whither - ou
nothingness - le néant, néant, vide
enjoyment - jouissance, plaisir
After which, go whither I push thee, the grave-digger is there; the Pantheon for some of us: all falls into the great hole. End. Finis. Total liquidation. This is the vanishing-point. Death is death, believe me. I laugh at the idea of there being any one who has anything to tell me on that subject. Fables of nurses; bugaboo for children; Jehovah for men. No; our to-morrow is the night.
thee - toi
Pantheon - panthéon
Finis - finis
liquidation - la liquidation, liquidation
vanishing - en voie de disparition, (vanish), disparaître, s'évanouir
fables - fables, conte, fable
bugaboo - bugaboo
morrow - lendemain, matin
Beyond the tomb there is nothing but equal nothingness. You have been Sardanapalus, you have been Vincent de Paul"it makes no difference. That is the truth. Then live your life, above all things. Make use of your I while you have it. In truth, Bishop, I tell you that I have a philosophy of my own, and I have my philosophers. I don't let myself be taken in with that nonsense.
Paul - paul
nonsense - des absurdités, betise, absurdité, sottise (s)
Of course, there must be something for those who are down,"for the barefooted beggars, knife-grinders, and miserable wretches. Legends, chimĂ¦ras, the soul, immortality, paradise, the stars, are provided for them to swallow. They gobble it down. They spread it on their dry bread. He who has nothing else has the good God. That is the least he can have.
barefooted - pieds nus
grinders - broyeurs, molaire, aiguisoir, meuleuse, moulin, broyeur
wretches - misérables, malheureux/-euse
gobble - gobble, engloutir
I oppose no objection to that; but I reserve Monsieur Naigeon for myself. The good God is good for the populace."
objection - objection
The Bishop clapped his hands.
clapped - applaudi, applaudir, battre des mains
"That's talking!" he exclaimed. "What an excellent and really marvellous thing is this materialism! Not every one who wants it can have it. Ah! when one does have it, one is no longer a dupe, one does not stupidly allow one's self to be exiled like Cato, nor stoned like Stephen, nor burned alive like Jeanne d'Arc.
marvellous - merveilleux
materialism - le matérialisme, matérialisme
stupidly - stupidement, betement
exiled - exilé, exil, exiler
arc - arc de courbe, arc
Those who have succeeded in procuring this admirable materialism have the joy of feeling themselves irresponsible, and of thinking that they can devour everything without uneasiness,"places, sinecures, dignities, power, whether well or ill acquired, lucrative recantations, useful treacheries, savory capitulations of conscience,"and that they shall enter the tomb with their digestion accomplished.
procuring - l'approvisionnement, acquérir, obtenir, proxénétisme, procurer
irresponsible - irresponsable
devour - dévorer
sinecures - sinécures, sinécure, qualifier
lucrative - lucratif
treacheries - des trahisons, traîtrise
savory - savoureux, sarriette
capitulations - capitulations, capitulation
digestion - la digestion, digestion
How agreeable that is! I do not say that with reference to you, senator. Nevertheless, it is impossible for me to refrain from congratulating you. You great lords have, so you say, a philosophy of your own, and for yourselves, which is exquisite, refined, accessible to the rich alone, good for all sauces, and which seasons the voluptuousness of life admirably.
agreeable - agréable, complaisant
congratulating - féliciter
refined - raffiné, raffiner, fr
accessible - accessible
voluptuousness - volupté, voluptuosité
admirably - admirablement
This philosophy has been extracted from the depths, and unearthed by special seekers. But you are good-natured princes, and you do not think it a bad thing that belief in the good God should constitute the philosophy of the people, very much as the goose stuffed with chestnuts is the truffled turkey of the poor."
unearthed - déterrée, découvrir, déterrer
good-natured - (good-natured) Bonne humeur
constitute - constituent, constituer
goose - l'oie, oie
chestnuts - des châtaignes, châtaigne, marron, châtain, châtaigner
truffled - truffé
turkey - la dinde, dinde, dindon, viande de dinde
CHAPTER IX"THE BROTHER AS DEPICTED BY THE SISTER
In order to furnish an idea of the private establishment of the Bishop of D"", and of the manner in which those two sainted women subordinated their actions, their thoughts, their feminine instincts even, which are easily alarmed, to the habits and purposes of the Bishop, without his even taking the trouble of speaking in order to explain them, we cannot do better than transcribe in this place a letter from Mademoiselle Baptistine to Madame the Vicomtess de Boischevron, the friend of her childhood. This letter is in our possession.
furnish - meubler, fournir, livrer
private establishment - établissement privé
subordinated - subordonné, subordonnée, subordonnés-p
feminine - féminine, féminin, féminin (2)
instincts - instincts, instinct
D"", Dec. 16, 18".
Dec - déc
MY GOOD MADAM: Not a day passes without our speaking of you. It is our established custom; but there is another reason besides. Just imagine, while washing and dusting the ceilings and walls, Madam Magloire has made some discoveries; now our two chambers hung with antique paper whitewashed over, would not discredit a chĂ˘teau in the style of yours. Madam Magloire has pulled off all the paper.
madam - madame, mere maquerelle, tenanciere
whitewashed - blanchi, lait de chaux, badigeon, blanchir, badigeonner
discredit - discréditer, discrédit
There were things beneath. My drawing-room, which contains no furniture, and which we use for spreading out the linen after washing, is fifteen feet in height, eighteen square, with a ceiling which was formerly painted and gilded, and with beams, as in yours. This was covered with a cloth while this was the hospital. And the woodwork was of the era of our grandmothers.
beams - poutres, madrier, poutre, merrain, perche, limon, timon, age
woodwork - le travail du bois, charpenterie, checkmenuiserie
But my room is the one you ought to see. Madam Magloire has discovered, under at least ten thicknesses of paper pasted on top, some paintings, which without being good are very tolerable. The subject is Telemachus being knighted by Minerva in some gardens, the name of which escapes me. In short, where the Roman ladies repaired on one single night. What shall I say to you?
thicknesses - épaisseurs, épaisseur, grosseur
tolerable - tolérable
knighted - anobli, chevalier
I have Romans, and Roman ladies [here occurs an illegible word], and the whole train. Madam Magloire has cleaned it all off; this summer she is going to have some small injuries repaired, and the whole revarnished, and my chamber will be a regular museum. She has also found in a corner of the attic two wooden pier-tables of ancient fashion.
illegible - illisible
pier - quai, jetée, ponton, pile, pilier
They asked us two crowns of six francs each to regild them, but it is much better to give the money to the poor; and they are very ugly besides, and I should much prefer a round table of mahogany.
crowns - couronnes, couronne
regild - regild
I am always very happy. My brother is so good. He gives all he has to the poor and sick. We are very much cramped. The country is trying in the winter, and we really must do something for those who are in need. We are almost comfortably lighted and warmed. You see that these are great treats.
comfortably - confortablement, agréablement
My brother has ways of his own. When he talks, he says that a bishop ought to be so. Just imagine! the door of our house is never fastened. Whoever chooses to enter finds himself at once in my brother's room. He fears nothing, even at night. That is his sort of bravery, he says.
He does not wish me or Madame Magloire feel any fear for him. He exposes himself to all sorts of dangers, and he does not like to have us even seem to notice it. One must know how to understand him.
He goes out in the rain, he walks in the water, he travels in winter. He fears neither suspicious roads nor dangerous encounters, nor night.
suspicious - suspect, méfiant, soupçonneux, suspicieux
Last year he went quite alone into a country of robbers. He would not take us. He was absent for a fortnight. On his return nothing had happened to him; he was thought to be dead, but was perfectly well, and said, "This is the way I have been robbed!" And then he opened a trunk full of jewels, all the jewels of the cathedral of Embrun, which the thieves had given him.
absent - absente, absent
trunk - tronc, malle, coffre, trompe, coffre (de voiture), valise
jewels - bijoux, joyau, bijou, pierre d'horlogerie, rubis
When he returned on that occasion, I could not refrain from scolding him a little, taking care, however, not to speak except when the carriage was making a noise, so that no one might hear me.
scolding - gronder, grognant, (scold), chipie, furie, mégere
At first I used to say to myself, "There are no dangers which will stop him; he is terrible." Now I have ended by getting used to it. I make a sign to Madam Magloire that she is not to oppose him. He risks himself as he sees fit. I carry off Madam Magloire, I enter my chamber, I pray for him and fall asleep.
carry off - emporter
I am at ease, because I know that if anything were to happen to him, it would be the end of me. I should go to the good God with my brother and my bishop. It has cost Madam Magloire more trouble than it did me to accustom herself to what she terms his imprudences. But now the habit has been acquired. We pray together, we tremble together, and we fall asleep.
ease - l'aisance, facilité, repos, abaisser, abréger, amoindrir
accustom - d'accoutumance, accoutumer
tremble - trembler, vibrer, tremblement, vibration
If the devil were to enter this house, he would be allowed to do so. After all, what is there for us to fear in this house? There is always some one with us who is stronger than we. The devil may pass through it, but the good God dwells here.
dwells - habite, résider, s'appesantir sur
This suffices me. My brother has no longer any need of saying a word to me. I understand him without his speaking, and we abandon ourselves to the care of Providence. That is the way one has to do with a man who possesses grandeur of soul.
suffices - suffit, suffire, suffire 2, fr
I have interrogated my brother with regard to the information which you desire on the subject of the Faux family. You are aware that he knows everything, and that he has memories, because he is still a very good royalist. They really are a very ancient Norman family of the generalship of Caen.
interrogated - interrogé, interroger
faux - faux
Norman - norman, Normand, qualifieremale
generalship - généralités
Five hundred years ago there was a Raoul de Faux, a Jean de Faux, and a Thomas de Faux, who were gentlemen, and one of whom was a seigneur de Rochefort. The last was Guy-Ă‰tienne-Alexandre, and was commander of a regiment, and something in the light horse of Bretagne.
seigneur - Seigneur
His daughter, Marie-Louise, married Adrien-Charles de Gramont, son of the Duke Louis de Gramont, peer of France, colonel of the French guards, and lieutenant-general of the army. It is written Faux, Fauq, and Faoucq.
lieutenant - lieutenant
Good Madame, recommend us to the prayers of your sainted relative, Monsieur the Cardinal. As for your dear Sylvanie, she has done well in not wasting the few moments which she passes with you in writing to me. She is well, works as you would wish, and loves me.
That is all that I desire. The souvenir which she sent through you reached me safely, and it makes me very happy. My health is not so very bad, and yet I grow thinner every day. Farewell; my paper is at an end, and this forces me to leave you. A thousand good wishes.
souvenir - souvenir
safely - prudemment, en toute sécurité
Farewell - adieu, prendre congé, dire adieu, faire ses adieux
good wishes - Meilleur voux
P.S. Your grand nephew is charming. Do you know that he will soon be five years old? Yesterday he saw some one riding by on horseback who had on knee-caps, and he said, "What has he got on his knees?" He is a charming child! His little brother is dragging an old broom about the room, like a carriage, and saying, "Hu!"
nephew - neveu
broom - balai
As will be perceived from this letter, these two women understood how to mould themselves to the Bishop's ways with that special feminine genius which comprehends the man better than he comprehends himself.
mould - moule, modeler
comprehends - comprend, comprendre
The Bishop of D"", in spite of the gentle and candid air which never deserted him, sometimes did things that were grand, bold, and magnificent, without seeming to have even a suspicion of the fact. They trembled, but they let him alone. Sometimes Madame Magloire essayed a remonstrance in advance, but never at the time, nor afterwards.
candid - sincere, spontané, candide
suspicion - suspicion, soupçon
trembled - tremblait, trembler, vibrer, tremblement, vibration
They never interfered with him by so much as a word or sign, in any action once entered upon. At certain moments, without his having occasion to mention it, when he was not even conscious of it himself in all probability, so perfect was his simplicity, they vaguely felt that he was acting as a bishop; then they were nothing more than two shadows in the house.
interfered - interféré, meler
simplicity - la simplicité, simplicité
vaguely - vaguement
They served him passively; and if obedience consisted in disappearing, they disappeared. They understood, with an admirable delicacy of instinct, that certain cares may be put under constraint. Thus, even when believing him to be in peril, they understood, I will not say his thought, but his nature, to such a degree that they no longer watched over him. They confided him to God.
passively - passivement
delicacy - délicatesse, gourmandise
constraint - contrainte
peril - péril, risque
confided - confiée, faire confiance, confier
Moreover, Baptistine said, as we have just read, that her brother's end would prove her own. Madame Magloire did not say this, but she knew it.
CHAPTER X"THE BISHOP IN THE PRESENCE OF AN UNKNOWN LIGHT
At an epoch a little later than the date of the letter cited in the preceding pages, he did a thing which, if the whole town was to be believed, was even more hazardous than his trip across the mountains infested with bandits.
hazardous - dangereux
In the country near D"" a man lived quite alone. This man, we will state at once, was a former member of the Convention. His name was G""
Member of the Convention, G"" was mentioned with a sort of horror in the little world of D"" A member of the Convention"can you imagine such a thing? That existed from the time when people called each other thou, and when they said "citizen." This man was almost a monster. He had not voted for the death of the king, but almost. He was a quasi-regicide. He had been a terrible man.
thou - tu
regicide - régicide
How did it happen that such a man had not been brought before a provost's court, on the return of the legitimate princes? They need not have cut off his head, if you please; clemency must be exercised, agreed; but a good banishment for life. An example, in short, etc. Besides, he was an atheist, like all the rest of those people. Gossip of the geese about the vulture.
Provost - le doyen, prévôt, prévôte
clemency - la clémence, clémence, compassion, pitié, miséricorde
banishment - le bannissement, bannissement
atheist - athée, athéiste
gossip - des ragots, commere, commérage, ragot, cancan
geese - des oies
vulture - vautour, carencro, charognard
Was G"" a vulture after all? Yes; if he were to be judged by the element of ferocity in this solitude of his. As he had not voted for the death of the king, he had not been included in the decrees of exile, and had been able to remain in France.
ferocity - férocité, acharnement
exile - l'exil, exil, exilé, exiler
He dwelt at a distance of three-quarters of an hour from the city, far from any hamlet, far from any road, in some hidden turn of a very wild valley, no one knew exactly where. He had there, it was said, a sort of field, a hole, a lair. There were no neighbors, not even passers-by. Since he had dwelt in that valley, the path which led thither had disappeared under a growth of grass.
dwelt - a habité, résider, s'appesantir sur
hamlet - hameau
lair - repaire, taniere
thither - la, la, d'ici la
The locality was spoken of as though it had been the dwelling of a hangman.
locality - région, quartier, voisinage, localité
hangman - bourreau, bourrelle, pendu
Nevertheless, the Bishop meditated on the subject, and from time to time he gazed at the horizon at a point where a clump of trees marked the valley of the former member of the Convention, and he said, "There is a soul yonder which is lonely."
horizon - horizon
clump - amas, touffe, massif
And he added, deep in his own mind, "I owe him a visit."
But, let us avow it, this idea, which seemed natural at the first blush, appeared to him after a moment's reflection, as strange, impossible, and almost repulsive.
avow - avow, avouer, confesser
blush - rougir
repulsive - répugnant
For, at bottom, he shared the general impression, and the old member of the Convention inspired him, without his being clearly conscious of the fact himself, with that sentiment which borders on hate, and which is so well expressed by the word estrangement.
sentiment - sentiment
estrangement - l'éloignement, éloignement
Still, should the scab of the sheep cause the shepherd to recoil? No. But what a sheep!
scab - la gale, croute, s'encrouter
recoil - recul, reculer
The good Bishop was perplexed. Sometimes he set out in that direction; then he returned.
perplexed - perplexe, déconcerter, troubler, dérouter
Finally, the rumor one day spread through the town that a sort of young shepherd, who served the member of the Convention in his hovel, had come in quest of a doctor; that the old wretch was dying, that paralysis was gaining on him, and that he would not live over night.""Thank God!" some added.
rumor - rumeur, bruit
hovel - masure, taudis
quest - quete, recherche
paralysis - la paralysie, paralysie
The Bishop took his staff, put on his cloak, on account of his too threadbare cassock, as we have mentioned, and because of the evening breeze which was sure to rise soon, and set out.
cassock - soutane
breeze - brise
The sun was setting, and had almost touched the horizon when the Bishop arrived at the excommunicated spot. With a certain beating of the heart, he recognized the fact that he was near the lair.
excommunicated - excommunié, excommunier, bannir
He strode over a ditch, leaped a hedge, made his way through a fence of dead boughs, entered a neglected paddock, took a few steps with a good deal of boldness, and suddenly, at the extremity of the waste land, and behind lofty brambles, he caught sight of the cavern.
strode - strode, marcher a grands pas
ditch - fossé
leaped - a sauté, sauter, bondir
hedge - couverture, haie
boughs - rameaux, branche
neglected - négligé, négliger, négligence
paddock - paddock, enclos
boldness - l'audace, audace
lofty - noble, haut
cavern - caverne, grotte
It was a very low hut, poor, small, and clean, with a vine nailed against the outside.
hut - hutte, chaumiere, cabane
vine - vigne, grimpante
Near the door, in an old wheel-chair, the armchair of the peasants, there was a white-haired man, smiling at the sun.
haired - cheveux
Near the seated man stood a young boy, the shepherd lad. He was offering the old man a jar of milk.
lad - lad, garçon, gars, jeune homme, palefrenier
offering - offre, offrande, (offer)
jar - bocal, jarre
While the Bishop was watching him, the old man spoke: "Thank you," he said, "I need nothing." And his smile quitted the sun to rest upon the child.
rest upon - repose sur
The Bishop stepped forward. At the sound which he made in walking, the old man turned his head, and his face expressed the sum total of the surprise which a man can still feel after a long life.
sum total - somme totale
"This is the first time since I have been here," said he, "that any one has entered here. Who are you, sir?"
The Bishop answered:"
"My name is Bienvenu Myriel."
"Bienvenu Myriel? I have heard that name. Are you the man whom the people call Monseigneur Welcome?"
The old man resumed with a half-smile
"In that case, you are my bishop?"
"Something of that sort."
The member of the Convention extended his hand to the Bishop, but the Bishop did not take it. The Bishop confined himself to the remark:"
"I am pleased to see that I have been misinformed. You certainly do not seem to me to be ill."
misinformed - mal informé, mésinformer, induire en erreur, désinformer
"Monsieur," replied the old man, "I am going to recover."
He paused, and then said:"
"I shall die three hours hence."
Then he continued:"
"I am something of a doctor; I know in what fashion the last hour draws on. Yesterday, only my feet were cold; to-day, the chill has ascended to my knees; now I feel it mounting to my waist; when it reaches the heart, I shall stop. The sun is beautiful, is it not? I had myself wheeled out here to take a last look at things. You can talk to me; it does not fatigue me.
chill - refroidissement, froid
ascended - ascensionné, monter
waist - taille, ceinture
fatigue - la fatigue, fatigue, épuisement, corvée, fatiguer
You have done well to come and look at a man who is on the point of death. It is well that there should be witnesses at that moment. One has one's caprices; I should have liked to last until the dawn, but I know that I shall hardly live three hours. It will be night then. What does it matter, after all? Dying is a simple affair. One has no need of the light for that. So be it.
caprices - caprices, caprice
dawn - l'aube, se lever, naître, aube, lever du soleil, aurore
I shall die by starlight."
starlight - la lumiere des étoiles, lumiere des étoiles, lumiere d'étoile
The old man turned to the shepherd lad:"
"Go to thy bed; thou wert awake all last night; thou art tired."
thy - de l'homme, ton/ta, tes
awake - éveillé, (se) réveiller, (s')éveiller
The child entered the hut.
The old man followed him with his eyes, and added, as though speaking to himself:"
"I shall die while he sleeps. The two slumbers may be good neighbors."
slumbers - sommeil, somnolence, somnoler
The Bishop was not touched as it seems that he should have been. He did not think he discerned God in this manner of dying; let us say the whole, for these petty contradictions of great hearts must be indicated like the rest: he, who on occasion, was so fond of laughing at "His Grace," was rather shocked at not being addressed as Monseigneur, and he was almost tempted to retort "citizen.
discerned - discernée, discerner
contradictions - des contradictions, contradiction
be indicated - etre indiqué
tempted - tentés, tenter, attirer
retort - réplique, rétorquer
" He was assailed by a fancy for peevish familiarity, common enough to doctors and priests, but which was not habitual with him. This man, after all, this member of the Convention, this representative of the people, had been one of the powerful ones of the earth; for the first time in his life, probably, the Bishop felt in a mood to be severe.
assailed - assailli, assaillir
peevish - irritable, maussade, geignard
familiarity - familiarité
habitual - habituel
Meanwhile, the member of the Convention had been surveying him with a modest cordiality, in which one could have distinguished, possibly, that humility which is so fitting when one is on the verge of returning to dust.
cordiality - cordialité
humility - l'humilité, humilité
verge - verge, bord
The Bishop, on his side, although he generally restrained his curiosity, which, in his opinion, bordered on a fault, could not refrain from examining the member of the Convention with an attention which, as it did not have its course in sympathy, would have served his conscience as a matter of reproach, in connection with any other man.
restrained - retenue, (se) contenir/retenir
reproach - des reproches, reproche, opprobre, reprocher
A member of the Convention produced on him somewhat the effect of being outside the pale of the law, even of the law of charity. G"", calm, his body almost upright, his voice vibrating, was one of those octogenarians who form the subject of astonishment to the physiologist. The Revolution had many of these men, proportioned to the epoch.
vibrating - vibrant, vibrer
octogenarians - les octogénaires, octogénaire
astonishment - l'étonnement, étonnement
In this old man one was conscious of a man put to the proof. Though so near to his end, he preserved all the gestures of health. In his clear glance, in his firm tone, in the robust movement of his shoulders, there was something calculated to disconcert death. Azrael, the Mohammedan angel of the sepulchre, would have turned back, and thought that he had mistaken the door.
robust - robuste
disconcert - déconcerter, checkconfondre, checkperturber, checkfrustrer
Mohammedan - mahométan
sepulchre - sépulcre
G"" seemed to be dying because he willed it so. There was freedom in his agony. His legs alone were motionless. It was there that the shadows held him fast. His feet were cold and dead, but his head survived with all the power of life, and seemed full of light. G"", at this solemn moment, resembled the king in that tale of the Orient who was flesh above and marble below.
agony - l'agonie, agonie, angoisse
motionless - immobile
Orient - orientent, orientons, orientez
There was a stone there. The Bishop sat down. The exordium was abrupt.
exordium - exordium
abrupt - abrupt, brusque, precipité
"I congratulate you," said he, in the tone which one uses for a reprimand. "You did not vote for the death of the king, after all."
congratulate - féliciter
reprimand - Une réprimande
The old member of the Convention did not appear to notice the bitter meaning underlying the words "after all." He replied. The smile had quite disappeared from his face.
"Do not congratulate me too much, sir. I did vote for the death of the tyrant."
tyrant - tyran
It was the tone of austerity answering the tone of severity.
severity - la sévérité, sévérité, gravité
"What do you mean to say?" resumed the Bishop.
"I mean to say that man has a tyrant,"ignorance. I voted for the death of that tyrant. That tyrant engendered royalty, which is authority falsely understood, while science is authority rightly understood. Man should be governed only by science."
royalty - la royauté, regne, royalty, redevance, droit d'auteur
falsely - a tort, faussement
rightly - a juste titre
"And conscience," added the Bishop.
"It is the same thing. Conscience is the quantity of innate science which we have within us."
innate - inné
Monseigneur Bienvenu listened in some astonishment to this language, which was very new to him.
The member of the Convention resumed:"
"So far as Louis XVI. was concerned, I said 'no.'I did not think that I had the right to kill a man; but I felt it my duty to exterminate evil. I voted the end of the tyrant, that is to say, the end of prostitution for woman, the end of slavery for man, the end of night for the child. In voting for the Republic, I voted for that. I voted for fraternity, concord, the dawn.
exterminate - exterminer, checkanéantir
prostitution - la prostitution, prostitution
slavery - asservissement, esclavage
Fraternity - fraternité
Concord - concord, entente
I have aided in the overthrow of prejudices and errors. The crumbling away of prejudices and errors causes light. We have caused the fall of the old world, and the old world, that vase of miseries, has become, through its upsetting upon the human race, an urn of joy."
overthrow - renverser
crumbling - s'effriter, effritement, (crumble), s'effondrer, effriter
vase - vase
miseries - miseres, misere
urn - urne
"Mixed joy," said the Bishop.
"You may say troubled joy, and to-day, after that fatal return of the past, which is called 1814, joy which has disappeared! Alas! The work was incomplete, I admit: we demolished the ancient regime in deeds; we were not able to suppress it entirely in ideas. To destroy abuses is not sufficient; customs must be modified. The mill is there no longer; the wind is still there."
incomplete - incomplete
demolished - démoli, démolir
regime - régime
Suppress - contenir, checkréduire, checksupprimer, checkréprimer
abuses - abus, abuser (de)
Mill - moulin, bahut, moulons, mouds, moulez, moulent
"You have demolished. It may be of use to demolish, but I distrust a demolition complicated with wrath."
demolish - démolir
distrust - défiance, méfiance, se méfier
demolition - démolition
"Right has its wrath, Bishop; and the wrath of right is an element of progress. In any case, and in spite of whatever may be said, the French Revolution is the most important step of the human race since the advent of Christ. Incomplete, it may be, but sublime.
advent - l'avenement, arrivée
It set free all the unknown social quantities; it softened spirits, it calmed, appeased, enlightened; it caused the waves of civilization to flow over the earth. It was a good thing. The French Revolution is the consecration of humanity."
appeased - apaisé, apaiser
enlightened - éclairé, éclairer, informer
consecration - la consécration, consécration
humanity - l'humanité, humanité
The Bishop could not refrain from murmuring:"
murmuring - murmure, (murmur), rumeur, souffle, murmurer
The member of the Convention straightened himself up in his chair with an almost lugubrious solemnity, and exclaimed, so far as a dying man is capable of exclamation:"
straightened - redressé, redresser
solemnity - solennité
exclamation - exclamation
"Ah, there you go; '93! I was expecting that word. A cloud had been forming for the space of fifteen hundred years; at the end of fifteen hundred years it burst. You are putting the thunderbolt on its trial."
thunderbolt - coup de tonnerre
The Bishop felt, without, perhaps, confessing it, that something within him had suffered extinction. Nevertheless, he put a good face on the matter. He replied:"
extinction - l'extinction, extinction
"The judge speaks in the name of justice; the priest speaks in the name of pity, which is nothing but a more lofty justice. A thunderbolt should commit no error." And he added, regarding the member of the Convention steadily the while, "Louis XVII.?"
The conventionary stretched forth his hand and grasped the Bishop's arm.
conventionary - conventionnel
grasped - saisi, saisir, agripper, comprendre
"Louis XVII.! let us see. For whom do you mourn? is it for the innocent child? very good; in that case I mourn with you. Is it for the royal child? I demand time for reflection.
mourn - déplorer, porter le deuil
To me, the brother of Cartouche, an innocent child who was hung up by the armpits in the Place de GrĂ¨ve, until death ensued, for the sole crime of having been the brother of Cartouche, is no less painful than the grandson of Louis XV., an innocent child, martyred in the tower of the Temple, for the sole crime of having been grandson of Louis XV."
cartouche - cartouche
armpits - aisselles, aisselle
ensued - s'ensuivit, résulter, découler
grandson - petit-fils
martyred - martyrisé, martyr, martyre, chahîd, chahid
"Monsieur," said the Bishop, "I like not this conjunction of names."
conjunction - conjonction
"Cartouche? Louis XV.? To which of the two do you object?"
A momentary silence ensued. The Bishop almost regretted having come, and yet he felt vaguely and strangely shaken.
momentary - momentanée
strangely - étrangement
The conventionary resumed:"
"Ah, Monsieur Priest, you love not the crudities of the true. Christ loved them. He seized a rod and cleared out the Temple. His scourge, full of lightnings, was a harsh speaker of truths. When he cried, 'Sinite parvulos,'he made no distinction between the little children. It would not have embarrassed him to bring together the Dauphin of Barabbas and the Dauphin of Herod.
scourge - fléau, écourgée, fouet, fouetter
lightnings - des éclairs, éclair, éloise, foudre
distinction - distinction, différence
Dauphin - dauphin
Herod - Hérode
Innocence, Monsieur, is its own crown. Innocence has no need to be a highness. It is as august in rags as in fleurs de lys."
innocence - l'innocence, innocence, candeur
Highness - altesse
rags - chiffons, chiffon
"That is true," said the Bishop in a low voice.
"I persist," continued the conventionary G"" "You have mentioned Louis XVII. to me. Let us come to an understanding. Shall we weep for all the innocent, all martyrs, all children, the lowly as well as the exalted? I agree to that. But in that case, as I have told you, we must go back further than '93, and our tears must begin before Louis XVII.
persist - persister
weep - pleurer, pleurez, pleurons, pleurent
martyrs - martyrs, martyr, martyre, chahîd, chahid
I will weep with you over the children of kings, provided that you will weep with me over the children of the people."
"I weep for all," said the Bishop.
"Equally!" exclaimed conventionary G""; "and if the balance must incline, let it be on the side of the people. They have been suffering longer."
Another silence ensued. The conventionary was the first to break it. He raised himself on one elbow, took a bit of his cheek between his thumb and his forefinger, as one does mechanically when one interrogates and judges, and appealed to the Bishop with a gaze full of all the forces of the death agony. It was almost an explosion.
forefinger - l'index, index
mechanically - mécaniquement
interrogates - interroge, interroger
"Yes, sir, the people have been suffering a long while. And hold! that is not all, either; why have you just questioned me and talked to me about Louis XVII.? I know you not. Ever since I have been in these parts I have dwelt in this enclosure alone, never setting foot outside, and seeing no one but that child who helps me.
enclosure - l'enfermement, piece jointe, encloitrer, encloîtrer, enclos
Your name has reached me in a confused manner, it is true, and very badly pronounced, I must admit; but that signifies nothing: clever men have so many ways of imposing on that honest goodman, the people. By the way, I did not hear the sound of your carriage; you have left it yonder, behind the coppice at the fork of the roads, no doubt. I do not know you, I tell you.
signifies - signifie, signifier
coppice - taillis, boqueteau, rejeter de souche
You have told me that you are the Bishop; but that affords me no information as to your moral personality. In short, I repeat my question. Who are you?
You are a bishop; that is to say, a prince of the church, one of those gilded men with heraldic bearings and revenues, who have vast prebends,"the bishopric of D"" fifteen thousand francs settled income, ten thousand in perquisites; total, twenty-five thousand francs,"who have kitchens, who have liveries, who make good cheer, who eat moor-hens on Friday, who strut about, a lackey before, a lackey behind, in a gala coach, and who have palaces, and who roll in their carriages in the name of Jesus Christ who went barefoot! You are a prelate,"revenues, palace, horses, servants, good table, all the sensualities of life; you have this like the rest, and like the rest, you enjoy it; it is well; but this says either too much or too little; this does not enlighten me upon the intrinsic and essential value of the man who comes with the probable intention of bringing wisdom to me. To whom do I speak? Who are you?"
heraldic - héraldique
hens - poules, poule
moor - lande, lier, attacher
strut - jambe de force, se pavaner
lackey - laquais
gala - gala, fete
carriages - les wagons, rench: -neededr, carrosse, port, chariot
barefoot - pieds nus
prelate - prélat
sensualities - sensualités, sensualité
enlighten - éclairer, informer
intrinsic - intrinseque
The Bishop hung his head and replied, "Vermis sum"I am a worm."
Vermis - vermis
"A worm of the earth in a carriage?" growled the conventionary.
growled - a grogné, feulement, grognement, borborygme, gargouillement
It was the conventionary's turn to be arrogant, and the Bishop's to be humble.
The Bishop resumed mildly:"
mildly - légerement
"So be it, sir. But explain to me how my carriage, which is a few paces off behind the trees yonder, how my good table and the moor-hens which I eat on Friday, how my twenty-five thousand francs income, how my palace and my lackeys prove that clemency is not a duty, and that '93 was not inexorable."
lackeys - laquais
inexorable - inexorable
The conventionary passed his hand across his brow, as though to sweep away a cloud.
brow - sourcils, andouiller d'oil, maître andouiller
sweep away - balayer
"Before replying to you," he said, "I beseech you to pardon me. I have just committed a wrong, sir. You are at my house, you are my guest, I owe you courtesy. You discuss my ideas, and it becomes me to confine myself to combating your arguments. Your riches and your pleasures are advantages which I hold over you in the debate; but good taste dictates that I shall not make use of them.
beseech - prier, implorer, supplier
courtesy - courtoisie, politesse, indulgence
combating - combattre, combat, bataille, lutte
dictates - dicte, dicter
I promise you to make no use of them in the future."
"I thank you," said the Bishop.
"Let us return to the explanation which you have asked of me. Where were we? What were you saying to me? That '93 was inexorable?"
"Inexorable; yes," said the Bishop. "What think you of Marat clapping his hands at the guillotine?"
"What think you of Bossuet chanting the Te Deum over the dragonnades?"
chanting - chanter, psalmodier
The retort was a harsh one, but it attained its mark with the directness of a point of steel. The Bishop quivered under it; no reply occurred to him; but he was offended by this mode of alluding to Bossuet. The best of minds will have their fetiches, and they sometimes feel vaguely wounded by the want of respect of logic.
quivered - a tremblé, frémir
alluding - allusion, alluder, faire allusion, suggérer
logic - logique
The conventionary began to pant; the asthma of the agony which is mingled with the last breaths interrupted his voice; still, there was a perfect lucidity of soul in his eyes. He went on:"
pant - pant, haleter
mingled - mélangés, mélanger
lucidity - lucidité
"Let me say a few words more in this and that direction; I am willing. Apart from the Revolution, which, taken as a whole, is an immense human affirmation, '93 is, alas! a rejoinder. You think it inexorable, sir; but what of the whole monarchy, sir? Carrier is a bandit; but what name do you give to Montrevel? Fouquier-Tainville is a rascal; but what is your opinion as to Lamoignon-BĂ˘ville?
immense - immense
affirmation - affirmation
rejoinder - réponse, réplique
monarchy - monarchie
carrier - transporteur, porteuse
bandit - voleur, voleuse, bandit, bandite
rascal - racaille, canaille, coquin, crapule, filou
Maillard is terrible; but Saulx-Tavannes, if you please? DuchĂŞne senior is ferocious; but what epithet will you allow me for the elder Letellier? Jourdan-Coupe-TetĂŞ is a monster; but not so great a one as M. the Marquis de Louvois.
ferocious - féroce
epithet - épithete, épithete
coupe - coupé
Sir, sir, I am sorry for Marie Antoinette, archduchess and queen; but I am also sorry for that poor Huguenot woman, who, in 1685, under Louis the Great, sir, while with a nursing infant, was bound, naked to the waist, to a stake, and the child kept at a distance; her breast swelled with milk and her heart with anguish; the little one, hungry and pale, beheld that breast and cried and agonized; the executioner said to the woman, a mother and a nurse, 'Abjure!'giving her her choice between the death of her infant and the death of her conscience. What say you to that torture of Tantalus as applied to a mother? Bear this well in mind sir: the French Revolution had its reasons for existence; its wrath will be absolved by the future; its result is the world made better. From its most terrible blows there comes forth a caress for the human race. I abridge, I stop, I have too much the advantage; moreover, I am dying."
archduchess - archiduchesse
Huguenot - huguenot, huguenote
infant - nourrisson, enfant en bas âge, poupon
stake - enjeu, pieu, pal, tuteur, jalon
swelled - gonflé, enfler, gonfler
anguish - l'angoisse, angoissons, angoissez, angoisser, angoissent
abjure - abjurer
torture - la torture, torture, torturer
Tantalus - Tantale
absolved - absous, absoudre
most terrible - le plus terrible
caress - caresse, caresser
abridge - abréger
And ceasing to gaze at the Bishop, the conventionary concluded his thoughts in these tranquil words:"
ceasing - cesser, cessant, (cease), s'arreter
"Yes, the brutalities of progress are called revolutions. When they are over, this fact is recognized,"that the human race has been treated harshly, but that it has progressed."
brutalities - brutalités, brutalité
The conventionary doubted not that he had successively conquered all the inmost intrenchments of the Bishop. One remained, however, and from this intrenchment, the last resource of Monseigneur Bienvenu's resistance, came forth this reply, wherein appeared nearly all the harshness of the beginning:"
successively - successivement
conquered - conquis, conquérir
inmost - intimes
intrenchment - l'intrusion
resistance - résistance
"Progress should believe in God. Good cannot have an impious servitor. He who is an atheist is but a bad leader for the human race."
impious - impie
servitor - serviteur
The former representative of the people made no reply. He was seized with a fit of trembling. He looked towards heaven, and in his glance a tear gathered slowly. When the eyelid was full, the tear trickled down his livid cheek, and he said, almost in a stammer, quite low, and to himself, while his eyes were plunged in the depths:"
seized with - saisir
eyelid - paupiere, paupiere
trickled - au compte-gouttes, filet, dégoulinade, verser goutte a goutte
livid - livide, furieux
stammer - balbutier, bégayer, bégaiement
plunged - plongé, plonger
"O thou! O ideal! Thou alone existest!"
existest - existent
The Bishop experienced an indescribable shock.
indescribable - indescriptible
After a pause, the old man raised a finger heavenward and said:"
"The infinite is. He is there. If the infinite had no person, person would be without limit; it would not be infinite; in other words, it would not exist. There is, then, an I. That I of the infinite is God."
The dying man had pronounced these last words in a loud voice, and with the shiver of ecstasy, as though he beheld some one. When he had spoken, his eyes closed. The effort had exhausted him. It was evident that he had just lived through in a moment the few hours which had been left to him. That which he had said brought him nearer to him who is in death. The supreme moment was approaching.
shiver - frisson, trembler, frissonner
ecstasy - l'ecstasy, extase, ecstasy, exta
exhausted - épuisé, épuiser, échappement
supreme - supreme, supreme
The Bishop understood this; time pressed; it was as a priest that he had come: from extreme coldness he had passed by degrees to extreme emotion; he gazed at those closed eyes, he took that wrinkled, aged and ice-cold hand in his, and bent over the dying man.
coldness - froideur, froid
by degrees - par degrés
wrinkled - ridé, ride
"This hour is the hour of God. Do you not think that it would be regrettable if we had met in vain?"
regrettable - regrettable
The conventionary opened his eyes again. A gravity mingled with gloom was imprinted on his countenance.
gloom - obscurité, pénombre, grisaille, morosité, noirceur
imprinted - imprimée, empreinte
countenance - visage, approuver
"Bishop," said he, with a slowness which probably arose more from his dignity of soul than from the failing of his strength, "I have passed my life in meditation, study, and contemplation. I was sixty years of age when my country called me and commanded me to concern myself with its affairs. I obeyed.
slowness - lenteur
dignity - dignité, forme, rang
contemplation - contemplation
Abuses existed, I combated them; tyrannies existed, I destroyed them; rights and principles existed, I proclaimed and confessed them. Our territory was invaded, I defended it; France was menaced, I offered my breast. I was not rich; I am poor.
combated - combattu, combat, bataille, lutte, combattre
tyrannies - tyrannies, tyrannie
proclaimed - proclamé, proclamer, déclarer
menaced - menacé, menace
I have been one of the masters of the state; the vaults of the treasury were encumbered with specie to such a degree that we were forced to shore up the walls, which were on the point of bursting beneath the weight of gold and silver; I dined in Dead Tree Street, at twenty-two sous. I have succored the oppressed, I have comforted the suffering.
vaults - voutes, cave voutée
specie - espece
bursting - l'éclatement, éclater, faire éclater, rompre, briser
dined - dîné, dîner
oppressed - opprimés, opprimer, oppresser
I tore the cloth from the altar, it is true; but it was to bind up the wounds of my country. I have always upheld the march forward of the human race, forward towards the light, and I have sometimes resisted progress without pity. I have, when the occasion offered, protected my own adversaries, men of your profession.
tore - a la déchirure
bind - lier, attacher, nouer, connecter, coupler
upheld - maintenue, soutenir
adversaries - des adversaires, adversaire, ennemi, ennemie
And there is at Peteghem, in Flanders, at the very spot where the Merovingian kings had their summer palace, a convent of Urbanists, the Abbey of Sainte Claire en Beaulieu, which I saved in 1793. I have done my duty according to my powers, and all the good that I was able. After which, I was hunted down, pursued, persecuted, blackened, jeered at, scorned, cursed, proscribed.
Flanders - la flandre, Flandre
Merovingian - Mérovingien
convent - couvent
Urbanists - les urbanistes, urbaniste
Abbey - l'abbaye, abbaye
Persecuted - persécutés, persécuter
blackened - noirci, noircir, souiller, salir
jeered - raillé, huer
scorned - bafouée, mépriser, dédaigner, mépris, dédain
cursed - maudis, maudite, maudites, maudits, maudit, (curs) maudis
proscribed - proscrites, interdire, dénoncer, déconseiller, bannir, exclure
For many years past, I with my white hair have been conscious that many people think they have the right to despise me; to the poor ignorant masses I present the visage of one damned. And I accept this isolation of hatred, without hating any one myself. Now I am eighty-six years old; I am on the point of death. What is it that you have come to ask of me?"
despise - mépriser, dédaigner
damned - foutu, maudit, condamné, (damn), condamner, réprouver
isolation - l'isolement, isolement, isolation
hatred - la haine, haine
"Your blessing," said the Bishop.
And he knelt down.
knelt - a genoux, agenouiller
When the Bishop raised his head again, the face of the conventionary had become august. He had just expired.
expired - expiré, expirer
The Bishop returned home, deeply absorbed in thoughts which cannot be known to us. He passed the whole night in prayer. On the following morning some bold and curious persons attempted to speak to him about member of the Convention G""; he contented himself with pointing heavenward.
contented - satisfait
From that moment he redoubled his tenderness and brotherly feeling towards all children and sufferers.
redoubled - redoublée, redoubler
tenderness - tendresse
brotherly - fraternel
sufferers - les personnes souffrant de troubles de la personnalité, malade
Any allusion to "that old wretch of a G""" caused him to fall into a singular preoccupation. No one could say that the passage of that soul before his, and the reflection of that grand conscience upon his, did not count for something in his approach to perfection.
allusion - allusion
perfection - la perfection, perfection
This "pastoral visit" naturally furnished an occasion for a murmur of comment in all the little local coteries.
murmur - murmure, rumeur, souffle, murmurer
coteries - coteries, coterie
"Was the bedside of such a dying man as that the proper place for a bishop? There was evidently no conversion to be expected. All those revolutionists are backsliders. Then why go there? What was there to be seen there? He must have been very curious indeed to see a soul carried off by the devil."
carried off - emportés
One day a dowager of the impertinent variety who thinks herself spiritual, addressed this sally to him, "Monseigneur, people are inquiring when Your Greatness will receive the red cap!"""Oh! oh! that's a coarse color," replied the Bishop. "It is lucky that those who despise it in a cap revere it in a hat."
Dowager - douairiere, douairiere, dame
sally - sally, sortie
inquiring - en quete de renseignements, enqueter, renseigner
revere - révérer, idolâtrer
CHAPTER XI"A RESTRICTION
We should incur a great risk of deceiving ourselves, were we to conclude from this that Monseigneur Welcome was "a philosophical bishop," or a "patriotic curĂ©." His meeting, which may almost be designated as his union, with conventionary G"", left behind it in his mind a sort of astonishment, which rendered him still more gentle. That is all.
incur - incurable, encourir, s'attirer, subir, impliquer, occasioner
philosophical - philosophique
patriotic - patriotique
more gentle - plus doux
Although Monseigneur Bienvenu was far from being a politician, this is, perhaps, the place to indicate very briefly what his attitude was in the events of that epoch, supposing that Monseigneur Bienvenu ever dreamed of having an attitude.
Let us, then, go back a few years.
Some time after the elevation of M. Myriel to the episcopate, the Emperor had made him a baron of the Empire, in company with many other bishops. The arrest of the Pope took place, as every one knows, on the night of the 5th to the 6th of July, 1809; on this occasion, M. Myriel was summoned by Napoleon to the synod of the bishops of France and Italy convened at Paris.
elevation - l'élévation, élévation
synod - synode
This synod was held at Notre-Dame, and assembled for the first time on the 15th of June, 1811, under the presidency of Cardinal Fesch. M. Myriel was one of the ninety-five bishops who attended it. But he was present only at one sitting and at three or four private conferences.
assembled - assemblés, assembler, rassembler
Presidency - présidence
Bishop of a mountain diocese, living so very close to nature, in rusticity and deprivation, it appeared that he imported among these eminent personages, ideas which altered the temperature of the assembly. He very soon returned to D"" He was interrogated as to this speedy return, and he replied: "I embarrassed them. The outside air penetrated to them through me.
rusticity - rusticité
deprivation - la privation, privation
assembly - l'assemblée, groupe, bloc, assemblage, assemblée
speedy - prompt, rapide
penetrated - pénétré, pénétrer
I produced on them the effect of an open door."
On another occasion he said, "What would you have? Those gentlemen are princes. I am only a poor peasant bishop."
peasant - paysan, paysanne, rustique
The fact is that he displeased them. Among other strange things, it is said that he chanced to remark one evening, when he found himself at the house of one of his most notable colleagues: "What beautiful clocks! What beautiful carpets! What beautiful liveries! They must be a great trouble. I would not have all those superfluities, crying incessantly in my ears: 'There are people who are hungry!
notable - remarquable, notable, personnage
superfluities - superfluités, superfluité, superflu
There are people who are cold! There are poor people! There are poor people!'"
Let us remark, by the way, that the hatred of luxury is not an intelligent hatred. This hatred would involve the hatred of the arts. Nevertheless, in churchmen, luxury is wrong, except in connection with representations and ceremonies. It seems to reveal habits which have very little that is charitable about them. An opulent priest is a contradiction. The priest must keep close to the poor.
opulent - opulent
contradiction - contradiction
Now, can one come in contact incessantly night and day with all this distress, all these misfortunes, and this poverty, without having about one's own person a little of that misery, like the dust of labor? Is it possible to imagine a man near a brazier who is not warm?
misfortunes - malheurs, malchance, mésaventure, malheur
misery - la misere, misere
brazier - brasero
Can one imagine a workman who is working near a furnace, and who has neither a singed hair, nor blackened nails, nor a drop of sweat, nor a speck of ashes on his face? The first proof of charity in the priest, in the bishop especially, is poverty.
workman - ouvrier
furnace - four, haut fourneau, chaudiere
singed - brulé, roussir
sweat - de la sueur, transpirer, suer, transpiration
speck - tache, petite tache
ashes - des cendres, cendre
This is, no doubt, what the Bishop of D"" thought.
It must not be supposed, however, that he shared what we call the "ideas of the century" on certain delicate points. He took very little part in the theological quarrels of the moment, and maintained silence on questions in which Church and State were implicated; but if he had been strongly pressed, it seems that he would have been found to be an ultramontane rather than a gallican.
delicate - délicate, délicat, délicat (1, 2)
implicated - impliqué, impliquer
ultramontane - ultramontaine, ultramontain
gallican - Gallican
Since we are making a portrait, and since we do not wish to conceal anything, we are forced to add that he was glacial towards Napoleon in his decline. Beginning with 1813, he gave in his adherence to or applauded all hostile manifestations.
conceal - dissimuler, cacher
applauded - applaudi, applaudir, ovationner, louer, approuver
manifestations - manifestations, manifestation
He refused to see him, as he passed through on his return from the island of Elba, and he abstained from ordering public prayers for the Emperor in his diocese during the Hundred Days.
Elba - elba, Elbe
abstained from - s'est abstenu
Besides his sister, Mademoiselle Baptistine, he had two brothers, one a general, the other a prefect. He wrote to both with tolerable frequency.
He was harsh for a time towards the former, because, holding a command in Provence at the epoch of the disembarkation at Cannes, the general had put himself at the head of twelve hundred men and had pursued the Emperor as though the latter had been a person whom one is desirous of allowing to escape.
Provence - la provence, Provence
disembarkation - débarquement
desirous - désireux
His correspondence with the other brother, the ex-prefect, a fine, worthy man who lived in retirement at Paris, Rue Cassette, remained more affectionate.
rue - rue
Cassette - cassette, cassette audio, audiocassette, cassette vidéo
Thus Monseigneur Bienvenu also had his hour of party spirit, his hour of bitterness, his cloud. The shadow of the passions of the moment traversed this grand and gentle spirit occupied with eternal things. Certainly, such a man would have done well not to entertain any political opinions.
bitterness - l'amertume, amertume
occupied with - occupés par
Let there be no mistake as to our meaning: we are not confounding what is called "political opinions" with the grand aspiration for progress, with the sublime faith, patriotic, democratic, humane, which in our day should be the very foundation of every generous intellect.
aspiration - aspiration
humane - humaine, humain
Without going deeply into questions which are only indirectly connected with the subject of this book, we will simply say this: It would have been well if Monseigneur Bienvenu had not been a Royalist, and if his glance had never been, for a single instant, turned away from that serene contemplation in which is distinctly discernible, above the fictions and the hatreds of this world, above the stormy vicissitudes of human things, the beaming of those three pure radiances, truth, justice, and charity.
indirectly - indirectement
serene - serein, enjoué
distinctly - distinctement
hatreds - haines, haine
stormy - orageux
vicissitudes - vicissitudes, vicissitude
beaming - la téléportation, (beam), madrier, poutre, merrain, perche
While admitting that it was not for a political office that God created Monseigneur Welcome, we should have understood and admired his protest in the name of right and liberty, his proud opposition, his just but perilous resistance to the all-powerful Napoleon. But that which pleases us in people who are rising pleases us less in the case of people who are falling.
perilous - périlleux
We only love the fray so long as there is danger, and in any case, the combatants of the first hour have alone the right to be the exterminators of the last. He who has not been a stubborn accuser in prosperity should hold his peace in the face of ruin. The denunciator of success is the only legitimate executioner of the fall. As for us, when Providence intervenes and strikes, we let it work.
fray - s'effilocher, rixe
combatants - combattants, combattant, combattante
stubborn - tetu, tetu, enteté, borné
accuser - accusateur, accusatrice
prosperity - la prospérité, prospérité
denunciator - dénonciateur
intervenes - intervient, intervenir
1812 commenced to disarm us. In 1813 the cowardly breach of silence of that taciturn legislative body, emboldened by catastrophe, possessed only traits which aroused indignation.
commenced - commencé, commencer
disarm - désarmer
cowardly - lâche, veule, bas, lâchement
breach - infraction, violation, breche, brouille
taciturn - taciturne
legislative - législatif
emboldened - enhardi, encourager, enhardir
catastrophe - catastrophe
aroused - excité, émoustiller, exciter
indignation - l'indignation, indignation
And it was a crime to applaud, in 1814, in the presence of those marshals who betrayed; in the presence of that senate which passed from one dunghill to another, insulting after having deified; in the presence of that idolatry which was loosing its footing and spitting on its idol,"it was a duty to turn aside the head.
applaud - applaudir, ovationner, louer, approuver
marshals - marshals, maréchal, marshal, canaliser
Senate - le sénat, sénat
insulting - insultant, insulter, insulte
deified - déifié, déifier
idolatry - l'idolâtrie, idolâtrie
spitting - cracher, (spit) cracher
In 1815, when the supreme disasters filled the air, when France was seized with a shiver at their sinister approach, when Waterloo could be dimly discerned opening before Napoleon, the mournful acclamation of the army and the people to the condemned of destiny had nothing laughable in it, and, after making all allowance for the despot, a heart like that of the Bishop of D"", ought not perhaps to have failed to recognize the august and touching features presented by the embrace of a great nation and a great man on the brink of the abyss.
sinister - sinistre
Waterloo - Waterloo
dimly - faiblement, obscurément, vaguement, confusément
acclamation - par acclamation, acclamation
laughable - risible, ridicule
despot - despote
With this exception, he was in all things just, true, equitable, intelligent, humble and dignified, beneficent and kindly, which is only another sort of benevolence. He was a priest, a sage, and a man.
equitable - équitable
beneficent - bienfaisante
sage - sage, sauge, sensé
It must be admitted, that even in the political views with which we have just reproached him, and which we are disposed to judge almost with severity, he was tolerant and easy, more so, perhaps, than we who are speaking here. The porter of the town-hall had been placed there by the Emperor.
reproached - des reproches, reproche, opprobre, reprocher
disposed - disposé, débarrasser
He was an old non-commissioned officer of the old guard, a member of the Legion of Honor at Austerlitz, as much of a Bonapartist as the eagle. This poor fellow occasionally let slip inconsiderate remarks, which the law then stigmatized as seditious speeches.
non - non
legion - légion
Austerlitz - Austerlitz
Bonapartist - Bonapartiste
eagle - aigle, eagle, réussir un aigle
inconsiderate - inconsidéré
stigmatized - stigmatisés, stigmatiser
seditious - séditieux
After the imperial profile disappeared from the Legion of Honor, he never dressed himself in his regimentals, as he said, so that he should not be obliged to wear his cross. He had himself devoutly removed the imperial effigy from the cross which Napoleon had given him; this made a hole, and he would not put anything in its place.
be obliged - etre obligé
effigy - effigie
"I will die," he said, "rather than wear the three frogs upon my heart!" He liked to scoff aloud at Louis XVIII. "The gouty old creature in English gaiters!" he said; "let him take himself off to Prussia with that queue of his." He was happy to combine in the same imprecation the two things which he most detested, Prussia and England. He did it so often that he lost his place.
scoff - se moquer (de)
aloud - a haute voix, a voix haute, a haute voix, fort
gouty - goutteux
Prussia - la prusse, Prusse
imprecation - exécrer, maudire, lancer des imprécations contre, imprécation
detested - détesté, détester, mépriser
There he was, turned out of the house, with his wife and children, and without bread. The Bishop sent for him, reproved him gently, and appointed him beadle in the cathedral.
reproved - réprouvé, réprimander, reprocher
beadle - bailli, bedeau, suisse
In the course of nine years Monseigneur Bienvenu had, by dint of holy deeds and gentle manners, filled the town of D""with a sort of tender and filial reverence. Even his conduct towards Napoleon had been accepted and tacitly pardoned, as it were, by the people, the good and weakly flock who adored their emperor, but loved their bishop.
dint - n'a pas, bosse
tender - l'appel d'offres, doux, adjudication, affectieux
filial - filial
reverence - révérence
tacitly - tacitement
weakly - souffreteuxse
adored - adorée, adorer
CHAPTER XII"THE SOLITUDE OF MONSEIGNEUR WELCOME
A bishop is almost always surrounded by a full squadron of little abbĂ©s, just as a general is by a covey of young officers. This is what that charming Saint FranĂ§ois de Sales calls somewhere "les prĂŞtres blancs-becs," callow priests. Every career has its aspirants, who form a train for those who have attained eminence in it. There is no power which has not its dependents.
squadron - escadron, escadre
covey - covey
aspirants - aspirants, aspirant
eminence - éminence
There is no fortune which has not its court. The seekers of the future eddy around the splendid present. Every metropolis has its staff of officials. Every bishop who possesses the least influence has about him his patrol of cherubim from the seminary, which goes the round, and maintains good order in the episcopal palace, and mounts guard over monseigneur's smile.
eddy - eddy, tourbillon
splendid - splendide, fameux
metropolis - métropole
patrol - patrouille
cherubim - chérubins
To please a bishop is equivalent to getting one's foot in the stirrup for a sub-diaconate. It is necessary to walk one's path discreetly; the apostleship does not disdain the canonship.
stirrup - étrier
sub - sous, sous-, sub-
diaconate - diaconat
discreetly - discretement, discretement
apostleship - l'apostolat, apostolat
disdain - dédain, mépris, dédaigner, mépriser
canonship - le sacerdoce
Just as there are bigwigs elsewhere, there are big mitres in the Church.
bigwigs - les gros bonnets, grosse légume, huile, gros bonnet
mitres - les onglets, mitre
These are the bishops who stand well at Court, who are rich, well endowed, skilful, accepted by the world, who know how to pray, no doubt, but who know also how to beg, who feel little scruple at making a whole diocese dance attendance in their person, who are connecting links between the sacristy and diplomacy, who are abbĂ©s rather than priests, prelates rather than bishops.
endowed - dotés, doter, enrichir
skilful - pu
scruple - scrupule
attendance - l'assiduité, présence
diplomacy - diplomatie
prelates - prélats, (prelate), prélat
Happy those who approach them! Being persons of influence, they create a shower about them, upon the assiduous and the favored, and upon all the young men who understand the art of pleasing, of large parishes, prebends, archidiaconates, chaplaincies, and cathedral posts, while awaiting episcopal honors.
assiduous - assidu
awaiting - en attente, attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter
As they advance themselves, they cause their satellites to progress also; it is a whole solar system on the march. Their radiance casts a gleam of purple over their suite. Their prosperity is crumbled up behind the scenes, into nice little promotions. The larger the diocese of the patron, the fatter the curacy for the favorite. And then, there is Rome.
gleam - briller, luisent, luisez, brillant, luisons
crumbled - en miettes, s'effondrer, effriter, émietter, crumble, qualifier
patron - patron, mécene, client
A bishop who understands how to become an archbishop, an archbishop who knows how to become a cardinal, carries you with him as conclavist; you enter a court of papal jurisdiction, you receive the pallium, and behold!
conclavist - conclaviste
Papal - papal
jurisdiction - juridiction
pallium - pallium
you are an auditor, then a papal chamberlain, then monsignor, and from a Grace to an Eminence is only a step, and between the Eminence and the Holiness there is but the smoke of a ballot. Every skull-cap may dream of the tiara. The priest is nowadays the only man who can become a king in a regular manner; and what a king! the supreme king. Then what a nursery of aspirations is a seminary!
auditor - auditeur, auditrice
chamberlain - chamberlain, chambellan
Monsignor - Monseigneur
holiness - la sainteté, sainteté
ballot - bulletin de vote, bulletin, votation
tiara - diademe, tiare
nursery - pépiniere, creche, pouponniere, pépiniere
How many blushing choristers, how many youthful abbĂ©s bear on their heads Perrette's pot of milk! Who knows how easy it is for ambition to call itself vocation? in good faith, perchance, and deceiving itself, devotee that it is.
blushing - rougir, (blush) rougir
choristers - choristes, choureur, choureuse
vocation - vocation
perchance - par hasard
devotee - dévoué, inconditionnel, dévot
Monseigneur Bienvenu, poor, humble, retiring, was not accounted among the big mitres. This was plain from the complete absence of young priests about him. We have seen that he "did not take" in Paris. Not a single future dreamed of engrafting itself on this solitary old man. Not a single sprouting ambition committed the folly of putting forth its foliage in his shadow.
absence - absence, manque, absence du fer
solitary - solitaire, seul, un a un
sprouting - la germination, (sprout) la germination
folly - folie, sottise
foliage - le feuillage, feuillage
His canons and grand-vicars were good old men, rather vulgar like himself, walled up like him in this diocese, without exit to a cardinalship, and who resembled their bishop, with this difference, that they were finished and he was completed.
canons - canons, canon
cardinalship - le cardinalat
The impossibility of growing great under Monseigneur Bienvenu was so well understood, that no sooner had the young men whom he ordained left the seminary than they got themselves recommended to the archbishops of Aix or of Auch, and went off in a great hurry. For, in short, we repeat it, men wish to be pushed.
impossibility - l'impossibilité, impossibilité
archbishops - archeveques, archeveque
A saint who dwells in a paroxysm of abnegation is a dangerous neighbor; he might communicate to you, by contagion, an incurable poverty, an anchylosis of the joints, which are useful in advancement, and in short, more renunciation than you desire; and this infectious virtue is avoided. Hence the isolation of Monseigneur Bienvenu. We live in the midst of a gloomy society.
abnegation - l'abnégation, abnégation
contagion - la contagion, contagion
incurable - incurable
anchylosis - l'anchylose
infectious - infectieux
Success; that is the lesson which falls drop by drop from the slope of corruption.
Be it said in passing, that success is a very hideous thing. Its false resemblance to merit deceives men. For the masses, success has almost the same profile as supremacy. Success, that MenĂ¦chmus of talent, has one dupe,"history. Juvenal and Tacitus alone grumble at it.
hideous - hideux, strident, atroce, répugnant
resemblance - ressemblance, comparaison, probabilité
merit - mérite, mériter
deceives - trompe, tromper, leurrer, séduire
supremacy - suprématie
grumble - grondement, gargouillement, grognement, gronder, gargouiller
In our day, a philosophy which is almost official has entered into its service, wears the livery of success, and performs the service of its antechamber. Succeed: theory. Prosperity argues capacity. Win in the lottery, and behold! you are a clever man. He who triumphs is venerated. Be born with a silver spoon in your mouth! everything lies in that.
livery - la livrée
antechamber - antichambre
triumphs - triomphes, triomphe
Be lucky, and you will have all the rest; be happy, and people will think you great. Outside of five or six immense exceptions, which compose the splendor of a century, contemporary admiration is nothing but short-sightedness. Gilding is gold. It does no harm to be the first arrival by pure chance, so long as you do arrive.
splendor - splendeur
sightedness - la voyance
The common herd is an old Narcissus who adores himself, and who applauds the vulgar herd. That enormous ability by virtue of which one is Moses, Ă†schylus, Dante, Michael Angelo, or Napoleon, the multitude awards on the spot, and by acclamation, to whomsoever attains his object, in whatsoever it may consist.
herd - troupeau
narcissus - narcisse
adores - adore, adorer
applauds - applaudit, applaudir, ovationner, louer, approuver
Moses - moise, Moise, (mos) moise
Dante - dante
multitude - multitude
whomsoever - qui que ce soit
attains - atteint, atteindre
whatsoever - quel qu'il soit, du tout, d'aucune sorte
Let a notary transfigure himself into a deputy: let a false Corneille compose Tiridate; let a eunuch come to possess a harem; let a military Prudhomme accidentally win the decisive battle of an epoch; let an apothecary invent cardboard shoe-soles for the army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and construct for himself, out of this cardboard, sold as leather, four hundred thousand francs of income; let a pork-packer espouse usury, and cause it to bring forth seven or eight millions, of which he is the father and of which it is the mother; let a preacher become a bishop by force of his nasal drawl; let the steward of a fine family be so rich on retiring from service that he is made minister of finances,"and men call that Genius, just as they call the face of Mousqueton Beauty, and the mien of Claude Majesty. With the constellations of space they confound the stars of the abyss which are made in the soft mire of the puddle by the feet of ducks.
notary - notaire, notairesse
transfigure - transfigurer
deputy - adjoint, adjointe, suppléant, suppléante, député
Eunuch - eunuque, castrat
harem - harem
decisive - décisif
apothecary - apothicaire
cardboard - carton
soles - semelles, plante (du pied)
Meuse - la meuse, Meuse
pork - porc, cochon
packer - packer, emballeur, emballeuse
espouse - épouser, adopter
usury - l'usure, usure
nasal - nasal
steward - steward, intendant
mien - mien, mine
constellations - constellations, constellation
mire - fange
puddle - flaque, flaque d'eau, gouille
ducks - canards, plonger (dans l'eau)
CHAPTER XIII"WHAT HE BELIEVED
We are not obliged to sound the Bishop of D"" on the score of orthodoxy. In the presence of such a soul we feel ourselves in no mood but respect. The conscience of the just man should be accepted on his word. Moreover, certain natures being given, we admit the possible development of all beauties of human virtue in a belief that differs from our own.
orthodoxy - l'orthodoxie, orthodoxie
What did he think of this dogma, or of that mystery? These secrets of the inner tribunal of the conscience are known only to the tomb, where souls enter naked. The point on which we are certain is, that the difficulties of faith never resolved themselves into hypocrisy in his case. No decay is possible to the diamond. He believed to the extent of his powers. "Credo in Patrem," he often exclaimed.
dogma - dogme
tribunal - tribunal
hypocrisy - l'hypocrisie, hypocrisie, faux-culterie
decay - pourriture, décrépitude, déchéance, pourrir, se désintégrer
Credo - credo, crédo
Moreover, he drew from good works that amount of satisfaction which suffices to the conscience, and which whispers to a man, "Thou art with God!"
The point which we consider it our duty to note is, that outside of and beyond his faith, as it were, the Bishop possessed an excess of love. It was in that quarter, quia multum amavit,"because he loved much"that he was regarded as vulnerable by "serious men," "grave persons" and "reasonable people"; favorite locutions of our sad world where egotism takes its word of command from pedantry.
excess - l'exces, exces, franchise, en exces, en trop, excessif
multum - multum
vulnerable - vulnérable
pedantry - le pédantisme, pédantisme, pédanterie
What was this excess of love? It was a serene benevolence which overflowed men, as we have already pointed out, and which, on occasion, extended even to things. He lived without disdain. He was indulgent towards God's creation. Every man, even the best, has within him a thoughtless harshness which he reserves for animals.
overflowed - débordé, débordement, déborder, fr
thoughtless - inattentionné, irréfléchi
The Bishop of D"" had none of that harshness, which is peculiar to many priests, nevertheless. He did not go as far as the Brahmin, but he seemed to have weighed this saying of Ecclesiastes: "Who knoweth whither the soul of the animal goeth?" Hideousness of aspect, deformity of instinct, troubled him not, and did not arouse his indignation. He was touched, almost softened by them.
Brahmin - brahmane
knoweth - sait
goeth - s'en va
deformity - difformité, déformité
arouse - éveiller, émoustiller, exciter
It seemed as though he went thoughtfully away to seek beyond the bounds of life which is apparent, the cause, the explanation, or the excuse for them. He seemed at times to be asking God to commute these penalties. He examined without wrath, and with the eye of a linguist who is deciphering a palimpsest, that portion of chaos which still exists in nature.
thoughtfully - de maniere réfléchie
commute - la navette, commuter, aiguiller
linguist - linguiste
deciphering - déchiffrage, déchiffrer
palimpsest - palimpseste
chaos - le chaos, chaos, (chao) le chaos
This reverie sometimes caused him to utter odd sayings. One morning he was in his garden, and thought himself alone, but his sister was walking behind him, unseen by him: suddenly he paused and gazed at something on the ground; it was a large, black, hairy, frightful spider. His sister heard him say:"
reverie - reverie
utter - l'utérus, émettre
unseen - invisible
hairy - poilu
"Poor beast! It is not its fault!"
beast - bete, bete, bete sauvage
Why not mention these almost divinely childish sayings of kindness? Puerile they may be; but these sublime puerilities were peculiar to Saint Francis d'Assisi and of Marcus Aurelius. One day he sprained his ankle in his effort to avoid stepping on an ant. Thus lived this just man. Sometimes he fell asleep in his garden, and then there was nothing more venerable possible.
divinely - divinement
childish - enfantin, puéril, gamin
kindness - la gentillesse, bonté
puerile - puéril
Francis - francis, François
sprained - entorse, fouler
ant - fourmi
more venerable - plus vénérable
Monseigneur Bienvenu had formerly been, if the stories anent his youth, and even in regard to his manhood, were to be believed, a passionate, and, possibly, a violent man.
manhood - la virilité, humanité, virilité, masculinité
His universal suavity was less an instinct of nature than the result of a grand conviction which had filtered into his heart through the medium of life, and had trickled there slowly, thought by thought; for, in a character, as in a rock, there may exist apertures made by drops of water. These hollows are uneffaceable; these formations are indestructible.
suavity - suavité, courtoisie
filtered - filtrée, filtre, filtrer
apertures - les ouvertures, ouverture
uneffaceable - ineffaçable
indestructible - indestructible
In 1815, as we think we have already said, he reached his seventy-fifth birthday, but he did not appear to be more than sixty. He was not tall; he was rather plump; and, in order to combat this tendency, he was fond of taking long strolls on foot; his step was firm, and his form was but slightly bent, a detail from which we do not pretend to draw any conclusion. Gregory XVI.
plump - dodu, douillet
combat - combat, bataille, lutte, combattre
strolls - promenades, promenade, flânerie, balade, flâner, promener
Gregory - grégoire
, at the age of eighty, held himself erect and smiling, which did not prevent him from being a bad bishop. Monseigneur Welcome had what the people term a "fine head," but so amiable was he that they forgot that it was fine.
When he conversed with that infantile gayety which was one of his charms, and of which we have already spoken, people felt at their ease with him, and joy seemed to radiate from his whole person.
infantile - infantile
gayety - gaieté
charms - des breloques, charme
radiate - rayonner
His fresh and ruddy complexion, his very white teeth, all of which he had preserved, and which were displayed by his smile, gave him that open and easy air which cause the remark to be made of a man, "He's a good fellow"; and of an old man, "He is a fine man." That, it will be recalled, was the effect which he produced upon Napoleon.
ruddy - ruddy, rougeâtre
complexion - le teint, teint, complexion
On the first encounter, and to one who saw him for the first time, he was nothing, in fact, but a fine man.
But if one remained near him for a few hours, and beheld him in the least degree pensive, the fine man became gradually transfigured, and took on some imposing quality, I know not what; his broad and serious brow, rendered august by his white locks, became august also by virtue of meditation; majesty radiated from his goodness, though his goodness ceased not to be radiant; one experienced something of the emotion which one would feel on beholding a smiling angel slowly unfold his wings, without ceasing to smile. Respect, an unutterable respect, penetrated you by degrees and mounted to your heart, and one felt that one had before him one of those strong, thoroughly tried, and indulgent souls where thought is so grand that it can no longer be anything but gentle.
pensive - pensif, chagrin, mélancolique
radiated - rayonné, irradier
ceased - cessé, cesser, s'arreter, cesser de + 'infinitive'
beholding - l'observation, regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila
unutterable - indicible
As we have seen, prayer, the celebration of the offices of religion, alms-giving, the consolation of the afflicted, the cultivation of a bit of land, fraternity, frugality, hospitality, renunciation, confidence, study, work, filled every day of his life. Filled is exactly the word; certainly the Bishop's day was quite full to the brim, of good words and good deeds.
consolation - consoler, consolation
cultivation - la culture, culture
frugality - la frugalité, frugalité
brim - bord
Nevertheless, it was not complete if cold or rainy weather prevented his passing an hour or two in his garden before going to bed, and after the two women had retired. It seemed to be a sort of rite with him, to prepare himself for slumber by meditation in the presence of the grand spectacles of the nocturnal heavens.
rainy - pluvieux
rite - rite
nocturnal - nocturne
Sometimes, if the two old women were not asleep, they heard him pacing slowly along the walks at a very advanced hour of the night.
He was there alone, communing with himself, peaceful, adoring, comparing the serenity of his heart with the serenity of the ether, moved amid the darkness by the visible splendor of the constellations and the invisible splendor of God, opening his heart to the thoughts which fall from the Unknown.
communing - communier, (commune) communier
adoring - adorer
ether - l'éther, éther
invisible - invisible, caché
At such moments, while he offered his heart at the hour when nocturnal flowers offer their perfume, illuminated like a lamp amid the starry night, as he poured himself out in ecstasy in the midst of the universal radiance of creation, he could not have told himself, probably, what was passing in his spirit; he felt something take its flight from him, and something descend into him.
perfume - parfum, fragrance, parfumer
illuminated - éclairé, illuminer
starry - étoilé
descend - descendre
Mysterious exchange of the abysses of the soul with the abysses of the universe!
abysses - des abîmes, abîme, précipice, abysse, gouffre
He thought of the grandeur and presence of God; of the future eternity, that strange mystery; of the eternity past, a mystery still more strange; of all the infinities, which pierced their way into all his senses, beneath his eyes; and, without seeking to comprehend the incomprehensible, he gazed upon it. He did not study God; he was dazzled by him.
eternity - l'éternité, éternité
more strange - plus étrange
infinities - des infinis, infinité, infini
pierced - percé, percer
comprehend - comprendre
incomprehensible - incompréhensible
dazzled - éblouie, éblouir
He considered those magnificent conjunctions of atoms, which communicate aspects to matter, reveal forces by verifying them, create individualities in unity, proportions in extent, the innumerable in the infinite, and, through light, produce beauty. These conjunctions are formed and dissolved incessantly; hence life and death.
conjunctions - conjonctions, conjonction
atoms - atomes, atome
verifying - vérifier
innumerable - innombrables
Dissolved - dissous, dissoudre
He seated himself on a wooden bench, with his back against a decrepit vine; he gazed at the stars, past the puny and stunted silhouettes of his fruit-trees. This quarter of an acre, so poorly planted, so encumbered with mean buildings and sheds, was dear to him, and satisfied his wants.
Bench - banc, établi, banquette
decrepit - décrépit
puny - chétif, frele
stunted - rabougri, arreter la croissance
silhouettes - des silhouettes, silhouette
poorly - médiocre
sheds - hangars, remise
What more was needed by this old man, who divided the leisure of his life, where there was so little leisure, between gardening in the daytime and contemplation at night? Was not this narrow enclosure, with the heavens for a ceiling, sufficient to enable him to adore God in his most divine works, in turn? Does not this comprehend all, in fact? and what is there left to desire beyond it?
daytime - journée, jour
adore - adorer
A little garden in which to walk, and immensity in which to dream. At one's feet that which can be cultivated and plucked; over head that which one can study and meditate upon: some flowers on earth, and all the stars in the sky.
plucked - plumé, tirer, pincer, plumer, voler, abats-p, persévérance
meditate - méditer
CHAPTER XIV"WHAT HE THOUGHT
One last word.
Since this sort of details might, particularly at the present moment, and to use an expression now in fashion, give to the Bishop of D"" a certain "pantheistical" physiognomy, and induce the belief, either to his credit or discredit, that he entertained one of those personal philosophies which are peculiar to our century, which sometimes spring up in solitary spirits, and there take on a form and grow until they usurp the place of religion, we insist upon it, that not one of those persons who knew Monseigneur Welcome would have thought himself authorized to think anything of the sort. That which enlightened this man was his heart. His wisdom was made of the light which comes from there.
pantheistical - panthéiste
physiognomy - la physionomie, physiognomonie
spring up - le printemps
usurp - usurper
authorized - autorisé, autoriser
No systems; many works. Abstruse speculations contain vertigo; no, there is nothing to indicate that he risked his mind in apocalypses. The apostle may be daring, but the bishop must be timid. He would probably have felt a scruple at sounding too far in advance certain problems which are, in a manner, reserved for terrible great minds.
abstruse - abstruse, abstrus, abscons
vertigo - vertige, labyrinthite
apocalypses - les apocalypses, apocalypse
apostle - apôtre
timid - timide, craintif
There is a sacred horror beneath the porches of the enigma; those gloomy openings stand yawning there, but something tells you, you, a passer-by in life, that you must not enter. Woe to him who penetrates thither!
sacred - sacrée, sacré, saint
porches - porches, porche, véranda, portique
enigma - énigme
yawning - bâillements, (yawn), bâiller, béer, bâillement
woe - tristesse, douleur, misere, malheur, hélas
penetrates - pénetre, pénétrer
Geniuses in the impenetrable depths of abstraction and pure speculation, situated, so to speak, above all dogmas, propose their ideas to God. Their prayer audaciously offers discussion. Their adoration interrogates. This is direct religion, which is full of anxiety and responsibility for him who attempts its steep cliffs.
geniuses - des génies
impenetrable - impénétrable
abstraction - l'abstraction, abstraction
dogmas - des dogmes, dogme
audaciously - avec audace
offers - offres, offrir, proposer
adoration - l'adoration, adoration
Human meditation has no limits. At his own risk and peril, it analyzes and digs deep into its own bedazzlement. One might almost say, that by a sort of splendid reaction, it with it dazzles nature; the mysterious world which surrounds us renders back what it has received; it is probable that the contemplators are contemplated. However that may be, there are on earth men who"are they men?
analyzes - analyse, analyser
bedazzlement - l'éblouissement
dazzles - éblouit, éblouir
"perceive distinctly at the verge of the horizons of reverie the heights of the absolute, and who have the terrible vision of the infinite mountain. Monseigneur Welcome was one of these men; Monseigneur Welcome was not a genius. He would have feared those sublimities whence some very great men even, like Swedenborg and Pascal, have slipped into insanity.
horizons - horizons, horizon
sublimities - des sublimités, sublimité
Pascal - pascal
insanity - la folie, folie
Certainly, these powerful reveries have their moral utility, and by these arduous paths one approaches to ideal perfection. As for him, he took the path which shortens,"the Gospel's.
reveries - reveries, reverie
utility - d'utilité publique, utilité, utilitaire
arduous - difficile, ardu
shortens - raccourcit, raccourcir, écourter
He did not attempt to impart to his chasuble the folds of Elijah's mantle; he projected no ray of future upon the dark groundswell of events; he did not see to condense in flame the light of things; he had nothing of the prophet and nothing of the magician about him. This humble soul loved, and that was all.
chasuble - chasuble
Elijah - elijah, Élie
mantle - manteau, les renes, manchon
groundswell - une vague de fond, lame de fond
condense - condenser, se condenser
prophet - prophete, prophete, prophétesse, devin
magician - magicien
That he carried prayer to the pitch of a superhuman aspiration is probable: but one can no more pray too much than one can love too much; and if it is a heresy to pray beyond the texts, Saint Theresa and Saint Jerome would be heretics.
heresy - l'hérésie, hérésie
heretics - hérétiques, hérétique
He inclined towards all that groans and all that expiates. The universe appeared to him like an immense malady; everywhere he felt fever, everywhere he heard the sound of suffering, and, without seeking to solve the enigma, he strove to dress the wound.
groans - gémissements, râle, râlement, gémissement, grognement
strove - s'efforcer, s'efforcer de
The terrible spectacle of created things developed tenderness in him; he was occupied only in finding for himself, and in inspiring others with the best way to compassionate and relieve. That which exists was for this good and rare priest a permanent subject of sadness which sought consolation.
spectacle - spectacle
compassionate - compatissant
sadness - tristesse, malheur
There are men who toil at extracting gold; he toiled at the extraction of pity. Universal misery was his mine. The sadness which reigned everywhere was but an excuse for unfailing kindness. Love each other; he declared this to be complete, desired nothing further, and that was the whole of his doctrine.
toiled - travaillé, travailler
extraction - extraction, rench: t-needed r
reigned - régnait, regne, régner
unfailing - indéfectible
One day, that man who believed himself to be a "philosopher," the senator who has already been alluded to, said to the Bishop: "Just survey the spectacle of the world: all war against all; the strongest has the most wit. Your love each other is nonsense.
philosopher - philosophe
alluded - allusion, alluder, faire allusion, suggérer
"""Well," replied Monseigneur Welcome, without contesting the point, "if it is nonsense, the soul should shut itself up in it, as the pearl in the oyster.
pearl - perle, joyau, perlure, parisienne, sédanoise
oyster - huître, huitre, sot-l’y-laisse
" Thus he shut himself up, he lived there, he was absolutely satisfied with it, leaving on one side the prodigious questions which attract and terrify, the fathomless perspectives of abstraction, the precipices of metaphysics"all those profundities which converge, for the apostle in God, for the atheist in nothingness; destiny, good and evil, the way of being against being, the conscience of man, the thoughtful somnambulism of the animal, the transformation in death, the recapitulation of existences which the tomb contains, the incomprehensible grafting of successive loves on the persistent I, the essence, the substance, the Nile, and the Ens, the soul, nature, liberty, necessity; perpendicular problems, sinister obscurities, where lean the gigantic archangels of the human mind; formidable abysses, which Lucretius, Manou, Saint Paul, Dante, contemplate with eyes flashing lightning, which seems by its steady gaze on the infinite to cause stars to blaze forth there.
prodigious - prodigieux
fathomless - insondable, sans fond
precipices - des précipices, précipice
converge - convergent, converger
thoughtful - réfléchie, réfléchi, attentionné
somnambulism - somnambulisme
transformation - transformation
recapitulation - récapitulation, réexposition
Grafting - greffe, greffage, (graft) greffe
successive - successifs
persistent - persistante, persistant, tenace
essence - essence
Nile - le nil, Nil
perpendicular - perpendiculaire, fil a plomb
obscurities - des obscurités, obscurité
gigantic - gigantesque, colossal
archangels - les archanges, archange
formidable - formidable
contemplate - envisager, étudier, contempler
lightning - la foudre, éclair, éloise, foudre
blaze - flamme, feu, embrasement
Monseigneur Bienvenu was simply a man who took note of the exterior of mysterious questions without scrutinizing them, and without troubling his own mind with them, and who cherished in his own soul a grave respect for darkness.
exterior - extérieur
scrutinizing - l'examen minutieux, scruter, dépouiller
cherished - chérie, chérir, tenir
BOOK SECOND"THE FALL
CHAPTER I"THE EVENING OF A DAY OF WALKING
Early in the month of October, 1815, about an hour before sunset, a man who was travelling on foot entered the little town of D"" The few inhabitants who were at their windows or on their thresholds at the moment stared at this traveller with a sort of uneasiness. It was difficult to encounter a wayfarer of more wretched appearance.
sunset - coucher de soleil, crépuscule
travelling on - Voyager sur
thresholds - seuils, seuil, seuil de tolérance
wayfarer - wayfarer, voyageur
He was a man of medium stature, thickset and robust, in the prime of life. He might have been forty-six or forty-eight years old. A cap with a drooping leather visor partly concealed his face, burned and tanned by sun and wind, and dripping with perspiration.
visor - visiere, visiere
tanned - bronzé, tanner
dripping - goutte a goutte, dégoulinade
perspiration - la transpiration, transpiration
His shirt of coarse yellow linen, fastened at the neck by a small silver anchor, permitted a view of his hairy breast: he had a cravat twisted into a string; trousers of blue drilling, worn and threadbare, white on one knee and torn on the other; an old gray, tattered blouse, patched on one of the elbows with a bit of green cloth sewed on with twine; a tightly packed soldier knapsack, well buckled and perfectly new, on his back; an enormous, knotty stick in his hand; iron-shod shoes on his stockingless feet; a shaved head and a long beard.
anchor - l'ancre, ancre, ancrons, ancrent, portant, ancrez
cravat - cravate, foulard
twisted - tordu, twist, torsion, entortiller, tordre
drilling - forage, (drill) forage
blouse - chemisier, blouse
patched - patché, piece, rustine
sewed on - cousu
twine - ficelle, natter, tresser, tisser
tightly - étanche, fermement
knapsack - sac a dos, sac a dos
buckled - bouclé, boucle
stockingless - sans stock
beard - barbe
The sweat, the heat, the journey on foot, the dust, added I know not what sordid quality to this dilapidated whole. His hair was closely cut, yet bristling, for it had begun to grow a little, and did not seem to have been cut for some time.
sordid - saleté, sordide, avide, crapuleux (1, 3)
dilapidated - délabré, délabrer, dilapider
bristling - se hérisser, soie, poil
No one knew him. He was evidently only a chance passer-by. Whence came he? From the south; from the seashore, perhaps, for he made his entrance into D"" by the same street which, seven months previously, had witnessed the passage of the Emperor Napoleon on his way from Cannes to Paris. This man must have been walking all day. He seemed very much fatigued.
seashore - rivage, rive, bord de mer
fatigued - fatigué, fatigue, épuisement, corvée, fatiguer
Some women of the ancient market town which is situated below the city had seen him pause beneath the trees of the boulevard Gassendi, and drink at the fountain which stands at the end of the promenade. He must have been very thirsty: for the children who followed him saw him stop again for a drink, two hundred paces further on, at the fountain in the market-place.
Boulevard - boulevard
fountain - fontaine
promenade - promenade, promenoir, promener
On arriving at the corner of the Rue Poichevert, he turned to the left, and directed his steps toward the town-hall. He entered, then came out a quarter of an hour later. A gendarme was seated near the door, on the stone bench which General Drouot had mounted on the 4th of March to read to the frightened throng of the inhabitants of D"" the proclamation of the Gulf Juan.
gendarme - gendarme
throng - essaim, foule
proclamation - proclamation
Gulf - golfe
The man pulled off his cap and humbly saluted the gendarme.
humbly - humblement
saluted - salué, saluer, faire un salut
The gendarme, without replying to his salute, stared attentively at him, followed him for a while with his eyes, and then entered the town-hall.
salute - saluer, faire un salut
attentively - attentivement
There then existed at D"" a fine inn at the sign of the Cross of Colbas. This inn had for a landlord a certain Jacquin Labarre, a man of consideration in the town on account of his relationship to another Labarre, who kept the inn of the Three Dauphins in Grenoble, and had served in the Guides.
Inn - l'auberge, auberge
landlord - propriétaire, patron
Dauphins - dauphins, dauphin
At the time of the Emperor's landing, many rumors had circulated throughout the country with regard to this inn of the Three Dauphins. It was said that General Bertrand, disguised as a carter, had made frequent trips thither in the month of January, and that he had distributed crosses of honor to the soldiers and handfuls of gold to the citizens.
circulated - diffusée, circuler
disguised - déguisé, déguisement, déguiser
handfuls - poignées, poignée, manipule
The truth is, that when the Emperor entered Grenoble he had refused to install himself at the hotel of the prefecture; he had thanked the mayor, saying, "I am going to the house of a brave man of my acquaintance"; and he had betaken himself to the Three Dauphins.
Prefecture - préfecture
acquaintance - une connaissance, relation
This glory of the Labarre of the Three Dauphins was reflected upon the Labarre of the Cross of Colbas, at a distance of five and twenty leagues. It was said of him in the town, "That is the cousin of the man of Grenoble."
glory - gloire
The man bent his steps towards this inn, which was the best in the country-side. He entered the kitchen, which opened on a level with the street. All the stoves were lighted; a huge fire blazed gayly in the fireplace.
stoves - poeles, cuisiniere, poele
blazed - brulé, feu, embrasement
gayly - gayly
fireplace - âtre, foyer, cheminée
The host, who was also the chief cook, was going from one stew-pan to another, very busily superintending an excellent dinner designed for the wagoners, whose loud talking, conversation, and laughter were audible from an adjoining apartment. Any one who has travelled knows that there is no one who indulges in better cheer than wagoners.
stew - ragout, ragout
busily - avec activité
superintending - surintendante, surveiller, diriger
audible - audible
adjoining - adjacente, adjoindre, toucher
indulges - se fait plaisir, céder, succomber, dorloter, gâter, choyer
A fat marmot, flanked by white partridges and heather-cocks, was turning on a long spit before the fire; on the stove, two huge carps from Lake Lauzet and a trout from Lake Alloz were cooking.
marmot - marmotte
flanked - flanqué, flanc, flanchet
Partridges - perdrix, qualifierale
heather - bruyere, bruyere, callune, éricacée
cocks - bites, oiseau mâle, coq
spit - vomir, cracher, jeter, expectorer
stove - poele, fourneau, cuisiniere, (stave), douve, fuseau
carps - carpes, carpe
trout - truite
The host, hearing the door open and seeing a newcomer enter, said, without raising his eyes from his stoves:"
"What do you wish, sir?"
"Food and lodging," said the man.
lodging - l'hébergement, logement, hébergement, verse, (lodge), cabane
"Nothing easier," replied the host. At that moment he turned his head, took in the traveller's appearance with a single glance, and added, "By paying for it."
The man drew a large leather purse from the pocket of his blouse, and answered, "I have money."
"In that case, we are at your service," said the host.
The man put his purse back in his pocket, removed his knapsack from his back, put it on the ground near the door, retained his stick in his hand, and seated himself on a low stool close to the fire. D"" is in the mountains. The evenings are cold there in October.
stool - tabouret
But as the host went back and forth, he scrutinized the traveller.
scrutinized - examinés, scruter, dépouiller
"Will dinner be ready soon?" said the man.
"Immediately," replied the landlord.
While the newcomer was warming himself before the fire, with his back turned, the worthy host, Jacquin Labarre, drew a pencil from his pocket, then tore off the corner of an old newspaper which was lying on a small table near the window.
On the white margin he wrote a line or two, folded it without sealing, and then intrusted this scrap of paper to a child who seemed to serve him in the capacity both of scullion and lackey. The landlord whispered a word in the scullion's ear, and the child set off on a run in the direction of the town-hall.
sealing - scellant, (seal) scellant
scrap - de la ferraille, ferraille, chiffon, mettre au rebut
scullion - marmiton
The traveller saw nothing of all this.
Once more he inquired, "Will dinner be ready soon?"
"Immediately," responded the host.
The child returned. He brought back the paper. The host unfolded it eagerly, like a person who is expecting a reply. He seemed to read it attentively, then tossed his head, and remained thoughtful for a moment. Then he took a step in the direction of the traveller, who appeared to be immersed in reflections which were not very serene.
eagerly - avec empressement, avidement
tossed - ballotté, jet, au pile ou face, tirage au sort, pile ou face
immersed - immergé, immerger
reflections - réflexions, réflexion, reflet, qualifiereaning 4
"I cannot receive you, sir," said he.
The man half rose.
"What! Are you afraid that I will not pay you? Do you want me to pay you in advance? I have money, I tell you."
"It is not that."
"You have money""
"Yes," said the man.
"And I," said the host, "have no room."
The man resumed tranquilly, "Put me in the stable."
tranquilly - tranquillement
"The horses take up all the space."
"Very well!" retorted the man; "a corner of the loft then, a truss of straw. We will see about that after dinner."
loft - loft, grenier
truss - truss, bandage herniaire, treillis, structure triangulée
"I cannot give you any dinner."
This declaration, made in a measured but firm tone, struck the stranger as grave. He rose.
declaration - déclaration
"Ah! bah! But I am dying of hunger. I have been walking since sunrise. I have travelled twelve leagues. I pay. I wish to eat."
sunrise - lever du soleil, potron-minet
"I have nothing," said the landlord.
The man burst out laughing, and turned towards the fireplace and the stoves: "Nothing! and all that?"
"All that is engaged."
"By messieurs the wagoners."
"How many are there of them?"
"There is enough food there for twenty."
"They have engaged the whole of it and paid for it in advance."
The man seated himself again, and said, without raising his voice, "I am at an inn; I am hungry, and I shall remain."
Then the host bent down to his ear, and said in a tone which made him start, "Go away!"
At that moment the traveller was bending forward and thrusting some brands into the fire with the iron-shod tip of his staff; he turned quickly round, and as he opened his mouth to reply, the host gazed steadily at him and added, still in a low voice: "Stop! there's enough of that sort of talk. Do you want me to tell you your name? Your name is Jean Valjean.
thrusting - poussée, (thrust), estocade, propulser
Now do you want me to tell you who you are? When I saw you come in I suspected something; I sent to the town-hall, and this was the reply that was sent to me. Can you read?"
So saying, he held out to the stranger, fully unfolded, the paper which had just travelled from the inn to the town-hall, and from the town-hall to the inn. The man cast a glance upon it. The landlord resumed after a pause.
"I am in the habit of being polite to every one. Go away!"
The man dropped his head, picked up the knapsack which he had deposited on the ground, and took his departure.
He chose the principal street. He walked straight on at a venture, keeping close to the houses like a sad and humiliated man. He did not turn round a single time.
Venture - venture, s'aventurer, risquer, oser
humiliated - humilié, humilier
turn round - faire demi-tour
Had he done so, he would have seen the host of the Cross of Colbas standing on his threshold, surrounded by all the guests of his inn, and all the passers-by in the street, talking vivaciously, and pointing him out with his finger; and, from the glances of terror and distrust cast by the group, he might have divined that his arrival would speedily become an event for the whole town.
threshold - seuil, seuil de tolérance
vivaciously - avec vivacité
glances - regards, jeter un coup d’oil, coup d'oil
divined - diviné, divin
speedily - rapidement
He saw nothing of all this. People who are crushed do not look behind them. They know but too well the evil fate which follows them.
Thus he proceeded for some time, walking on without ceasing, traversing at random streets of which he knew nothing, forgetful of his fatigue, as is often the case when a man is sad. All at once he felt the pangs of hunger sharply. Night was drawing near. He glanced about him, to see whether he could not discover some shelter.
traversing - la traversée, (traverse), franchir, traverser
pangs - des douleurs, douleur (soudaine)
sharply - brusquement
glanced - a glissé, jeter un coup d’oil, coup d'oil
The fine hostelry was closed to him; he was seeking some very humble public house, some hovel, however lowly.
hostelry - l'hostellerie
public house - une maison publique
Just then a light flashed up at the end of the streets; a pine branch suspended from a cross-beam of iron was outlined against the white sky of the twilight. He proceeded thither.
pine - pin
cross-beam - (cross-beam) traverse
twilight - demi-jour, crépuscule, entre chien et loup, pénombre, brumes
It proved to be, in fact, a public house. The public house which is in the Rue de Chaffaut.
The wayfarer halted for a moment, and peeped through the window into the interior of the low-studded room of the public house, illuminated by a small lamp on a table and by a large fire on the hearth. Some men were engaged in drinking there. The landlord was warming himself. An iron pot, suspended from a crane, bubbled over the flame.
peeped - épié, regarder qqch a la dérobée
interior - intérieur
studded - clouté, écurie
large fire - un grand feu
hearth - âtre, foyer, foyers
Crane - la grue, grue
bubbled over - a débordé
The entrance to this public house, which is also a sort of an inn, is by two doors. One opens on the street, the other upon a small yard filled with manure. The traveller dare not enter by the street door. He slipped into the yard, halted again, then raised the latch timidly and opened the door.
timidly - timidement
"Who goes there?" said the master.
"Some one who wants supper and bed."
"Good. We furnish supper and bed here."
He entered. All the men who were drinking turned round. The lamp illuminated him on one side, the firelight on the other. They examined him for some time while he was taking off his knapsack.
firelight - la lumiere du feu
The host said to him, "There is the fire. The supper is cooking in the pot. Come and warm yourself, comrade."
comrade - camarade f, camarade
He approached and seated himself near the hearth. He stretched out his feet, which were exhausted with fatigue, to the fire; a fine odor was emitted by the pot. All that could be distinguished of his face, beneath his cap, which was well pulled down, assumed a vague appearance of comfort, mingled with that other poignant aspect which habitual suffering bestows.
odor - odeur
emitted - émis, émettre
vague - vague
bestows - accorde, disposer de, accorder, remettre, conférer
It was, moreover, a firm, energetic, and melancholy profile. This physiognomy was strangely composed; it began by seeming humble, and ended by seeming severe. The eye shone beneath its lashes like a fire beneath brushwood.
melancholy - mélancolie
lashes - cils, cil
brushwood - des broussailles, brindilles
One of the men seated at the table, however, was a fishmonger who, before entering the public house of the Rue de Chaffaut, had been to stable his horse at Labarre's. It chanced that he had that very morning encountered this unprepossessing stranger on the road between Bras d'Asse and"I have forgotten the name. I think it was Escoublon.
fishmonger - poissonnier, poissonniere, marchand de poisson, proxénete
unprepossessing - sans allure
Bras - soutiens-gorge, (bra) soutiens-gorge
Now, when he met him, the man, who then seemed already extremely weary, had requested him to take him on his crupper; to which the fishmonger had made no reply except by redoubling his gait. This fishmonger had been a member half an hour previously of the group which surrounded Jacquin Labarre, and had himself related his disagreeable encounter of the morning to the people at the Cross of Colbas.
weary - fatigué, las, lasser
crupper - crupper, croupiere
redoubling - redoublement, redoubler
gait - démarche
disagreeable - incompatible, désagréable
From where he sat he made an imperceptible sign to the tavern-keeper. The tavern-keeper went to him. They exchanged a few words in a low tone. The man had again become absorbed in his reflections.
imperceptible - imperceptible
tavern - taverne
keeper - gardien, gardienne, perle, conservateur, conservatrice
The tavern-keeper returned to the fireplace, laid his hand abruptly on the shoulder of the man, and said to him:"
"You are going to get out of here."
The stranger turned round and replied gently, "Ah! You know?""
"I was sent away from the other inn."
sent away - renvoyé
"And you are to be turned out of this one."
"Where would you have me go?"
The man took his stick and his knapsack and departed.
As he went out, some children who had followed him from the Cross of Colbas, and who seemed to be lying in wait for him, threw stones at him. He retraced his steps in anger, and threatened them with his stick: the children dispersed like a flock of birds.
He passed before the prison. At the door hung an iron chain attached to a bell. He rang.
The wicket opened.
wicket - guichet
"Turnkey," said he, removing his cap politely, "will you have the kindness to admit me, and give me a lodging for the night?"
turnkey - clé en main, clés en main
A voice replied:"
"The prison is not an inn. Get yourself arrested, and you will be admitted."
The wicket closed again.
He entered a little street in which there were many gardens. Some of them are enclosed only by hedges, which lends a cheerful aspect to the street. In the midst of these gardens and hedges he caught sight of a small house of a single story, the window of which was lighted up. He peered through the pane as he had done at the public house.
hedges - des haies, haie
lighted up - allumé
pane - panneau, vitre
Within was a large whitewashed room, with a bed draped in printed cotton stuff, and a cradle in one corner, a few wooden chairs, and a double-barrelled gun hanging on the wall. A table was spread in the centre of the room. A copper lamp illuminated the tablecloth of coarse white linen, the pewter jug shining like silver, and filled with wine, and the brown, smoking soup-tureen.
cradle - berceau, bers, bercer
barrelled - en tonneaux, tonneau, barrique, baril, canon, barillet
tablecloth - nappe
pewter - étain, métal blanc, potin, potin gris
jug - carafe, pot, récipient, broc, cruche
soup-tureen - (soup-tureen) Soupiere
At this table sat a man of about forty, with a merry and open countenance, who was dandling a little child on his knees. Close by a very young woman was nursing another child. The father was laughing, the child was laughing, the mother was smiling.
merry - joyeux, gai, heureuse, jovial
dandling - dandling, dodeliner, se trémousser
The stranger paused a moment in reverie before this tender and calming spectacle. What was taking place within him? He alone could have told. It is probable that he thought that this joyous house would be hospitable, and that, in a place where he beheld so much happiness, he would find perhaps a little pity.
joyous - joyeux
hospitable - hospitalier
He tapped on the pane with a very small and feeble knock.
They did not hear him.
He tapped again.
He heard the woman say, "It seems to me, husband, that some one is knocking."
"No," replied the husband.
He tapped a third time.
The husband rose, took the lamp, and went to the door, which he opened.
He was a man of lofty stature, half peasant, half artisan. He wore a huge leather apron, which reached to his left shoulder, and which a hammer, a red handkerchief, a powder-horn, and all sorts of objects which were upheld by the girdle, as in a pocket, caused to bulge out. He carried his head thrown backwards; his shirt, widely opened and turned back, displayed his bull neck, white and bare.
Artisan - artisan, artisane
apron - tablier, tarmac, piste
hammer - marteau, chien, malléus, marteler, (ham)
handkerchief - mouchoir
horn - corne, cor, klaxon, cuivres
girdle - gaine, corset, ceinture
bulge - gonflement, bombement, bosse, protubérance, bomber, déformer
Bull - le taureau, taureau
He had thick eyelashes, enormous black whiskers, prominent eyes, the lower part of his face like a snout; and besides all this, that air of being on his own ground, which is indescribable.
eyelashes - cils, cil
whiskers - moustaches, favoris-p, poil de barbe, moustache, vibrisse
lower part - la partie inférieure
snout - museau, groin, indic
"Pardon me, sir," said the wayfarer, "Could you, in consideration of payment, give me a plate of soup and a corner of that shed yonder in the garden, in which to sleep? Tell me; can you? For money?"
"Who are you?" demanded the master of the house.
The man replied: "I have just come from Puy-Moisson. I have walked all day long. I have travelled twelve leagues. Can you?"if I pay?"
Puy - puy
"I would not refuse," said the peasant, "to lodge any respectable man who would pay me. But why do you not go to the inn?"
Lodge - cabane, maison du portier, loge, rench: t-needed r, loger
"There is no room."
"Bah! Impossible. This is neither a fair nor a market day. Have you been to Labarre?"
The traveller replied with embarrassment: "I do not know. He did not receive me."
"Have you been to What's-his-name's, in the Rue Chaffaut?"
The stranger's embarrassment increased; he stammered, "He did not receive me either."
The peasant's countenance assumed an expression of distrust; he surveyed the newcomer from head to feet, and suddenly exclaimed, with a sort of shudder:"
shudder - frémir, tremblement, frisson, frissonner, trembler
"Are you the man?""
He cast a fresh glance upon the stranger, took three steps backwards, placed the lamp on the table, and took his gun down from the wall.
Meanwhile, at the words, Are you the man? the woman had risen, had clasped her two children in her arms, and had taken refuge precipitately behind her husband, staring in terror at the stranger, with her bosom uncovered, and with frightened eyes, as she murmured in a low tone, "Tso-maraude."1
clasped - serré, fermoir, serrer
precipitately - précipitamment
bosom - poitrine, sein, intime
uncovered - a découvert, découvrir
All this took place in less time than it requires to picture it to one's self. After having scrutinized the man for several moments, as one scrutinizes a viper, the master of the house returned to the door and said:"
scrutinizes - examine, scruter, dépouiller
viper - vipere, vipere
"For pity's sake, a glass of water," said the man.
"A shot from my gun!" said the peasant.
Then he closed the door violently, and the man heard him shoot two large bolts. A moment later, the window-shutter was closed, and the sound of a bar of iron which was placed against it was audible outside.
violently - violemment
shutter - volet, contrevent, obturateur
Night continued to fall. A cold wind from the Alps was blowing. By the light of the expiring day the stranger perceived, in one of the gardens which bordered the street, a sort of hut, which seemed to him to be built of sods. He climbed over the wooden fence resolutely, and found himself in the garden.
Alps - les alpes, Alpes, (alp) les alpes
expiring - qui expire, expirer
resolutely - résolument
He approached the hut; its door consisted of a very low and narrow aperture, and it resembled those buildings which road-laborers construct for themselves along the roads. He thought without doubt, that it was, in fact, the dwelling of a road-laborer; he was suffering from cold and hunger, but this was, at least, a shelter from the cold. This sort of dwelling is not usually occupied at night.
aperture - ouverture
laborers - les travailleurs, ouvrier
He threw himself flat on his face, and crawled into the hut. It was warm there, and he found a tolerably good bed of straw. He lay, for a moment, stretched out on this bed, without the power to make a movement, so fatigued was he. Then, as the knapsack on his back was in his way, and as it furnished, moreover, a pillow ready to his hand, he set about unbuckling one of the straps.
crawled - rampé, ramper
pillow - oreiller, tetiere
unbuckling - le débouclage, déboucler
straps - sangles, sangle, courroie, laniere, bandouliere
At that moment, a ferocious growl became audible. He raised his eyes. The head of an enormous dog was outlined in the darkness at the entrance of the hut.
growl - feulement, grognement, borborygme, gargouillement, grincement
It was a dog's kennel.
kennel - chenil, niche
He was himself vigorous and formidable; he armed himself with his staff, made a shield of his knapsack, and made his way out of the kennel in the best way he could, not without enlarging the rents in his rags.
shield - bouclier, enseigne
enlarging - l'élargissement, agrandir, élargir, accroître
He left the garden in the same manner, but backwards, being obliged, in order to keep the dog respectful, to have recourse to that manĹ"uvre with his stick which masters in that sort of fencing designate as la rose couverte.
respectful - respectueux
recourse - recours
designate - désigner
When he had, not without difficulty, repassed the fence, and found himself once more in the street, alone, without refuge, without shelter, without a roof over his head, chased even from that bed of straw and from that miserable kennel, he dropped rather than seated himself on a stone, and it appears that a passer-by heard him exclaim, "I am not even a dog!"
exclaim - s'exclamer, exclamer
He soon rose again and resumed his march. He went out of the town, hoping to find some tree or haystack in the fields which would afford him shelter.
haystack - botte de foin, meule de foin
He walked thus for some time, with his head still drooping. When he felt himself far from every human habitation, he raised his eyes and gazed searchingly about him. He was in a field. Before him was one of those low hills covered with close-cut stubble, which, after the harvest, resemble shaved heads.
searchingly - a la recherche
stubble - chaume, barbe de trois jours, éteule
resemble - ressembler
The horizon was perfectly black. This was not alone the obscurity of night; it was caused by very low-hanging clouds which seemed to rest upon the hill itself, and which were mounting and filling the whole sky.
obscurity - l'obscurité, obscurité
Meanwhile, as the moon was about to rise, and as there was still floating in the zenith a remnant of the brightness of twilight, these clouds formed at the summit of the sky a sort of whitish arch, whence a gleam of light fell upon the earth.
zenith - zénith
brightness - brillance, luminosité, intelligence
summit - sommet, apogée
arch - arch, dôme
The earth was thus better lighted than the sky, which produces a particularly sinister effect, and the hill, whose contour was poor and mean, was outlined vague and wan against the gloomy horizon. The whole effect was hideous, petty, lugubrious, and narrow.
contour - contour, ligne de niveau
wan - wan, pâle, blafard
There was nothing in the field or on the hill except a deformed tree, which writhed and shivered a few paces distant from the wayfarer.
deformed - déformé, déformer
writhed - s'est tordu, se débattre, se démener, se tortiller
shivered - frissonné, frissonner
This man was evidently very far from having those delicate habits of intelligence and spirit which render one sensible to the mysterious aspects of things; nevertheless, there was something in that sky, in that hill, in that plain, in that tree, which was so profoundly desolate, that after a moment of immobility and reverie he turned back abruptly. There are instants when nature seems hostile.
profoundly - profondément
desolate - désolée, ravager, désoler
immobility - l'immobilité, immobilité
He retraced his steps; the gates of D"" were closed. D"", which had sustained sieges during the wars of religion, was still surrounded in 1815 by ancient walls flanked by square towers which have been demolished since. He passed through a breach and entered the town again.
sustained - soutenue, maintenir, subvenir
sieges - sieges, siege
It might have been eight o'clock in the evening. As he was not acquainted with the streets, he recommenced his walk at random.
recommenced - repris, recommencer
In this way he came to the prefecture, then to the seminary. As he passed through the Cathedral Square, he shook his fist at the church.
At the corner of this square there is a printing establishment. It is there that the proclamations of the Emperor and of the Imperial Guard to the army, brought from the Island of Elba and dictated by Napoleon himself, were printed for the first time.
establishment - établissement, systeme, classe dirigeante, establishment
proclamations - proclamations, proclamation
dictated - dicté, dicter
Worn out with fatigue, and no longer entertaining any hope, he lay down on a stone bench which stands at the doorway of this printing office.
doorway - l'embrasure de la porte, embrasure de la porte
printing office - l'imprimerie
At that moment an old woman came out of the church. She saw the man stretched out in the shadow. "What are you doing there, my friend?" said she.
He answered harshly and angrily: "As you see, my good woman, I am sleeping." The good woman, who was well worthy the name, in fact, was the Marquise de R""
marquise - marquise
"On this bench?" she went on.
"I have had a mattress of wood for nineteen years," said the man; "to-day I have a mattress of stone."
mattress - matelas
"You have been a soldier?"
"Yes, my good woman, a soldier."
"Why do you not go to the inn?"
"Because I have no money."
"Alas!" said Madame de R"", "I have only four sous in my purse."
"Give it to me all the same."
The man took the four sous. Madame de R"" continued: "You cannot obtain lodgings in an inn for so small a sum. But have you tried? It is impossible for you to pass the night thus. You are cold and hungry, no doubt. Some one might have given you a lodging out of charity."
lodgings - logements, logement, hébergement, verse
"I have knocked at all doors."
"I have been driven away everywhere."
driven away - chassé
The "good woman" touched the man's arm, and pointed out to him on the other side of the street a small, low house, which stood beside the Bishop's palace.
"You have knocked at all doors?"
"Have you knocked at that one?"
CHAPTER II"PRUDENCE COUNSELLED TO WISDOM.
counselled - conseillée, conseil, expertise, plan, projet
That evening, the Bishop of D"", after his promenade through the town, remained shut up rather late in his room. He was busy over a great work on Duties, which was never completed, unfortunately. He was carefully compiling everything that the Fathers and the doctors have said on this important subject.
remained shut - Rester fermé
compiling - la compilation, compiler
His book was divided into two parts: firstly, the duties of all; secondly, the duties of each individual, according to the class to which he belongs. The duties of all are the great duties. There are four of these. Saint Matthew points them out: duties towards God (Matt. vi.); duties towards one's self (Matt. v. 29, 30); duties towards one's neighbor (Matt. vii. 12); duties towards animals (Matt.
Matthew - matthew, Matthieu, Mathieu
vi. 20, 25). As for the other duties the Bishop found them pointed out and prescribed elsewhere: to sovereigns and subjects, in the Epistle to the Romans; to magistrates, to wives, to mothers, to young men, by Saint Peter; to husbands, fathers, children and servants, in the Epistle to the Ephesians; to the faithful, in the Epistle to the Hebrews; to virgins, in the Epistle to the Corinthians.
prescribed - prescrite, prescrire, indiquer, ordonner
sovereigns - souverains, souverain
magistrates - magistrats, magistrat
Peter - peter, Pierre, P
faithful - fidele, fidele, loyal
Hebrews - hébreux, hébreu, hébraique
virgins - vierges, vierge, q
Corinthians - corinthiens, Corinthien, Corinthienne
Out of these precepts he was laboriously constructing a harmonious whole, which he desired to present to souls.
precepts - préceptes, précepte
laboriously - laborieusement
harmonious - harmonieux
At eight o'clock he was still at work, writing with a good deal of inconvenience upon little squares of paper, with a big book open on his knees, when Madame Magloire entered, according to her wont, to get the silver-ware from the cupboard near his bed.
inconvenience - inconvénients, dérangement, désagrément
wont - de la volonté
A moment later, the Bishop, knowing that the table was set, and that his sister was probably waiting for him, shut his book, rose from his table, and entered the dining-room.
The dining-room was an oblong apartment, with a fireplace, which had a door opening on the street (as we have said), and a window opening on the garden.
oblong - oblong
Madame Magloire was, in fact, just putting the last touches to the table.
As she performed this service, she was conversing with Mademoiselle Baptistine.
conversing - en train de converser, converser
A lamp stood on the table; the table was near the fireplace. A wood fire was burning there.
One can easily picture to one's self these two women, both of whom were over sixty years of age. Madame Magloire small, plump, vivacious; Mademoiselle Baptistine gentle, slender, frail, somewhat taller than her brother, dressed in a gown of puce-colored silk, of the fashion of 1806, which she had purchased at that date in Paris, and which had lasted ever since.
vivacious - vivace
slender - svelte, mince
frail - fragile, souffreteuxse
puce - puce
To borrow vulgar phrases, which possess the merit of giving utterance in a single word to an idea which a whole page would hardly suffice to express, Madame Magloire had the air of a peasant, and Mademoiselle Baptistine that of a lady.
suffice - suffisent, suffire, suffire 2
Madame Magloire wore a white quilted cap, a gold Jeannette cross on a velvet ribbon upon her neck, the only bit of feminine jewelry that there was in the house, a very white fichu puffing out from a gown of coarse black woollen stuff, with large, short sleeves, an apron of cotton cloth in red and green checks, knotted round the waist with a green ribbon, with a stomacher of the same attached by two pins at the upper corners, coarse shoes on her feet, and yellow stockings, like the women of Marseilles. Mademoiselle Baptistine's gown was cut on the patterns of 1806, with a short waist, a narrow, sheath-like skirt, puffed sleeves, with flaps and buttons. She concealed her gray hair under a frizzed wig known as the baby wig. Madame Magloire had an intelligent, vivacious, and kindly air; the two corners of her mouth unequally raised, and her upper lip, which was larger than the lower, imparted to her a rather crabbed and imperious look. So long as Monseigneur held his peace, she talked to him resolutely with a mixture of respect and freedom; but as soon as Monseigneur began to speak, as we have seen, she obeyed passively like her mistress. Mademoiselle Baptistine did not even speak. She confined herself to obeying and pleasing him. She had never been pretty, even when she was young; she had large, blue, prominent eyes, and a long arched nose; but her whole visage, her whole person, breathed forth an ineffable goodness, as we stated in the beginning. She had always been predestined to gentleness; but faith, charity, hope, those three virtues which mildly warm the soul, had gradually elevated that gentleness to sanctity. Nature had made her a lamb, religion had made her an angel. Poor sainted virgin! Sweet memory which has vanished!
quilted - matelassé, édredon, couette, courtepointe, matelasser, ouater
ribbon - ruban
jewelry - bijoux
fichu - fichu
puffing - souffler, (puff) souffler
sleeves - manches, manche, chemise (inner), gaine (outer), manchon
knotted - noué, noeud
stomacher - stomacher, piece d'estomac
sheath - gaine
puffed - soufflé, souffle, bouffée
flaps - les volets, pan
frizzed - frisé, friser
wig - perruque
imparted - transmis, donner, communiquer, transmettre
crabbed - en crabe, crabe
imperious - impérieux
Mistress - madame, maîtresse, amante
arched - en arc de cercle, voute, arche
ineffable - ineffable
gentleness - la douceur, rench:
virtues - vertus, vertu
elevated - élevé, (elevate), élever, augmenter
lamb - agneau, agnelle, mettre bas
Mademoiselle Baptistine has so often narrated what passed at the episcopal residence that evening, that there are many people now living who still recall the most minute details.
Narrated - raconté, raconter, conter, narrer, rapporter, relater
At the moment when the Bishop entered, Madame Magloire was talking with considerable vivacity. She was haranguing Mademoiselle Baptistine on a subject which was familiar to her and to which the Bishop was also accustomed. The question concerned the lock upon the entrance door.
vivacity - vivacité
haranguing - harangue, sermon, remontrance, sermonner
It appears that while procuring some provisions for supper, Madame Magloire had heard things in divers places. People had spoken of a prowler of evil appearance; a suspicious vagabond had arrived who must be somewhere about the town, and those who should take it into their heads to return home late that night might be subjected to unpleasant encounters.
Provisions - dispositions, provision, provisionner
vagabond - vagabond, vagabonde
The police was very badly organized, moreover, because there was no love lost between the Prefect and the Mayor, who sought to injure each other by making things happen. It behooved wise people to play the part of their own police, and to guard themselves well, and care must be taken to duly close, bar and barricade their houses, and to fasten the doors well.
duly - dument, dument, ponctuellement
barricade - barricade, barricader
Madame Magloire emphasized these last words; but the Bishop had just come from his room, where it was rather cold. He seated himself in front of the fire, and warmed himself, and then fell to thinking of other things. He did not take up the remark dropped with design by Madame Magloire. She repeated it.
Then Mademoiselle Baptistine, desirous of satisfying Madame Magloire without displeasing her brother, ventured to say timidly:"
ventured - s'est aventuré, s'aventurer, risquer, oser
"Did you hear what Madame Magloire is saying, brother?"
"I have heard something of it in a vague way," replied the Bishop. Then half-turning in his chair, placing his hands on his knees, and raising towards the old servant woman his cordial face, which so easily grew joyous, and which was illuminated from below by the firelight,""Come, what is the matter? What is the matter? Are we in any great danger?"
cordial - cordial, sirop
Then Madame Magloire began the whole story afresh, exaggerating it a little without being aware of the fact. It appeared that a Bohemian, a bare-footed vagabond, a sort of dangerous mendicant, was at that moment in the town. He had presented himself at Jacquin Labarre's to obtain lodgings, but the latter had not been willing to take him in.
afresh - nouveau, a nouveau
exaggerating - exagérer, outrer
Mendicant - mendiant
He had been seen to arrive by the way of the boulevard Gassendi and roam about the streets in the gloaming. A gallows-bird with a terrible face.
roam - errer
gloaming - l'obscurité, crepecrépuscule
gallows - la potence, potence, (gallow) la potence
"Really!" said the Bishop.
This willingness to interrogate encouraged Madame Magloire; it seemed to her to indicate that the Bishop was on the point of becoming alarmed; she pursued triumphantly:"
interrogate - interroger
"Yes, Monseigneur. That is how it is. There will be some sort of catastrophe in this town to-night. Every one says so. And withal, the police is so badly regulated" (a useful repetition). "The idea of living in a mountainous country, and not even having lights in the streets at night! One goes out. Black as ovens, indeed! And I say, Monseigneur, and Mademoiselle there says with me""
withal - en tout état de cause
repetition - répétition
mountainous country - pays montagneux
"I," interrupted his sister, "say nothing. What my brother does is well done."
Madame Magloire continued as though there had been no protest:"
"We say that this house is not safe at all; that if Monseigneur will permit, I will go and tell Paulin Musebois, the locksmith, to come and replace the ancient locks on the doors; we have them, and it is only the work of a moment; for I say that nothing is more terrible than a door which can be opened from the outside with a latch by the first passer-by; and I say that we need bolts, Monseigneur, if only for this night; moreover, Monseigneur has the habit of always saying 'come in'; and besides, even in the middle of the night, O mon Dieu! there is no need to ask permission."
locksmith - serrurier
more terrible - plus terrible
At that moment there came a tolerably violent knock on the door.
"Come in," said the Bishop.
CHAPTER III"THE HEROISM OF PASSIVE OBEDIENCE.
heroism - l'héroisme, héroisme
passive - passive, passif
The door opened.
It opened wide with a rapid movement, as though some one had given it an energetic and resolute push.
resolute - résolu, résolue, ferme, déterminé
A man entered.
We already know the man. It was the wayfarer whom we have seen wandering about in search of shelter.
He entered, advanced a step, and halted, leaving the door open behind him. He had his knapsack on his shoulders, his cudgel in his hand, a rough, audacious, weary, and violent expression in his eyes. The fire on the hearth lighted him up. He was hideous. It was a sinister apparition.
audacious - audacieux
apparition - apparition
Madame Magloire had not even the strength to utter a cry. She trembled, and stood with her mouth wide open.
Mademoiselle Baptistine turned round, beheld the man entering, and half started up in terror; then, turning her head by degrees towards the fireplace again, she began to observe her brother, and her face became once more profoundly calm and serene.
The Bishop fixed a tranquil eye on the man.
As he opened his mouth, doubtless to ask the newcomer what he desired, the man rested both hands on his staff, directed his gaze at the old man and the two women, and without waiting for the Bishop to speak, he said, in a loud voice:"
doubtless - sans doute, sans aucun doute, sans nul doute, indubitablement
"See here. My name is Jean Valjean. I am a convict from the galleys. I have passed nineteen years in the galleys. I was liberated four days ago, and am on my way to Pontarlier, which is my destination. I have been walking for four days since I left Toulon. I have travelled a dozen leagues to-day on foot.
convict - condamner, criminel, bagnard
galleys - les galeres, galere, galée, cambuse
liberated - libéré, libérer
This evening, when I arrived in these parts, I went to an inn, and they turned me out, because of my yellow passport, which I had shown at the town-hall. I had to do it. I went to an inn. They said to me, 'Be off,'at both places. No one would take me. I went to the prison; the jailer would not admit me. I went into a dog's kennel; the dog bit me and chased me off, as though he had been a man.
jailer - geôlier, geôliere, gâfe
One would have said that he knew who I was. I went into the fields, intending to sleep in the open air, beneath the stars. There were no stars. I thought it was going to rain, and I re-entered the town, to seek the recess of a doorway. Yonder, in the square, I meant to sleep on a stone bench. A good woman pointed out your house to me, and said to me, 'Knock there!'I have knocked.
recess - la suspension d'audience, reces, vacances, récréation, récré
What is this place? Do you keep an inn? I have money"savings. One hundred and nine francs fifteen sous, which I earned in the galleys by my labor, in the course of nineteen years. I will pay. What is that to me? I have money. I am very weary; twelve leagues on foot; I am very hungry. Are you willing that I should remain?"
Savings - des économies, économie, épargne
"Madame Magloire," said the Bishop, "you will set another place."
The man advanced three paces, and approached the lamp which was on the table. "Stop," he resumed, as though he had not quite understood; "that's not it. Did you hear? I am a galley-slave; a convict. I come from the galleys." He drew from his pocket a large sheet of yellow paper, which he unfolded. "Here's my passport. Yellow, as you see. This serves to expel me from every place where I go.
galley - la cuisine, galere, galée, cambuse
expel - expulser, éjecter, déporter
Will you read it? I know how to read. I learned in the galleys. There is a school there for those who choose to learn. Hold, this is what they put on this passport: 'Jean Valjean, discharged convict, native of'"that is nothing to you"'has been nineteen years in the galleys: five years for house-breaking and burglary; fourteen years for having attempted to escape on four occasions.
discharged - déchargée, licenciement, débit
burglary - cambriolage
He is a very dangerous man.'There! Every one has cast me out. Are you willing to receive me? Is this an inn? Will you give me something to eat and a bed? Have you a stable?"
"Madame Magloire," said the Bishop, "you will put white sheets on the bed in the alcove." We have already explained the character of the two women's obedience.
Madame Magloire retired to execute these orders.
execute - exécuter, mettre a mort
The Bishop turned to the man.
"Sit down, sir, and warm yourself. We are going to sup in a few moments, and your bed will be prepared while you are supping."
sup - sup
At this point the man suddenly comprehended. The expression of his face, up to that time sombre and harsh, bore the imprint of stupefaction, of doubt, of joy, and became extraordinary. He began stammering like a crazy man:"
comprehended - compris, comprendre
imprint - impression, empreinte
stammering - bafouillage, balbutiement, bégaiement, (stammer), balbutier
"Really? What! You will keep me? You do not drive me forth? A convict! You call me sir! You do not address me as thou? 'Get out of here, you dog!'is what people always say to me. I felt sure that you would expel me, so I told you at once who I am. Oh, what a good woman that was who directed me hither! I am going to sup! A bed with a mattress and sheets, like the rest of the world! a bed!
hither - ici, ça
It is nineteen years since I have slept in a bed! You actually do not want me to go! You are good people. Besides, I have money. I will pay well. Pardon me, monsieur the inn-keeper, but what is your name? I will pay anything you ask. You are a fine man. You are an inn-keeper, are you not?"
"I am," replied the Bishop, "a priest who lives here."
"A priest!" said the man. "Oh, what a fine priest! Then you are not going to demand any money of me? You are the curĂ©, are you not? the curĂ© of this big church? Well! I am a fool, truly! I had not perceived your skull-cap."
As he spoke, he deposited his knapsack and his cudgel in a corner, replaced his passport in his pocket, and seated himself. Mademoiselle Baptistine gazed mildly at him. He continued:
"You are humane, Monsieur le CurĂ©; you have not scorned me. A good priest is a very good thing. Then you do not require me to pay?"
"No," said the Bishop; "keep your money. How much have you? Did you not tell me one hundred and nine francs?"
"And fifteen sous," added the man.
"One hundred and nine francs fifteen sous. And how long did it take you to earn that?"
The Bishop sighed deeply.
sighed - soupiré, soupirer
The man continued: "I have still the whole of my money. In four days I have spent only twenty-five sous, which I earned by helping unload some wagons at Grasse. Since you are an abbĂ©, I will tell you that we had a chaplain in the galleys. And one day I saw a bishop there. Monseigneur is what they call him. He was the Bishop of Majore at Marseilles.
unload - décharger
wagons - wagons, charrette
He is the curĂ© who rules over the other curĂ©s, you understand. Pardon me, I say that very badly; but it is such a far-off thing to me! You understand what we are! He said mass in the middle of the galleys, on an altar. He had a pointed thing, made of gold, on his head; it glittered in the bright light of midday.
glittered - pailleté, étincellement, paillette, briller
We were all ranged in lines on the three sides, with cannons with lighted matches facing us. We could not see very well. He spoke; but he was too far off, and we did not hear. That is what a bishop is like."
cannons - canons, canon
While he was speaking, the Bishop had gone and shut the door, which had remained wide open.
Madame Magloire returned. She brought a silver fork and spoon, which she placed on the table.
"Madame Magloire," said the Bishop, "place those things as near the fire as possible." And turning to his guest: "The night wind is harsh on the Alps. You must be cold, sir."
Each time that he uttered the word sir, in his voice which was so gently grave and polished, the man's face lighted up. Monsieur to a convict is like a glass of water to one of the shipwrecked of the Medusa. Ignominy thirsts for consideration.
uttered - prononcée, complet, total
polished - polie, polonais
shipwrecked - naufragés, épave, naufrage, naufrager
Medusa - Méduse
ignominy - l'ignominie, ignominie
thirsts - soif, avoir soif, désirer
"This lamp gives a very bad light," said the Bishop.
Madame Magloire understood him, and went to get the two silver candlesticks from the chimney-piece in Monseigneur's bed-chamber, and placed them, lighted, on the table.
"Monsieur le CurĂ©," said the man, "you are good; you do not despise me. You receive me into your house. You light your candles for me. Yet I have not concealed from you whence I come and that I am an unfortunate man."
The Bishop, who was sitting close to him, gently touched his hand. "You could not help telling me who you were. This is not my house; it is the house of Jesus Christ. This door does not demand of him who enters whether he has a name, but whether he has a grief. You suffer, you are hungry and thirsty; you are welcome. And do not thank me; do not say that I receive you in my house.
No one is at home here, except the man who needs a refuge. I say to you, who are passing by, that you are much more at home here than I am myself. Everything here is yours. What need have I to know your name? Besides, before you told me you had one which I knew."
The man opened his eyes in astonishment.
"Really? You knew what I was called?"
"Yes," replied the Bishop, "you are called my brother."
"Stop, Monsieur le CurĂ©," exclaimed the man. "I was very hungry when I entered here; but you are so good, that I no longer know what has happened to me."
The Bishop looked at him, and said,"
"You have suffered much?"
"Oh, the red coat, the ball on the ankle, a plank to sleep on, heat, cold, toil, the convicts, the thrashings, the double chain for nothing, the cell for one word; even sick and in bed, still the chain! Dogs, dogs are happier! Nineteen years! I am forty-six. Now there is the yellow passport. That is what it is like."
plank - planche, gainage
convicts - des condamnés, condamner, criminel, bagnard
"Yes," resumed the Bishop, "you have come from a very sad place. Listen. There will be more joy in heaven over the tear-bathed face of a repentant sinner than over the white robes of a hundred just men.
repentant - repentants, repentant, repenti
robes - robes, robe
If you emerge from that sad place with thoughts of hatred and of wrath against mankind, you are deserving of pity; if you emerge with thoughts of good-will and of peace, you are more worthy than any one of us."
mankind - l'humanité, humanité, genre humain, hommes
In the meantime, Madame Magloire had served supper: soup, made with water, oil, bread, and salt; a little bacon, a bit of mutton, figs, a fresh cheese, and a large loaf of rye bread. She had, of her own accord, added to the Bishop's ordinary fare a bottle of his old Mauves wine.
meantime - entre-temps, pendant ce temps
bacon - bacon, lard, lardon
mutton - du mouton, mouton
figs - figues, figue
loaf - pain, miche
Mauves - les mauves, mauve
The Bishop's face at once assumed that expression of gayety which is peculiar to hospitable natures. "To table!" he cried vivaciously. As was his custom when a stranger supped with him, he made the man sit on his right. Mademoiselle Baptistine, perfectly peaceable and natural, took her seat at his left.
The Bishop asked a blessing; then helped the soup himself, according to his custom. The man began to eat with avidity.
All at once the Bishop said: "It strikes me there is something missing on this table."
Madame Magloire had, in fact, only placed the three sets of forks and spoons which were absolutely necessary. Now, it was the usage of the house, when the Bishop had any one to supper, to lay out the whole six sets of silver on the table-cloth"an innocent ostentation.
table-cloth - (table-cloth) une nappe
ostentation - l'ostentation, ostentation, spectacle
This graceful semblance of luxury was a kind of child's play, which was full of charm in that gentle and severe household, which raised poverty into dignity.
charm - charme, excitation, grâce
Madame Magloire understood the remark, went out without saying a word, and a moment later the three sets of silver forks and spoons demanded by the Bishop were glittering upon the cloth, symmetrically arranged before the three persons seated at the table.
glittering - scintillant, étincelant, (glitter), étincellement, paillette
symmetrically - symétriquement
CHAPTER IV"DETAILS CONCERNING THE CHEESE-DAIRIES OF PONTARLIER.
Now, in order to convey an idea of what passed at that table, we cannot do better than to transcribe here a passage from one of Mademoiselle Baptistine's letters to Madame Boischevron, wherein the conversation between the convict and the Bishop is described with ingenious minuteness.
ingenious - ingénieux
minuteness - minuscule
". . . This man paid no attention to any one. He ate with the voracity of a starving man. However, after supper he said:
voracity - voracité
"'Monsieur le CurĂ© of the good God, all this is far too good for me; but I must say that the carters who would not allow me to eat with them keep a better table than you do.'
"Between ourselves, the remark rather shocked me. My brother replied:"
"'They are more fatigued than I.'
"'No,'returned the man, 'they have more money. You are poor; I see that plainly. You cannot be even a curate. Are you really a curĂ©? Ah, if the good God were but just, you certainly ought to be a curĂ©!'
plainly - en toute clarté, simplement, clairement
"'The good God is more than just,'said my brother.
"A moment later he added:"
"'Monsieur Jean Valjean, is it to Pontarlier that you are going?'
"'With my road marked out for me.'
"I think that is what the man said. Then he went on:"
"'I must be on my way by daybreak to-morrow. Travelling is hard. If the nights are cold, the days are hot.'
daybreak - l'aube, point du jour
"'You are going to a good country,'said my brother. 'During the Revolution my family was ruined. I took refuge in Franche-ComtĂ© at first, and there I lived for some time by the toil of my hands. My will was good. I found plenty to occupy me. One has only to choose.
There are paper mills, tanneries, distilleries, oil factories, watch factories on a large scale, steel mills, copper works, twenty iron foundries at least, four of which, situated at Lods, at ChĂ˘tillon, at Audincourt, and at Beure, are tolerably large.'
mills - moulins, moulin
tanneries - les tanneries, tannerie, mégisserie
distilleries - les distilleries, distillerie
iron foundries - des fonderies de fer
"I think I am not mistaken in saying that those are the names which my brother mentioned. Then he interrupted himself and addressed me:"
"'Have we not some relatives in those parts, my dear sister?'
"'We did have some; among others, M. de Lucenet, who was captain of the gates at Pontarlier under the old rĂ©gime.'
"'Yes,'resumed my brother; 'but in '93, one had no longer any relatives, one had only one's arms. I worked. They have, in the country of Pontarlier, whither you are going, Monsieur Valjean, a truly patriarchal and truly charming industry, my sister. It is their cheese-dairies, which they call fruitiĂ¨res.'
patriarchal - patriarcale
"Then my brother, while urging the man to eat, explained to him, with great minuteness, what these fruitiĂ¨res of Pontarlier were; that they were divided into two classes: the big barns which belong to the rich, and where there are forty or fifty cows which produce from seven to eight thousand cheeses each summer, and the associated fruitiĂ¨res, which belong to the poor; these are the peasants of mid-mountain, who hold their cows in common, and share the proceeds. 'They engage the services of a cheese-maker, whom they call the grurin; the grurin receives the milk of the associates three times a day, and marks the quantity on a double tally. It is towards the end of April that the work of the cheese-dairies begins; it is towards the middle of June that the cheese-makers drive their cows to the mountains.'
barns - granges, grange
mid - moyenne, mi-, au milieu de, en plein
grurin - grurin
tally - tally, compte
makers - les faiseurs, faiseur, fabricant, créateur
"The man recovered his animation as he ate. My brother made him drink that good Mauves wine, which he does not drink himself, because he says that wine is expensive. My brother imparted all these details with that easy gayety of his with which you are acquainted, interspersing his words with graceful attentions to me.
interspersing - l'intercalaire, entremeler, intercaler
He recurred frequently to that comfortable trade of grurin, as though he wished the man to understand, without advising him directly and harshly, that this would afford him a refuge. One thing struck me. This man was what I have told you.
recurred - s'est-elle reproduite, se reproduire
Well, neither during supper, nor during the entire evening, did my brother utter a single word, with the exception of a few words about Jesus when he entered, which could remind the man of what he was, nor of what my brother was. To all appearances, it was an occasion for preaching him a little sermon, and of impressing the Bishop on the convict, so that a mark of the passage might remain behind.
all appearances - toutes les apparences
This might have appeared to any one else who had this, unfortunate man in his hands to afford a chance to nourish his soul as well as his body, and to bestow upon him some reproach, seasoned with moralizing and advice, or a little commiseration, with an exhortation to conduct himself better in the future. My brother did not even ask him from what country he came, nor what was his history.
nourish - nourrir
bestow - disposer de, accorder, remettre, conférer, donner en mariage
commiseration - la commisération, commisération
exhortation - l'exhortation, exhortation
For in his history there is a fault, and my brother seemed to avoid everything which could remind him of it.
To such a point did he carry it, that at one time, when my brother was speaking of the mountaineers of Pontarlier, who exercise a gentle labor near heaven, and who, he added, are happy because they are innocent, he stopped short, fearing lest in this remark there might have escaped him something which might wound the man.
By dint of reflection, I think I have comprehended what was passing in my brother's heart. He was thinking, no doubt, that this man, whose name is Jean Valjean, had his misfortune only too vividly present in his mind; that the best thing was to divert him from it, and to make him believe, if only momentarily, that he was a person like any other, by treating him just in his ordinary way.
vividly - précise
divert - détourner, dévier, divertir
momentarily - momentanément
Is not this indeed, to understand charity well? Is there not, dear Madame, something truly evangelical in this delicacy which abstains from sermon, from moralizing, from allusions? and is not the truest pity, when a man has a sore point, not to touch it at all? It has seemed to me that this might have been my brother's private thought.
evangelical - évangélique
abstains - s'abstient, s'abstenir
allusions - des allusions, allusion
sore - douloureux, ulcere
In any case, what I can say is that, if he entertained all these ideas, he gave no sign of them; from beginning to end, even to me he was the same as he is every evening, and he supped with this Jean Valjean with the same air and in the same manner in which he would have supped with M. GĂ©dĂ©on le PrĂ©vost, or with the curate of the parish.
parish - paroisse
"Towards the end, when he had reached the figs, there came a knock at the door. It was Mother Gerbaud, with her little one in her arms. My brother kissed the child on the brow, and borrowed fifteen sous which I had about me to give to Mother Gerbaud. The man was not paying much heed to anything then. He was no longer talking, and he seemed very much fatigued.
After poor old Gerbaud had taken her departure, my brother said grace; then he turned to the man and said to him, 'You must be in great need of your bed.'Madame Magloire cleared the table very promptly. I understood that we must retire, in order to allow this traveller to go to sleep, and we both went upstairs.
promptly - rapidement
Nevertheless, I sent Madame Magloire down a moment later, to carry to the man's bed a goat skin from the Black Forest, which was in my room. The nights are frigid, and that keeps one warm. It is a pity that this skin is old; all the hair is falling out.
Black Forest - La Foret Noire
frigid - frigide
My brother bought it while he was in Germany, at Tottlingen, near the sources of the Danube, as well as the little ivory-handled knife which I use at table.
Danube - le danube, Danube
ivory - ivoire
"Madame Magloire returned immediately. We said our prayers in the drawing-room, where we hang up the linen, and then we each retired to our own chambers, without saying a word to each other."
tranquillity - la tranquillité, tranquillité
After bidding his sister good night, Monseigneur Bienvenu took one of the two silver candlesticks from the table, handed the other to his guest, and said to him,"
"Monsieur, I will conduct you to your room."
The man followed him.
As might have been observed from what has been said above, the house was so arranged that in order to pass into the oratory where the alcove was situated, or to get out of it, it was necessary to traverse the Bishop's bedroom.
pass into - passer dans
traverse - franchir, traverser
At the moment when he was crossing this apartment, Madame Magloire was putting away the silverware in the cupboard near the head of the bed. This was her last care every evening before she went to bed.
putting away - Mettre de côté
The Bishop installed his guest in the alcove. A fresh white bed had been prepared there. The man set the candle down on a small table.
"Well," said the Bishop, "may you pass a good night. To-morrow morning, before you set out, you shall drink a cup of warm milk from our cows."
"Thanks, Monsieur l'AbbĂ©," said the man.
Hardly had he pronounced these words full of peace, when all of a sudden, and without transition, he made a strange movement, which would have frozen the two sainted women with horror, had they witnessed it. Even at this day it is difficult for us to explain what inspired him at that moment. Did he intend to convey a warning or to throw out a menace?
menace - menace, menacer
Was he simply obeying a sort of instinctive impulse which was obscure even to himself? He turned abruptly to the old man, folded his arms, and bending upon his host a savage gaze, he exclaimed in a hoarse voice:"
instinctive - instinctif
impulse - impulsion
savage - barbare, féroce, sauvage
hoarse - rauque, rugueux
"Ah! really! You lodge me in your house, close to yourself like this?"
He broke off, and added with a laugh in which there lurked something monstrous:"
lurked - s'est caché, se cacher, s'embusquer, se dissimuler
"Have you really reflected well? How do you know that I have not been an assassin?"
assassin - assassin, assassine
The Bishop replied:"
"That is the concern of the good God."
Then gravely, and moving his lips like one who is praying or talking to himself, he raised two fingers of his right hand and bestowed his benediction on the man, who did not bow, and without turning his head or looking behind him, he returned to his bedroom.
benediction - bénédiction
bow - l'arc, arc
When the alcove was in use, a large serge curtain drawn from wall to wall concealed the altar. The Bishop knelt before this curtain as he passed and said a brief prayer. A moment later he was in his garden, walking, meditating, contemplating, his heart and soul wholly absorbed in those grand and mysterious things which God shows at night to the eyes which remain open.
meditating - méditer
contemplating - contempler, envisager, étudier
wholly - entierement
As for the man, he was actually so fatigued that he did not even profit by the nice white sheets. Snuffing out his candle with his nostrils after the manner of convicts, he dropped, all dressed as he was, upon the bed, where he immediately fell into a profound sleep.
snuffing - l'étouffement, (snuff) l'étouffement
nostrils - narines, narine, qualifier
Midnight struck as the Bishop returned from his garden to his apartment.
A few minutes later all were asleep in the little house.
CHAPTER VI"JEAN VALJEAN
Towards the middle of the night Jean Valjean woke.
Jean Valjean came from a poor peasant family of Brie. He had not learned to read in his childhood. When he reached man's estate, he became a tree-pruner at Faverolles. His mother was named Jeanne Mathieu; his father was called Jean Valjean or Vlajean, probably a sobriquet, and a contraction of voilĂ Jean, "here's Jean."
Brie - brie
pruner - élagueur, émondeur
sobriquet - sobriquet, surnom familier
contraction - contraction
Jean Valjean was of that thoughtful but not gloomy disposition which constitutes the peculiarity of affectionate natures. On the whole, however, there was something decidedly sluggish and insignificant about Jean Valjean in appearance, at least. He had lost his father and mother at a very early age. His mother had died of a milk fever, which had not been properly attended to.
constitutes - constitue, constituer
peculiarity - singularité, bizarrerie, étrangeté, particularité, distinction
decidedly - résolument, décidément, clairement
sluggish - léthargique, poussif, faiblard, rétamé
insignificant - insignifiante
His father, a tree-pruner, like himself, had been killed by a fall from a tree. All that remained to Jean Valjean was a sister older than himself,"a widow with seven children, boys and girls. This sister had brought up Jean Valjean, and so long as she had a husband she lodged and fed her young brother.
widow - veuve
fed - alimentée, alimentées, alimenterent
The husband died. The eldest of the seven children was eight years old. The youngest, one.
Jean Valjean had just attained his twenty-fifth year. He took the father's place, and, in his turn, supported the sister who had brought him up. This was done simply as a duty and even a little churlishly on the part of Jean Valjean. Thus his youth had been spent in rude and ill-paid toil. He had never known a "kind woman friend" in his native parts. He had not had the time to fall in love.
churlishly - avec méchanceté
He returned at night weary, and ate his broth without uttering a word. His sister, mother Jeanne, often took the best part of his repast from his bowl while he was eating,"a bit of meat, a slice of bacon, the heart of the cabbage,"to give to one of her children.
broth - bouillon, soupe
uttering - prononcer, (utter) prononcer
cabbage - choux, chou
As he went on eating, with his head bent over the table and almost into his soup, his long hair falling about his bowl and concealing his eyes, he had the air of perceiving nothing and allowing it.
concealing - dissimuler, cacher
There was at Faverolles, not far from the Valjean thatched cottage, on the other side of the lane, a farmer's wife named Marie-Claude; the Valjean children, habitually famished, sometimes went to borrow from Marie-Claude a pint of milk, in their mother's name, which they drank behind a hedge or in some alley corner, snatching the jug from each other so hastily that the little girls spilled it on their aprons and down their necks. If their mother had known of this marauding, she would have punished the delinquents severely. Jean Valjean gruffly and grumblingly paid Marie-Claude for the pint of milk behind their mother's back, and the children were not punished.
pint - chopine, chopine de lait, pinte, sérieux
alley - allée, ruelle
snatching - vol a l'arraché, empoigner, happer, saisir, arracher, enlever
hastily - hâtivement, précipitamment, a la hâte
aprons - tabliers, tablier, tarmac, piste
marauding - en maraude, marauder, piller
delinquents - délinquants, délinquant
gruffly - avec rudesse
grumblingly - en grommelant
In pruning season he earned eighteen sous a day; then he hired out as a hay-maker, as laborer, as neat-herd on a farm, as a drudge. He did whatever he could. His sister worked also but what could she do with seven little children? It was a sad group enveloped in misery, which was being gradually annihilated. A very hard winter came. Jean had no work. The family had no bread. No bread literally.
hired out - embauché
Hay - foin
Maker - le fabricant, faiseur, fabricant, créateur
laborer - travailleur, ouvrier
drudge - drudge, larbin, sous-merde, moins-que-rien, valet, laquais
annihilated - anéantie, annihiler, anéantir
One Sunday evening, Maubert Isabeau, the baker on the Church Square at Faverolles, was preparing to go to bed, when he heard a violent blow on the grated front of his shop. He arrived in time to see an arm passed through a hole made by a blow from a fist, through the grating and the glass. The arm seized a loaf of bread and carried it off.
Baker - baker, boulanger, boulangere
grated - râpé, grille (de foyer)
grating - grinçant, grille, (grate) grinçant
Isabeau ran out in haste; the robber fled at the full speed of his legs. Isabeau ran after him and stopped him. The thief had flung away the loaf, but his arm was still bleeding. It was Jean Valjean.
robber - voleur, brigand, bandit
fled - fui, s'enfuir, prendre la fuite, fuir, échapper
flung - jeté, lancer
bleeding - des saignements, saignant, saignement
This took place in 1795. Jean Valjean was taken before the tribunals of the time for theft and breaking and entering an inhabited house at night. He had a gun which he used better than any one else in the world, he was a bit of a poacher, and this injured his case. There exists a legitimate prejudice against poachers. The poacher, like the smuggler, smacks too strongly of the brigand.
Tribunals - tribunaux, tribunal
inhabited - habité, habiter
prejudice - préjugés, préjugé, idée préconçue, préjudice
Poachers - braconniers, braconnier, braconniere
smuggler - contrebandier, contrebandiere
smacks - des gifles, donner une tape a
brigand - brigand, bandit
Nevertheless, we will remark cursorily, there is still an abyss between these races of men and the hideous assassin of the towns. The poacher lives in the forest, the smuggler lives in the mountains or on the sea. The cities make ferocious men because they make corrupt men.
cursorily - de façon superficielle
poacher - braconnier, braconniere
corrupt - corrompu, dévoyé, corrompre
The mountain, the sea, the forest, make savage men; they develop the fierce side, but often without destroying the humane side.
fierce - féroce
Jean Valjean was pronounced guilty. The terms of the Code were explicit. There occur formidable hours in our civilization; there are moments when the penal laws decree a shipwreck. What an ominous minute is that in which society draws back and consummates the irreparable abandonment of a sentient being! Jean Valjean was condemned to five years in the galleys.
explicit - explicite, expressément
penal - pénale, pénal
decree - décret, ordonnance, décréter
shipwreck - épave, naufrage, naufrager
ominous - de mauvais augure
consummates - consomme, consommé, consommer
irreparable - irréparable
abandonment - l'abandon, désertion, abandon
sentient - sensible, doué de sensation, conscient, sentient
On the 22d of April, 1796, the victory of Montenotte, won by the general-in-chief of the army of Italy, whom the message of the Directory to the Five Hundred, of the 2d of FlorĂ©al, year IV., calls Buona-Parte, was announced in Paris; on that same day a great gang of galley-slaves was put in chains at BicĂŞtre. Jean Valjean formed a part of that gang.
Directory - annuaire, dossier, répertoire
An old turnkey of the prison, who is now nearly eighty years old, still recalls perfectly that unfortunate wretch who was chained to the end of the fourth line, in the north angle of the courtyard. He was seated on the ground like the others. He did not seem to comprehend his position, except that it was horrible.
It is probable that he, also, was disentangling from amid the vague ideas of a poor man, ignorant of everything, something excessive. While the bolt of his iron collar was being riveted behind his head with heavy blows from the hammer, he wept, his tears stifled him, they impeded his speech; he only managed to say from time to time, "I was a tree-pruner at Faverolles.
disentangling - démeler, (se) démeler
bolt - boulon, verrouiller, pene
collar - col, collier
riveted - rivetés, rivet, riveter
wept - pleuré, pleurer
stifled - étouffé, étouffer
impeded - entravé, entraver
" Then still sobbing, he raised his right hand and lowered it gradually seven times, as though he were touching in succession seven heads of unequal heights, and from this gesture it was divined that the thing which he had done, whatever it was, he had done for the sake of clothing and nourishing seven little children.
sobbing - sanglots, sanglotement, sanglotant, sanglotante, (sob), fdp
lowered - abaissé, (s')assombrir
nourishing - nourrissant, nourrir
He set out for Toulon. He arrived there, after a journey of twenty-seven days, on a cart, with a chain on his neck. At Toulon he was clothed in the red cassock. All that had constituted his life, even to his name, was effaced; he was no longer even Jean Valjean; he was number 24,601. What became of his sister? What became of the seven children? Who troubled himself about that?
effaced - effacé, effacer, s'effacer
What becomes of the handful of leaves from the young tree which is sawed off at the root?
sawed off - scié
It is always the same story. These poor living beings, these creatures of God, henceforth without support, without guide, without refuge, wandered away at random,"who even knows?
beings - etres, etre, créature, existence
"each in his own direction perhaps, and little by little buried themselves in that cold mist which engulfs solitary destinies; gloomy shades, into which disappear in succession so many unlucky heads, in the sombre march of the human race. They quitted the country.
mist - brouillard, brume
engulfs - engloutit, submerger, engloutir, engouffrer
unlucky - malchanceux, poissard
The clock-tower of what had been their village forgot them; the boundary line of what had been their field forgot them; after a few years'residence in the galleys, Jean Valjean himself forgot them. In that heart, where there had been a wound, there was a scar. That is all. Only once, during all the time which he spent at Toulon, did he hear his sister mentioned.
boundary - frontiere, frontiere, limite, limites
scar - cicatrice, stigmate
This happened, I think, towards the end of the fourth year of his captivity. I know not through what channels the news reached him. Some one who had known them in their own country had seen his sister. She was in Paris. She lived in a poor street near Saint-Sulpice, in the Rue du Gindre. She had with her only one child, a little boy, the youngest. Where were the other six?
captivity - captivité
Perhaps she did not know herself. Every morning she went to a printing office, No. 3 Rue du Sabot, where she was a folder and stitcher. She was obliged to be there at six o'clock in the morning"long before daylight in winter. In the same building with the printing office there was a school, and to this school she took her little boy, who was seven years old.
Sabot - sabot
stitcher - stitcher
daylight - la lumiere du jour, jour, lumiere du jour
But as she entered the printing office at six, and the school only opened at seven, the child had to wait in the courtyard, for the school to open, for an hour"one hour of a winter night in the open air! They would not allow the child to come into the printing office, because he was in the way, they said.
When the workmen passed in the morning, they beheld this poor little being seated on the pavement, overcome with drowsiness, and often fast asleep in the shadow, crouched down and doubled up over his basket.
workmen - des ouvriers, ouvrier
pavement - revetement, chaussée, pavement
drowsiness - somnolence, assoupissement, torpeur
crouched - accroupi, s'accroupir
When it rained, an old woman, the portress, took pity on him; she took him into her den, where there was a pallet, a spinning-wheel, and two wooden chairs, and the little one slumbered in a corner, pressing himself close to the cat that he might suffer less from cold. At seven o'clock the school opened, and he entered. That is what was told to Jean Valjean.
portress - portress
den - den, nid
pallet - palette
spinning-wheel - (spinning-wheel) roue qui tourne
slumbered - a sommeillé, somnolence, somnoler
They talked to him about it for one day; it was a moment, a flash, as though a window had suddenly been opened upon the destiny of those things whom he had loved; then all closed again. He heard nothing more forever. Nothing from them ever reached him again; he never beheld them; he never met them again; and in the continuation of this mournful history they will not be met with any more.
continuation - suite, continuation
Towards the end of this fourth year Jean Valjean's turn to escape arrived. His comrades assisted him, as is the custom in that sad place. He escaped.
comrades - camarades, camaradef, camarade
He wandered for two days in the fields at liberty, if being at liberty is to be hunted, to turn the head every instant, to quake at the slightest noise, to be afraid of everything,"of a smoking roof, of a passing man, of a barking dog, of a galloping horse, of a striking clock, of the day because one can see, of the night because one cannot see, of the highway, of the path, of a bush, of sleep.
barking - aboiement
galloping - au galop, galop, galoper
striking clock - une horloge a sonnerie
On the evening of the second day he was captured. He had neither eaten nor slept for thirty-six hours. The maritime tribunal condemned him, for this crime, to a prolongation of his term for three years, which made eight years. In the sixth year his turn to escape occurred again; he availed himself of it, but could not accomplish his flight fully. He was missing at roll-call.
maritime - maritime
availed - disponible, profiter, saisir, servir
The cannon were fired, and at night the patrol found him hidden under the keel of a vessel in process of construction; he resisted the galley guards who seized him. Escape and rebellion. This case, provided for by a special code, was punished by an addition of five years, two of them in the double chain. Thirteen years.
cannon - canon
keel - quille
vessel - navire, vaisseau, vase
rebellion - la rébellion, rébellion
In the tenth year his turn came round again; he again profited by it; he succeeded no better. Three years for this fresh attempt. Sixteen years. Finally, I think it was during his thirteenth year, he made a last attempt, and only succeeded in getting retaken at the end of four hours of absence. Three years for those four hours. Nineteen years.
tenth - dixieme, dixieme ('before the noun'), ('in names of monarchs and popes') dix ('after the name') ('abbreviation' X)
thirteenth - treizieme, treizieme ('before the noun'), ('in names of monarchs and popes') treize ('after the name') ('abbreviation' XIII)
retaken - repris, reprendre, refilmer
In October, 1815, he was released; he had entered there in 1796, for having broken a pane of glass and taken a loaf of bread.
Room for a brief parenthesis. This is the second time, during his studies on the penal question and damnation by law, that the author of this book has come across the theft of a loaf of bread as the point of departure for the disaster of a destiny. Claude Gaux had stolen a loaf; Jean Valjean had stolen a loaf.
parenthesis - parentheses, parenthese, parentheses
English statistics prove the fact that four thefts out of five in London have hunger for their immediate cause.
Jean Valjean had entered the galleys sobbing and shuddering; he emerged impassive. He had entered in despair; he emerged gloomy.
shuddering - tremblant, (shudder), tremblement, frisson, frissonner, trembler
impassive - impassible
What had taken place in that soul?
CHAPTER VII"THE INTERIOR OF DESPAIR
Let us try to say it.
It is necessary that society should look at these things, because it is itself which creates them.
He was, as we have said, an ignorant man, but he was not a fool. The light of nature was ignited in him. Unhappiness, which also possesses a clearness of vision of its own, augmented the small amount of daylight which existed in this mind.
ignited - enflammé, mettre le feu, allumer, déclencher
unhappiness - le malheur, tristesse, malheur
clearness - clarté
augmented - augmentée, augmenter, accroître
Beneath the cudgel, beneath the chain, in the cell, in hardship, beneath the burning sun of the galleys, upon the plank bed of the convict, he withdrew into his own consciousness and meditated.
hardship - difficultés, misere
plank bed - Lit de planche
consciousness - la conscience, conscience
He constituted himself the tribunal.
He began by putting himself on trial.
He recognized the fact that he was not an innocent man unjustly punished.
unjustly - injustement
He admitted that he had committed an extreme and blameworthy act; that that loaf of bread would probably not have been refused to him had he asked for it; that, in any case, it would have been better to wait until he could get it through compassion or through work; that it is not an unanswerable argument to say, "Can one wait when one is hungry?
blameworthy - blâmable
unanswerable - sans réponse
" That, in the first place, it is very rare for any one to die of hunger, literally; and next, that, fortunately or unfortunately, man is so constituted that he can suffer long and much, both morally and physically, without dying; that it is therefore necessary to have patience; that that would even have been better for those poor little children; that it had been an act of madness for him, a miserable, unfortunate wretch, to take society at large violently by the collar, and to imagine that one can escape from misery through theft; that that is in any case a poor door through which to escape from misery through which infamy enters; in short, that he was in the wrong.
physically - physiquement
madness - la folie, folie
infamy - l'infamie, infamie
Then he asked himself:"
Whether he had been the only one in fault in his fatal history. Whether it was not a serious thing, that he, a laborer, out of work, that he, an industrious man, should have lacked bread. And whether, the fault once committed and confessed, the chastisement had not been ferocious and disproportioned.
industrious - industrieux
chastisement - le châtiment, châtiment
Whether there had not been more abuse on the part of the law, in respect to the penalty, than there had been on the part of the culprit in respect to his fault. Whether there had not been an excess of weights in one balance of the scale, in the one which contains expiation.
abuse - abus, défaut, abuser, insulter, tourmenter, abusons
culprit - coupable
expiation - l'expiation, expiation
Whether the over-weight of the penalty was not equivalent to the annihilation of the crime, and did not result in reversing the situation, of replacing the fault of the delinquent by the fault of the repression, of converting the guilty man into the victim, and the debtor into the creditor, and of ranging the law definitely on the side of the man who had violated it.
annihilation - l'anéantissement, annihilation
reversing - l'inversion, reversement, (revers), revers
delinquent - délinquant
Repression - répression
debtor - débiteur, débitrice
creditor - créancier, créanciere
violated - violé, violer, transgresser
Whether this penalty, complicated by successive aggravations for attempts at escape, had not ended in becoming a sort of outrage perpetrated by the stronger upon the feebler, a crime of society against the individual, a crime which was being committed afresh every day, a crime which had lasted nineteen years.
aggravations - des aggravations, circonstances aggravantes-p
outrage - l'indignation, outrage, offense, colere, rage, indignation
perpetrated - perpétrés, perpétrer, commettre
feebler - plus faible, faible
He asked himself whether human society could have the right to force its members to suffer equally in one case for its own unreasonable lack of foresight, and in the other case for its pitiless foresight; and to seize a poor man forever between a defect and an excess, a default of work and an excess of punishment.
unreasonable - déraisonnable
foresight - la prévoyance, clairvoyance, prévoyance, prescience
defect - défaut, déserter, passer a, rench: t-needed r
Whether it was not outrageous for society to treat thus precisely those of its members who were the least well endowed in the division of goods made by chance, and consequently the most deserving of consideration.
These questions put and answered, he judged society and condemned it.
He condemned it to his hatred.
He made it responsible for the fate which he was suffering, and he said to himself that it might be that one day he should not hesitate to call it to account.
He declared to himself that there was no equilibrium between the harm which he had caused and the harm which was being done to him; he finally arrived at the conclusion that his punishment was not, in truth, unjust, but that it most assuredly was iniquitous.
equilibrium - l'équilibre, équilibre
assuredly - assurément
iniquitous - inique
Anger may be both foolish and absurd; one can be irritated wrongfully; one is exasperated only when there is some show of right on one's side at bottom. Jean Valjean felt himself exasperated.
foolish - sot, stupide, bete, idiot
absurd - absurde
irritated - irritée, agacer (displeasure)
wrongfully - a tort
And besides, human society had done him nothing but harm; he had never seen anything of it save that angry face which it calls Justice, and which it shows to those whom it strikes. Men had only touched him to bruise him. Every contact with them had been a blow. Never, since his infancy, since the days of his mother, of his sister, had he ever encountered a friendly word and a kindly glance.
bruise - ecchymoses, contusionner, meurtrir, taler, cotir, se taler
From suffering to suffering, he had gradually arrived at the conviction that life is a war; and that in this war he was the conquered. He had no other weapon than his hate. He resolved to whet it in the galleys and to bear it away with him when he departed.
whet - pourquoi, aiguiser
There was at Toulon a school for the convicts, kept by the Ignorantin friars, where the most necessary branches were taught to those of the unfortunate men who had a mind for them. He was of the number who had a mind. He went to school at the age of forty, and learned to read, to write, to cipher. He felt that to fortify his intelligence was to fortify his hate.
friars - freres, frere
most necessary - le plus nécessaire
cipher - chiffrer, chiffre, tranche
fortify - fortifier, renforcer, supplémenter
In certain cases, education and enlightenment can serve to eke out evil.
enlightenment - l'illumination, illumination
eke - eke, faire durer, maintenir
This is a sad thing to say; after having judged society, which had caused his unhappiness, he judged Providence, which had made society, and he condemned it also.
Thus during nineteen years of torture and slavery, this soul mounted and at the same time fell. Light entered it on one side, and darkness on the other.
Jean Valjean had not, as we have seen, an evil nature. He was still good when he arrived at the galleys. He there condemned society, and felt that he was becoming wicked; he there condemned Providence, and was conscious that he was becoming impious.
wicked - méchante, chicaneur, torve, (wick) méchante
It is difficult not to indulge in meditation at this point.
indulge - se faire plaisir, céder, succomber, dorloter, gâter, choyer
Does human nature thus change utterly and from top to bottom? Can the man created good by God be rendered wicked by man? Can the soul be completely made over by fate, and become evil, fate being evil? Can the heart become misshapen and contract incurable deformities and infirmities under the oppression of a disproportionate unhappiness, as the vertebral column beneath too low a vault?
good by - bien par
infirmities - des infirmités, infirmité
oppression - l'oppression, oppression
disproportionate - disproportionnel, disproportionné
vault - chambre forte, voute, dôme
Is there not in every human soul, was there not in the soul of Jean Valjean in particular, a first spark, a divine element, incorruptible in this world, immortal in the other, which good can develop, fan, ignite, and make to glow with splendor, and which evil can never wholly extinguish?
human soul - l'âme humaine
spark - l'étincelle, flammeche, étincelle
incorruptible - incorruptible
immortal - immortel, inoubliable
ignite - s'enflammer, mettre le feu, allumer, déclencher
glow - l'éclat, briller, luire, irradier, lueur, éclat
extinguish - éteindre
Grave and obscure questions, to the last of which every physiologist would probably have responded no, and that without hesitation, had he beheld at Toulon, during the hours of repose, which were for Jean Valjean hours of reverie, this gloomy galley-slave, seated with folded arms upon the bar of some capstan, with the end of his chain thrust into his pocket to prevent its dragging, serious, silent, and thoughtful, a pariah of the laws which regarded the man with wrath, condemned by civilization, and regarding heaven with severity.
hesitation - hésitation
repose - repos
capstan - cabestan
thrust - estocade, poussée, propulser
pariah - paria
Certainly,"and we make no attempt to dissimulate the fact,"the observing physiologist would have beheld an irremediable misery; he would, perchance, have pitied this sick man, of the law's making; but he would not have even essayed any treatment; he would have turned aside his gaze from the caverns of which he would have caught a glimpse within this soul, and, like Dante at the portals of hell, he would have effaced from this existence the word which the finger of God has, nevertheless, inscribed upon the brow of every man,"hope.
irremediable - irrémédiable
Glimpse - aperçu, entrevoir
portals - portails, portique, portail, veine porte
inscribed - inscrit, graver
Was this state of his soul, which we have attempted to analyze, as perfectly clear to Jean Valjean as we have tried to render it for those who read us? Did Jean Valjean distinctly perceive, after their formation, and had he seen distinctly during the process of their formation, all the elements of which his moral misery was composed?
analyze - analyser, analysent, analysons, analysez
Had this rough and unlettered man gathered a perfectly clear perception of the succession of ideas through which he had, by degrees, mounted and descended to the lugubrious aspects which had, for so many years, formed the inner horizon of his spirit? Was he conscious of all that passed within him, and of all that was working there?
unlettered - non lettrés
That is something which we do not presume to state; it is something which we do not even believe. There was too much ignorance in Jean Valjean, even after his misfortune, to prevent much vagueness from still lingering there. At times he did not rightly know himself what he felt.
presume - présumer, supposer
Lingering - s'attarder, qui s'attardent, (linger), s'installer, stagner
Jean Valjean was in the shadows; he suffered in the shadows; he hated in the shadows; one might have said that he hated in advance of himself. He dwelt habitually in this shadow, feeling his way like a blind man and a dreamer.
dreamer - reveur, reveur, reveuse
Only, at intervals, there suddenly came to him, from without and from within, an access of wrath, a surcharge of suffering, a livid and rapid flash which illuminated his whole soul, and caused to appear abruptly all around him, in front, behind, amid the gleams of a frightful light, the hideous precipices and the sombre perspective of his destiny.
surcharge - surtaxe, surcharge
gleams - des lueurs, luire
The flash passed, the night closed in again; and where was he? He no longer knew. The peculiarity of pains of this nature, in which that which is pitiless"that is to say, that which is brutalizing"predominates, is to transform a man, little by little, by a sort of stupid transfiguration, into a wild beast; sometimes into a ferocious beast.
Jean Valjean's successive and obstinate attempts at escape would alone suffice to prove this strange working of the law upon the human soul. Jean Valjean would have renewed these attempts, utterly useless and foolish as they were, as often as the opportunity had presented itself, without reflecting for an instant on the result, nor on the experiences which he had already gone through.
obstinate - obstiné
renewed - renouvelée, renouveler
He escaped impetuously, like the wolf who finds his cage open. Instinct said to him, "Flee!" Reason would have said, "Remain!" But in the presence of so violent a temptation, reason vanished; nothing remained but instinct. The beast alone acted. When he was recaptured, the fresh severities inflicted on him only served to render him still more wild.
impetuously - impétueusement
cage - cage, encager
flee - s'enfuir, prendre la fuite, échapper
recaptured - recapturé, capturer encore, capturer de nouveau, recapturer
severities - sévérité, gravité
One detail, which we must not omit, is that he possessed a physical strength which was not approached by a single one of the denizens of the galleys. At work, at paying out a cable or winding up a capstan, Jean Valjean was worth four men.
denizens - des habitants, citoyen, habitué
winding - bobinage, (wind) bobinage
He sometimes lifted and sustained enormous weights on his back; and when the occasion demanded it, he replaced that implement which is called a jack-screw, and was formerly called orgueil [pride], whence, we may remark in passing, is derived the name of the Rue Montorgueil, near the Halles [Fishmarket] in Paris. His comrades had nicknamed him Jean the Jack-screw.
Jack - Jeannot, Jacques, Jacob, Jack
screw - vis, hélice, visser, baiser, coucher avec, fourrer, foutre
nicknamed - surnommé, surnom, surnommer
Once, when they were repairing the balcony of the town-hall at Toulon, one of those admirable caryatids of Puget, which support the balcony, became loosened, and was on the point of falling. Jean Valjean, who was present, supported the caryatid with his shoulder, and gave the workmen time to arrive.
balcony - balcon
caryatids - caryatides, cariatide, caryatide
loosened - desserré, desserrer
His suppleness even exceeded his strength. Certain convicts who were forever dreaming of escape, ended by making a veritable science of force and skill combined. It is the science of muscles. An entire system of mysterious statics is daily practised by prisoners, men who are forever envious of the flies and birds.
suppleness - souplesse
veritable - véritable
statics - statique, parasites-p, friture
envious - envieux
To climb a vertical surface, and to find points of support where hardly a projection was visible, was play to Jean Valjean. An angle of the wall being given, with the tension of his back and legs, with his elbows and his heels fitted into the unevenness of the stone, he raised himself as if by magic to the third story. He sometimes mounted thus even to the roof of the galley prison.
projection - saillie, projection
unevenness - irrégularité
He spoke but little. He laughed not at all. An excessive emotion was required to wring from him, once or twice a year, that lugubrious laugh of the convict, which is like the echo of the laugh of a demon. To all appearance, he seemed to be occupied in the constant contemplation of something terrible.
wring from - arracher
Echo - echo, écho
demon - démon, diable
be occupied - etre occupée
He was absorbed, in fact.
Athwart the unhealthy perceptions of an incomplete nature and a crushed intelligence, he was confusedly conscious that some monstrous thing was resting on him.
athwart - l'athmosphere, a travers, d'un coté a l'autre
unhealthy - malsain, mauvais pour la santé
confusedly - confusément
In that obscure and wan shadow within which he crawled, each time that he turned his neck and essayed to raise his glance, he perceived with terror, mingled with rage, a sort of frightful accumulation of things, collecting and mounting above him, beyond the range of his vision,"laws, prejudices, men, and deeds,"whose outlines escaped him, whose mass terrified him, and which was nothing else than that prodigious pyramid which we call civilization. He distinguished, here and there in that swarming and formless mass, now near him, now afar off and on inaccessible table-lands, some group, some detail, vividly illuminated; here the galley-sergeant and his cudgel; there the gendarme and his sword; yonder the mitred archbishop; away at the top, like a sort of sun, the Emperor, crowned and dazzling. It seemed to him that these distant splendors, far from dissipating his night, rendered it more funereal and more black. All this"laws, prejudices, deeds, men, things"went and came above him, over his head, in accordance with the complicated and mysterious movement which God imparts to civilization, walking over him and crushing him with I know not what peacefulness in its cruelty and inexorability in its indifference. Souls which have fallen to the bottom of all possible misfortune, unhappy men lost in the lowest of those limbos at which no one any longer looks, the reproved of the law, feel the whole weight of this human society, so formidable for him who is without, so frightful for him who is beneath, resting upon their heads.
rage - rage, furie, fureur, courroux, rager, faire rage
pyramid - pyramide
swarming - l'essaimage, (swarm), essaim (flying insects)
formless - sans forme, informe
afar - loin, afar
inaccessible - inaccessible
sergeant - sergent
sword - l'épée, épée, glaive, épéiste
mitred - a onglet, mitre
crowned - couronné, couronne
splendors - splendeurs, splendeur
dissipating - se dissiper, dissiper
imparts - transmet, donner, communiquer, transmettre
crushing - l'écrasement, barricade, béguin, amourette, faible
cruelty - la cruauté, cruauté
inexorability - inexorabilité
resting upon - sur lequel il repose
In this situation Jean Valjean meditated; and what could be the nature of his meditation?
If the grain of millet beneath the millstone had thoughts, it would, doubtless, think that same thing which Jean Valjean thought.
millet - le millet, millet
millstone - pierre meuliere, meule, meuliere
All these things, realities full of spectres, phantasmagories full of realities, had eventually created for him a sort of interior state which is almost indescribable.
spectres - spectres, spectre
At times, amid his convict toil, he paused. He fell to thinking. His reason, at one and the same time riper and more troubled than of yore, rose in revolt. Everything which had happened to him seemed to him absurd; everything that surrounded him seemed to him impossible. He said to himself, "It is a dream.
riper - riper, (rip) riper
yore - autrefois, jadis, antan
revolt - révolter, révolte
" He gazed at the galley-sergeant standing a few paces from him; the galley-sergeant seemed a phantom to him. All of a sudden the phantom dealt him a blow with his cudgel.
Visible nature hardly existed for him. It would almost be true to say that there existed for Jean Valjean neither sun, nor fine summer days, nor radiant sky, nor fresh April dawns. I know not what vent-hole daylight habitually illumined his soul.
dawns - l'aube, se lever, naître, aube, lever du soleil
vent - évent
To sum up, in conclusion, that which can be summed up and translated into positive results in all that we have just pointed out, we will confine ourselves to the statement that, in the course of nineteen years, Jean Valjean, the inoffensive tree-pruner of Faverolles, the formidable convict of Toulon, had become capable, thanks to the manner in which the galleys had moulded him, of two sorts of evil action: firstly, of evil action which was rapid, unpremeditated, dashing, entirely instinctive, in the nature of reprisals for the evil which he had undergone; secondly, of evil action which was serious, grave, consciously argued out and premeditated, with the false ideas which such a misfortune can furnish. His deliberate deeds passed through three successive phases, which natures of a certain stamp can alone traverse,"reasoning, will, perseverance. He had for moving causes his habitual wrath, bitterness of soul, a profound sense of indignities suffered, the reaction even against the good, the innocent, and the just, if there are any such. The point of departure, like the point of arrival, for all his thoughts, was hatred of human law; that hatred which, if it be not arrested in its development by some providential incident, becomes, within a given time, the hatred of society, then the hatred of the human race, then the hatred of creation, and which manifests itself by a vague, incessant, and brutal desire to do harm to some living being, no matter whom. It will be perceived that it was not without reason that Jean Valjean's passport described him as a very dangerous man.
inoffensive - inoffensif
moulded - moulé, terreau, humus
unpremeditated - sans préméditation
dashing - fringant, tiret, trait, ta, sprint, soupçon, se précipiter
reprisals - des représailles, représailles-p
consciously - consciemment
perseverance - la persévérance, persévérance
providential - providentiel
manifests - se manifeste, manifeste, bordereau
incessant - incessant
brutal - brutal
do harm - faire du mal
From year to year this soul had dried away slowly, but with fatal sureness. When the heart is dry, the eye is dry. On his departure from the galleys it had been nineteen years since he had shed a tear.
sureness - assurance
CHAPTER VIII"BILLOWS AND SHADOWS
billows - des bouées, flot, ondoyer
A man overboard!
overboard - a la mer
What matters it? The vessel does not halt. The wind blows. That sombre ship has a path which it is forced to pursue. It passes on.
halt - halte, s'arreter, stop, stopper
passes on - passer
The man disappears, then reappears; he plunges, he rises again to the surface; he calls, he stretches out his arms; he is not heard. The vessel, trembling under the hurricane, is wholly absorbed in its own workings; the passengers and sailors do not even see the drowning man; his miserable head is but a speck amid the immensity of the waves. He gives vent to desperate cries from out of the depths.
reappears - réapparaît, réapparaître
plunges - plonge, plonger
drowning - la noyade, noyade, (drown), noyer, checksubmerger
What a spectre is that retreating sail! He gazes and gazes at it frantically. It retreats, it grows dim, it diminishes in size. He was there but just now, he was one of the crew, he went and came along the deck with the rest, he had his part of breath and of sunlight, he was a living man. Now, what has taken place? He has slipped, he has fallen; all is at an end.
retreating - se retirer, battre en retraite
frantically - frénétiquement
retreats - retraites, battre en retraite
diminishes - diminue, réduire, rétrécir, rapetisser, diminuer, amincir
sunlight - la lumiere du soleil, lumiere du soleil
He is in the tremendous sea. Under foot he has nothing but what flees and crumbles.
tremendous - formidable
flees - s'enfuit, s'enfuir, prendre la fuite, fuir, échapper
crumbles - s'effrite, s'effondrer, effriter, émietter, crumble, qualifier
The billows, torn and lashed by the wind, encompass him hideously; the tossings of the abyss bear him away; all the tongues of water dash over his head; a populace of waves spits upon him; confused openings half devour him; every time that he sinks, he catches glimpses of precipices filled with night; frightful and unknown vegetations seize him, knot about his feet, draw him to them; he is conscious that he is becoming an abyss, that he forms part of the foam; the waves toss him from one to another; he drinks in the bitterness; the cowardly ocean attacks him furiously, to drown him; the enormity plays with his agony. It seems as though all that water were hate.
lashed - fouetté, cil
encompass - encercler, entourer, englober, inclure, comprendre, renfermer
hideously - hideux
Dash - dash, tiret, trait, ta, sprint, soupçon, se précipiter
glimpses - des aperçus, aperçu, entrevoir
vegetations - la végétation, végétation
knot - noud, nodale
foam - écume, mousse, écumer, mousser
toss - de la balle, jet, au pile ou face, tirage au sort, lancer
he drinks - qu'il boit
furiously - furieusement
drown - se noyer, noyer, checksubmerger
enormity - l'énormité, énormité
Nevertheless, he struggles.
He tries to defend himself; he tries to sustain himself; he makes an effort; he swims. He, his petty strength all exhausted instantly, combats the inexhaustible.
sustain - soutenir, maintenir, subvenir
combats - combats, combat, bataille, lutte, combattre
inexhaustible - inépuisable
Where, then, is the ship? Yonder. Barely visible in the pale shadows of the horizon.
The wind blows in gusts; all the foam overwhelms him. He raises his eyes and beholds only the lividness of the clouds. He witnesses, amid his death-pangs, the immense madness of the sea. He is tortured by this madness; he hears noises strange to man, which seem to come from beyond the limits of the earth, and from one knows not what frightful region beyond.
gusts - des rafales, rafale
overwhelms - submerge, abreuver, accabler, envahir
beholds - se tient, regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila
lividness - la lividité
tortured - torturé, torture, torturer
There are birds in the clouds, just as there are angels above human distresses; but what can they do for him? They sing and fly and float, and he, he rattles in the death agony.
distresses - des détresses, détresse
rattles - des cliquetis, (faire) cliqueter
He feels himself buried in those two infinities, the ocean and the sky, at one and the same time: the one is a tomb; the other is a shroud.
shroud - l'enveloppe, drap mortuaire
Night descends; he has been swimming for hours; his strength is exhausted; that ship, that distant thing in which there were men, has vanished; he is alone in the formidable twilight gulf; he sinks, he stiffens himself, he twists himself; he feels under him the monstrous billows of the invisible; he shouts.
Descends - descend, descendre
stiffens - se raidit, raidir, endurcir, se raidir, s'endurcir
twists - torsions, twist, torsion, entortiller, tordre
There are no more men. Where is God?
He shouts. Help! Help! He still shouts on.
Nothing on the horizon; nothing in heaven.
He implores the expanse, the waves, the seaweed, the reef; they are deaf. He beseeches the tempest; the imperturbable tempest obeys only the infinite.
seaweed - des algues, algues
reef - récif, écueil
deaf - sourd, les sourds
beseeches - demande, prier, implorer, supplier
tempest - tempete, tempete, (temp) tempete
imperturbable - imperturbable
Around him darkness, fog, solitude, the stormy and nonsentient tumult, the undefined curling of those wild waters. In him horror and fatigue. Beneath him the depths. Not a point of support. He thinks of the gloomy adventures of the corpse in the limitless shadow. The bottomless cold paralyzes him. His hands contract convulsively; they close, and grasp nothingness.
Fog - le brouillard, masquer, brume, brouillard
nonsentient - nonsensibles
tumult - tumultes, barouf, baroufe, bagarre
undefined - indéfini
curling - le curling, curling, (curl), boucle, rotationnel, boucler
corpse - cadavre, corps, corps sans vie
limitless - sans limite, illimité
bottomless - sans fond, insondable, cul-nu
paralyzes - paralyse, paralyser
convulsively - convulsivement
grasp - saisir, agripper, comprendre
Winds, clouds, whirlwinds, gusts, useless stars! What is to be done? The desperate man gives up; he is weary, he chooses the alternative of death; he resists not; he lets himself go; he abandons his grip; and then he tosses forevermore in the lugubrious dreary depths of engulfment.
whirlwinds - des tourbillons, cyclone
grip - poignée, ballot, grippe, saisir, agripper, préhension
tosses - des tosses, jet, au pile ou face, tirage au sort, pile ou face
forevermore - pour toujours
dreary - lugubre, terne, insipide, maussade
engulfment - l'engloutissement
Oh, implacable march of human societies! Oh, losses of men and of souls on the way! Ocean into which falls all that the law lets slip! Disastrous absence of help! Oh, moral death!
implacable - implacable
disastrous - désastreux
The sea is the inexorable social night into which the penal laws fling their condemned. The sea is the immensity of wretchedness.
fling - flirt, brandir
The soul, going downstream in this gulf, may become a corpse. Who shall resuscitate it?
downstream - aval, descendant, en aval, dans le sens du courant (descente
resuscitate - réanimer, ressusciter
CHAPTER IX"NEW TROUBLES
When the hour came for him to take his departure from the galleys, when Jean Valjean heard in his ear the strange words, Thou art free! the moment seemed improbable and unprecedented; a ray of vivid light, a ray of the true light of the living, suddenly penetrated within him. But it was not long before this ray paled. Jean Valjean had been dazzled by the idea of liberty.
improbable - invraisemblable, improbable
unprecedented - sans précédent
vivid - vivante, vivide
He had believed in a new life. He very speedily perceived what sort of liberty it is to which a yellow passport is provided.
And this was encompassed with much bitterness. He had calculated that his earnings, during his sojourn in the galleys, ought to amount to a hundred and seventy-one francs. It is but just to add that he had forgotten to include in his calculations the forced repose of Sundays and festival days during nineteen years, which entailed a diminution of about eighty francs.
encompassed - englobé, encercler, entourer, englober, inclure, comprendre
sojourn - séjour, séjourner
entailed - impliqué, occasionner, comporter
At all events, his hoard had been reduced by various local levies to the sum of one hundred and nine francs fifteen sous, which had been counted out to him on his departure. He had understood nothing of this, and had thought himself wronged. Let us say the word"robbed.
hoard - thésauriser, réserve
levies - prélevements, prélever, percevoir
On the day following his liberation, he saw, at Grasse, in front of an orange-flower distillery, some men engaged in unloading bales. He offered his services. Business was pressing; they were accepted. He set to work. He was intelligent, robust, adroit; he did his best; the master seemed pleased. While he was at work, a gendarme passed, observed him, and demanded his papers.
liberation - libération
distillery - distillerie
unloading - déchargement, (unload), décharger
bales - balles, balle
adroit - adroit
It was necessary to show him the yellow passport. That done, Jean Valjean resumed his labor. A little while before he had questioned one of the workmen as to the amount which they earned each day at this occupation; he had been told thirty sous.
When evening arrived, as he was forced to set out again on the following day, he presented himself to the owner of the distillery and requested to be paid. The owner did not utter a word, but handed him fifteen sous. He objected. He was told, "That is enough for thee." He persisted. The master looked him straight between the eyes, and said to him "Beware of the prison."
Beware - méfiez-vous !, faire attention
There, again, he considered that he had been robbed.
Society, the State, by diminishing his hoard, had robbed him wholesale. Now it was the individual who was robbing him at retail.
diminishing - en baisse, diminuant, (diminish), réduire, rétrécir, rapetisser
wholesale - vente en gros
Liberation is not deliverance. One gets free from the galleys, but not from the sentence.
deliverance - la délivrance, délivrance
That is what happened to him at Grasse. We have seen in what manner he was received at D""
CHAPTER X"THE MAN AROUSED
As the Cathedral clock struck two in the morning, Jean Valjean awoke.
awoke - s'est réveillé, (se) réveiller, (s')éveiller
What woke him was that his bed was too good. It was nearly twenty years since he had slept in a bed, and, although he had not undressed, the sensation was too novel not to disturb his slumbers.
undressed - déshabillé, déshabiller
sensation - sensation
He had slept more than four hours. His fatigue had passed away. He was accustomed not to devote many hours to repose.
He opened his eyes and stared into the gloom which surrounded him; then he closed them again, with the intention of going to sleep once more.
When many varied sensations have agitated the day, when various matters preoccupy the mind, one falls asleep once, but not a second time. Sleep comes more easily than it returns. This is what happened to Jean Valjean. He could not get to sleep again, and he fell to thinking.
sensations - sensations, sensation
preoccupy - préoccupent, préoccuper, préoccupons, préoccupez
falls asleep - s'endort
He was at one of those moments when the thoughts which one has in one's mind are troubled. There was a sort of dark confusion in his brain. His memories of the olden time and of the immediate present floated there pell-mell and mingled confusedly, losing their proper forms, becoming disproportionately large, then suddenly disappearing, as in a muddy and perturbed pool.
mell - mell
disproportionately - de maniere disproportionnée
Muddy - morne
perturbed - perturbé, perturber, troubler
Many thoughts occurred to him; but there was one which kept constantly presenting itself afresh, and which drove away all others. We will mention this thought at once: he had observed the six sets of silver forks and spoons and the ladle which Madame Magloire had placed on the table.
ladle - louche, poche
Those six sets of silver haunted him."They were there."A few paces distant."Just as he was traversing the adjoining room to reach the one in which he then was, the old servant-woman had been in the act of placing them in a little cupboard near the head of the bed."He had taken careful note of this cupboard."On the right, as you entered from the dining-room."They were solid."And old silver.
haunted - hanté, hanter, demeurer, point de rencontre
adjoining room - la chambre attenante
"From the ladle one could get at least two hundred francs."Double what he had earned in nineteen years."It is true that he would have earned more if "the administration had not robbed him."
His mind wavered for a whole hour in fluctuations with which there was certainly mingled some struggle. Three o'clock struck.
wavered - a vacillé, hésiter
fluctuations - fluctuations, fluctuation
He opened his eyes again, drew himself up abruptly into a sitting posture, stretched out his arm and felt of his knapsack, which he had thrown down on a corner of the alcove; then he hung his legs over the edge of the bed, and placed his feet on the floor, and thus found himself, almost without knowing it, seated on his bed.
posture - la posture, posture
thrown down - jeté a terre
He remained for a time thoughtfully in this attitude, which would have been suggestive of something sinister for any one who had seen him thus in the dark, the only person awake in that house where all were sleeping. All of a sudden he stooped down, removed his shoes and placed them softly on the mat beside the bed; then he resumed his thoughtful attitude, and became motionless once more.
suggestive - suggestif
stooped - vouté, se baisser
softly - en douceur, doucement
mat - mat, mate
Throughout this hideous meditation, the thoughts which we have above indicated moved incessantly through his brain; entered, withdrew, re-entered, and in a manner oppressed him; and then he thought, also, without knowing why, and with the mechanical persistence of reverie, of a convict named Brevet, whom he had known in the galleys, and whose trousers had been upheld by a single suspender of knitted cotton. The checkered pattern of that suspender recurred incessantly to his mind.
persistence - persistance
brevet - brevet
suspender - suspensoir, bretelles, jarretelle
knitted - tricoté, tricoter, souder, unir, se souder
He remained in this situation, and would have so remained indefinitely, even until daybreak, had not the clock struck one"the half or quarter hour. It seemed to him that that stroke said to him, "Come on!"
indefinitely - indéfiniment
He rose to his feet, hesitated still another moment, and listened; all was quiet in the house; then he walked straight ahead, with short steps, to the window, of which he caught a glimpse. The night was not very dark; there was a full moon, across which coursed large clouds driven by the wind.
This created, outdoors, alternate shadow and gleams of light, eclipses, then bright openings of the clouds; and indoors a sort of twilight. This twilight, sufficient to enable a person to see his way, intermittent on account of the clouds, resembled the sort of livid light which falls through an air-hole in a cellar, before which the passers-by come and go.
alternate - alternatif, alternative, alterner
eclipses - éclipses, éclipse, éclipser
intermittent - intermittent
On arriving at the window, Jean Valjean examined it. It had no grating; it opened in the garden and was fastened, according to the fashion of the country, only by a small pin. He opened it; but as a rush of cold and piercing air penetrated the room abruptly, he closed it again immediately. He scrutinized the garden with that attentive gaze which studies rather than looks.
piercing - piercing, perçant, (pierce)
attentive - attentif
The garden was enclosed by a tolerably low white wall, easy to climb. Far away, at the extremity, he perceived tops of trees, spaced at regular intervals, which indicated that the wall separated the garden from an avenue or lane planted with trees.
avenue - avenue
Having taken this survey, he executed a movement like that of a man who has made up his mind, strode to his alcove, grasped his knapsack, opened it, fumbled in it, pulled out of it something which he placed on the bed, put his shoes into one of his pockets, shut the whole thing up again, threw the knapsack on his shoulders, put on his cap, drew the visor down over his eyes, felt for his cudgel, went and placed it in the angle of the window; then returned to the bed, and resolutely seized the object which he had deposited there. It resembled a short bar of iron, pointed like a pike at one end. It would have been difficult to distinguish in that darkness for what employment that bit of iron could have been designed. Perhaps it was a lever; possibly it was a club.
executed - exécuté, exécuter, mettre a mort
fumbled - a trébuché, tâtonner
Pike - pike, brochet
lever - levier, lever
In the daytime it would have been possible to recognize it as nothing more than a miner's candlestick. Convicts were, at that period, sometimes employed in quarrying stone from the lofty hills which environ Toulon, and it was not rare for them to have miners'tools at their command.
candlestick - chandelier
quarrying - l'exploitation des carrieres, (quarry) l'exploitation des carrieres
environ - environ
These miners'candlesticks are of massive iron, terminated at the lower extremity by a point, by means of which they are stuck into the rock.
terminated - résilié, terminer
He took the candlestick in his right hand; holding his breath and trying to deaden the sound of his tread, he directed his steps to the door of the adjoining room, occupied by the Bishop, as we already know.
deaden - mort, endormir, assourdir, isoler
tread - la bande de roulement, piétiner, escabeau
On arriving at this door, he found it ajar. The Bishop had not closed it.
ajar - entrouverte, entrouvert
CHAPTER XI"WHAT HE DOES
Jean Valjean listened. Not a sound.
He gave the door a push.
He pushed it gently with the tip of his finger, lightly, with the furtive and uneasy gentleness of a cat which is desirous of entering.
lightly - légerement, légerement
furtive - furtif, subreptice
uneasy - mal a l'aise, inquiet
The door yielded to this pressure, and made an imperceptible and silent movement, which enlarged the opening a little.
enlarged - élargi, agrandir, élargir, accroître
He waited a moment; then gave the door a second and a bolder push.
It continued to yield in silence. The opening was now large enough to allow him to pass. But near the door there stood a little table, which formed an embarrassing angle with it, and barred the entrance.
yield - le rendement, rends, produit, rendement, rendons, rendent
Jean Valjean recognized the difficulty. It was necessary, at any cost, to enlarge the aperture still further.
enlarge - agrandir, élargir, accroître
He decided on his course of action, and gave the door a third push, more energetic than the two preceding. This time a badly oiled hinge suddenly emitted amid the silence a hoarse and prolonged cry.
more energetic - plus énergique
hinge - charniere, gond, charniere
prolonged - prolongée, prolonger
Jean Valjean shuddered. The noise of the hinge rang in his ears with something of the piercing and formidable sound of the trump of the Day of Judgment.
shuddered - a tremblé, tremblement, frisson, frissonner, trembler
trump - trump, atout
judgment - jugement, sentence, verdict, jugement dernier
In the fantastic exaggerations of the first moment he almost imagined that that hinge had just become animated, and had suddenly assumed a terrible life, and that it was barking like a dog to arouse every one, and warn and to wake those who were asleep. He halted, shuddering, bewildered, and fell back from the tips of his toes upon his heels.
exaggerations - des exagérations, exagération
animated - animée, animé, animer
bewildered - déconcertés, abasourdir, confondre, déconcerter, dérouter
He heard the arteries in his temples beating like two forge hammers, and it seemed to him that his breath issued from his breast with the roar of the wind issuing from a cavern.
arteries - arteres, artere
forge - forge, forgez, forgent, forgeons, modelage, forger
hammers - marteaux, marteau, chien, malléus, t+marteau, marteler
roar - rugir, hurler, s'esclaffer, rire aux éclats
It seemed impossible to him that the horrible clamor of that irritated hinge should not have disturbed the entire household, like the shock of an earthquake; the door, pushed by him, had taken the alarm, and had shouted; the old man would rise at once; the two old women would shriek out; people would come to their assistance; in less than a quarter of an hour the town would be in an uproar, and the gendarmerie on hand. For a moment he thought himself lost.
clamor - clameur, vociférer, clamer
shriek - cri, hurlement, crier
uproar - le tumulte, clameur
gendarmerie - gendarmerie
He remained where he was, petrified like the statue of salt, not daring to make a movement. Several minutes elapsed. The door had fallen wide open. He ventured to peep into the next room. Nothing had stirred there. He lent an ear. Nothing was moving in the house. The noise made by the rusty hinge had not awakened any one.
Petrified - pétrifié, pétrifier
elapsed - s'est écoulé, passer
peep - peep, gazouiller, pépier
stirred - remué, brasser, agiter
rusty - rubigineux
awakened - éveillé, réveiller, se réveiller
This first danger was past; but there still reigned a frightful tumult within him. Nevertheless, he did not retreat. Even when he had thought himself lost, he had not drawn back. His only thought now was to finish as soon as possible. He took a step and entered the room.
retreat - retraite
This room was in a state of perfect calm. Here and there vague and confused forms were distinguishable, which in the daylight were papers scattered on a table, open folios, volumes piled upon a stool, an armchair heaped with clothing, a prie-Dieu, and which at that hour were only shadowy corners and whitish spots.
distinguishable - distinguables
scattered - dispersé, disperser, se disperser, éparpiller, parsemer
folios - folios, folio
heaped - en tas, tas, pile, monceau
shadowy - ombrageux, sombre
Jean Valjean advanced with precaution, taking care not to knock against the furniture. He could hear, at the extremity of the room, the even and tranquil breathing of the sleeping Bishop.
He suddenly came to a halt. He was near the bed. He had arrived there sooner than he had thought for.
Nature sometimes mingles her effects and her spectacles with our actions with sombre and intelligent appropriateness, as though she desired to make us reflect. For the last half-hour a large cloud had covered the heavens.
mingles - se mele, mélanger
At the moment when Jean Valjean paused in front of the bed, this cloud parted, as though on purpose, and a ray of light, traversing the long window, suddenly illuminated the Bishop's pale face. He was sleeping peacefully. He lay in his bed almost completely dressed, on account of the cold of the Basses-Alps, in a garment of brown wool, which covered his arms to the wrists.
peacefully - pacifiquement
His head was thrown back on the pillow, in the careless attitude of repose; his hand, adorned with the pastoral ring, and whence had fallen so many good deeds and so many holy actions, was hanging over the edge of the bed. His whole face was illumined with a vague expression of satisfaction, of hope, and of felicity. It was more than a smile, and almost a radiance.
thrown back - jeté en arriere
ring - anneau, cerne, ring, tinter
Felicity - felicity, Félicité
He bore upon his brow the indescribable reflection of a light which was invisible. The soul of the just contemplates in sleep a mysterious heaven.
contemplates - contemple, envisager, étudier, contempler
A reflection of that heaven rested on the Bishop.
It was, at the same time, a luminous transparency, for that heaven was within him. That heaven was his conscience.
At the moment when the ray of moonlight superposed itself, so to speak, upon that inward radiance, the sleeping Bishop seemed as in a glory. It remained, however, gentle and veiled in an ineffable half-light.
moonlight - le clair de lune, clair de lune, travailler au noir
inward - vers l'intérieur, intérieur
veiled - voilée, voile, voiler
That moon in the sky, that slumbering nature, that garden without a quiver, that house which was so calm, the hour, the moment, the silence, added some solemn and unspeakable quality to the venerable repose of this man, and enveloped in a sort of serene and majestic aureole that white hair, those closed eyes, that face in which all was hope and all was confidence, that head of an old man, and that slumber of an infant.
slumbering - dormir, (slumber), somnolence, somnoler
quiver - carquois, trembler
unspeakable - innommable
majestic - majestueux
aureole - l'auréole, auréole
There was something almost divine in this man, who was thus august, without being himself aware of it.
Jean Valjean was in the shadow, and stood motionless, with his iron candlestick in his hand, frightened by this luminous old man. Never had he beheld anything like this. This confidence terrified him. The moral world has no grander spectacle than this: a troubled and uneasy conscience, which has arrived on the brink of an evil action, contemplating the slumber of the just.
That slumber in that isolation, and with a neighbor like himself, had about it something sublime, of which he was vaguely but imperiously conscious.
imperiously - impérieusement
No one could have told what was passing within him, not even himself. In order to attempt to form an idea of it, it is necessary to think of the most violent of things in the presence of the most gentle. Even on his visage it would have been impossible to distinguish anything with certainty. It was a sort of haggard astonishment. He gazed at it, and that was all. But what was his thought?
most gentle - le plus doux
haggard - hagard, émacié
It would have been impossible to divine it. What was evident was, that he was touched and astounded. But what was the nature of this emotion?
astounded - stupéfait, étonner, stupéfier, ébahir, épater
His eye never quitted the old man. The only thing which was clearly to be inferred from his attitude and his physiognomy was a strange indecision. One would have said that he was hesitating between the two abysses,"the one in which one loses one's self and that in which one saves one's self. He seemed prepared to crush that skull or to kiss that hand.
indecision - l'indécision, indécision, irrésolution
crush - le coup de foudre, barricade, béguin, amourette, faible
At the expiration of a few minutes his left arm rose slowly towards his brow, and he took off his cap; then his arm fell back with the same deliberation, and Jean Valjean fell to meditating once more, his cap in his left hand, his club in his right hand, his hair bristling all over his savage head.
expiration - expiration
The Bishop continued to sleep in profound peace beneath that terrifying gaze.
The gleam of the moon rendered confusedly visible the crucifix over the chimney-piece, which seemed to be extending its arms to both of them, with a benediction for one and pardon for the other.
Suddenly Jean Valjean replaced his cap on his brow; then stepped rapidly past the bed, without glancing at the Bishop, straight to the cupboard, which he saw near the head; he raised his iron candlestick as though to force the lock; the key was there; he opened it; the first thing which presented itself to him was the basket of silverware; he seized it, traversed the chamber with long strides, without taking any precautions and without troubling himself about the noise, gained the door, re-entered the oratory, opened the window, seized his cudgel, bestrode the window-sill of the ground floor, put the silver into his knapsack, threw away the basket, crossed the garden, leaped over the wall like a tiger, and fled.
glancing - un coup d'oil, (glance), jeter un coup d’oil
strides - foulées, marcher a grands pas
precautions - des précautions, précaution
bestrode - bestrode, chevaucher
sill - sill, bille, seuil
threw away - Jeter
tiger - tigre, tigresse
CHAPTER XII"THE BISHOP WORKS
The next morning at sunrise Monseigneur Bienvenu was strolling in his garden. Madame Magloire ran up to him in utter consternation.
"Monseigneur, Monseigneur!" she exclaimed, "does your Grace know where the basket of silver is?"
"Yes," replied the Bishop.
"Jesus the Lord be blessed!" she resumed; "I did not know what had become of it."
The Bishop had just picked up the basket in a flower-bed. He presented it to Madame Magloire.
"Here it is."
"Well!" said she. "Nothing in it! And the silver?"
"Ah," returned the Bishop, "so it is the silver which troubles you? I don't know where it is."
"Great, good God! It is stolen! That man who was here last night has stolen it."
In a twinkling, with all the vivacity of an alert old woman, Madame Magloire had rushed to the oratory, entered the alcove, and returned to the Bishop. The Bishop had just bent down, and was sighing as he examined a plant of cochlearia des Guillons, which the basket had broken as it fell across the bed. He rose up at Madame Magloire's cry.
twinkling - scintillant, (twinkle), briller, cligner, virevolter
alert - alerte, alarme, vif
sighing - soupirer
cochlearia - Cochléaire
"Monseigneur, the man is gone! The silver has been stolen!"
As she uttered this exclamation, her eyes fell upon a corner of the garden, where traces of the wall having been scaled were visible. The coping of the wall had been torn away.
torn away - arraché
"Stay! yonder is the way he went. He jumped over into Cochefilet Lane. Ah, the abomination! He has stolen our silver!"
jumped over - a sauté
abomination - abomination
The Bishop remained silent for a moment; then he raised his grave eyes, and said gently to Madame Magloire:"
"And, in the first place, was that silver ours?"
Madame Magloire was speechless. Another silence ensued; then the Bishop went on:"
speechless - sans voix
"Madame Magloire, I have for a long time detained that silver wrongfully. It belonged to the poor. Who was that man? A poor man, evidently."
detained - détenu, détenir, arreter
"Alas! Jesus!" returned Madame Magloire. "It is not for my sake, nor for Mademoiselle's. It makes no difference to us. But it is for the sake of Monseigneur. What is Monseigneur to eat with now?"
The Bishop gazed at her with an air of amazement.
amazement - l'étonnement, stupéfaction, stupeur
"Ah, come! Are there no such things as pewter forks and spoons?"
Madame Magloire shrugged her shoulders.
shrugged - haussé les épaules, haussement d'épaules, hausser les épaules
"Pewter has an odor."
"Iron forks and spoons, then."
Madame Magloire made an expressive grimace.
expressive - expressif
grimace - grimace, grimacer, faire des grimaces
"Iron has a taste."
"Very well," said the Bishop; "wooden ones then."
A few moments later he was breakfasting at the very table at which Jean Valjean had sat on the previous evening. As he ate his breakfast, Monseigneur Welcome remarked gayly to his sister, who said nothing, and to Madame Magloire, who was grumbling under her breath, that one really does not need either fork or spoon, even of wood, in order to dip a bit of bread in a cup of milk.
grumbling - grommeler, (grumble), grondement, gargouillement, grognement
dip - trempette, immersion
"A pretty idea, truly," said Madame Magloire to herself, as she went and came, "to take in a man like that! and to lodge him close to one's self! And how fortunate that he did nothing but steal! Ah, mon Dieu! it makes one shudder to think of it!"
As the brother and sister were about to rise from the table, there came a knock at the door.
"Come in," said the Bishop.
The door opened. A singular and violent group made its appearance on the threshold. Three men were holding a fourth man by the collar. The three men were gendarmes; the other was Jean Valjean.
A brigadier of gendarmes, who seemed to be in command of the group, was standing near the door. He entered and advanced to the Bishop, making a military salute.
brigadier - brigadier, brigadiere
"Monseigneur"" said he.
At this word, Jean Valjean, who was dejected and seemed overwhelmed, raised his head with an air of stupefaction.
overwhelmed - débordé, abreuver, accabler, envahir
"Monseigneur!" he murmured. "So he is not the curĂ©?"
"Silence!" said the gendarme. "He is Monseigneur the Bishop."
In the meantime, Monseigneur Bienvenu had advanced as quickly as his great age permitted.
"Ah! here you are!" he exclaimed, looking at Jean Valjean. "I am glad to see you. Well, but how is this? I gave you the candlesticks too, which are of silver like the rest, and for which you can certainly get two hundred francs. Why did you not carry them away with your forks and spoons?"
Jean Valjean opened his eyes wide, and stared at the venerable Bishop with an expression which no human tongue can render any account of.
"Monseigneur," said the brigadier of gendarmes, "so what this man said is true, then? We came across him. He was walking like a man who is running away. We stopped him to look into the matter. He had this silver""
"And he told you," interposed the Bishop with a smile, "that it had been given to him by a kind old fellow of a priest with whom he had passed the night? I see how the matter stands. And you have brought him back here? It is a mistake."
"In that case," replied the brigadier, "we can let him go?"
"Certainly," replied the Bishop.
The gendarmes released Jean Valjean, who recoiled.
"Is it true that I am to be released?" he said, in an almost inarticulate voice, and as though he were talking in his sleep.
"Yes, thou art released; dost thou not understand?" said one of the gendarmes.
"My friend," resumed the Bishop, "before you go, here are your candlesticks. Take them."
He stepped to the chimney-piece, took the two silver candlesticks, and brought them to Jean Valjean. The two women looked on without uttering a word, without a gesture, without a look which could disconcert the Bishop.
Jean Valjean was trembling in every limb. He took the two candlesticks mechanically, and with a bewildered air.
limb - membre
"Now," said the Bishop, "go in peace. By the way, when you return, my friend, it is not necessary to pass through the garden. You can always enter and depart through the street door. It is never fastened with anything but a latch, either by day or by night."
Then, turning to the gendarmes:"
"You may retire, gentlemen."
The gendarmes retired.
Jean Valjean was like a man on the point of fainting.
Fainting - l'évanouissement, syncope
The Bishop drew near to him, and said in a low voice:"
"Do not forget, never forget, that you have promised to use this money in becoming an honest man."
Jean Valjean, who had no recollection of ever having promised anything, remained speechless. The Bishop had emphasized the words when he uttered them. He resumed with solemnity:"
recollection - mémoire
"Jean Valjean, my brother, you no longer belong to evil, but to good. It is your soul that I buy from you; I withdraw it from black thoughts and the spirit of perdition, and I give it to God."
perdition - la perdition, enfer
CHAPTER XIII"LITTLE GERVAIS
Jean Valjean left the town as though he were fleeing from it. He set out at a very hasty pace through the fields, taking whatever roads and paths presented themselves to him, without perceiving that he was incessantly retracing his steps. He wandered thus the whole morning, without having eaten anything and without feeling hungry. He was the prey of a throng of novel sensations.
fleeing - s'enfuir, prendre la fuite, fuir, échapper
hasty - hâtive, hâtif
He was conscious of a sort of rage; he did not know against whom it was directed. He could not have told whether he was touched or humiliated. There came over him at moments a strange emotion which he resisted and to which he opposed the hardness acquired during the last twenty years of his life. This state of mind fatigued him.
hardness - dureté
He perceived with dismay that the sort of frightful calm which the injustice of his misfortune had conferred upon him was giving way within him. He asked himself what would replace this. At times he would have actually preferred to be in prison with the gendarmes, and that things should not have happened in this way; it would have agitated him less.
dismay - affliger, mortifier, avoir peur, désarroi, consternation
injustice - l'injustice, injustice
Although the season was tolerably far advanced, there were still a few late flowers in the hedge-rows here and there, whose odor as he passed through them in his march recalled to him memories of his childhood. These memories were almost intolerable to him, it was so long since they had recurred to him.
rows - rangées, rang(ée)
intolerable - intolérable
Unutterable thoughts assembled within him in this manner all day long.
As the sun declined to its setting, casting long shadows athwart the soil from every pebble, Jean Valjean sat down behind a bush upon a large ruddy plain, which was absolutely deserted. There was nothing on the horizon except the Alps. Not even the spire of a distant village.
pebble - galet, gravillon
spire - spire, fleche
Jean Valjean might have been three leagues distant from D"" A path which intersected the plain passed a few paces from the bush.
In the middle of this meditation, which would have contributed not a little to render his rags terrifying to any one who might have encountered him, a joyous sound became audible.
He turned his head and saw a little Savoyard, about ten years of age, coming up the path and singing, his hurdy-gurdy on his hip, and his marmot-box on his back.
Savoyard - Savoyard
One of those gay and gentle children, who go from land to land affording a view of their knees through the holes in their trousers.
Without stopping his song, the lad halted in his march from time to time, and played at knuckle-bones with some coins which he had in his hand"his whole fortune, probably.
knuckle - le poing américain, articulation du doigt, articulation
Among this money there was one forty-sou piece.
The child halted beside the bush, without perceiving Jean Valjean, and tossed up his handful of sous, which, up to that time, he had caught with a good deal of adroitness on the back of his hand.
adroitness - l'habileté, savoir faire
This time the forty-sou piece escaped him, and went rolling towards the brushwood until it reached Jean Valjean.
Jean Valjean set his foot upon it.
In the meantime, the child had looked after his coin and had caught sight of him.
He showed no astonishment, but walked straight up to the man.
The spot was absolutely solitary. As far as the eye could see there was not a person on the plain or on the path. The only sound was the tiny, feeble cries of a flock of birds of passage, which was traversing the heavens at an immense height.
The child was standing with his back to the sun, which cast threads of gold in his hair and empurpled with its blood-red gleam the savage face of Jean Valjean.
threads - fils, fil, processus léger, exétron
"Sir," said the little Savoyard, with that childish confidence which is composed of ignorance and innocence, "my money."
"What is your name?" said Jean Valjean.
"Little Gervais, sir."
"Go away," said Jean Valjean.
"Sir," resumed the child, "give me back my money."
Jean Valjean dropped his head, and made no reply.
The child began again, "My money, sir."
Jean Valjean's eyes remained fixed on the earth.
"My piece of money!" cried the child, "my white piece! my silver!"
It seemed as though Jean Valjean did not hear him. The child grasped him by the collar of his blouse and shook him. At the same time he made an effort to displace the big iron-shod shoe which rested on his treasure.
"I want my piece of money! my piece of forty sous!"
The child wept. Jean Valjean raised his head. He still remained seated. His eyes were troubled. He gazed at the child, in a sort of amazement, then he stretched out his hand towards his cudgel and cried in a terrible voice, "Who's there?"
"I, sir," replied the child. "Little Gervais! I! Give me back my forty sous, if you please! Take your foot away, sir, if you please!"
Then irritated, though he was so small, and becoming almost menacing:"
menacing - menaçante, menace
"Come now, will you take your foot away? Take your foot away, or we'll see!"
"Ah! It's still you!" said Jean Valjean, and rising abruptly to his feet, his foot still resting on the silver piece, he added:"
"Will you take yourself off!"
The frightened child looked at him, then began to tremble from head to foot, and after a few moments of stupor he set out, running at the top of his speed, without daring to turn his neck or to utter a cry.
stupor - stupeur
Nevertheless, lack of breath forced him to halt after a certain distance, and Jean Valjean heard him sobbing, in the midst of his own reverie.
At the end of a few moments the child had disappeared.
The sun had set.
The shadows were descending around Jean Valjean. He had eaten nothing all day; it is probable that he was feverish.
descending - descendant, descendre
feverish - fébrile, fiévreux
He had remained standing and had not changed his attitude after the child's flight. The breath heaved his chest at long and irregular intervals. His gaze, fixed ten or twelve paces in front of him, seemed to be scrutinizing with profound attention the shape of an ancient fragment of blue earthenware which had fallen in the grass.
heaved - heaved, hisser
earthenware - la faience, poterie
All at once he shivered; he had just begun to feel the chill of evening.
He settled his cap more firmly on his brow, sought mechanically to cross and button his blouse, advanced a step and stopped to pick up his cudgel.
At that moment he caught sight of the forty-sou piece, which his foot had half ground into the earth, and which was shining among the pebbles. It was as though he had received a galvanic shock. "What is this?" he muttered between his teeth.
pebbles - des cailloux, galet, gravillon
galvanic - galvanique
muttered - marmonné, marmonner
He recoiled three paces, then halted, without being able to detach his gaze from the spot which his foot had trodden but an instant before, as though the thing which lay glittering there in the gloom had been an open eye riveted upon him.
detach - se détacher, détacher
trodden - foulée, marcher (sur)
At the expiration of a few moments he darted convulsively towards the silver coin, seized it, and straightened himself up again and began to gaze afar off over the plain, at the same time casting his eyes towards all points of the horizon, as he stood there erect and shivering, like a terrified wild animal which is seeking refuge.
darted - dardé, dard, fleche
shivering - des frissons, (shiver) des frissons
He saw nothing. Night was falling, the plain was cold and vague, great banks of violet haze were rising in the gleam of the twilight.
Violet - violet, violette
haze - brume, chicaner, fumées
He said, "Ah!" and set out rapidly in the direction in which the child had disappeared. After about thirty paces he paused, looked about him and saw nothing.
Then he shouted with all his might:"
"Little Gervais! Little Gervais!"
He paused and waited.
There was no reply.
The landscape was gloomy and deserted. He was encompassed by space. There was nothing around him but an obscurity in which his gaze was lost, and a silence which engulfed his voice.
engulfed - englouti, submerger, engloutir, engouffrer
An icy north wind was blowing, and imparted to things around him a sort of lugubrious life. The bushes shook their thin little arms with incredible fury. One would have said that they were threatening and pursuing some one.
icy - glacé, glacial, gelé
He set out on his march again, then he began to run; and from time to time he halted and shouted into that solitude, with a voice which was the most formidable and the most disconsolate that it was possible to hear, "Little Gervais! Little Gervais!"
most disconsolate - le plus inconsolable
Assuredly, if the child had heard him, he would have been alarmed and would have taken good care not to show himself. But the child was no doubt already far away.
He encountered a priest on horseback. He stepped up to him and said:"
"Monsieur le CurĂ©, have you seen a child pass?"
"No," said the priest.
"One named Little Gervais?"
"I have seen no one."
He drew two five-franc pieces from his money-bag and handed them to the priest.
franc - franc
"Monsieur le CurĂ©, this is for your poor people. Monsieur le CurĂ©, he was a little lad, about ten years old, with a marmot, I think, and a hurdy-gurdy. One of those Savoyards, you know?"
"I have not seen him."
"Little Gervais? There are no villages here? Can you tell me?"
"If he is like what you say, my friend, he is a little stranger. Such persons pass through these parts. We know nothing of them."
Jean Valjean seized two more coins of five francs each with violence, and gave them to the priest.
"For your poor," he said.
Then he added, wildly:"
wildly - sauvage, sauvagement
"Monsieur l'AbbĂ©, have me arrested. I am a thief."
The priest put spurs to his horse and fled in haste, much alarmed.
spurs - les éperons, éperon
Jean Valjean set out on a run, in the direction which he had first taken.
In this way he traversed a tolerably long distance, gazing, calling, shouting, but he met no one. Two or three times he ran across the plain towards something which conveyed to him the effect of a human being reclining or crouching down; it turned out to be nothing but brushwood or rocks nearly on a level with the earth. At length, at a spot where three paths intersected each other, he stopped.
gazing - regarder, fixer
crouching - accroupi, s'accroupir
The moon had risen. He sent his gaze into the distance and shouted for the last time, "Little Gervais! Little Gervais! Little Gervais!" His shout died away in the mist, without even awakening an echo. He murmured yet once more, "Little Gervais!" but in a feeble and almost inarticulate voice.
awakening - l'éveil, réveil, (awaken), réveiller, se réveiller
It was his last effort; his legs gave way abruptly under him, as though an invisible power had suddenly overwhelmed him with the weight of his evil conscience; he fell exhausted, on a large stone, his fists clenched in his hair and his face on his knees, and he cried, "I am a wretch!"
clenched - serré, serrer, prise (en main) ferme, poigne ferme
Then his heart burst, and he began to cry. It was the first time that he had wept in nineteen years.
When Jean Valjean left the Bishop's house, he was, as we have seen, quite thrown out of everything that had been his thought hitherto. He could not yield to the evidence of what was going on within him. He hardened himself against the angelic action and the gentle words of the old man. "You have promised me to become an honest man. I buy your soul.
hitherto - jusqu'a présent, jusqu'ici, jusqu'alors, jusqu'a maintenant
I take it away from the spirit of perversity; I give it to the good God."
This recurred to his mind unceasingly. To this celestial kindness he opposed pride, which is the fortress of evil within us.
unceasingly - sans cesse
celestial - céleste
fortress - forteresse
He was indistinctly conscious that the pardon of this priest was the greatest assault and the most formidable attack which had moved him yet; that his obduracy was finally settled if he resisted this clemency; that if he yielded, he should be obliged to renounce that hatred with which the actions of other men had filled his soul through so many years, and which pleased him; that this time it was necessary to conquer or to be conquered; and that a struggle, a colossal and final struggle, had been begun between his viciousness and the goodness of that man.
indistinctly - indistinctement
assault - d'agression, assaut, agression, attaquer, agresser
obduracy - l'obstination
renounce - renoncer, renoncez, renonçons, renoncent, désister
conquer - conquérir
colossal - colossal
viciousness - la méchanceté
In the presence of these lights, he proceeded like a man who is intoxicated. As he walked thus with haggard eyes, did he have a distinct perception of what might result to him from his adventure at D""? Did he understand all those mysterious murmurs which warn or importune the spirit at certain moments of life?
intoxicated - en état d'ébriété, intoxiquer
murmurs - murmures, murmure, rumeur, souffle, murmurer
Did a voice whisper in his ear that he had just passed the solemn hour of his destiny; that there no longer remained a middle course for him; that if he were not henceforth the best of men, he would be the worst; that it behooved him now, so to speak, to mount higher than the Bishop, or fall lower than the convict; that if he wished to become good he must become an angel; that if he wished to remain evil, he must become a monster?
Here, again, some questions must be put, which we have already put to ourselves elsewhere: did he catch some shadow of all this in his thought, in a confused way? Misfortune certainly, as we have said, does form the education of the intelligence; nevertheless, it is doubtful whether Jean Valjean was in a condition to disentangle all that we have here indicated.
doubtful - douteux, douteuse
disentangle - démeler, démeler
If these ideas occurred to him, he but caught glimpses of, rather than saw them, and they only succeeded in throwing him into an unutterable and almost painful state of emotion. On emerging from that black and deformed thing which is called the galleys, the Bishop had hurt his soul, as too vivid a light would have hurt his eyes on emerging from the dark.
The future life, the possible life which offered itself to him henceforth, all pure and radiant, filled him with tremors and anxiety. He no longer knew where he really was. Like an owl, who should suddenly see the sun rise, the convict had been dazzled and blinded, as it were, by virtue.
tremors - des tremblements, tremblement, trépidation, trémulation
Owl - hibou, chouette
That which was certain, that which he did not doubt, was that he was no longer the same man, that everything about him was changed, that it was no longer in his power to make it as though the Bishop had not spoken to him and had not touched him.
In this state of mind he had encountered little Gervais, and had robbed him of his forty sous. Why? He certainly could not have explained it; was this the last effect and the supreme effort, as it were, of the evil thoughts which he had brought away from the galleys,"a remnant of impulse, a result of what is called in statics, acquired force?
It was that, and it was also, perhaps, even less than that. Let us say it simply, it was not he who stole; it was not the man; it was the beast, who, by habit and instinct, had simply placed his foot upon that money, while the intelligence was struggling amid so many novel and hitherto unheard-of thoughts besetting it.
unheard - non entendue
besetting - l'assaillant, assaillir
When intelligence reawakened and beheld that action of the brute, Jean Valjean recoiled with anguish and uttered a cry of terror.
brute - brute, bete, brutal
It was because,"strange phenomenon, and one which was possible only in the situation in which he found himself,"in stealing the money from that child, he had done a thing of which he was no longer capable.
However that may be, this last evil action had a decisive effect on him; it abruptly traversed that chaos which he bore in his mind, and dispersed it, placed on one side the thick obscurity, and on the other the light, and acted on his soul, in the state in which it then was, as certain chemical reagents act upon a troubled mixture by precipitating one element and clarifying the other.
reagents - réactifs, réactif
precipitating - précipitant, précipité
First of all, even before examining himself and reflecting, all bewildered, like one who seeks to save himself, he tried to find the child in order to return his money to him; then, when he recognized the fact that this was impossible, he halted in despair. At the moment when he exclaimed "I am a wretch!
" he had just perceived what he was, and he was already separated from himself to such a degree, that he seemed to himself to be no longer anything more than a phantom, and as if he had, there before him, in flesh and blood, the hideous galley-convict, Jean Valjean, cudgel in hand, his blouse on his hips, his knapsack filled with stolen objects on his back, with his resolute and gloomy visage, with his thoughts filled with abominable projects.
abominable - abominable
Excess of unhappiness had, as we have remarked, made him in some sort a visionary. This, then, was in the nature of a vision. He actually saw that Jean Valjean, that sinister face, before him. He had almost reached the point of asking himself who that man was, and he was horrified by him.
visionary - visionnaire, illusoire, imaginaire, prophétique, utopique
His brain was going through one of those violent and yet perfectly calm moments in which reverie is so profound that it absorbs reality. One no longer beholds the object which one has before one, and one sees, as though apart from one's self, the figures which one has in one's own mind.
Thus he contemplated himself, so to speak, face to face, and at the same time, athwart this hallucination, he perceived in a mysterious depth a sort of light which he at first took for a torch. On scrutinizing this light which appeared to his conscience with more attention, he recognized the fact that it possessed a human form and that this torch was the Bishop.
torch - torche, flambeau, incendier
His conscience weighed in turn these two men thus placed before it,"the Bishop and Jean Valjean. Nothing less than the first was required to soften the second. By one of those singular effects, which are peculiar to this sort of ecstasies, in proportion as his reverie continued, as the Bishop grew great and resplendent in his eyes, so did Jean Valjean grow less and vanish.
soften - s'adoucir, adoucir
ecstasies - extases, extase, ecstasy, exta
resplendent - resplendissante
vanish - disparaître, s'évanouir, s'annuler
After a certain time he was no longer anything more than a shade. All at once he disappeared. The Bishop alone remained; he filled the whole soul of this wretched man with a magnificent radiance.
Jean Valjean wept for a long time. He wept burning tears, he sobbed with more weakness than a woman, with more fright than a child.
sobbed - sangloté, fdp-p
fright - d'effroi, anxiété, peur, frayeur
As he wept, daylight penetrated more and more clearly into his soul; an extraordinary light; a light at once ravishing and terrible.
ravishing - ravissante, ravir
His past life, his first fault, his long expiation, his external brutishness, his internal hardness, his dismissal to liberty, rejoicing in manifold plans of vengeance, what had happened to him at the Bishop's, the last thing that he had done, that theft of forty sous from a child, a crime all the more cowardly, and all the more monstrous since it had come after the Bishop's pardon,"all this recurred to his mind and appeared clearly to him, but with a clearness which he had never hitherto witnessed. He examined his life, and it seemed horrible to him; his soul, and it seemed frightful to him. In the meantime a gentle light rested over this life and this soul. It seemed to him that he beheld Satan by the light of Paradise.
past life - vie antérieure
brutishness - brutalité
dismissal - limogeage, licenciement, non-lieu
rejoicing - se réjouir, réjouissant, gaieté, (rejoice), réjouir
manifold - copie
vengeance - vengeance
more cowardly - plus lâche
Satan - Satan
How many hours did he weep thus? What did he do after he had wept? Whither did he go! No one ever knew.
The only thing which seems to be authenticated is that that same night the carrier who served Grenoble at that epoch, and who arrived at D"" about three o'clock in the morning, saw, as he traversed the street in which the Bishop's residence was situated, a man in the attitude of prayer, kneeling on the pavement in the shadow, in front of the door of Monseigneur Welcome.
authenticated - authentifié, authentifier
kneeling - a genoux, (kneel)
BOOK THIRD"IN THE YEAR 1817
CHAPTER I"THE YEAR 1817
1817 is the year which Louis XVIII., with a certain royal assurance which was not wanting in pride, entitled the twenty-second of his reign. It is the year in which M. BruguiĂ¨re de Sorsum was celebrated. All the hairdressers'shops, hoping for powder and the return of the royal bird, were besmeared with azure and decked with fleurs-de-lys.
assurance - l'assurance, assurance, culot
reign - regne, regne, régner
hairdressers - les coiffeurs, coiffeur, coiffeuse, friseur, friseuse
Azure - l'azur, azur
It was the candid time at which Count Lynch sat every Sunday as church-warden in the church-warden's pew of Saint-Germain-des-PrĂ©s, in his costume of a peer of France, with his red ribbon and his long nose and the majesty of profile peculiar to a man who has performed a brilliant action. The brilliant action performed by M.
lynch - lyncher
warden - gardien, directeur/-trice
pew - pew, banc (d'église)
Lynch was this: being mayor of Bordeaux, on the 12th of March, 1814, he had surrendered the city a little too promptly to M. the Duke d'AngoulĂŞme. Hence his peerage. In 1817 fashion swallowed up little boys of from four to six years of age in vast caps of morocco leather with ear-tabs resembling Esquimaux mitres.
Bordeaux - bordeaux
surrendered - s'est rendu, capituler, rendre
morocco - maroc
resembling - ressemblant, ressembler
The French army was dressed in white, after the mode of the Austrian; the regiments were called legions; instead of numbers they bore the names of departments; Napoleon was at St. Helena; and since England refused him green cloth, he was having his old coats turned. In 1817 Pelligrini sang; Mademoiselle Bigottini danced; Potier reigned; Odry did not yet exist.
Austrian - autrichien, Autrichienne
regiments - régiments, régiment
legions - légions, légion
St. Helena - Sainte-Hélene
Madame Saqui had succeeded to Forioso. There were still Prussians in France. M. Delalot was a personage. Legitimacy had just asserted itself by cutting off the hand, then the head, of Pleignier, of Carbonneau, and of Tolleron.
Prussians - les prussiens, prussien, Prussienne
personage - personnage
legitimacy - la légitimité, légitimité
asserted - affirmée, affirmer, attester, asseoir
The Prince de Talleyrand, grand chamberlain, and the AbbĂ© Louis, appointed minister of finance, laughed as they looked at each other, with the laugh of the two augurs; both of them had celebrated, on the 14th of July, 1790, the mass of federation in the Champ de Mars; Talleyrand had said it as bishop, Louis had served it in the capacity of deacon.
federation - fédération
Deacon - diacre, diaconesse
In 1817, in the side-alleys of this same Champ de Mars, two great cylinders of wood might have been seen lying in the rain, rotting amid the grass, painted blue, with traces of eagles and bees, from which the gilding was falling. These were the columns which two years before had upheld the Emperor's platform in the Champ de Mai.
cylinders - cylindres, cylindre
rotting - la pourriture, pourrir
eagles - les aigles, aigle, eagle, réussir un aigle
They were blackened here and there with the scorches of the bivouac of Austrians encamped near Gros-Caillou. Two or three of these columns had disappeared in these bivouac fires, and had warmed the large hands of the Imperial troops. The Field of May had this remarkable point: that it had been held in the month of June and in the Field of March (Mars).
scorches - brule, roussir, bruler
bivouac - bivouac
Austrians - les autrichiens, autrichien, Autrichienne
In this year, 1817, two things were popular: the Voltaire-Touquet and the snuff-box Ă la Charter. The most recent Parisian sensation was the crime of Dautun, who had thrown his brother's head into the fountain of the Flower-Market.
snuff - tabac a priser, coryza
charter - charte, affretter (2)
Parisian - Parisien, Parisienne
They had begun to feel anxious at the Naval Department, on account of the lack of news from that fatal frigate, The Medusa, which was destined to cover Chaumareix with infamy and GĂ©ricault with glory. Colonel Selves was going to Egypt to become Soliman-Pasha. The palace of Thermes, in the Rue de La Harpe, served as a shop for a cooper.
naval - naval
frigate - frégate
pasha - pasha, pacha
On the platform of the octagonal tower of the Hotel de Cluny, the little shed of boards, which had served as an observatory to Messier, the naval astronomer under Louis XVI., was still to be seen. The Duchesse de Duras read to three or four friends her unpublished Ourika, in her boudoir furnished by X. in sky-blue satin. The N's were scratched off the Louvre.
octagonal - octogonal
Observatory - observatoire
Messier - messier, désordonné, désorganisé, chaotique
astronomer - astronome
duchesse - duchesse
unpublished - non publié
boudoir - boudoir
sky-blue - (sky-blue) bleu ciel
satin - satin, satiné
Louvre - Louvre
The bridge of Austerlitz had abdicated, and was entitled the bridge of the King's Garden [du Jardin du Roi], a double enigma, which disguised the bridge of Austerlitz and the Jardin des Plantes at one stroke. Louis XVIII.
abdicated - abdiqué, abdiquer
, much preoccupied while annotating Horace with the corner of his finger-nail, heroes who have become emperors, and makers of wooden shoes who have become dauphins, had two anxieties,"Napoleon and Mathurin Bruneau. The French Academy had given for its prize subject, The Happiness procured through Study. M. Bellart was officially eloquent.
preoccupied - préoccupé, préoccuper
annotating - l'annotation, annoter
finger-nail - (finger-nail) l'ongle du doigt
emperors - empereurs, empereur
Academy - académie
procured - procuré, acquérir, obtenir, proxénétisme, procurer
officially - officiellement
In his shadow could be seen germinating that future advocate-general of BroĂ«, dedicated to the sarcasms of Paul-Louis Courier. There was a false Chateaubriand, named Marchangy, in the interim, until there should be a false Marchangy, named d'Arlincourt. Claire d'Albe and Malek-Adel were masterpieces; Madame Cottin was proclaimed the chief writer of the epoch.
dedicated - dédié, consacrer, vouer, destiner, se consacrer, se dévouer
sarcasms - sarcasmes, sarcasme
courier - coursier, messager
Chateaubriand - chateaubriand, châteaubriand, chateaubriant, châteaubriant
interim - intérimaire, intervalle, intérim
masterpieces - des chefs-d'ouvre, chef-d'ouvre
The Institute had the academician, Napoleon Bonaparte, stricken from its list of members. A royal ordinance erected AngoulĂŞme into a naval school; for the Duc d'AngoulĂŞme, being lord high admiral, it was evident that the city of AngoulĂŞme had all the qualities of a seaport; otherwise the monarchical principle would have received a wound.
Academician - académicien, académicienne
ordinance - ordonnance, décret
admiral - amiral
monarchical - monarchique
In the Council of Ministers the question was agitated whether vignettes representing slack-rope performances, which adorned Franconi's advertising posters, and which attracted throngs of street urchins, should be tolerated. M.
vignettes - vignettes, vignette
Slack - slack, lâche
posters - des affiches, poster, affiche
throngs - des foules, essaim, foule
urchins - oursins, garnement
tolerated - toléré, tolérer, supporter, souffrir
PaĂ«r, the author of Agnese, a good sort of fellow, with a square face and a wart on his cheek, directed the little private concerts of the Marquise de Sasenaye in the Rue Ville l'Ă‰vĂŞque. All the young girls were singing the Hermit of Saint-Avelle, with words by Edmond GĂ©raud. The Yellow Dwarf was transferred into Mirror.
wart - verrue
Hermit - l'ermite, ermite, ermitane
dwarf - nain, naine
The CafĂ© Lemblin stood up for the Emperor, against the CafĂ© Valois, which upheld the Bourbons. The Duc de Berri, already surveyed from the shadow by Louvel, had just been married to a princess of Sicily. Madame de StaĂ«l had died a year previously. The body-guard hissed Mademoiselle Mars. The grand newspapers were all very small. Their form was restricted, but their liberty was great.
Bourbons - bourbons, bourbon
Sicily - la sicile, Sicile
The Constitutionnel was constitutional. La Minerve called Chateaubriand Chateaubriant. That t made the good middle-class people laugh heartily at the expense of the great writer. In journals which sold themselves, prostituted journalists, insulted the exiles of 1815.
constitutional - constitutionnel, constitutionnelle
heartily - chaleureusement
prostituted - prostituée, prostituer
insulted - insulté, insulter, insulte
exiles - exilés, exil, exilé, exiler
David had no longer any talent, Arnault had no longer any wit, Carnot was no longer honest, Soult had won no battles; it is true that Napoleon had no longer any genius. No one is ignorant of the fact that letters sent to an exile by post very rarely reached him, as the police made it their religious duty to intercept them. This is no new fact; Descartes complained of it in his exile.
David - david
intercept - intercepter
Now David, having, in a Belgian publication, shown some displeasure at not receiving letters which had been written to him, it struck the royalist journals as amusing; and they derided the prescribed man well on this occasion. What separated two men more than an abyss was to say, the regicides, or to say the voters; to say the enemies, or to say the allies; to say Napoleon, or to say Buonaparte.
Belgian - Belge
displeasure - mécontentement, dépncisir, courroux
derided - tourné en dérision, bafouer, railler
regicides - régicides, régicide
voters - électeurs, votant, votante
allies - alliés, s'allier (a, avec)
All sensible people were agreed that the era of revolution had been closed forever by King Louis XVIII., surnamed "The Immortal Author of the Charter." On the platform of the Pont-Neuf, the word Redivivus was carved on the pedestal that awaited the statue of Henry IV. M. Piet, in the Rue ThĂ©rĂ¨se, No. 4, was making the rough draft of his privy assembly to consolidate the monarchy.
surnamed - nom de famille, nom, patronyme
pedestal - piédestal
awaited - attendue, attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter
rough draft - le brouillon
Privy - privé, unique, exclusif, instruit, complice
consolidate - consolider
The leaders of the Right said at grave conjunctures, "We must write to Bacot." MM. Canuel, O'Mahoney, and De Chappedelaine were preparing the sketch, to some extent with Monsieur's approval, of what was to become later on "The Conspiracy of the Bord de l'Eau""of the waterside. L'Ă‰pingle Noire was already plotting in his own quarter. Delaverderie was conferring with Trogoff. M.
conjunctures - conjonctures, conjoncture
Mm - mm
sketch - croquis, croquer, esquisser, esquisse, ébauche, sketch
eau - eau
waterside - au bord de l'eau
conferring - se concerter, conférer, accorder, décerner
Decazes, who was liberal to a degree, reigned. Chateaubriand stood every morning at his window at No.
liberal - libéral, large, généreux, de gauche
27 Rue Saint-Dominique, clad in footed trousers, and slippers, with a madras kerchief knotted over his gray hair, with his eyes fixed on a mirror, a complete set of dentist's instruments spread out before him, cleaning his teeth, which were charming, while he dictated The Monarchy according to the Charter to M. Pilorge, his secretary.
slippers - des pantoufles, chausson, pantoufle
Madras - madras
kerchief - le kerchief, foulard, fichu
Criticism, assuming an authoritative tone, preferred Lafon to Talma. M. de FĂ©letez signed himself A.; M. Hoffmann signed himself Z. Charles Nodier wrote ThĂ©rĂ¨se Aubert. Divorce was abolished. Lyceums called themselves colleges. The collegians, decorated on the collar with a golden fleur-de-lys, fought each other apropos of the King of Rome.
authoritative - qui fait autorité
Talma - talma
abolished - aboli, abolir, supprimer, détruire
The counter-police of the chĂ˘teau had denounced to her Royal Highness Madame, the portrait, everywhere exhibited, of M. the Duc d'OrlĂ©ans, who made a better appearance in his uniform of a colonel-general of hussars than M. the Duc de Berri, in his uniform of colonel-general of dragoons"a serious inconvenience. The city of Paris was having the dome of the Invalides regilded at its own expense.
hussars - hussards, hussard
dome - dôme
Serious men asked themselves what M. de Trinquelague would do on such or such an occasion; M. Clausel de Montals differed on divers points from M. Clausel de Coussergues; M. de Salaberry was not satisfied.
The comedian Picard, who belonged to the Academy, which the comedian MoliĂ¨re had not been able to do, had The Two Philiberts played at the OdĂ©on, upon whose pediment the removal of the letters still allowed THEATRE OF THE EMPRESS to be plainly read. People took part for or against Cugnet de Montarlot. Fabvier was factious; Bavoux was revolutionary.
comedian - comédien, humoriste, comique
Picard - picard
pediment - fronton
removal - l'éloignement, enlevement, élimination, prélevement
revolutionary - révolutionnaire
The Liberal, PĂ©licier, published an edition of Voltaire, with the following title: Works of Voltaire, of the French Academy. "That will attract purchasers," said the ingenious editor. The general opinion was that M. Charles Loyson would be the genius of the century; envy was beginning to gnaw at him"a sign of glory; and this verse was composed on him:"
envy - l'envie, envie, jalousie, convoitise, envier
gnaw - ronger, harceler, préoccuper
"Even when Loyson steals, one feels that he has paws."
paws - pattes, patte
As Cardinal Fesch refused to resign, M. de Pins, Archbishop of Amasie, administered the diocese of Lyons. The quarrel over the valley of Dappes was begun between Switzerland and France by a memoir from Captain, afterwards General Dufour. Saint-Simon, ignored, was erecting his sublime dream.
administered - administré, administrer, gérer
quarrel - querelle, bagarrer, noise, algarade, dispute
Switzerland - la suisse, Suisse
memoir - mémoire, mémoires
erecting - en cours d'érection, droit, dressé
There was a celebrated Fourier at the Academy of Science, whom posterity has forgotten; and in some garret an obscure Fourier, whom the future will recall. Lord Byron was beginning to make his mark; a note to a poem by Millevoye introduced him to France in these terms: a certain Lord Baron. David d'Angers was trying to work in marble.
posterity - la postérité, postérité
garret - garret, galetas
The AbbĂ© Caron was speaking, in terms of praise, to a private gathering of seminarists in the blind alley of Feuillantines, of an unknown priest, named FĂ©licitĂ©-Robert, who, at a latter date, became Lamennais. A thing which smoked and clattered on the Seine with the noise of a swimming dog went and came beneath the windows of the Tuileries, from the Pont Royal to the Pont Louis XV.
blind alley - Une impasse
Robert - robert
clattered - claudiqué, claquer, craquer, claquement, craquement, vacarme
Seine - la seine, seine, seiner
; it was a piece of mechanism which was not good for much; a sort of plaything, the idle dream of a dream-ridden inventor; an utopia"a steamboat. The Parisians stared indifferently at this useless thing. M.
plaything - jouet, joujou
idle - au ralenti, fainéant
inventor - inventeur, inventrice
Utopia - l'utopie, utopie
steamboat - bateau a vapeur, bateau a vapeur
Parisians - les parisiens, Parisien, Parisienne
indifferently - avec indifférence
de Vaublanc, the reformer of the Institute by a coup d'Ă©tat, the distinguished author of numerous academicians, ordinances, and batches of members, after having created them, could not succeed in becoming one himself. The Faubourg Saint-Germain and the pavilion de Marsan wished to have M. Delaveau for prefect of police, on account of his piety.
academicians - académiciens, académicien, académicienne
ordinances - ordonnances, ordonnance, décret
batches - lots, fournée, paquet
Faubourg - faubourg, rench:
pavilion - pavillon
piety - la piété, piété
Dupuytren and RĂ©camier entered into a quarrel in the amphitheatre of the School of Medicine, and threatened each other with their fists on the subject of the divinity of Jesus Christ. Cuvier, with one eye on Genesis and the other on nature, tried to please bigoted reaction by reconciling fossils with texts and by making mastodons flatter Moses.
amphitheatre - amphithéâtre
divinity - la divinité, déité, divinité
reconciling - réconciliation, réconcilier, concilier
mastodons - mastodontes, mastodonte
M. FranĂ§ois de NeufchĂ˘teau, the praiseworthy cultivator of the memory of Parmentier, made a thousand efforts to have pomme de terre [potato] pronounced parmentiĂ¨re, and succeeded therein not at all. The AbbĂ© GrĂ©goire, ex-bishop, ex-conventionary, ex-senator, had passed, in the royalist polemics, to the state of "Infamous GrĂ©goire.
praiseworthy - digne d'éloges, louable
cultivator - motoculteur, cultivateur
polemics - polémique
infamous - infâme
" The locution of which we have made use"passed to the state of"has been condemned as a neologism by M. Royer Collard. Under the third arch of the Pont de JĂ©na, the new stone with which, the two years previously, the mining aperture made by BlĂĽcher to blow up the bridge had been stopped up, was still recognizable on account of its whiteness.
neologism - néologisme
Collard - collard
stopped up - arreté
recognizable - reconnaissable
whiteness - la blancheur, blancheur, blanchité, blanchitude
Justice summoned to its bar a man who, on seeing the Comte d'Artois enter Notre Dame, had said aloud: "Sapristi! I regret the time when I saw Bonaparte and Talma enter the Bel Sauvage, arm in arm." A seditious utterance. Six months in prison.
Artois - Artois
bel - Bel
Traitors showed themselves unbuttoned; men who had gone over to the enemy on the eve of battle made no secret of their recompense, and strutted immodestly in the light of day, in the cynicism of riches and dignities; deserters from Ligny and Quatre-Bras, in the brazenness of their well-paid turpitude, exhibited their devotion to the monarchy in the most barefaced manner.
traitors - des traîtres, traître, traîtresse, trahir
unbuttoned - déboutonné, déboutonner
recompense - compensation, restituer
strutted - s'est pavané, se pavaner
immodestly - de façon impudique
cynicism - le cynisme, cynisme
deserters - déserteurs, déserteur, déserteuse
Quatre - quatre
turpitude - turpitude
devotion - la dévotion, dévouement, dévotion
barefaced - a visage découvert
This is what floats up confusedly, pell-mell, for the year 1817, and is now forgotten. History neglects nearly all these particulars, and cannot do otherwise; the infinity would overwhelm it. Nevertheless, these details, which are wrongly called trivial,"there are no trivial facts in humanity, nor little leaves in vegetation,"are useful.
neglects - néglige, négliger, négligence
infinity - l'infini, infinité, infini
wrongly - a tort, a tort, erronément
trivial - insignifiante, trivial, anodin, banal
It is of the physiognomy of the years that the physiognomy of the centuries is composed. In this year of 1817 four young Parisians arranged "a fine farce."
farce - farce
CHAPTER II"A DOUBLE QUARTETTE
quartette - quartette
These Parisians came, one from Toulouse, another from Limoges, the third from Cahors, and the fourth from Montauban; but they were students; and when one says student, one says Parisian: to study in Paris is to be born in Paris.
These young men were insignificant; every one has seen such faces; four specimens of humanity taken at random; neither good nor bad, neither wise nor ignorant, neither geniuses nor fools; handsome, with that charming April which is called twenty years. They were four Oscars; for, at that epoch, Arthurs did not yet exist. Burn for him the perfumes of Araby! exclaimed romance. Oscar advances.
specimens - spécimens, spécimen, exemple
Oscars - les oscars, Oscar
perfumes - parfums, parfum, fragrance, parfumer
Oscar, I shall behold him! People had just emerged from Ossian; elegance was Scandinavian and Caledonian; the pure English style was only to prevail later, and the first of the Arthurs, Wellington, had but just won the battle of Waterloo.
Oscar - oscar
elegance - l'élégance, élégance, grâce, finesse
Scandinavian - Scandinave
prevail - dominer, prévaloir, l'emporter, prédominer, persuader
These Oscars bore the names, one of FĂ©lix TholomyĂ¨s, of Toulouse; the second, Listolier, of Cahors; the next, Fameuil, of Limoges; the last, Blachevelle, of Montauban. Naturally, each of them had his mistress.
Blachevelle loved Favourite, so named because she had been in England; Listolier adored Dahlia, who had taken for her nickname the name of a flower; Fameuil idolized ZĂ©phine, an abridgment of JosĂ©phine; TholomyĂ¨s had Fantine, called the Blonde, because of her beautiful, sunny hair.
dahlia - dahlia
nickname - surnom, surnommer
idolized - idolâtré, idolâtrer
abridgment - abrégé, raccourcissement
sunny - ensoleillé
Favourite, Dahlia, ZĂ©phine, and Fantine were four ravishing young women, perfumed and radiant, still a little like working-women, and not yet entirely divorced from their needles; somewhat disturbed by intrigues, but still retaining on their faces something of the serenity of toil, and in their souls that flower of honesty which survives the first fall in woman.
perfumed - parfumé, parfum, fragrance, parfumer
intrigues - intrigues, intrigue, intriguer, conspirer
One of the four was called the young, because she was the youngest of them, and one was called the old; the old one was twenty-three. Not to conceal anything, the three first were more experienced, more heedless, and more emancipated into the tumult of life than Fantine the Blonde, who was still in her first illusions.
emancipated - émancipé, émanciper, affranchir
Dahlia, ZĂ©phine, and especially Favourite, could not have said as much. There had already been more than one episode in their romance, though hardly begun; and the lover who had borne the name of Adolph in the first chapter had turned out to be Alphonse in the second, and Gustave in the third.
Poverty and coquetry are two fatal counsellors; one scolds and the other flatters, and the beautiful daughters of the people have both of them whispering in their ear, each on its own side. These badly guarded souls listen. Hence the falls which they accomplish, and the stones which are thrown at them. They are overwhelmed with splendor of all that is immaculate and inaccessible. Alas!
coquetry - coquetterie, coquetisme
scolds - les grondeurs, chipie, furie, mégere, gronder, réprimander
Flatters - flatters, flatter
immaculate - immaculée
what if the Jungfrau were hungry?
Favourite having been in England, was admired by Dahlia and ZĂ©phine. She had had an establishment of her own very early in life. Her father was an old unmarried professor of mathematics, a brutal man and a braggart, who went out to give lessons in spite of his age.
unmarried - célibataire, (unmarry)
braggart - bravache, fanfaron, fier-a-bras, hâbleur
give lessons - donner des leçons
This professor, when he was a young man, had one day seen a chambermaid's gown catch on a fender; he had fallen in love in consequence of this accident. The result had been Favourite. She met her father from time to time, and he bowed to her. One morning an old woman with the air of a devotee, had entered her apartments, and had said to her, "You do not know me, Mamemoiselle?" "No.
chambermaid - femme de chambre
Fender - fender, aile, garde-boue, défense
" "I am your mother." Then the old woman opened the sideboard, and ate and drank, had a mattress which she owned brought in, and installed herself. This cross and pious old mother never spoke to Favourite, remained hours without uttering a word, breakfasted, dined, and supped for four, and went down to the porter's quarters for company, where she spoke ill of her daughter.
pious - pieux
It was having rosy nails that were too pretty which had drawn Dahlia to Listolier, to others perhaps, to idleness. How could she make such nails work? She who wishes to remain virtuous must not have pity on her hands. As for ZĂ©phine, she had conquered Fameuil by her roguish and caressing little way of saying "Yes, sir."
rosy - rose
idleness - l'oisiveté, oisiveté, inactivité, indolence, inutilité
caressing - caressant, (cares) caressant
The young men were comrades; the young girls were friends. Such loves are always accompanied by such friendships.
Goodness and philosophy are two distinct things; the proof of this is that, after making all due allowances for these little irregular households, Favourite, ZĂ©phine, and Dahlia were philosophical young women, while Fantine was a good girl.
allowances - allocations, indemnité, jeu
Good! some one will exclaim; and TholomyĂ¨s? Solomon would reply that love forms a part of wisdom. We will confine ourselves to saying that the love of Fantine was a first love, a sole love, a faithful love.
She alone, of all the four, was not called "thou" by a single one of them.
Fantine was one of those beings who blossom, so to speak, from the dregs of the people. Though she had emerged from the most unfathomable depths of social shadow, she bore on her brow the sign of the anonymous and the unknown. She was born at M. sur M. Of what parents? Who can say? She had never known father or mother. She was called Fantine. Why Fantine? She had never borne any other name.
blossom - fleur, floraison, fleurir, s'épanouir
dregs - la lie, lie
unfathomable - insondable
anonymous - anonyme
At the epoch of her birth the Directory still existed. She had no family name; she had no family; no baptismal name; the Church no longer existed. She bore the name which pleased the first random passer-by, who had encountered her, when a very small child, running bare-legged in the street. She received the name as she received the water from the clouds upon her brow when it rained.
She was called little Fantine. No one knew more than that. This human creature had entered life in just this way. At the age of ten, Fantine quitted the town and went to service with some farmers in the neighborhood. At fifteen she came to Paris "to seek her fortune." Fantine was beautiful, and remained pure as long as she could. She was a lovely blonde, with fine teeth.
She had gold and pearls for her dowry; but her gold was on her head, and her pearls were in her mouth.
pearls - perles, perle, joyau, perlure, parisienne, sédanoise
dowry - la dot, dot
She worked for her living; then, still for the sake of her living,"for the heart, also, has its hunger,"she loved.
She loved TholomyĂ¨s.
An amour for him; passion for her. The streets of the Latin quarter, filled with throngs of students and grisettes, saw the beginning of their dream. Fantine had long evaded TholomyĂ¨s in the mazes of the hill of the Pantheon, where so many adventurers twine and untwine, but in such a way as constantly to encounter him again. There is a way of avoiding which resembles seeking.
amour - béguin
evaded - éludé, esquiver, s'évader
mazes - labyrinthes, dédale
adventurers - aventuriers, aventurier, aventuriere
untwine - le détissage
In short, the eclogue took place.
eclogue - éclogue, églogue
Blachevelle, Listolier, and Fameuil formed a sort of group of which TholomyĂ¨s was the head. It was he who possessed the wit.
TholomyĂ¨s was the antique old student; he was rich; he had an income of four thousand francs; four thousand francs! a splendid scandal on Mount Sainte-GeneviĂ¨ve. TholomyĂ¨s was a fast man of thirty, and badly preserved. He was wrinkled and toothless, and he had the beginning of a bald spot, of which he himself said with sadness, the skull at thirty, the knee at forty.
toothless - sans dents, édenté
bald spot - une tache chauve
His digestion was mediocre, and he had been attacked by a watering in one eye. But in proportion as his youth disappeared, gayety was kindled; he replaced his teeth with buffooneries, his hair with mirth, his health with irony, his weeping eye laughed incessantly. He was dilapidated but still in flower.
mediocre - médiocre
kindled - enflammé, allumer, enflammer
mirth - l'humour, gaieté
irony - l'ironie, ironie
weeping - pleurant, (weep) pleurant
His youth, which was packing up for departure long before its time, beat a retreat in good order, bursting with laughter, and no one saw anything but fire. He had had a piece rejected at the Vaudeville. He made a few verses now and then. In addition to this he doubted everything to the last degree, which is a vast force in the eyes of the weak. Being thus ironical and bald, he was the leader.
vaudeville - vaudeville
verses - versets, strophe
ironical - ironique
bald - chauve, lisse
Iron is an English word. Is it possible that irony is derived from it?
One day TholomyĂ¨s took the three others aside, with the gesture of an oracle, and said to them:"
Oracle - oracle
"Fantine, Dahlia, ZĂ©phine, and Favourite have been teasing us for nearly a year to give them a surprise. We have promised them solemnly that we would.
teasing - taquineries, (teas) taquineries
They are forever talking about it to us, to me in particular, just as the old women in Naples cry to Saint Januarius, 'Faccia gialluta, fa o miracolo, Yellow face, perform thy miracle,'so our beauties say to me incessantly, 'TholomyĂ¨s, when will you bring forth your surprise?'At the same time our parents keep writing to us. Pressure on both sides.
Naples - naples
Fa - fa
miracle - miracle
The moment has arrived, it seems to me; let us discuss the question."
Thereupon, TholomyĂ¨s lowered his voice and articulated something so mirthful, that a vast and enthusiastic grin broke out upon the four mouths simultaneously, and Blachevelle exclaimed, "That is an idea."
articulated - articulé, articuler
mirthful - joyeux
grin - sourire, rictus
simultaneously - simultanément
A smoky tap-room presented itself; they entered, and the remainder of their confidential colloquy was lost in shadow.
smoky - enfumé
remainder - reste, restant, checkreste, checkrésidu, checkinvendu
colloquy - colloque, conversation
The result of these shades was a dazzling pleasure party which took place on the following Sunday, the four young men inviting the four young girls.
CHAPTER III"FOUR AND FOUR
It is hard nowadays to picture to one's self what a pleasure-trip of students and grisettes to the country was like, forty-five years ago.
pleasure-trip - (pleasure-trip) voyage d'agrément
The suburbs of Paris are no longer the same; the physiognomy of what may be called circumparisian life has changed completely in the last half-century; where there was the cuckoo, there is the railway car; where there was a tender-boat, there is now the steamboat; people speak of FĂ©camp nowadays as they spoke of Saint-Cloud in those days.
cuckoo - coucou, coucoulement, coucouler
The Paris of 1862 is a city which has France for its outskirts.
outskirts - périphérie, banlieue
The four couples conscientiously went through with all the country follies possible at that time. The vacation was beginning, and it was a warm, bright, summer day. On the preceding day, Favourite, the only one who knew how to write, had written the following to TholomyĂ¨s in the name of the four: "It is a good hour to emerge from happiness." That is why they rose at five o'clock in the morning.
follies - folies, folie, sottise
Then they went to Saint-Cloud by the coach, looked at the dry cascade and exclaimed, "This must be very beautiful when there is water!
cascade - cascade, chute d'eau
" They breakfasted at the TĂŞte-Noir, where Castaing had not yet been; they treated themselves to a game of ring-throwing under the quincunx of trees of the grand fountain; they ascended Diogenes'lantern, they gambled for macaroons at the roulette establishment of the Pont de SĂ¨vres, picked bouquets at Pateaux, bought reed-pipes at Neuilly, ate apple tarts everywhere, and were perfectly happy.
noir - noir
quincunx - quinconce
lantern - lanterne
gambled - joué, pari, jeu de hasard, parier, hasarder
roulette - roulette
reed - roseau
Tarts - tartelettes, sur
The young girls rustled and chatted like warblers escaped from their cage. It was a perfect delirium. From time to time they bestowed little taps on the young men. Matutinal intoxication of life! adorable years! the wings of the dragonfly quiver. Oh, whoever you may be, do you not remember?
rustled - froissé, bruissement, froufrou, froufrouter
warblers - fauvettes, fauvette, paruline
delirium - le délire, délire
intoxication - l'intoxication, intoxication
adorable - adorable
dragonfly - libellule
Have you rambled through the brushwood, holding aside the branches, on account of the charming head which is coming on behind you? Have you slid, laughing, down a slope all wet with rain, with a beloved woman holding your hand, and crying, "Ah, my new boots! what a state they are in!"
rambled - divagué, flâner, se balader, divaguer, radoter
Let us say at once that that merry obstacle, a shower, was lacking in the case of this good-humored party, although Favourite had said as they set out, with a magisterial and maternal tone, "The slugs are crawling in the paths,"a sign of rain, children."
humored - humilié, humour
slugs - limaces, limace
crawling - a quatre pattes, (crawl) a quatre pattes
All four were madly pretty. A good old classic poet, then famous, a good fellow who had an Ă‰lĂ©onore, M. le Chevalier de Labouisse, as he strolled that day beneath the chestnut-trees of Saint-Cloud, saw them pass about ten o'clock in the morning, and exclaimed, "There is one too many of them," as he thought of the Graces.
madly - a la folie, follement
Chevalier - chevalier
strolled - flâné, promenade, flânerie, balade, flâner, promener
chestnut - châtaigne, marron, châtain, châtaigner, marronnier
graces - Les grâces, (grace), bénédicité, grâces, grâce, miséricorde
Favourite, Blachevelle's friend, the one aged three and twenty, the old one, ran on in front under the great green boughs, jumped the ditches, stalked distractedly over bushes, and presided over this merry-making with the spirit of a young female faun.
ditches - fossés, fossé
stalked - traqué, tige
distractedly - distraitement
presided - présidé, présider
Faun - faune
ZĂ©phine and Dahlia, whom chance had made beautiful in such a way that they set each off when they were together, and completed each other, never left each other, more from an instinct of coquetry than from friendship, and clinging to each other, they assumed English poses; the first keepsakes had just made their appearance, melancholy was dawning for women, as later on, Byronism dawned for men; and the hair of the tender sex began to droop dolefully. ZĂ©phine and Dahlia had their hair dressed in rolls. Listolier and Fameuil, who were engaged in discussing their professors, explained to Fantine the difference that existed between M. Delvincourt and M. Blondeau.
clinging - s'accrocher, s'accrocher (a)
keepsakes - des souvenirs, souvenir
dawning - l'aube, (dawn), se lever, naître, aube, lever du soleil, aurore
dawned - s'est levé, se lever, naître, aube, lever du soleil
dolefully - avec tristesse
Blachevelle seemed to have been created expressly to carry Favourite's single-bordered, imitation India shawl of Ternaux's manufacture, on his arm on Sundays.
India - l'inde, Inde
shawl - châle
TholomyĂ¨s followed, dominating the group.
He was very gay, but one felt the force of government in him; there was dictation in his joviality; his principal ornament was a pair of trousers of elephant-leg pattern of nankeen, with straps of braided copper wire; he carried a stout rattan worth two hundred francs in his hand, and, as he treated himself to everything, a strange thing called a cigar in his mouth.
dictation - la dictée, dictée
joviality - jovialité
ornament - ornement, ornement musical
Nankeen - nankeen
braided - tressé, tresser
copper wire - fil de cuivre
rattan - le rotin, rotin
cigar - cigare
Nothing was sacred to him; he smoked.
"That TholomyĂ¨s is astounding!" said the others, with veneration. "What trousers! What energy!"
astounding - stupéfiante, étonner, stupéfier, ébahir, épater
veneration - vénération
As for Fantine, she was a joy to behold. Her splendid teeth had evidently received an office from God,"laughter. She preferred to carry her little hat of sewed straw, with its long white strings, in her hand rather than on her head.
sewed - cousu, coudre
Her thick blond hair, which was inclined to wave, and which easily uncoiled, and which it was necessary to fasten up incessantly, seemed made for the flight of Galatea under the willows. Her rosy lips babbled enchantingly.
blond - blond, blonde
uncoiled - déroulé, (se) dérouler
willows - des saules, saule
babbled - babillé, marmonner, marmotter, jargonner, bavarder, papoter
enchantingly - avec enchantement
The corners of her mouth voluptuously turned up, as in the antique masks of Erigone, had an air of encouraging the audacious; but her long, shadowy lashes drooped discreetly over the jollity of the lower part of the face as though to call a halt. There was something indescribably harmonious and striking about her entire dress.
voluptuously - voluptueusement
masks - des masques, masque
drooped - s'est affaissée, tomber, s'affaisser, bec
jollity - la gaieté
indescribably - de maniere indescriptible
She wore a gown of mauve barĂ¨ge, little reddish brown buskins, whose ribbons traced an X on her fine, white, open-worked stockings, and that sort of muslin spencer, a Marseilles invention, whose name, canezou, a corruption of the words quinze aoĂ»t, pronounced after the fashion of the CanebiĂ¨re, signifies fine weather, heat, and midday.
mauve - mauve
reddish - rougeâtre
ribbons - rubans, ruban
muslin - mousseline
The three others, less timid, as we have already said, wore low-necked dresses without disguise, which in summer, beneath flower-adorned hats, are very graceful and enticing; but by the side of these audacious outfits, blond Fantine's canezou, with its transparencies, its indiscretion, and its reticence, concealing and displaying at one and the same time, seemed an alluring godsend of decency, and the famous Court of Love, presided over by the Vicomtesse de Cette, with the sea-green eyes, would, perhaps, have awarded the prize for coquetry to this canezou, in the contest for the prize of modesty. The most ingenious is, at times, the wisest. This does happen.
disguise - déguisement, déguiser
enticing - séduisante, aguicheur, (entice), appâter, attirer
transparencies - des transparents, transparence
reticence - réticence
alluring - séduisante, charme
godsend - une aubaine, don du ciel
decency - la décence, décence
Vicomtesse - vicomtesse
modesty - la modestie, modestie
most ingenious - le plus ingénieux
Brilliant of face, delicate of profile, with eyes of a deep blue, heavy lids, feet arched and small, wrists and ankles admirably formed, a white skin which, here and there allowed the azure branching of the veins to be seen, joy, a cheek that was young and fresh, the robust throat of the Juno of Ă†gina, a strong and supple nape of the neck, shoulders modelled as though by Coustou, with a voluptuous dimple in the middle, visible through the muslin; a gayety cooled by dreaminess; sculptural and exquisite"such was Fantine; and beneath these feminine adornments and these ribbons one could divine a statue, and in that statue a soul.
lids - couvercles, couvercle
veins - veines, veine
Juno - juno, Junon
supple - souple
nape - nuque
voluptuous - voluptueux
dimple - alvéole, fossette
dreaminess - le reve
sculptural - sculptural
adornments - des ornements, parure
Fantine was beautiful, without being too conscious of it. Those rare dreamers, mysterious priests of the beautiful who silently confront everything with perfection, would have caught a glimpse in this little working-woman, through the transparency of her Parisian grace, of the ancient sacred euphony. This daughter of the shadows was thoroughbred. She was beautiful in the two ways"style and rhythm.
dreamers - des reveurs, reveur, reveuse
silently - en silence, silencieusement
confront - confronter
euphony - euphonie
thoroughbred - Pur-sang
Style is the form of the ideal; rhythm is its movement.
We have said that Fantine was joy; she was also modesty.
To an observer who studied her attentively, that which breathed from her athwart all the intoxication of her age, the season, and her love affair, was an invincible expression of reserve and modesty. She remained a little astonished. This chaste astonishment is the shade of difference which separates Psyche from Venus.
invincible - invincible
chaste - chaste
Psyche - Psyché
Venus - venus, Vénus
Fantine had the long, white, fine fingers of the vestal virgin who stirs the ashes of the sacred fire with a golden pin.
vestal - vestale
stirs - s'agite, brasser, agiter
Although she would have refused nothing to TholomyĂ¨s, as we shall have more than ample opportunity to see, her face in repose was supremely virginal; a sort of serious and almost austere dignity suddenly overwhelmed her at certain times, and there was nothing more singular and disturbing than to see gayety become so suddenly extinct there, and meditation succeed to cheerfulness without any transition state. This sudden and sometimes severely accentuated gravity resembled the disdain of a goddess. Her brow, her nose, her chin, presented that equilibrium of outline which is quite distinct from equilibrium of proportion, and from which harmony of countenance results; in the very characteristic interval which separates the base of the nose from the upper lip, she had that imperceptible and charming fold, a mysterious sign of chastity, which makes Barberousse fall in love with a Diana found in the treasures of Iconia.
ample - ample
supremely - supremement
virginal - virginal
austere - austere, austere
extinct - éteinte, éteint, disparu
cheerfulness - gaieté
accentuated - accentué, accentuer
goddess - déesse
chin - menton
harmony - l'harmonie, harmonie
chastity - chasteté
Diana - diana, Diane
Love is a fault; so be it. Fantine was innocence floating high over fault.
CHAPTER IV"THOLOMYĂS IS SO MERRY THAT HE SINGS A SPANISH DITTY
Spanish - espagnol, castillan
ditty - chansonnette
That day was composed of dawn, from one end to the other. All nature seemed to be having a holiday, and to be laughing.
The flower-beds of Saint-Cloud perfumed the air; the breath of the Seine rustled the leaves vaguely; the branches gesticulated in the wind, bees pillaged the jasmines; a whole bohemia of butterflies swooped down upon the yarrow, the clover, and the sterile oats; in the august park of the King of France there was a pack of vagabonds, the birds.
gesticulated - gesticulé, gesticuler
pillaged - pillés, piller, pillage
jasmines - jasmins, jasmin
Bohemia - bohemia, Boheme
butterflies - des papillons, papillon, pansement papillon
swooped - en piqué, précipitation
yarrow - l'achillée millefeuille, mille feuille
clover - trefle, trefle
sterile - stérile
oats - l'avoine, avoine
vagabonds - vagabonds, vagabond, vagabonde
The four merry couples, mingled with the sun, the fields, the flowers, the trees, were resplendent.
And in this community of Paradise, talking, singing, running, dancing, chasing butterflies, plucking convolvulus, wetting their pink, open-work stockings in the tall grass, fresh, wild, without malice, all received, to some extent, the kisses of all, with the exception of Fantine, who was hedged about with that vague resistance of hers composed of dreaminess and wildness, and who was in love.
plucking - plumer, tirer, pincer, voler, abats-p, persévérance
convolvulus - convolvulus
open-work - (open-work) un travail ouvert
hedged - couvert, haie
wildness - la sauvagerie, sauvagerie
"You always have a queer look about you," said Favourite to her.
queer - pédé, étrange, bizarre
Such things are joys. These passages of happy couples are a profound appeal to life and nature, and make a caress and light spring forth from everything. There was once a fairy who created the fields and forests expressly for those in love,"in that eternal hedge-school of lovers, which is forever beginning anew, and which will last as long as there are hedges and scholars.
fairy - fée, tapette, folle
anew - a nouveau, a nouveau, derechef
Hence the popularity of spring among thinkers. The patrician and the knife-grinder, the duke and the peer, the limb of the law, the courtiers and townspeople, as they used to say in olden times, all are subjects of this fairy. They laugh and hunt, and there is in the air the brilliance of an apotheosis"what a transfiguration effected by love! Notaries'clerks are gods.
patrician - patricien, patrice
grinder - molaire, aiguisoir, meuleuse, moulin, broyeur
courtiers - courtisans, courtisan
townspeople - les habitants de la ville
apotheosis - l'apothéose, apothéose
notaries - les notaires, notaire, notairesse
And the little cries, the pursuits through the grass, the waists embraced on the fly, those jargons which are melodies, those adorations which burst forth in the manner of pronouncing a syllable, those cherries torn from one mouth by another,"all this blazes forth and takes its place among the celestial glories. Beautiful women waste themselves sweetly.
waists - taille, ceinture
jargons - jargons, jargon
melodies - mélodies, mélodie
adorations - adorations, adoration
syllable - syllabe
cherries - des cerises, cerise, qualifier
blazes - blazes, feu, embrasement
glories - gloires, gloire
sweetly - avec douceur, doucement
They think that this will never come to an end. Philosophers, poets, painters, observe these ecstasies and know not what to make of it, so greatly are they dazzled by it. The departure for Cythera!
exclaims Watteau; Lancret, the painter of plebeians, contemplates his bourgeois, who have flitted away into the azure sky; Diderot stretches out his arms to all these love idyls, and d'UrfĂ© mingles druids with them.
exclaims - s'exclame, exclamer
plebeians - plébéiens, plébéien
flitted - flotté, voltiger, voleter, papillonner, virevolter
druids - druides, druide
After breakfast the four couples went to what was then called the King's Square to see a newly arrived plant from India, whose name escapes our memory at this moment, and which, at that epoch, was attracting all Paris to Saint-Cloud.
It was an odd and charming shrub with a long stem, whose numerous branches, bristling and leafless and as fine as threads, were covered with a million tiny white rosettes; this gave the shrub the air of a head of hair studded with flowers. There was always an admiring crowd about it.
shrub - arbuste
rosettes - rosettes, rosette, chou
After viewing the shrub, TholomyĂ¨s exclaimed, "I offer you asses!" and having agreed upon a price with the owner of the asses, they returned by way of Vanvres and Issy. At Issy an incident occurred. The truly national park, at that time owned by Bourguin the contractor, happened to be wide open.
asses - des culs, (ass) des culs
contractor - contractant, entrepreneur, sous-traitant
They passed the gates, visited the manikin anchorite in his grotto, tried the mysterious little effects of the famous cabinet of mirrors, the wanton trap worthy of a satyr become a millionaire or of Turcaret metamorphosed into a Priapus. They had stoutly shaken the swing attached to the two chestnut-trees celebrated by the AbbĂ© de Bernis.
manikin - mannequin
anchorite - anachorete, anachorete
grotto - grotte
cabinet - armoire, cabinet
wanton - indiscipliné, lascif, lubrique, dévergondé, licencieux, gratuit
satyr - satyre
millionaire - millionnaire
metamorphosed - métamorphosé, métamorphiser
Priapus - priapus, Priape
stoutly - avec acharnement
swing - swing, osciller, se balancer, swinguer, pendre, changer
As he swung these beauties, one after the other, producing folds in the fluttering skirts which Greuze would have found to his taste, amid peals of laughter, the Toulousan TholomyĂ¨s, who was somewhat of a Spaniard, Toulouse being the cousin of Tolosa, sang, to a melancholy chant, the old ballad gallega, probably inspired by some lovely maid dashing in full flight upon a rope between two trees:"
swung - balancé, osciller, se balancer, balancer, swinguer
fluttering - flottement, faséyer, voleter, voltiger, battement
peals - peaux, carillon
Spaniard - Espagnol, Espagnole
ballad - ballade
"Soy de Badajoz,
soy - le soja, soja
Amor me llama,
llama - lama
Toda mi alma,
Mi - lieue
Es en mi ojos,
A tuas piernas.
"Badajoz is my home,
And Love is my name;
To my eyes in flame,
All my soul doth come;
For instruction meet
I receive at thy feet"
Fantine alone refused to swing.
"I don't like to have people put on airs like that," muttered Favourite, with a good deal of acrimony.
After leaving the asses there was a fresh delight; they crossed the Seine in a boat, and proceeding from Passy on foot they reached the barrier of l'Ă‰toile. They had been up since five o'clock that morning, as the reader will remember; but bah! there is no such thing as fatigue on Sunday, said Favourite; on Sunday fatigue does not work.
About three o'clock the four couples, frightened at their happiness, were sliding down the Russian mountains, a singular edifice which then occupied the heights of Beaujon, and whose undulating line was visible above the trees of the Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es.
Russian - russe, ruthénien, langue russe, langue de Tolstoi
edifice - l'édifice, édifice, école de pensée
undulating - ondulée, onduler, ondoyer
Champs - les champions, mâchonner
From time to time Favourite exclaimed:"
"And the surprise? I claim the surprise."
"Patience," replied TholomyĂ¨s.
CHAPTER V"AT BOMBARDA'S
The Russian mountains having been exhausted, they began to think about dinner; and the radiant party of eight, somewhat weary at last, became stranded in Bombarda's public house, a branch establishment which had been set up in the Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es by that famous restaurant-keeper, Bombarda, whose sign could then be seen in the Rue de Rivoli, near Delorme Alley.
stranded - en panne, etre échoué
branch establishment - succursale
A large but ugly room, with an alcove and a bed at the end (they had been obliged to put up with this accommodation in view of the Sunday crowd); two windows whence they could survey beyond the elms, the quay and the river; a magnificent August sunlight lightly touching the panes; two tables; upon one of them a triumphant mountain of bouquets, mingled with the hats of men and women; at the other the four couples seated round a merry confusion of platters, dishes, glasses, and bottles; jugs of beer mingled with flasks of wine; very little order on the table, some disorder beneath it;
elms - les ormes, orme
quay - quai
panes - vitres, vitre
triumphant - triomphant, triomphal
platters - plateaux, plat
jugs - cruches, cruche, carafe
flasks - flacons, flacon, flasque, fiole
"They made beneath the table
A noise, a clatter of the feet that was abominable,"
clatter - claquer, craquer, claquement, craquement, vacarme
This was the state which the shepherd idyl, begun at five o'clock in the morning, had reached at half-past four in the afternoon. The sun was setting; their appetites were satisfied.
idyl - idyl
appetites - appétits, appétit
The Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es, filled with sunshine and with people, were nothing but light and dust, the two things of which glory is composed. The horses of Marly, those neighing marbles, were prancing in a cloud of gold. Carriages were going and coming.
sunshine - soleil, lumiere du soleil
neighing - hennissement, hennir
marbles - des billes, marbre, bille, grillot, marbrer
prancing - se pavaner, (prance), se cabrer, parader
A squadron of magnificent body-guards, with their clarions at their head, were descending the Avenue de Neuilly; the white flag, showing faintly rosy in the setting sun, floated over the dome of the Tuileries. The Place de la Concorde, which had become the Place Louis XV. once more, was choked with happy promenaders.
faintly - faiblement
choked - étouffé, suffoquer, étouffer
Many wore the silver fleur-de-lys suspended from the white-watered ribbon, which had not yet wholly disappeared from button-holes in the year 1817. Here and there choruses of little girls threw to the winds, amid the passers-by, who formed into circles and applauded, the then celebrated Bourbon air, which was destined to strike the Hundred Days with lightning, and which had for its refrain:"
choruses - des refrains, chour antique, chour, chorale
Bourbon - le bourbon, bourbon
"Rendez-nous notre pĂ¨re de Gand,
Nous - nous
Rendez-nous notre pĂ¨re."
"Give us back our father from Ghent,
Give us back our father."
Groups of dwellers in the suburbs, in Sunday array, sometimes even decorated with the fleur-de-lys, like the bourgeois, scattered over the large square and the Marigny square, were playing at rings and revolving on the wooden horses; others were engaged in drinking; some journeyman printers had on paper caps; their laughter was audible. Everything was radiant.
array - gamme, kyrielle, ribambelle, éventail, tableau
rings - anneaux, anneau, bague
revolving - tournante, (revolve), retourner
journeyman - compagnon
printers - des imprimeurs, imprimeur, imprimeuse
It was a time of undisputed peace and profound royalist security; it was the epoch when a special and private report of Chief of Police AnglĂ¨s to the King, on the subject of the suburbs of Paris, terminated with these lines:"
undisputed - incontesté
"Taking all things into consideration, Sire, there is nothing to be feared from these people. They are as heedless and as indolent as cats. The populace is restless in the provinces; it is not in Paris. These are very pretty men, Sire. It would take all of two of them to make one of your grenadiers. There is nothing to be feared on the part of the populace of Paris the capital.
restless - inquiet, agité, checkimpatient
provinces - provinces, province, qualifier
Grenadiers - grenadiers, grenadier
It is remarkable that the stature of this population should have diminished in the last fifty years; and the populace of the suburbs is still more puny than at the time of the Revolution. It is not dangerous. In short, it is an amiable rabble."
diminished - diminué, réduire, rétrécir, rapetisser, diminuer, amincir
rabble - la populace, cohue
Prefects of the police do not deem it possible that a cat can transform itself into a lion; that does happen, however, and in that lies the miracle wrought by the populace of Paris. Moreover, the cat so despised by Count AnglĂ¨s possessed the esteem of the republics of old.
prefects - les préfets, préfet
deem - estimer, croire, considérer
despised - méprisé, mépriser, dédaigner
esteem - estime, respect, respecter
republics - les républiques, république
In their eyes it was liberty incarnate; and as though to serve as pendant to the Minerva Aptera of the PirĂ¦us, there stood on the public square in Corinth the colossal bronze figure of a cat. The ingenuous police of the Restoration beheld the populace of Paris in too "rose-colored" a light; it is not so much of "an amiable rabble" as it is thought.
incarnate - incarné
pendant - pendentif
Corinth - Corinthe
bronze - le bronze, bronze, airain, hâlé, bronzé, tanné (par le soleil)
ingenuous - ingénue
restoration - restauration
The Parisian is to the Frenchman what the Athenian was to the Greek: no one sleeps more soundly than he, no one is more frankly frivolous and lazy than he, no one can better assume the air of forgetfulness; let him not be trusted nevertheless; he is ready for any sort of cool deed; but when there is glory at the end of it, he is worthy of admiration in every sort of fury.
Athenian - Athénien, Athénienne
Greek - grec, grecque, grecques
soundly - fortement, solidement
frankly - franchement
frivolous - frivole
deed - acte, action, ouvre, exploit, haut fait, (dee)
Give him a pike, he will produce the 10th of August; give him a gun, you will have Austerlitz. He is Napoleon's stay and Danton's resource. Is it a question of country, he enlists; is it a question of liberty, he tears up the pavements. Beware! his hair filled with wrath, is epic; his blouse drapes itself like the folds of a chlamys. Take care!
enlists - s'engage, rejoindre, recruter
tears up - Les larmes aux yeux
pavements - les chaussées, revetement, chaussée, pavement
epic - épique, épopée
drapes - les rideaux, draper
chlamys - chlamys, chlamyde
he will make of the first Rue GrenĂ©tat which comes to hand Caudine Forks. When the hour strikes, this man of the faubourgs will grow in stature; this little man will arise, and his gaze will be terrible, and his breath will become a tempest, and there will issue forth from that slender chest enough wind to disarrange the folds of the Alps.
faubourgs - faubourgs, rench:
disarrange - désorganiser, déranger
It is, thanks to the suburban man of Paris, that the Revolution, mixed with arms, conquers Europe. He sings; it is his delight. Proportion his song to his nature, and you will see! As long as he has for refrain nothing but la Carmagnole, he only overthrows Louis XVI.; make him sing the Marseillaise, and he will free the world.
Suburban - banlieue, suburbain, banlieusard
conquers - conquiert, conquérir
Carmagnole - carmagnole
overthrows - renverse, renverser
marseillaise - marseillaise
This note jotted down on the margin of AnglĂ¨s'report, we will return to our four couples. The dinner, as we have said, was drawing to its close.
jotted down - noté
CHAPTER VI"A CHAPTER IN WHICH THEY ADORE EACH OTHER
Chat at table, the chat of love; it is as impossible to reproduce one as the other; the chat of love is a cloud; the chat at table is smoke.
reproduce - reproduire, se reproduire
Fameuil and Dahlia were humming. TholomyĂ¨s was drinking. ZĂ©phine was laughing, Fantine smiling, Listolier blowing a wooden trumpet which he had purchased at Saint-Cloud.
humming - fredonner, (hum), bourdonner, fourmiller
trumpet - trompette, trompettiste, barrissement, jouer de la trompette
Favourite gazed tenderly at Blachevelle and said:"
tenderly - tendrement
"Blachevelle, I adore you."
This called forth a question from Blachevelle:"
"What would you do, Favourite, if I were to cease to love you?"
cease - cesser, s'arreter, cesser de + 'infinitive'
"I!" cried Favourite. "Ah! Do not say that even in jest! If you were to cease to love me, I would spring after you, I would scratch you, I should rend you, I would throw you into the water, I would have you arrested."
rend - rend, rompre, déchirer
Blachevelle smiled with the voluptuous self-conceit of a man who is tickled in his self-love. Favourite resumed:"
conceit - la vanité, vanité, orgueil, concept
tickled - chatouillé, chatouiller
self-love - (self-love) l'amour de soi
"Yes, I would scream to the police! Ah! I should not restrain myself, not at all! Rabble!"
restrain - retenir, contraignez, contraignons, gouverner, contrains
Blachevelle threw himself back in his chair, in an ecstasy, and closed both eyes proudly.
proudly - fierement, fierement
Dahlia, as she ate, said in a low voice to Favourite, amid the uproar:"
"So you really idolize him deeply, that Blachevelle of yours?"
idolize - idolâtrer
"I? I detest him," replied Favourite in the same tone, seizing her fork again. "He is avaricious. I love the little fellow opposite me in my house. He is very nice, that young man; do you know him? One can see that he is an actor by profession. I love actors. As soon as he comes in, his mother says to him: 'Ah! mon Dieu! my peace of mind is gone. There he goes with his shouting.
detest - détester, mépriser
seizing - la saisie, emparant, (seize), saisir, emparer
by profession - par profession
But, my dear, you are splitting my head!'So he goes up to rat-ridden garrets, to black holes, as high as he can mount, and there he sets to singing, declaiming, how do I know what? so that he can be heard downstairs! He earns twenty sous a day at an attorney's by penning quibbles. He is the son of a former precentor of Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas. Ah! he is very nice.
garrets - garrets, galetas
declaiming - déclamation, (declaim), déclamer, scander, réciter
quibbles - des quolibets, argutie, chicaner, ergoter, chinoiser, chipoter
Precentor - precentor
pas - pas, (PA), papa, pépé
He idolizes me so, that one day when he saw me making batter for some pancakes, he said to me: 'Mamselle, make your gloves into fritters, and I will eat them.'It is only artists who can say such things as that. Ah! he is very nice. I am in a fair way to go out of my head over that little fellow. Never mind; I tell Blachevelle that I adore him"how I lie! Hey! How I do lie!"
idolizes - idolâtre, idolâtrer
batter - pâte a frire, battre
pancakes - des crepes, crepe, pancake
Mamselle - mamselle
fritters - beignets, beignet
Favourite paused, and then went on:"
"I am sad, you see, Dahlia. It has done nothing but rain all summer; the wind irritates me; the wind does not abate. Blachevelle is very stingy; there are hardly any green peas in the market; one does not know what to eat. I have the spleen, as the English say, butter is so dear! and then you see it is horrible, here we are dining in a room with a bed in it, and that disgusts me with life."
irritates - irrite, agacer (displeasure)
abate - réduire, alléger, amoindrir
stingy - avare
peas - pois, (pea) pois
spleen - la rate, rate, spleen
disgusts - dégoute, dégouter, dégout
CHAPTER VII"THE WISDOM OF THOLOMYĂS
In the meantime, while some sang, the rest talked together tumultuously all at once; it was no longer anything but noise. TholomyĂ¨s intervened.
tumultuously - tumultueusement
intervened - est-elle intervenue, intervenir
"Let us not talk at random nor too fast," he exclaimed. "Let us reflect, if we wish to be brilliant. Too much improvisation empties the mind in a stupid way. Running beer gathers no froth. No haste, gentlemen. Let us mingle majesty with the feast. Let us eat with meditation; let us Make haste slowly. Let us not hurry.
improvisation - l'improvisation, improvisation
froth - de l'écume, mousse, écume
mingle - se meler, mélanger
feast - la fete, délibéré
Make haste - Se hâter
Consider the springtime; if it makes haste, it is done for; that is to say, it gets frozen. Excess of zeal ruins peach-trees and apricot-trees. Excess of zeal kills the grace and the mirth of good dinners. No zeal, gentlemen! Grimod de la ReyniĂ¨re agrees with Talleyrand."
springtime - le printemps, printemps
zeal - le zele, zele, assiduité
peach - peche
apricot - abricot, abricotier
A hollow sound of rebellion rumbled through the group.
rumbled - grondé, borborygme (stomach), gargouillement (stomach)
"Leave us in peace, TholomyĂ¨s," said Blachevelle.
"Down with the tyrant!" said Fameuil.
"Bombarda, Bombance, and Bambochel!" cried Listolier.
"Sunday exists," resumed Fameuil.
"We are sober," added Listolier.
sober - sobre, cuver
"TholomyĂ¨s," remarked Blachevelle, "contemplate my calmness [mon calme]."
calmness - le calme, calme
calme - calme
"You are the Marquis of that," retorted TholomyĂ¨s.
This mediocre play upon words produced the effect of a stone in a pool. The Marquis de Montcalm was at that time a celebrated royalist. All the frogs held their peace.
"Friends," cried TholomyĂ¨s, with the accent of a man who had recovered his empire, "Come to yourselves. This pun which has fallen from the skies must not be received with too much stupor. Everything which falls in that way is not necessarily worthy of enthusiasm and respect. The pun is the dung of the mind which soars.
pun - jeu de mots, calembour
dung - bouse, excrément
soars - s'envole, planer, monter, s'élever, grimper en fleche
The jest falls, no matter where; and the mind after producing a piece of stupidity plunges into the azure depths. A whitish speck flattened against the rock does not prevent the condor from soaring aloft. Far be it from me to insult the pun! I honor it in proportion to its merits; nothing more.
stupidity - stupidité, idiotie, ânerie, sottise
flattened - aplatie, aplatir
condor - condor
soaring - l'envol, (soar), planer, monter, s'élever, grimper en fleche
aloft - en altitude, en haut, en l'air
insult - insultes, insulter, insulte
merits - mérites, mérite, mériter
All the most august, the most sublime, the most charming of humanity, and perhaps outside of humanity, have made puns. Jesus Christ made a pun on St. Peter, Moses on Isaac, Ă†schylus on Polynices, Cleopatra on Octavius.
most charming - le plus charmant
puns - jeux de mots, calembour
Isaac - isaac
Cleopatra - cléopâtre
And observe that Cleopatra's pun preceded the battle of Actium, and that had it not been for it, no one would have remembered the city of Toryne, a Greek name which signifies a ladle. That once conceded, I return to my exhortation. I repeat, brothers, I repeat, no zeal, no hubbub, no excess; even in witticisms, gayety, jollities, or plays on words. Listen to me.
Actium - Actium
conceded - concédé, concéder, céder, admettre, concéder que
hubbub - brouhaha, tohu-bohu
witticisms - des traits d'esprit, mot d'esprit, trait d'esprit
I have the prudence of AmphiaraĂĽs and the baldness of CĂ¦sar. There must be a limit, even to rebuses. Est modus in rebus.
baldness - la calvitie, calvitie
rebuses - des rébus, rébus
est - est, HNE, STA
modus - modus
"There must be a limit, even to dinners. You are fond of apple turnovers, ladies; do not indulge in them to excess. Even in the matter of turnovers, good sense and art are requisite. Gluttony chastises the glutton, Gula punit Gulax. Indigestion is charged by the good God with preaching morality to stomachs.
turnovers - les turnovers, chiffre d'affaires
requisite - nécessaire
gluttony - la gourmandise, gourmandise, gloutonnerie
chastises - châtie, chatier
indigestion - une indigestion, indigestion
morality - moralité
And remember this: each one of our passions, even love, has a stomach which must not be filled too full. In all things the word finis must be written in good season; self-control must be exercised when the matter becomes urgent; the bolt must be drawn on appetite; one must set one's own fantasy to the violin, and carry one's self to the post.
in good season - en bonne saison
self-control - (self-control) le contrôle de soi
appetite - l'appétit, appétit
violin - violon
The sage is the man who knows how, at a given moment, to effect his own arrest.
Have some confidence in me, for I have succeeded to some extent in my study of the law, according to the verdict of my examinations, for I know the difference between the question put and the question pending, for I have sustained a thesis in Latin upon the manner in which torture was administered at Rome at the epoch when Munatius Demens was quĂ¦stor of the Parricide; because I am going to be a doctor, apparently it does not follow that it is absolutely necessary that I should be an imbecile. I recommend you to moderation in your desires. It is true that my name is FĂ©lix TholomyĂ¨s; I speak well. Happy is he who, when the hour strikes, takes a heroic resolve, and abdicates like Sylla or Origenes."
verdict - verdict
parricide - parricide
imbecile - imbécile
moderation - modération
heroic - héroique, héroique
abdicates - abdique, abdiquer
Favourite listened with profound attention.
"FĂ©lix," said she, "what a pretty word! I love that name. It is Latin; it means prosper."
Prosper - prospérer
TholomyĂ¨s went on:"
"Quirites, gentlemen, caballeros, my friends. Do you wish never to feel the prick, to do without the nuptial bed, and to brave love? Nothing more simple.
quirites - quirites
prick - con, piquer, percer
nuptial bed - Lit de noces
Here is the receipt: lemonade, excessive exercise, hard labor; work yourself to death, drag blocks, sleep not, hold vigil, gorge yourself with nitrous beverages, and potions of nymphĂ¦as; drink emulsions of poppies and agnus castus; season this with a strict diet, starve yourself, and add thereto cold baths, girdles of herbs, the application of a plate of lead, lotions made with the subacetate of lead, and fomentations of oxycrat."
lemonade - citronnade, limonade
vigil - veille, veillée
gorge - gorge, ravin
nitrous - nitrous, nitreux, azoteux
beverages - boissons, boisson, breuvage
potions - potions, potion
emulsions - émulsions, émulsion
poppies - coquelicots, pavot
thereto - a cet effet
girdles - gaines, ceinture
lotions - lotions, lotion
subacetate - subacétate
fomentations - fomentations, fomentation
"I prefer a woman," said Listolier.
"Woman," resumed TholomyĂ¨s; "distrust her. Woe to him who yields himself to the unstable heart of woman! Woman is perfidious and disingenuous. She detests the serpent from professional jealousy. The serpent is the shop over the way."
unstable - instable
perfidious - perfide
disingenuous - malhonnete
detests - déteste, détester, mépriser
serpent - serpent
"TholomyĂ¨s!" cried Blachevelle, "you are drunk!"
"Pardieu," said TholomyĂ¨s.
"Then be gay," resumed Blachevelle.
"I agree to that," responded TholomyĂ¨s.
And, refilling his glass, he rose.
refilling - remplissage, recharge
"Glory to wine! Nunc te, Bacche, canam! Pardon me ladies; that is Spanish. And the proof of it, seĂ±oras, is this: like people, like cask. The arrobe of Castille contains sixteen litres; the cantaro of Alicante, twelve; the almude of the Canaries, twenty-five; the cuartin of the Balearic Isles, twenty-six; the boot of Tzar Peter, thirty.
cask - tonneau, fut, barrique
almude - almude
canaries - Les canaris, (canary), canari, jaune canari
Isles - isles, île
Tzar - tzar, tsar
Long live that Tzar who was great, and long live his boot, which was still greater! Ladies, take the advice of a friend; make a mistake in your neighbor if you see fit. The property of love is to err. A love affair is not made to crouch down and brutalize itself like an English serving-maid who has callouses on her knees from scrubbing. It is not made for that; it errs gayly, our gentle love.
crouch - s'accroupir
brutalize - brutaliser, abrutissez, abrutir, abrutissent, abrutis
callouses - des callosités, endurci, sans-cour, insensible
scrubbing - le récurage, frotter (a la brosse)
errs - erreurs, (se) tromper
It has been said, error is human; I say, error is love. Ladies, I idolize you all. O ZĂ©phine, O JosĂ©phine, face more than irregular, you would be charming were you not all askew. You have the air of a pretty face upon which some one has sat down by mistake. As for Favourite, O nymphs and muses!
askew - de travers, de guingois, de traviole, oblique
nymphs - nymphes, nymphe
muses - muses, muse
one day when Blachevelle was crossing the gutter in the Rue GuĂ©rin-Boisseau, he espied a beautiful girl with white stockings well drawn up, which displayed her legs. This prologue pleased him, and Blachevelle fell in love. The one he loved was Favourite. O Favourite, thou hast Ionian lips. There was a Greek painter named Euphorion, who was surnamed the painter of the lips.
gutter - gouttiere, rigole
prologue - prologue
That Greek alone would have been worthy to paint thy mouth. Listen! before thee, there was never a creature worthy of the name. Thou wert made to receive the apple like Venus, or to eat it like Eve; beauty begins with thee. I have just referred to Eve; it is thou who hast created her. Thou deservest the letters-patent of the beautiful woman.
deservest - méritent-ils
patent - brevet
O Favourite, I cease to address you as 'thou,'because I pass from poetry to prose. You were speaking of my name a little while ago. That touched me; but let us, whoever we may be, distrust names. They may delude us. I am called FĂ©lix, and I am not happy. Words are liars. Let us not blindly accept the indications which they afford us.
prose - prose
delude - illusionner, tricher, tromper
liars - menteurs, menteur, menteuse
blindly - aveuglément, a l’aveuglette
It would be a mistake to write to LiĂ¨ge 2 for corks, and to Pau for gloves. Miss Dahlia, were I in your place, I would call myself Rosa. A flower should smell sweet, and woman should have wit.
I say nothing of Fantine; she is a dreamer, a musing, thoughtful, pensive person; she is a phantom possessed of the form of a nymph and the modesty of a nun, who has strayed into the life of a grisette, but who takes refuge in illusions, and who sings and prays and gazes into the azure without very well knowing what she sees or what she is doing, and who, with her eyes fixed on heaven, wanders in a garden where there are more birds than are in existence. O Fantine, know this: I, TholomyĂ¨s, I am an illusion; but she does not even hear me, that blond maid of Chimeras! as for the rest, everything about her is freshness, suavity, youth, sweet morning light. O Fantine, maid worthy of being called Marguerite or Pearl, you are a woman from the beauteous Orient. Ladies, a second piece of advice: do not marry; marriage is a graft; it takes well or ill; avoid that risk. But bah! what am I saying? I am wasting my words. Girls are incurable on the subject of marriage, and all that we wise men can say will not prevent the waistcoat-makers and the shoe-stitchers from dreaming of husbands studded with diamonds. Well, so be it; but, my beauties, remember this, you eat too much sugar. You have but one fault, O woman, and that is nibbling sugar. O nibbling sex, your pretty little white teeth adore sugar. Now, heed me well, sugar is a salt. All salts are withering. Sugar is the most desiccating of all salts; it sucks the liquids of the blood through the veins; hence the coagulation, and then the solidification of the blood; hence tubercles in the lungs, hence death. That is why diabetes borders on consumption. Then, do not crunch sugar, and you will live. I turn to the men: gentlemen, make conquest, rob each other of your well-beloved without remorse. Chassez across. In love there are no friends. Everywhere where there is a pretty woman hostility is open. No quarter, war to the death! a pretty woman is a casus belli; a pretty woman is flagrant misdemeanor. All the invasions of history have been determined by petticoats. Woman is man's right. Romulus carried off the Sabines; William carried off the Saxon women; CĂ¦sar carried off the Roman women. The man who is not loved soars like a vulture over the mistresses of other men; and for my own part, to all those unfortunate men who are widowers, I throw the sublime proclamation of Bonaparte to the army of Italy: "Soldiers, you are in need of everything; the enemy has it."
musing - muser, songeur, pensif, pensée, (mus) muser
nymph - nymphe
nun - nonne
strayed - égaré, s'écarter de
grisette - grisette
chimeras - chimeres, chimere
freshness - fraîcheur
beauteous - belle
graft - greffe, greffez, greffent, greffons, greffer
waistcoat - gilet
nibbling - grignotage, (nibble) grignotage
desiccating - la dessiccation, secher, fr
sucks - suce, sucer, téter, etre chiant, etre nul
coagulation - coagulation
solidification - solidification
diabetes - le diabete, diabete
crunch - croquer, compiler, rench: t-needed r
conquest - conquete, conquete
remorse - des remords, remords, componction
hostility - l'hostilité, hostilité
flagrant - flagrant
misdemeanor - forfait, délit
petticoats - jupons, cotillon, jupon, combinaison
William - william, Guillaume
Saxon - saxon, Saxonne
mistresses - maîtresses, maîtresse, amante
widowers - veufs, veuf
"Take breath, TholomyĂ¨s," said Blachevelle.
At the same moment Blachevelle, supported by Listolier and Fameuil, struck up to a plaintive air, one of those studio songs composed of the first words which come to hand, rhymed richly and not at all, as destitute of sense as the gesture of the tree and the sound of the wind, which have their birth in the vapor of pipes, and are dissipated and take their flight with them.
rhymed - rimé, strophe, vers, rime, rimer, faire rimer, vers-p, fr
destitute - sans ressources
vapor - vapeur
dissipated - dissipée, dissiper
This is the couplet by which the group replied to TholomyĂ¨s'harangue:"
couplet - couplet
harangue - harangue, sermon, remontrance, sermonner
"The father turkey-cocks so grave
Some money to an agent gave,
That master good Clermont-Tonnerre
Might be made pope on Saint Johns'day fair.
But this good Clermont could not be
Made pope, because no priest was he;
And then their agent, whose wrath burned,
With all their money back returned."
This was not calculated to calm TholomyĂ¨s'improvisation; he emptied his glass, filled, refilled it, and began again:"
refilled - rechargé, recharge
"Down with wisdom! Forget all that I have said. Let us be neither prudes nor prudent men nor prudhommes. I propose a toast to mirth; be merry. Let us complete our course of law by folly and eating! Indigestion and the digest. Let Justinian be the male, and Feasting, the female! Joy in the depths! Live, O creation! The world is a great diamond. I am happy. The birds are astonishing.
prudes - prudes, bégueule, prude, sainte-nitouche
Prudent - prudent
feasting - festoyer, (feast) festoyer
What a festival everywhere! The nightingale is a gratuitous Elleviou. Summer, I salute thee! O Luxembourg! O Georgics of the Rue Madame, and of the AllĂ©e de l'Observatoire! O pensive infantry soldiers! O all those charming nurses who, while they guard the children, amuse themselves! The pampas of America would please me if I had not the arcades of the OdĂ©on.
Luxembourg - le luxembourg, Luxembourg
infantry - l'infanterie, infanterie, fantassins, régiment d'infanterie
amuse - amuser
My soul flits away into the virgin forests and to the savannas. All is beautiful. The flies buzz in the sun. The sun has sneezed out the humming bird. Embrace me, Fantine!"
flits - flits, voltiger, voleter, papillonner, virevolter
savannas - savanes, savane
buzz - buzz, coup de fil, bourdonner, raser, tondre
sneezed - éternué, éternuer, éternuement, atchoum
He made a mistake and embraced Favourite.
CHAPTER VIII"THE DEATH OF A HORSE
"The dinners are better at Ă‰don's than at Bombarda's," exclaimed ZĂ©phine.
"I prefer Bombarda to Ă‰don," declared Blachevelle. "There is more luxury. It is more Asiatic. Look at the room downstairs; there are mirrors [glaces] on the walls."
Asiatic - Asiatique
"I prefer them [glaces, ices] on my plate," said Favourite.
"Look at the knives. The handles are of silver at Bombarda's and of bone at Ă‰don's. Now, silver is more valuable than bone."
"Except for those who have a silver chin," observed TholomyĂ¨s.
He was looking at the dome of the Invalides, which was visible from Bombarda's windows.
A pause ensued.
"TholomyĂ¨s," exclaimed Fameuil, "Listolier and I were having a discussion just now."
"A discussion is a good thing," replied TholomyĂ¨s; "a quarrel is better."
"We were disputing about philosophy."
disputing - en litige, dispute, litige, discuter, argumenter
"Which do you prefer, Descartes or Spinoza?"
"DĂ©saugiers," said TholomyĂ¨s.
This decree pronounced, he took a drink, and went on:"
"I consent to live. All is not at an end on earth since we can still talk nonsense. For that I return thanks to the immortal gods. We lie. One lies, but one laughs. One affirms, but one doubts. The unexpected bursts forth from the syllogism. That is fine. There are still human beings here below who know how to open and close the surprise box of the paradox merrily.
consent - consentir, approuver, agréer, consentement, approbation
bursts - éclatements, éclater, faire éclater, rompre, briser, éclatement
syllogism - syllogisme
paradox - paradoxe, antinomie
This, ladies, which you are drinking with so tranquil an air is Madeira wine, you must know, from the vineyard of Coural das Freiras, which is three hundred and seventeen fathoms above the level of the sea. Attention while you drink! three hundred and seventeen fathoms!
Madeira - madere, Madere
vineyard - vignoble, vigne
fathoms - brasses, brasse
and Monsieur Bombarda, the magnificent eating-house keeper, gives you those three hundred and seventeen fathoms for four francs and fifty centimes."
eating-house - (eating-house) Un restaurant
centimes - centimes, centime, piece d'un centime
Again Fameuil interrupted him:"
"TholomyĂ¨s, your opinions fix the law. Who is your favorite author?"
Quin - quin
And TholomyĂ¨s continued:"
"Honor to Bombarda! He would equal Munophis of Elephanta if he could but get me an Indian dancing-girl, and Thygelion of ChĂ¦ronea if he could bring me a Greek courtesan; for, oh, ladies! there were Bombardas in Greece and in Egypt. Apuleius tells us of them. Alas! always the same, and nothing new; nothing more unpublished by the creator in creation!
Indian - indien, amérindien, Indienne
courtesan - courtisane
Greece - la grece, Grece
Nil sub sole novum, says Solomon; amor omnibus idem, says Virgil; and Carabine mounts with Carabin into the bark at Saint-Cloud, as Aspasia embarked with Pericles upon the fleet at Samos. One last word. Do you know what Aspasia was, ladies?
novum - novum
omnibus - omnibus
idem - idem
Virgil - virgile
Carabine - carabine
bark at - aboyer
embarked - embarqué, monter, embarquer
Fleet - la flotte, flotte
Although she lived at an epoch when women had, as yet, no soul, she was a soul; a soul of a rosy and purple hue, more ardent hued than fire, fresher than the dawn. Aspasia was a creature in whom two extremes of womanhood met; she was the goddess prostitute; Socrates plus Manon Lescaut. Aspasia was created in case a mistress should be needed for Prometheus."
ardent - ardent, gloss
hued - hued, teinte
womanhood - la féminité, féminité
prostitute - prostitué, prostituée, fille des rues, fille de joie
Socrates - socrate
plus - plus, positif, positive
Prometheus - prométhée
TholomyĂ¨s, once started, would have found some difficulty in stopping, had not a horse fallen down upon the quay just at that moment. The shock caused the cart and the orator to come to a dead halt. It was a Beauceron mare, old and thin, and one fit for the knacker, which was dragging a very heavy cart.
fallen down - Tomber
orator - orateur, oratrice
mare - jument
knacker - knacker, équarrisseur, crever, vanner
On arriving in front of Bombarda's, the worn-out, exhausted beast had refused to proceed any further. This incident attracted a crowd. Hardly had the cursing and indignant carter had time to utter with proper energy the sacramental word, MĂ˘tin (the jade), backed up with a pitiless cut of the whip, when the jade fell, never to rise again.
cursing - maudissant, (curs) maudissant
indignant - indigné
sacramental - sacramentelle, sacramental
jade - Jade
whip - fouet, whip, fouetter, flageller, défaire, battre
On hearing the hubbub made by the passers-by, TholomyĂ¨s'merry auditors turned their heads, and TholomyĂ¨s took advantage of the opportunity to bring his allocution to a close with this melancholy strophe:"
auditors - les auditeurs, auditeur, auditrice
strophe - strophe
"Elle Ă©tait de ce monde ou coucous et carrosses
ce - ce, EC (ere commune)
monde - monde
et - et
carrosses - carrosses
Ont le mĂŞme destin;
Et, rosse, elle a vĂ©cu ce que vivant les rosses,
L'espace d'un mĂ˘tin!" 3
"Poor horse!" sighed Fantine.
And Dahlia exclaimed:"
"There is Fantine on the point of crying over horses. How can one be such a pitiful fool as that!"
pitiful - pitoyable
At that moment Favourite, folding her arms and throwing her head back, looked resolutely at TholomyĂ¨s and said:"
"Come, now! the surprise?"
"Exactly. The moment has arrived," replied TholomyĂ¨s. "Gentlemen, the hour for giving these ladies a surprise has struck. Wait for us a moment, ladies."
"It begins with a kiss," said Blachevelle.
"On the brow," added TholomyĂ¨s.
Each gravely bestowed a kiss on his mistress's brow; then all four filed out through the door, with their fingers on their lips.
Favourite clapped her hands on their departure.
"It is beginning to be amusing already," said she.
"Don't be too long," murmured Fantine; "we are waiting for you."
CHAPTER IX"A MERRY END TO MIRTH
When the young girls were left alone, they leaned two by two on the window-sills, chatting, craning out their heads, and talking from one window to the other.
sills - les seuils, rebord
craning - grue
They saw the young men emerge from the CafĂ© Bombarda arm in arm. The latter turned round, made signs to them, smiled, and disappeared in that dusty Sunday throng which makes a weekly invasion into the Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es.
dusty - poussiéreux
"Don't be long!" cried Fantine.
"What are they going to bring us?" said ZĂ©phine.
"It will certainly be something pretty," said Dahlia.
"For my part," said Favourite, "I want it to be of gold."
Their attention was soon distracted by the movements on the shore of the lake, which they could see through the branches of the large trees, and which diverted them greatly.
diverted - détourné, dévier, divertir
It was the hour for the departure of the mail-coaches and diligences. Nearly all the stage-coaches for the south and west passed through the Champs-Ă‰lysĂ©es. The majority followed the quay and went through the Passy Barrier.
diligences - diligences, diligence
From moment to moment, some huge vehicle, painted yellow and black, heavily loaded, noisily harnessed, rendered shapeless by trunks, tarpaulins, and valises, full of heads which immediately disappeared, rushed through the crowd with all the sparks of a forge, with dust for smoke, and an air of fury, grinding the pavements, changing all the paving-stones into steels.
noisily - bruyamment
harnessed - harnaché, harnais, harnacher
trunks - troncs d'arbre, tronc, malle, coffre, trompe
tarpaulins - des bâches, bâche, prélart
valises - valises, sac de voyage
rushed through - précipitée
sparks - des étincelles, étincelle
grinding - broyage, (grind)
paving - le pavage, dallage, (pave), paver
This uproar delighted the young girls. Favourite exclaimed:"
"What a row! One would say that it was a pile of chains flying away."
Row - rangée, tintamarre, canoter, ramer
flying away - s'envoler
It chanced that one of these vehicles, which they could only see with difficulty through the thick elms, halted for a moment, then set out again at a gallop. This surprised Fantine.
gallop - galop, galoper
"That's odd!" said she. "I thought the diligence never stopped."
diligence - diligence
Favourite shrugged her shoulders.
"This Fantine is surprising. I am coming to take a look at her out of curiosity. She is dazzled by the simplest things. Suppose a case: I am a traveller; I say to the diligence, 'I will go on in advance; you shall pick me up on the quay as you pass.'The diligence passes, sees me, halts, and takes me. That is done every day. You do not know life, my dear."
halts - s'arrete, (s')arreter
In this manner a certain time elapsed. All at once Favourite made a movement, like a person who is just waking up.
"Well," said she, "and the surprise?"
"Yes, by the way," joined in Dahlia, "the famous surprise?"
"They are a very long time about it!" said Fantine.
As Fantine concluded this sigh, the waiter who had served them at dinner entered. He held in his hand something which resembled a letter.
sigh - soupir
"What is that?" demanded Favourite.
The waiter replied:"
"It is a paper that those gentlemen left for these ladies."
"Why did you not bring it at once?"
"Because," said the waiter, "the gentlemen ordered me not to deliver it to the ladies for an hour."
Favourite snatched the paper from the waiter's hand. It was, in fact, a letter.
snatched - arraché, empoigner, happer, saisir, arracher, enlever
"Stop!" said she; "there is no address; but this is what is written on it""
"THIS IS THE SURPRISE."
She tore the letter open hastily, opened it, and read [she knew how to read]:"
"You must know that we have parents. Parents"you do not know much about such things. They are called fathers and mothers by the Civil Code, which is puerile and honest. Now, these parents groan, these old folks implore us, these good men and these good women call us prodigal sons; they desire our return, and offer to kill calves for us. Being virtuous, we obey them.
Civil Code - Code civil
groan - gémir, râle, râlement, gémissement, grognement, grondement
prodigal - prodigue
calves - veaux, veler, mettre bas, aider le velage
At the hour when you read this, five fiery horses will be bearing us to our papas and mammas. We are pulling up our stakes, as Bossuet says. We are going; we are gone. We flee in the arms of Laffitte and on the wings of Caillard. The Toulouse diligence tears us from the abyss, and the abyss is you, O our little beauties!
fiery - ardente, ardent, brulant, flamboyant, enflammé
papas - papas, papa
mammas - mammas, maman
stakes - enjeux, pieu, pal, tuteur, jalon, piquet, poteau
We return to society, to duty, to respectability, at full trot, at the rate of three leagues an hour. It is necessary for the good of the country that we should be, like the rest of the world, prefects, fathers of families, rural police, and councillors of state. Venerate us. We are sacrificing ourselves. Mourn for us in haste, and replace us with speed.
respectability - respectabilité
trot - trot, trotter
councillors - conseillers, conseiller, conseillere
venerate - vénérer
sacrificing - sacrifier, sacrifice, offrande
If this letter lacerates you, do the same by it. Adieu.
lacerates - lacere, lacérer
adieu - adieu, farewell
"For the space of nearly two years we have made you happy. We bear you no grudge for that.
grudge - rancune
"Postscriptum. The dinner is paid for."
postscriptum - Post-scriptum
The four young women looked at each other.
Favourite was the first to break the silence.
"Well!" she exclaimed, "it's a very pretty farce, all the same."
"It is very droll," said ZĂ©phine.
droll - drolatique, fantaisiste
"That must have been Blachevelle's idea," resumed Favourite. "It makes me in love with him. No sooner is he gone than he is loved. This is an adventure, indeed."
"No," said Dahlia; "it was one of TholomyĂ¨s'ideas. That is evident.
"In that case," retorted Favourite, "death to Blachevelle, and long live TholomyĂ¨s!"
"Long live TholomyĂ¨s!" exclaimed Dahlia and ZĂ©phine.
And they burst out laughing.
Fantine laughed with the rest.
An hour later, when she had returned to her room, she wept. It was her first love affair, as we have said; she had given herself to this TholomyĂ¨s as to a husband, and the poor girl had a child.
BOOK FOURTH"TO CONFIDE IS SOMETIMES TO DELIVER INTO A PERSON'S POWER
confide - se confier, faire confiance, confier
CHAPTER I"ONE MOTHER MEETS ANOTHER MOTHER
There was, at Montfermeil, near Paris, during the first quarter of this century, a sort of cook-shop which no longer exists. This cook-shop was kept by some people named ThĂ©nardier, husband and wife. It was situated in Boulanger Lane. Over the door there was a board nailed flat against the wall.
Upon this board was painted something which resembled a man carrying another man on his back, the latter wearing the big gilt epaulettes of a general, with large silver stars; red spots represented blood; the rest of the picture consisted of smoke, and probably represented a battle. Below ran this inscription: AT THE SIGN OF SERGEANT OF WATERLOO (Au Sargent de Waterloo).
epaulettes - épaulettes, épaulette
inscription - inscription, légende, dédicace
Nothing is more common than a cart or a truck at the door of a hostelry. Nevertheless, the vehicle, or, to speak more accurately, the fragment of a vehicle, which encumbered the street in front of the cook-shop of the Sergeant of Waterloo, one evening in the spring of 1818, would certainly have attracted, by its mass, the attention of any painter who had passed that way.
It was the fore-carriage of one of those trucks which are used in wooded tracts of country, and which serve to transport thick planks and the trunks of trees. This fore-carriage was composed of a massive iron axle-tree with a pivot, into which was fitted a heavy shaft, and which was supported by two huge wheels. The whole thing was compact, overwhelming, and misshapen.
tracts - tracts, étendue
planks - des planches, planche, gainage
axle - l'essieu, axe, essieu
pivot - pivot
shaft - arbre, hampe, rachis, cage, entuber
compact - compact, compacter
overwhelming - écrasante, abreuver, accabler, envahir
It seemed like the gun-carriage of an enormous cannon. The ruts of the road had bestowed on the wheels, the fellies, the hub, the axle, and the shaft, a layer of mud, a hideous yellowish daubing hue, tolerably like that with which people are fond of ornamenting cathedrals. The wood was disappearing under mud, and the iron beneath rust.
gun-carriage - (gun-carriage) Affut (artillerie)
ruts - des ornieres, orniere
hub - hub, moyeu, carrefour, pôle, concentrateur, commutateur, cale
yellowish - jaunâtre
daubing - daubing, (daub), torchis, croute, barbouiller
hue - teinte, nuance
cathedrals - les cathédrales, cathédrale
rust - rouille, se rouiller
Under the axle-tree hung, like drapery, a huge chain, worthy of some Goliath of a convict. This chain suggested, not the beams, which it was its office to transport, but the mastodons and mammoths which it might have served to harness; it had the air of the galleys, but of cyclopean and superhuman galleys, and it seemed to have been detached from some monster.
drapery - draperie, rideau
Goliath - goliath
Mammoths - les mammouths, mammouth, éléphantesque
harness - harnais, harnacher
Homer would have bound Polyphemus with it, and Shakespeare, Caliban.
Shakespeare - shakespeare
Why was that fore-carriage of a truck in that place in the street? In the first place, to encumber the street; next, in order that it might finish the process of rusting. There is a throng of institutions in the old social order, which one comes across in this fashion as one walks about outdoors, and which have no other reasons for existence than the above.
rusting - rouille, (rust) rouille
The centre of the chain swung very near the ground in the middle, and in the loop, as in the rope of a swing, there were seated and grouped, on that particular evening, in exquisite interlacement, two little girls; one about two years and a half old, the other, eighteen months; the younger in the arms of the other. A handkerchief, cleverly knotted about them, prevented their falling out.
loop - boucle, circuit fermé
interlacement - interlacement
cleverly - intelligemment
A mother had caught sight of that frightful chain, and had said, "Come! there's a plaything for my children."
The two children, who were dressed prettily and with some elegance, were radiant with pleasure; one would have said that they were two roses amid old iron; their eyes were a triumph; their fresh cheeks were full of laughter. One had chestnut hair; the other, brown.
prettily - joliment
roses - des roses, Rose
triumph - triomphe, triomphal
Their innocent faces were two delighted surprises; a blossoming shrub which grew near wafted to the passers-by perfumes which seemed to emanate from them; the child of eighteen months displayed her pretty little bare stomach with the chaste indecency of childhood.
blossoming - l'épanouissement, fleurissant, (blossom), fleur, floraison
emanate - émaner
Above and around these two delicate heads, all made of happiness and steeped in light, the gigantic fore-carriage, black with rust, almost terrible, all entangled in curves and wild angles, rose in a vault, like the entrance of a cavern.
entangled - enchevetrés, intriquer, empetrer, tortiller
A few paces apart, crouching down upon the threshold of the hostelry, the mother, not a very prepossessing woman, by the way, though touching at that moment, was swinging the two children by means of a long cord, watching them carefully, for fear of accidents, with that animal and celestial expression which is peculiar to maternity.
swinging - l'échangisme, pivotant, (swing), osciller, se balancer
At every backward and forward swing the hideous links emitted a strident sound, which resembled a cry of rage; the little girls were in ecstasies; the setting sun mingled in this joy, and nothing could be more charming than this caprice of chance which had made of a chain of Titans the swing of cherubim.
backward - a l'envers, arriéré, en arriere, a reculons
strident - strident, criard
more charming - plus charmant
caprice - caprice
Titans - les titans, titan
As she rocked her little ones, the mother hummed in a discordant voice a romance then celebrated:"
hummed - fredonné, fredonner, bourdonner, fourmiller
discordant - discordant
"It must be, said a warrior."
warrior - guerrier, guerriere
Her song, and the contemplation of her daughters, prevented her hearing and seeing what was going on in the street.
In the meantime, some one had approached her, as she was beginning the first couplet of the romance, and suddenly she heard a voice saying very near her ear:"
"You have two beautiful children there, Madame."
"To the fair and tender Imogene""
replied the mother, continuing her romance; then she turned her head.
A woman stood before her, a few paces distant. This woman also had a child, which she carried in her arms.
She was carrying, in addition, a large carpet-bag, which seemed very heavy.
This woman's child was one of the most divine creatures that it is possible to behold. It was a girl, two or three years of age. She could have entered into competition with the two other little ones, so far as the coquetry of her dress was concerned; she wore a cap of fine linen, ribbons on her bodice, and Valenciennes lace on her cap.
bodice - corsage
The folds of her skirt were raised so as to permit a view of her white, firm, and dimpled leg. She was admirably rosy and healthy. The little beauty inspired a desire to take a bite from the apples of her cheeks. Of her eyes nothing could be known, except that they must be very large, and that they had magnificent lashes. She was asleep.
dimpled - a fossettes, alvéole, fossette
She slept with that slumber of absolute confidence peculiar to her age. The arms of mothers are made of tenderness; in them children sleep profoundly.
As for the mother, her appearance was sad and poverty-stricken. She was dressed like a working-woman who is inclined to turn into a peasant again. She was young. Was she handsome? Perhaps; but in that attire it was not apparent. Her hair, a golden lock of which had escaped, seemed very thick, but was severely concealed beneath an ugly, tight, close, nun-like cap, tied under the chin.
A smile displays beautiful teeth when one has them; but she did not smile. Her eyes did not seem to have been dry for a very long time. She was pale; she had a very weary and rather sickly appearance. She gazed upon her daughter asleep in her arms with the air peculiar to a mother who has nursed her own child.
sickly - malade, maladif, souffreteux, chétif, valétudinaire, douçâtre
A large blue handkerchief, such as the Invalides use, was folded into a fichu, and concealed her figure clumsily. Her hands were sunburnt and all dotted with freckles, her forefinger was hardened and lacerated with the needle; she wore a cloak of coarse brown woollen stuff, a linen gown, and coarse shoes. It was Fantine.
clumsily - maladroitement
freckles - des taches de rousseur, tache de rousseur
lacerated - lacéré, lacérer
It was Fantine, but difficult to recognize. Nevertheless, on scrutinizing her attentively, it was evident that she still retained her beauty. A melancholy fold, which resembled the beginning of irony, wrinkled her right cheek.
As for her toilette, that aerial toilette of muslin and ribbons, which seemed made of mirth, of folly, and of music, full of bells, and perfumed with lilacs had vanished like that beautiful and dazzling hoar-frost which is mistaken for diamonds in the sunlight; it melts and leaves the branch quite black.
toilette - toilette
aerial - aérien, antenne
lilacs - les lilas, lilas
hoar - le chaume, blanc-gris
frost - givre, gel
is mistaken - est erronée
Ten months had elapsed since the "pretty farce."
What had taken place during those ten months? It can be divined.
After abandonment, straightened circumstances. Fantine had immediately lost sight of Favourite, ZĂ©phine and Dahlia; the bond once broken on the side of the men, it was loosed between the women; they would have been greatly astonished had any one told them a fortnight later, that they had been friends; there no longer existed any reason for such a thing. Fantine had remained alone.
The father of her child gone,"alas! such ruptures are irrevocable,"she found herself absolutely isolated, minus the habit of work and plus the taste for pleasure. Drawn away by her liaison with TholomyĂ¨s to disdain the pretty trade which she knew, she had neglected to keep her market open; it was now closed to her. She had no resource.
ruptures - ruptures, rupture
irrevocable - irrévocable
minus - moins, strictement négatif, strictement négative
liaison - liaison
Fantine barely knew how to read, and did not know how to write; in her childhood she had only been taught to sign her name; she had a public letter-writer indite an epistle to TholomyĂ¨s, then a second, then a third. TholomyĂ¨s replied to none of them. Fantine heard the gossips say, as they looked at her child: "Who takes those children seriously!
indite - indite
gossips - des ragots, commere, commérage, ragot, cancan, qu'en-dira-t-on
One only shrugs one's shoulders over such children!" Then she thought of TholomyĂ¨s, who had shrugged his shoulders over his child, and who did not take that innocent being seriously; and her heart grew gloomy toward that man. But what was she to do? She no longer knew to whom to apply. She had committed a fault, but the foundation of her nature, as will be remembered, was modesty and virtue.
shrugs - hausser les épaules, haussement d'épaules
She was vaguely conscious that she was on the verge of falling into distress, and of gliding into a worse state. Courage was necessary; she possessed it, and held herself firm. The idea of returning to her native town of M. sur M. occurred to her. There, some one might possibly know her and give her work; yes, but it would be necessary to conceal her fault.
gliding - le vol a voile, vol a voile, (glide), glisser, planer
native town - ville natale
In a confused way she perceived the necessity of a separation which would be more painful than the first one. Her heart contracted, but she took her resolution. Fantine, as we shall see, had the fierce bravery of life.
separation - la séparation, séparation
She had already valiantly renounced finery, had dressed herself in linen, and had put all her silks, all her ornaments, all her ribbons, and all her laces on her daughter, the only vanity which was left to her, and a holy one it was. She sold all that she had, which produced for her two hundred francs; her little debts paid, she had only about eighty francs left.
valiantly - vaillamment
renounced - renoncé, renoncer a
finery - parure
laces - lacets, lacet
At the age of twenty-two, on a beautiful spring morning, she quitted Paris, bearing her child on her back. Any one who had seen these two pass would have had pity on them. This woman had, in all the world, nothing but her child, and the child had, in all the world, no one but this woman. Fantine had nursed her child, and this had tired her chest, and she coughed a little.
coughed - a toussé, tousser, toux
We shall have no further occasion to speak of M. FĂ©lix TholomyĂ¨s. Let us confine ourselves to saying, that, twenty years later, under King Louis Philippe, he was a great provincial lawyer, wealthy and influential, a wise elector, and a very severe juryman; he was still a man of pleasure.
provincial - provinciale, provincial
influential - influent
elector - électeur
Juryman - jury
Towards the middle of the day, after having, from time to time, for the sake of resting herself, travelled, for three or four sous a league, in what was then known as the Petites Voitures des Environs de Paris, the "little suburban coach service," Fantine found herself at Montfermeil, in the alley Boulanger.
petites - petites, menue
As she passed the ThĂ©nardier hostelry, the two little girls, blissful in the monster swing, had dazzled her in a manner, and she had halted in front of that vision of joy.
blissful - bienheureux
Charms exist. These two little girls were a charm to this mother.
She gazed at them in much emotion. The presence of angels is an announcement of Paradise. She thought that, above this inn, she beheld the mysterious HERE of Providence. These two little creatures were evidently happy.
She gazed at them, she admired them, in such emotion that at the moment when their mother was recovering her breath between two couplets of her song, she could not refrain from addressing to her the remark which we have just read:"
couplets - couplets, couplet
"You have two pretty children, Madame."
The most ferocious creatures are disarmed by caresses bestowed on their young.
disarmed - désarmé, désarmer
caresses - caresses, caresser
The mother raised her head and thanked her, and bade the wayfarer sit down on the bench at the door, she herself being seated on the threshold. The two women began to chat.
bade - Bade
"My name is Madame ThĂ©nardier," said the mother of the two little girls. "We keep this inn."
Then, her mind still running on her romance, she resumed humming between her teeth:"
"It must be so; I am a knight,
Knight - chevalier
And I am off to Palestine."
Palestine - la palestine, Palestine
This Madame ThĂ©nardier was a sandy-complexioned woman, thin and angular"the type of the soldier's wife in all its unpleasantness; and what was odd, with a languishing air, which she owed to her perusal of romances. She was a simpering, but masculine creature. Old romances produce that effect when rubbed against the imagination of cook-shop woman. She was still young; she was barely thirty.
complexioned - teint, complexion
angular - angulaire
languishing - en souffrance, alanguissant, (languish), dépérir
perusal - la lecture, lecture
simpering - simuler, minauder, minauderie, sourire
masculine - masculin
If this crouching woman had stood upright, her lofty stature and her frame of a perambulating colossus suitable for fairs, might have frightened the traveller at the outset, troubled her confidence, and disturbed what caused what we have to relate to vanish. A person who is seated instead of standing erect"destinies hang upon such a thing as that.
colossus - colosse
The traveller told her story, with slight modifications.
modifications - modifications, modification
That she was a working-woman; that her husband was dead; that her work in Paris had failed her, and that she was on her way to seek it elsewhere, in her own native parts; that she had left Paris that morning on foot; that, as she was carrying her child, and felt fatigued, she had got into the Villemomble coach when she met it; that from Villemomble she had come to Montfermeil on foot; that the little one had walked a little, but not much, because she was so young, and that she had been obliged to take her up, and the jewel had fallen asleep.
jewel - joyau, bijou, pierre d'horlogerie, rubis
At this word she bestowed on her daughter a passionate kiss, which woke her. The child opened her eyes, great blue eyes like her mother's, and looked at"what? Nothing; with that serious and sometimes severe air of little children, which is a mystery of their luminous innocence in the presence of our twilight of virtue.
One would say that they feel themselves to be angels, and that they know us to be men. Then the child began to laugh; and although the mother held fast to her, she slipped to the ground with the unconquerable energy of a little being which wished to run. All at once she caught sight of the two others in the swing, stopped short, and put out her tongue, in sign of admiration.
unconquerable - invincible
Mother ThĂ©nardier released her daughters, made them descend from the swing, and said:"
descend from - descendre de
"Now amuse yourselves, all three of you."
Children become acquainted quickly at that age, and at the expiration of a minute the little ThĂ©nardiers were playing with the newcomer at making holes in the ground, which was an immense pleasure.
The newcomer was very gay; the goodness of the mother is written in the gayety of the child; she had seized a scrap of wood which served her for a shovel, and energetically dug a cavity big enough for a fly. The grave-digger's business becomes a subject for laughter when performed by a child.
shovel - pelle, beche, peller
energetically - énergétiquement
cavity - cavité, carie
The two women pursued their chat.
"What is your little one's name?"
For Cosette, read Euphrasie. The child's name was Euphrasie. But out of Euphrasie the mother had made Cosette by that sweet and graceful instinct of mothers and of the populace which changes Josepha into Pepita, and FranĂ§oise into Sillette. It is a sort of derivative which disarranges and disconcerts the whole science of etymologists.
derivative - dérivé, dérivée
disarranges - se désagrege, déranger
disconcerts - déconcerter, fr
etymologists - les étymologistes, étymologiste
We have known a grandmother who succeeded in turning Theodore into Gnon.
"How old is she?"
"She is going on three."
"That is the age of my eldest."
In the meantime, the three little girls were grouped in an attitude of profound anxiety and blissfulness; an event had happened; a big worm had emerged from the ground, and they were afraid; and they were in ecstasies over it.
blissfulness - la béatitude
Their radiant brows touched each other; one would have said that there were three heads in one aureole.
brows - les sourcils, (brow), andouiller d'oil, maître andouiller
"How easily children get acquainted at once!" exclaimed Mother ThĂ©nardier; "one would swear that they were three sisters!"
This remark was probably the spark which the other mother had been waiting for. She seized the ThĂ©nardier's hand, looked at her fixedly, and said:"
fixedly - fixement
"Will you keep my child for me?"
The ThĂ©nardier made one of those movements of surprise which signify neither assent nor refusal.
signify - signifier
assent - l'assentiment, assentir, assentiment
Cosette's mother continued:"
"You see, I cannot take my daughter to the country. My work will not permit it. With a child one can find no situation. People are ridiculous in the country. It was the good God who caused me to pass your inn. When I caught sight of your little ones, so pretty, so clean, and so happy, it overwhelmed me. I said: 'Here is a good mother. That is just the thing; that will make three sisters.
'And then, it will not be long before I return. Will you keep my child for me?"
"I must see about it," replied the ThĂ©nardier.
"I will give you six francs a month."
Here a man's voice called from the depths of the cook-shop:"
"Not for less than seven francs. And six months paid in advance."
"Six times seven makes forty-two," said the ThĂ©nardier.
"I will give it," said the mother.
"And fifteen francs in addition for preliminary expenses," added the man's voice.
preliminary - préliminaire
"Total, fifty-seven francs," said Madame ThĂ©nardier. And she hummed vaguely, with these figures:"
"It must be, said a warrior."
"I will pay it," said the mother. "I have eighty francs. I shall have enough left to reach the country, by travelling on foot. I shall earn money there, and as soon as I have a little I will return for my darling."
darling - chéri, chérie
The man's voice resumed:"
"The little one has an outfit?"
"That is my husband," said the ThĂ©nardier.
"Of course she has an outfit, the poor treasure."I understood perfectly that it was your husband."And a beautiful outfit, too! a senseless outfit, everything by the dozen, and silk gowns like a lady. It is here, in my carpet-bag."
"You must hand it over," struck in the man's voice again.
"Of course I shall give it to you," said the mother. "It would be very queer if I were to leave my daughter quite naked!"
The master's face appeared.
"That's good," said he.
The bargain was concluded. The mother passed the night at the inn, gave up her money and left her child, fastened her carpet-bag once more, now reduced in volume by the removal of the outfit, and light henceforth and set out on the following morning, intending to return soon. People arrange such departures tranquilly; but they are despairs!
despairs - désespere, désespérer, désespoir
A neighbor of the ThĂ©nardiers met this mother as she was setting out, and came back with the remark:"
"I have just seen a woman crying in the street so that it was enough to rend your heart."
When Cosette's mother had taken her departure, the man said to the woman:"
"That will serve to pay my note for one hundred and ten francs which falls due to-morrow; I lacked fifty francs. Do you know that I should have had a bailiff and a protest after me? You played the mouse-trap nicely with your young ones."
nicely - joliment, agréablement
"Without suspecting it," said the woman.
CHAPTER II"FIRST SKETCH OF TWO UNPREPOSSESSING FIGURES
The mouse which had been caught was a pitiful specimen; but the cat rejoices even over a lean mouse.
specimen - spécimen, exemple
rejoices - se réjouit, réjouir
Who were these ThĂ©nardiers?
Let us say a word or two of them now. We will complete the sketch later on.
These beings belonged to that bastard class composed of coarse people who have been successful, and of intelligent people who have descended in the scale, which is between the class called "middle" and the class denominated as "inferior," and which combines some of the defects of the second with nearly all the vices of the first, without possessing the generous impulse of the workingman nor the honest order of the bourgeois.
bastard - bâtard, bâtarde, croisé, fils de pute, salopard
inferior - inférieur
defects - défauts, défaut, déserter, passer a, rench: -neededr
workingman - travailleur
They were of those dwarfed natures which, if a dull fire chances to warm them up, easily become monstrous. There was in the woman a substratum of the brute, and in the man the material for a blackguard. Both were susceptible, in the highest degree, of the sort of hideous progress which is accomplished in the direction of evil.
dwarfed - nain, naine
blackguard - garde noire
susceptible - sensible, susceptible
There exist crab-like souls which are continually retreating towards the darkness, retrograding in life rather than advancing, employing experience to augment their deformity, growing incessantly worse, and becoming more and more impregnated with an ever-augmenting blackness. This man and woman possessed such souls.
Crab - le crabe, crabe
impregnated - fécondée, rendre enceinte, mettre enceinte, enceinter
augmenting - augmenter, accroître
blackness - la noirceur, noirceur
ThĂ©nardier, in particular, was troublesome for a physiognomist. One can only look at some men to distrust them; for one feels that they are dark in both directions. They are uneasy in the rear and threatening in front. There is something of the unknown about them. One can no more answer for what they have done than for what they will do. The shadow which they bear in their glance denounces them.
troublesome - genants
physiognomist - physionomiste, physiognomoniste
rear - arriere, verso, élever
denounces - dénonce, dénoncer, qualifier
From merely hearing them utter a word or seeing them make a gesture, one obtains a glimpse of sombre secrets in their past and of sombre mysteries in their future.
This ThĂ©nardier, if he himself was to be believed, had been a soldier"a sergeant, he said. He had probably been through the campaign of 1815, and had even conducted himself with tolerable valor, it would seem. We shall see later on how much truth there was in this. The sign of his hostelry was in allusion to one of his feats of arms.
valor - valeur, bravoure
feats - des exploits, exploit
He had painted it himself; for he knew how to do a little of everything, and badly.
It was at the epoch when the ancient classical romance which, after having been ClĂ©lie, was no longer anything but LodoĂŻska, still noble, but ever more and more vulgar, having fallen from Mademoiselle de ScudĂ©ri to Madame Bournon-Malarme, and from Madame de Lafayette to Madame BarthĂ©lemy-Hadot, was setting the loving hearts of the portresses of Paris aflame, and even ravaging the suburbs to some extent. Madame ThĂ©nardier was just intelligent enough to read this sort of books. She lived on them. In them she drowned what brains she possessed. This had given her, when very young, and even a little later, a sort of pensive attitude towards her husband, a scamp of a certain depth, a ruffian lettered to the extent of the grammar, coarse and fine at one and the same time, but, so far as sentimentalism was concerned, given to the perusal of Pigault-Lebrun, and "in what concerns the sex," as he said in his jargon"a downright, unmitigated lout. His wife was twelve or fifteen years younger than he was. Later on, when her hair, arranged in a romantically drooping fashion, began to grow gray, when the MegĂ¦ra began to be developed from the Pamela, the female ThĂ©nardier was nothing but a coarse, vicious woman, who had dabbled in stupid romances. Now, one cannot read nonsense with impunity. The result was that her eldest daughter was named Ă‰ponine; as for the younger, the poor little thing came near being called Gulnare; I know not to what diversion, effected by a romance of Ducray-Dumenil, she owed the fact that she merely bore the name of Azelma.
more vulgar - plus vulgaire
aflame - en feu
ravaging - ravageant, ravager
drowned - noyé, noyer
scamp - scamp
ruffian - ruffian, rufian, voyou, brute
Grammar - grammaire
sentimentalism - le sentimentalisme
jargon - jargon
downright - franchement, vraiment, carrément
unmitigated - non atténué
lout - lout, lourdaud/-aude, brute
romantically - romantiquement
vicious - rench: t-needed r, vicieux
dabbled - a tâté du terrain, barboter
impunity - l'impunité, impunité
diversion - diversion, déviation
However, we will remark by the way, everything was not ridiculous and superficial in that curious epoch to which we are alluding, and which may be designated as the anarchy of baptismal names. By the side of this romantic element which we have just indicated there is the social symptom.
superficial - superficielle, superficiel
anarchy - l'anarchie, anarchie
It is not rare for the neatherd's boy nowadays to bear the name of Arthur, Alfred, or Alphonse, and for the vicomte"if there are still any vicomtes"to be called Thomas, Pierre, or Jacques. This displacement, which places the "elegant" name on the plebeian and the rustic name on the aristocrat, is nothing else than an eddy of equality.
neatherd - neatherd
vicomtes - vicomtes, (vicomte) vicomtes
displacement - déplacement
plebeian - plébéien
aristocrat - aristocrate
equality - l'égalité, égalité
The irresistible penetration of the new inspiration is there as everywhere else. beneath this apparent discord there is a great and a profound thing,"the French Revolution.
irresistible - irrésistible
penetration - pénétration
inspiration - l'inspiration, inspiration
beneath this - en dessous de ça
discord - discorde, désaccord
CHAPTER III"THE LARK
lark - alouette
It is not all in all sufficient to be wicked in order to prosper. The cook-shop was in a bad way.
Thanks to the traveller's fifty-seven francs, ThĂ©nardier had been able to avoid a protest and to honor his signature. On the following month they were again in need of money. The woman took Cosette's outfit to Paris, and pawned it at the pawnbroker's for sixty francs.
pawned - mis en gage, mettre en gage
pawnbroker - preteur sur gages, preteur sur gages, preteuse sur gages
As soon as that sum was spent, the ThĂ©nardiers grew accustomed to look on the little girl merely as a child whom they were caring for out of charity; and they treated her accordingly. As she had no longer any clothes, they dressed her in the cast-off petticoats and chemises of the ThĂ©nardier brats; that is to say, in rags.
accordingly - en conséquence, conséquemment
chemises - des chemises, chemise de nuit, nuisette
brats - des enfants, garnement
They fed her on what all the rest had left"a little better than the dog, a little worse than the cat. Moreover, the cat and the dog were her habitual table-companions; Cosette ate with them under the table, from a wooden bowl similar to theirs.
Companions - compagnons, compagnon, compagne
The mother, who had established herself, as we shall see later on, at M. sur M., wrote, or, more correctly, caused to be written, a letter every month, that she might have news of her child. The ThĂ©nardiers replied invariably, "Cosette is doing wonderfully well."
wonderfully - a merveille
At the expiration of the first six months the mother sent seven francs for the seventh month, and continued her remittances with tolerable regularity from month to month. The year was not completed when ThĂ©nardier said: "A fine favor she is doing us, in sooth! What does she expect us to do with her seven francs?" and he wrote to demand twelve francs.
remittances - les envois de fonds, virement
regularity - régularité
The mother, whom they had persuaded into the belief that her child was happy, "and was coming on well," submitted, and forwarded the twelve francs.
Certain natures cannot love on the one hand without hating on the other. Mother ThĂ©nardier loved her two daughters passionately, which caused her to hate the stranger.
passionately - passionnément
It is sad to think that the love of a mother can possess villainous aspects. Little as was the space occupied by Cosette, it seemed to her as though it were taken from her own, and that that little child diminished the air which her daughters breathed. This woman, like many women of her sort, had a load of caresses and a burden of blows and injuries to dispense each day.
villainous - infâme
dispense - émettre, distribuer, partager, dispenser, doser
If she had not had Cosette, it is certain that her daughters, idolized as they were, would have received the whole of it; but the stranger did them the service to divert the blows to herself. Her daughters received nothing but caresses. Cosette could not make a motion which did not draw down upon her head a heavy shower of violent blows and unmerited chastisement.
heavy shower - forte averses
unmerited - non méritée
The sweet, feeble being, who should not have understood anything of this world or of God, incessantly punished, scolded, ill-used, beaten, and seeing beside her two little creatures like herself, who lived in a ray of dawn!
scolded - grondé, chipie, furie, mégere, gronder, réprimander, tancer
Madame ThĂ©nardier was vicious with Cosette. Ă‰ponine and Azelma were vicious. Children at that age are only copies of their mother. The size is smaller; that is all.
A year passed; then another.
People in the village said:"
"Those ThĂ©nardiers are good people. They are not rich, and yet they are bringing up a poor child who was abandoned on their hands!"
They thought that Cosette's mother had forgotten her.
In the meanwhile, ThĂ©nardier, having learned, it is impossible to say by what obscure means, that the child was probably a bastard, and that the mother could not acknowledge it, exacted fifteen francs a month, saying that "the creature" was growing and "eating," and threatening to send her away. "Let her not bother me," he exclaimed, "or I'll fire her brat right into the middle of her secrets.
brat - morveux, bambin, gamin
I must have an increase." The mother paid the fifteen francs.
From year to year the child grew, and so did her wretchedness.
As long as Cosette was little, she was the scape-goat of the two other children; as soon as she began to develop a little, that is to say, before she was even five years old, she became the servant of the household.
scape - scape
Five years old! the reader will say; that is not probable. Alas! it is true. Social suffering begins at all ages. Have we not recently seen the trial of a man named Dumollard, an orphan turned bandit, who, from the age of five, as the official documents state, being alone in the world, "worked for his living and stole"?
orphan - orphelin, orpheline
Cosette was made to run on errands, to sweep the rooms, the courtyard, the street, to wash the dishes, to even carry burdens. The ThĂ©nardiers considered themselves all the more authorized to behave in this manner, since the mother, who was still at M. sur M., had become irregular in her payments. Some months she was in arrears.
errands - des courses, course, commission
burdens - charges, poids écrasant
arrears - des arriérés, arriéré
If this mother had returned to Montfermeil at the end of these three years, she would not have recognized her child. Cosette, so pretty and rosy on her arrival in that house, was now thin and pale. She had an indescribably uneasy look. "The sly creature," said the ThĂ©nardiers.
sly - sly, sournois, malin, rusé, matois, espiegle
Injustice had made her peevish, and misery had made her ugly. Nothing remained to her except her beautiful eyes, which inspired pain, because, large as they were, it seemed as though one beheld in them a still larger amount of sadness.
It was a heart-breaking thing to see this poor child, not yet six years old, shivering in the winter in her old rags of linen, full of holes, sweeping the street before daylight, with an enormous broom in her tiny red hands, and a tear in her great eyes.
She was called the Lark in the neighborhood. The populace, who are fond of these figures of speech, had taken a fancy to bestow this name on this trembling, frightened, and shivering little creature, no bigger than a bird, who was awake every morning before any one else in the house or the village, and was always in the street or the fields before daybreak.
Only the little lark never sang.
BOOK FIFTH"THE DESCENT
descent - descente, origine, ascendance
CHAPTER I"THE HISTORY OF A PROGRESS IN BLACK GLASS TRINKETS
trinkets - bibelots, colifichet, bibelot, breloque, babiole, bricole
And in the meantime, what had become of that mother who according to the people at Montfermeil, seemed to have abandoned her child? Where was she? What was she doing?
After leaving her little Cosette with the ThĂ©nardiers, she had continued her journey, and had reached M. sur M.
This, it will be remembered, was in 1818.
Fantine had quitted her province ten years before. M. sur M. had changed its aspect. While Fantine had been slowly descending from wretchedness to wretchedness, her native town had prospered.
province - province
descending from - descendant de
prospered - prospéré, prospérer
About two years previously one of those industrial facts which are the grand events of small districts had taken place.
This detail is important, and we regard it as useful to develop it at length; we should almost say, to underline it.
Underline - soulignement, souligner
From time immemorial, M. sur M. had had for its special industry the imitation of English jet and the black glass trinkets of Germany. This industry had always vegetated, on account of the high price of the raw material, which reacted on the manufacture. At the moment when Fantine returned to M. sur M., an unheard-of transformation had taken place in the production of "black goods.
immemorial - immémoriale
vegetated - végétalisé, végéter
" Towards the close of 1815 a man, a stranger, had established himself in the town, and had been inspired with the idea of substituting, in this manufacture, gum-lac for resin, and, for bracelets in particular, slides of sheet-iron simply laid together, for slides of soldered sheet-iron.
substituting - de substitution, mettre, remplaçant, substitut
gum - chewing-gum, gomme, gencive
lac - lac
resin - résine
bracelets - bracelets, bracelet
soldered - soudé, soudure, souder
This very small change had effected a revolution.
small change - un petit changement
This very small change had, in fact, prodigiously reduced the cost of the raw material, which had rendered it possible in the first place, to raise the price of manufacture, a benefit to the country; in the second place, to improve the workmanship, an advantage to the consumer; in the third place, to sell at a lower price, while trebling the profit, which was a benefit to the manufacturer.
prodigiously - prodigieusement
trebling - triplement, triple
manufacturer - fabricant, fabricante
Thus three results ensued from one idea.
In less than three years the inventor of this process had become rich, which is good, and had made every one about him rich, which is better. He was a stranger in the Department. Of his origin, nothing was known; of the beginning of his career, very little. It was rumored that he had come to town with very little money, a few hundred francs at the most.
rumored - rumeur, bruit
It was from this slender capital, enlisted in the service of an ingenious idea, developed by method and thought, that he had drawn his own fortune, and the fortune of the whole countryside.
enlisted - enrôlé, rejoindre, recruter
On his arrival at M. sur M. he had only the garments, the appearance, and the language of a workingman.
garments - vetements, vetement
It appears that on the very day when he made his obscure entry into the little town of M. sur M., just at nightfall, on a December evening, knapsack on back and thorn club in hand, a large fire had broken out in the town-hall.
at nightfall - a la tombée de la nuit
thorn - épine, thorn
This man had rushed into the flames and saved, at the risk of his own life, two children who belonged to the captain of the gendarmerie; this is why they had forgotten to ask him for his passport. Afterwards they had learned his name. He was called Father Madeleine.
Madeleine - madeleine
He was a man about fifty years of age, who had a preoccupied air, and who was good. That was all that could be said about him.
Thanks to the rapid progress of the industry which he had so admirably reconstructed, M. sur M. had become a rather important centre of trade. Spain, which consumes a good deal of black jet, made enormous purchases there each year. M. sur M. almost rivalled London and Berlin in this branch of commerce.
centre of trade - Centre commercial
Spain - espagne
Berlin - berlin
commerce - le commerce, commerce, rapports
Father Madeleine's profits were such, that at the end of the second year he was able to erect a large factory, in which there were two vast workrooms, one for the men, and the other for women. Any one who was hungry could present himself there, and was sure of finding employment and bread. Father Madeleine required of the men good will, of the women pure morals, and of all, probity.
workrooms - salles de travail, atelier
He had separated the work-rooms in order to separate the sexes, and so that the women and girls might remain discreet. On this point he was inflexible. It was the only thing in which he was in a manner intolerant. He was all the more firmly set on this severity, since M. sur M., being a garrison town, opportunities for corruption abounded.
discreet - discret
inflexible - inflexible
intolerant - intolérants, intolérant
abounded - ont abondé, foisonner, abonder
However, his coming had been a boon, and his presence was a godsend. Before Father Madeleine's arrival, everything had languished in the country; now everything lived with a healthy life of toil. A strong circulation warmed everything and penetrated everywhere. Slack seasons and wretchedness were unknown.
boon - boon, aubaine
languished - languissait, dépérir, se cachectiser, se rabougrir
There was no pocket so obscure that it had not a little money in it; no dwelling so lowly that there was not some little joy within it.
Father Madeleine gave employment to every one. He exacted but one thing: Be an honest man. Be an honest woman.
As we have said, in the midst of this activity of which he was the cause and the pivot, Father Madeleine made his fortune; but a singular thing in a simple man of business, it did not seem as though that were his chief care. He appeared to be thinking much of others, and little of himself.
pivot - pivot, pivotement, pivoter
In 1820 he was known to have a sum of six hundred and thirty thousand francs lodged in his name with Laffitte; but before reserving these six hundred and thirty thousand francs, he had spent more than a million for the town and its poor.
The hospital was badly endowed; he founded six beds there. M. sur M. is divided into the upper and the lower town. The lower town, in which he lived, had but one school, a miserable hovel, which was falling to ruin: he constructed two, one for girls, the other for boys.
He allotted a salary from his own funds to the two instructors, a salary twice as large as their meagre official salary, and one day he said to some one who expressed surprise, "The two prime functionaries of the state are the nurse and the schoolmaster." He created at his own expense an infant school, a thing then almost unknown in France, and a fund for aiding old and infirm workmen.
allotted - allouée, attribuer
meagre - maigre
functionaries - fonctionnaires, fonctionnaire
infant school - l'école maternelle
infirm - infirme, infirmer
As his factory was a centre, a new quarter, in which there were a good many indigent families, rose rapidly around him; he established there a free dispensary.
Dispensary - dispensaire
At first, when they watched his beginnings, the good souls said, "He's a jolly fellow who means to get rich." When they saw him enriching the country before he enriched himself, the good souls said, "He is an ambitious man." This seemed all the more probable since the man was religious, and even practised his religion to a certain degree, a thing which was very favorably viewed at that epoch.
good souls - de bonnes âmes
jolly - jovial
enriching - enrichissante, enrichir
enriched - enrichi, enrichir
more probable - plus probable
favorably - favorablement
He went regularly to low mass every Sunday. The local deputy, who nosed out all rivalry everywhere, soon began to grow uneasy over this religion. This deputy had been a member of the legislative body of the Empire, and shared the religious ideas of a father of the Oratoire, known under the name of FouchĂ©, Duc d'Otrante, whose creature and friend he had been.
rivalry - rivalité
He indulged in gentle raillery at God with closed doors. But when he beheld the wealthy manufacturer Madeleine going to low mass at seven o'clock, he perceived in him a possible candidate, and resolved to outdo him; he took a Jesuit confessor, and went to high mass and to vespers. Ambition was at that time, in the direct acceptation of the word, a race to the steeple.
indulged in - s'est laissé aller
outdo - surpasser
Jesuit - jésuite
confessor - confesseur
acceptation - l'acceptation
steeple - steeple, clocher
The poor profited by this terror as well as the good God, for the honorable deputy also founded two beds in the hospital, which made twelve.
honorable - honorable
Nevertheless, in 1819 a rumor one morning circulated through the town to the effect that, on the representations of the prefect and in consideration of the services rendered by him to the country, Father Madeleine was to be appointed by the King, mayor of M. sur M.
Those who had pronounced this newcomer to be "an ambitious fellow," seized with delight on this opportunity which all men desire, to exclaim, "There! what did we say!" All M. sur M. was in an uproar. The rumor was well founded. Several days later the appointment appeared in the Moniteur. On the following day Father Madeleine refused.
In this same year of 1819 the products of the new process invented by Madeleine figured in the industrial exhibition; when the jury made their report, the King appointed the inventor a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. A fresh excitement in the little town. Well, so it was the cross that he wanted! Father Madeleine refused the cross.
industrial exhibition - une exposition industrielle
Decidedly this man was an enigma. The good souls got out of their predicament by saying, "After all, he is some sort of an adventurer."
predicament - catégorie, classe, prédicament, situation difficile
adventurer - aventurier, aventuriere
We have seen that the country owed much to him; the poor owed him everything; he was so useful and he was so gentle that people had been obliged to honor and respect him. His workmen, in particular, adored him, and he endured this adoration with a sort of melancholy gravity.
endured - enduré, endurer, perdurer, supporter
When he was known to be rich, "people in society" bowed to him, and he received invitations in the town; he was called, in town, Monsieur Madeleine; his workmen and the children continued to call him Father Madeleine, and that was what was most adapted to make him smile. In proportion as he mounted, throve, invitations rained down upon him. "Society" claimed him for its own.
most adapted - le plus adapté
throve - jeter, prospérer, s'épanouir
The prim little drawing-rooms on M. sur M., which, of course, had at first been closed to the artisan, opened both leaves of their folding-doors to the millionnaire. They made a thousand advances to him. He refused.
prim - prim, guindé
folding-doors - (folding-doors) des portes en accordéon
millionnaire - millionnaire
This time the good gossips had no trouble. "He is an ignorant man, of no education. No one knows where he came from. He would not know how to behave in society. It has not been absolutely proved that he knows how to read."
When they saw him making money, they said, "He is a man of business." When they saw him scattering his money about, they said, "He is an ambitious man." When he was seen to decline honors, they said, "He is an adventurer." When they saw him repulse society, they said, "He is a brute."
scattering - la dispersion, diffusion, éparpillement, (scatter), disperser
repulse - repousser
In 1820, five years after his arrival in M. sur M., the services which he had rendered to the district were so dazzling, the opinion of the whole country round about was so unanimous, that the King again appointed him mayor of the town.
round about - autour de
unanimous - a l'unanimité
He again declined; but the prefect resisted his refusal, all the notabilities of the place came to implore him, the people in the street besought him; the urging was so vigorous that he ended by accepting.
notabilities - notabilités, notabilité, notoriété
besought - demandé, prier, implorer, supplier
It was noticed that the thing which seemed chiefly to bring him to a decision was the almost irritated apostrophe addressed to him by an old woman of the people, who called to him from her threshold, in an angry way: "A good mayor is a useful thing. Is he drawing back before the good which he can do?"
chiefly - principalement, surtout
apostrophe - apostrophe
This was the third phase of his ascent. Father Madeleine had become Monsieur Madeleine. Monsieur Madeleine became Monsieur le Maire.
CHAPTER III"SUMS DEPOSITED WITH LAFFITTE
On the other hand, he remained as simple as on the first day. He had gray hair, a serious eye, the sunburned complexion of a laborer, the thoughtful visage of a philosopher. He habitually wore a hat with a wide brim, and a long coat of coarse cloth, buttoned to the chin. He fulfilled his duties as mayor; but, with that exception, he lived in solitude. He spoke to but few people.
sunburned - des coups de soleil, coup de soleil, actinite
He avoided polite attentions; he escaped quickly; he smiled to relieve himself of the necessity of talking; he gave, in order to get rid of the necessity for smiling. The women said of him, "What a good-natured bear!" His pleasure consisted in strolling in the fields.
He always took his meals alone, with an open book before him, which he read. He had a well-selected little library. He loved books; books are cold but safe friends. In proportion as leisure came to him with fortune, he seemed to take advantage of it to cultivate his mind. It had been observed that, ever since his arrival at M. sur M.
cultivate - cultiver
, his language had grown more polished, more choice, and more gentle with every passing year. He liked to carry a gun with him on his strolls, but he rarely made use of it. When he did happen to do so, his shooting was something so infallible as to inspire terror. He never killed an inoffensive animal. He never shot at a little bird.
infallible - infaillible
little bird - petit oiseau
Although he was no longer young, it was thought that he was still prodigiously strong. He offered his assistance to any one who was in need of it, lifted a horse, released a wheel clogged in the mud, or stopped a runaway bull by the horns. He always had his pockets full of money when he went out; but they were empty on his return.
clogged - bouché, sabot, bouchon, boucher
runaway - fugue, fugitif, fugueur, emballement
horns - des cornes, corne, cor, klaxon, cuivres-p
When he passed through a village, the ragged brats ran joyously after him, and surrounded him like a swarm of gnats.
ragged - dépenaillé, loqueteuxse, (rag) dépenaillé
joyously - joyeusement
swarm - essaim (flying insects), grouillement (crawling insects), nuée
gnats - les moucherons, moucheron
It was thought that he must, in the past, have lived a country life, since he knew all sorts of useful secrets, which he taught to the peasants.
He taught them how to destroy scurf on wheat, by sprinkling it and the granary and inundating the cracks in the floor with a solution of common salt; and how to chase away weevils by hanging up orviot in bloom everywhere, on the walls and the ceilings, among the grass and in the houses.
scurf - scurf, teigne
sprinkling - l'aspersion, (sprinkle), saupoudrer, asperger
inundating - l'inondation, inonder
common salt - du sel ordinaire
chase away - chasser
weevils - les charançons, charançon, balanin, cosson
bloom - fleurir, fleur
He had "recipes" for exterminating from a field, blight, tares, foxtail, and all parasitic growths which destroy the wheat. He defended a rabbit warren against rats, simply by the odor of a guinea-pig which he placed in it.
exterminating - exterminer, fr
blight - le mildiou, fléau, rouille, cloque, abîmer, abîmé
tares - tares, goudron
foxtail - sétaire, queue de renard, vulpin
parasitic - parasites
rabbit warren - Terrier de lapin
guinea - Guinée
One day he saw some country people busily engaged in pulling up nettles; he examined the plants, which were uprooted and already dried, and said: "They are dead. Nevertheless, it would be a good thing to know how to make use of them. When the nettle is young, the leaf makes an excellent vegetable; when it is older, it has filaments and fibres like hemp and flax.
nettles - des orties, ortie, piquer, irriter, vexer
uprooted - déraciné, déraciner
filaments - filaments, filament
fibres - fibres, fibre
hemp - le chanvre, chanvre
flax - le lin, lin
Nettle cloth is as good as linen cloth. chopped up, nettles are good for poultry; pounded, they are good for horned cattle. The seed of the nettle, mixed with fodder, gives gloss to the hair of animals; the root, mixed with salt, produces a beautiful yellow coloring-matter. Moreover, it is an excellent hay, which can be cut twice. And what is required for the nettle?
nettle - l'ortie, ortie, piquer, irriter, vexer
chopped up - haché
poultry - de la volaille, volaille, volailles, basse-cour
horned - a cornes, corne, cor, klaxon, cuivres-p
cattle - du bétail, bétail, bovins
fodder - du fourrage, fourrage
gloss - gloss, brillant
A little soil, no care, no culture. Only the seed falls as it is ripe, and it is difficult to collect it. That is all. With the exercise of a little care, the nettle could be made useful; it is neglected and it becomes hurtful. It is exterminated. How many men resemble the nettle!" He added, after a pause: "Remember this, my friends: there are no such things as bad plants or bad men.
ripe - mur, pruine
hurtful - blessant
exterminated - exterminés, exterminer, fr
There are only bad cultivators."
cultivators - cultivateurs, motoculteur, cultivateur
The children loved him because he knew how to make charming little trifles of straw and cocoanuts.
trifles - des broutilles, bagatelle, broutille, babiole, bricole
When he saw the door of a church hung in black, he entered: he sought out funerals as other men seek christenings. Widowhood and the grief of others attracted him, because of his great gentleness; he mingled with the friends clad in mourning, with families dressed in black, with the priests groaning around a coffin.
funerals - funérailles, funérailles-p, obseques-p
widowhood - veuvage
mourning - le deuil, deuil, (mourn), déplorer, porter le deuil
coffin - cercueil
He seemed to like to give to his thoughts for text these funereal psalmodies filled with the vision of the other world. With his eyes fixed on heaven, he listened with a sort of aspiration towards all the mysteries of the infinite, those sad voices which sing on the verge of the obscure abyss of death.
psalmodies - psalmodies, psalmodie
He performed a multitude of good actions, concealing his agency in them as a man conceals himself because of evil actions. He penetrated houses privately, at night; he ascended staircases furtively. A poor wretch on returning to his attic would find that his door had been opened, sometimes even forced, during his absence. The poor man made a clamor over it: some malefactor had been there!
conceals - dissimule, dissimuler, cacher
privately - en privé
staircases - des escaliers, escalier
furtively - furtivement
malefactor - malfaiteur, malfaitrice
He entered, and the first thing he beheld was a piece of gold lying forgotten on some piece of furniture. The "malefactor" who had been there was Father Madeleine.
He was affable and sad. The people said: "There is a rich man who has not a haughty air. There is a happy man who has not a contented air."
haughty - hautain, suffisant
Some people maintained that he was a mysterious person, and that no one ever entered his chamber, which was a regular anchorite's cell, furnished with winged hour-glasses and enlivened by cross-bones and skulls of dead men! This was much talked of, so that one of the elegant and malicious young women of M. sur M. came to him one day, and asked: "Monsieur le Maire, pray show us your chamber.
enlivened - animée, animer
malicious - malveillante
It is said to be a grotto." He smiled, and introduced them instantly into this "grotto." They were well punished for their curiosity. The room was very simply furnished in mahogany, which was rather ugly, like all furniture of that sort, and hung with paper worth twelve sous.
They could see nothing remarkable about it, except two candlesticks of antique pattern which stood on the chimney-piece and appeared to be silver, "for they were hall-marked," an observation full of the type of wit of petty towns.
Nevertheless, people continued to say that no one ever got into the room, and that it was a hermit's cave, a mysterious retreat, a hole, a tomb.
It was also whispered about that he had "immense" sums deposited with Laffitte, with this peculiar feature, that they were always at his immediate disposal, so that, it was added, M. Madeleine could make his appearance at Laffitte's any morning, sign a receipt, and carry off his two or three millions in ten minutes.
In reality, "these two or three millions" were reducible, as we have said, to six hundred and thirty or forty thousand francs.
reducible - réductible
CHAPTER IV"M. MADELEINE IN MOURNING
At the beginning of 1820 the newspapers announced the death of M. Myriel, Bishop of D"", surnamed "Monseigneur Bienvenu," who had died in the odor of sanctity at the age of eighty-two.
The Bishop of D"" to supply here a detail which the papers omitted"had been blind for many years before his death, and content to be blind, as his sister was beside him.
omitted - omis, omettre
content - contenu, satisfait, contentement
Let us remark by the way, that to be blind and to be loved, is, in fact, one of the most strangely exquisite forms of happiness upon this earth, where nothing is complete.
To have continually at one's side a woman, a daughter, a sister, a charming being, who is there because you need her and because she cannot do without you; to know that we are indispensable to a person who is necessary to us; to be able to incessantly measure one's affection by the amount of her presence which she bestows on us, and to say to ourselves, "Since she consecrates the whole of her time to me, it is because I possess the whole of her heart"; to behold her thought in lieu of her face; to be able to verify the fidelity of one being amid the eclipse of the world; to regard the rustle of a gown as the sound of wings; to hear her come and go, retire, speak, return, sing, and to think that one is the centre of these steps, of this speech; to manifest at each instant one's personal attraction; to feel one's self all the more powerful because of one's infirmity; to become in one's obscurity, and through one's obscurity, the star around which this angel gravitates,"few felicities equal this. The supreme happiness of life consists in the conviction that one is loved; loved for one's own sake"let us say rather, loved in spite of one's self; this conviction the blind man possesses. To be served in distress is to be caressed. Does he lack anything? No. One does not lose the sight when one has love. And what love! A love wholly constituted of virtue! There is no blindness where there is certainty. Soul seeks soul, gropingly, and finds it. And this soul, found and tested, is a woman. A hand sustains you; it is hers: a mouth lightly touches your brow; it is her mouth: you hear a breath very near you; it is hers. To have everything of her, from her worship to her pity, never to be left, to have that sweet weakness aiding you, to lean upon that immovable reed, to touch Providence with one's hands, and to be able to take it in one's arms,"God made tangible,"what bliss! The heart, that obscure, celestial flower, undergoes a mysterious blossoming. One would not exchange that shadow for all brightness! The angel soul is there, uninterruptedly there; if she departs, it is but to return again; she vanishes like a dream, and reappears like reality. One feels warmth approaching, and behold! she is there. One overflows with serenity, with gayety, with ecstasy; one is a radiance amid the night. And there are a thousand little cares. Nothings, which are enormous in that void. The most ineffable accents of the feminine voice employed to lull you, and supplying the vanished universe to you. One is caressed with the soul. One sees nothing, but one feels that one is adored. It is a paradise of shadows.
indispensable - indispensable
consecrates - consacre, consacrer
lieu - lieu
verify - vérifier
fidelity - fidélité
eclipse - éclipse, éclipser
rustle - bruissement, froufrou, froufrouter
manifest - manifeste, bordereau, profession de foi, proclamation
infirmity - l'infirmité, infirmité
gravitates - gravite, graviter
felicities - felicities, félicité
caressed - caressé, caresser
blindness - la cécité, cécité
gropingly - a tâtons
sustains - soutient, maintenir, subvenir
immovable - inamovible, immeuble
tangible - tangible, palpable
bliss - bonheur, béatitude, félicité
uninterruptedly - sans interruption
vanishes - disparaît, disparaître, s'évanouir, s'annuler
overflows - débordements, débordement, déborder, fr
void - vide, vacuum
lull - l'accalmie, pause, bonace, calme, apaiser, bercer, calmer
It was from this paradise that Monseigneur Welcome had passed to the other.
The announcement of his death was reprinted by the local journal of M. sur M. On the following day, M. Madeleine appeared clad wholly in black, and with crape on his hat.
This mourning was noticed in the town, and commented on. It seemed to throw a light on M. Madeleine's origin. It was concluded that some relationship existed between him and the venerable Bishop. "He has gone into mourning for the Bishop of D""" said the drawing-rooms; this raised M.
Madeleine's credit greatly, and procured for him, instantly and at one blow, a certain consideration in the noble world of M. sur M. The microscopic Faubourg Saint-Germain of the place meditated raising the quarantine against M. Madeleine, the probable relative of a bishop. M.
microscopic - microscopique
quarantine - quarantaine, mettre en quarantaine
Madeleine perceived the advancement which he had obtained, by the more numerous courtesies of the old women and the more plentiful smiles of the young ones. One evening, a ruler in that petty great world, who was curious by right of seniority, ventured to ask him, "M. le Maire is doubtless a cousin of the late Bishop of D""?"
more numerous - plus nombreux
courtesies - courtoisies, courtoisie, politesse, indulgence
plentiful - abondante, abondant, copieux, ample
ruler - regle, latte, dirigeant, chef
seniority - l'ancienneté, ancienneté, séniorité
He said, "No, Madame."
"But," resumed the dowager, "you are wearing mourning for him."
He replied, "It is because I was a servant in his family in my youth."
Another thing which was remarked, was, that every time that he encountered in the town a young Savoyard who was roaming about the country and seeking chimneys to sweep, the mayor had him summoned, inquired his name, and gave him money. The little Savoyards told each other about it: a great many of them passed that way.
roaming - l'itinérance, errer
chimneys - les cheminées, cheminée
CHAPTER V"VAGUE FLASHES ON THE HORIZON
Little by little, and in the course of time, all this opposition subsided. There had at first been exercised against M.
subsided - s'est apaisée, tomber, calmer
Madeleine, in virtue of a sort of law which all those who rise must submit to, blackening and calumnies; then they grew to be nothing more than ill-nature, then merely malicious remarks, then even this entirely disappeared; respect became complete, unanimous, cordial, and towards 1821 the moment arrived when the word "Monsieur le Maire" was pronounced at M. sur M.
blackening - le noircissement, (blacken), noircir, souiller, salir
calumnies - calomnies, calomnie
with almost the same accent as "Monseigneur the Bishop" had been pronounced in D"" in 1815. People came from a distance of ten leagues around to consult M. Madeleine. He put an end to differences, he prevented lawsuits, he reconciled enemies. Every one took him for the judge, and with good reason. It seemed as though he had for a soul the book of the natural law.
It was like an epidemic of veneration, which in the course of six or seven years gradually took possession of the whole district.
epidemic - épidémie, épidémique
One single man in the town, in the arrondissement, absolutely escaped this contagion, and, whatever Father Madeleine did, remained his opponent as though a sort of incorruptible and imperturbable instinct kept him on the alert and uneasy.
arrondissement - arrondissement
It seems, in fact, as though there existed in certain men a veritable bestial instinct, though pure and upright, like all instincts, which creates antipathies and sympathies, which fatally separates one nature from another nature, which does not hesitate, which feels no disquiet, which does not hold its peace, and which never belies itself, clear in its obscurity, infallible, imperious, intractable, stubborn to all counsels of the intelligence and to all the dissolvents of reason, and which, in whatever manner destinies are arranged, secretly warns the man-dog of the presence of the man-cat, and the man-fox of the presence of the man-lion.
bestial - bestiale
Antipathies - antipathies, antipathie
fatally - fatalement
belies - dément, démentir
intractable - ingouvernable, insoluble, intraitable, buté
counsels - conseils, conseil, expertise, plan, projet
dissolvents - dissolvants, dissoluble
secretly - secretement, secretement, en cachette
fox - renard, goupil, rench: t-needed r, roublard, retors, bombe
It frequently happened that when M.
Madeleine was passing along a street, calm, affectionate, surrounded by the blessings of all, a man of lofty stature, clad in an iron-gray frock-coat, armed with a heavy cane, and wearing a battered hat, turned round abruptly behind him, and followed him with his eyes until he disappeared, with folded arms and a slow shake of the head, and his upper lip raised in company with his lower to his nose, a sort of significant grimace which might be translated by: "What is that man, after all? I certainly have seen him somewhere. In any case, I am not his dupe."
blessings - des bénédictions, bénédiction, grâce
frock-coat - (frock-coat) redingote
battered - battu, battre
This person, grave with a gravity which was almost menacing, was one of those men who, even when only seen by a rapid glimpse, arrest the spectator's attention.
His name was Javert, and he belonged to the police.
At M. sur M. he exercised the unpleasant but useful functions of an inspector. He had not seen Madeleine's beginnings. Javert owed the post which he occupied to the protection of M. Chabouillet, the secretary of the Minister of State, Comte AnglĂ¨s, then prefect of police at Paris. When Javert arrived at M. sur M.
the fortune of the great manufacturer was already made, and Father Madeleine had become Monsieur Madeleine.
Certain police officers have a peculiar physiognomy, which is complicated with an air of baseness mingled with an air of authority. Javert possessed this physiognomy minus the baseness.
baseness - la bassesse
It is our conviction that if souls were visible to the eyes, we should be able to see distinctly that strange thing that each one individual of the human race corresponds to some one of the species of the animal creation; and we could easily recognize this truth, hardly perceived by the thinker, that from the oyster to the eagle, from the pig to the tiger, all animals exist in man, and that each one of them is in a man. Sometimes even several of them at a time.
corresponds - correspond, correspondre (...a qqchose)
thinker - penseur, penseuse, intellectuel
Animals are nothing else than the figures of our virtues and our vices, straying before our eyes, the visible phantoms of our souls. God shows them to us in order to induce us to reflect. Only since animals are mere shadows, God has not made them capable of education in the full sense of the word; what is the use?
straying - écartant, (stray) écartant
phantoms - fantômes, fantôme
On the contrary, our souls being realities and having a goal which is appropriate to them, God has bestowed on them intelligence; that is to say, the possibility of education. social education, when well done, can always draw from a soul, of whatever sort it may be, the utility which it contains.
contrary - contraire, contrepied
social education - l'éducation sociale
This, be it said, is of course from the restricted point of view of the terrestrial life which is apparent, and without prejudging the profound question of the anterior or ulterior personality of the beings which are not man. The visible I in nowise authorizes the thinker to deny the latent I. Having made this reservation, let us pass on.
prejudging - des préjugés, préjuger
anterior - antérieur
ulterior - arriere-pensée
nowise - pas de quoi, rench: d'aucune façon
authorizes - autorise, autoriser
latent - latent
Now, if the reader will admit, for a moment, with us, that in every man there is one of the animal species of creation, it will be easy for us to say what there was in Police Officer Javert.
The peasants of Asturias are convinced that in every litter of wolves there is one dog, which is killed by the mother because, otherwise, as he grew up, he would devour the other little ones.
Give to this dog-son of a wolf a human face, and the result will be Javert.
Javert had been born in prison, of a fortune-teller, whose husband was in the galleys. As he grew up, he thought that he was outside the pale of society, and he despaired of ever re-entering it.
fortune-teller - (fortune-teller) une diseuse de bonne aventure
despaired - désespéré, désespérer, désespoir
He observed that society unpardoningly excludes two classes of men,"those who attack it and those who guard it; he had no choice except between these two classes; at the same time, he was conscious of an indescribable foundation of rigidity, regularity, and probity, complicated with an inexpressible hatred for the race of bohemians whence he was sprung. He entered the police; he succeeded there.
unpardoningly - impardonnable
rigidity - la rigidité, rigidité, raideur
inexpressible - inexprimable
At forty years of age he was an inspector.
During his youth he had been employed in the convict establishments of the South.
Before proceeding further, let us come to an understanding as to the words, "human face," which we have just applied to Javert.
The human face of Javert consisted of a flat nose, with two deep nostrils, towards which enormous whiskers ascended on his cheeks. One felt ill at ease when he saw these two forests and these two caverns for the first time.
When Javert laughed,"and his laugh was rare and terrible,"his thin lips parted and revealed to view not only his teeth, but his gums, and around his nose there formed a flattened and savage fold, as on the muzzle of a wild beast. Javert, serious, was a watchdog; when he laughed, he was a tiger.
gums - des gencives, gencive(s)
muzzle - la museliere, museau, museliere, museler
watchdog - chien de garde
As for the rest, he had very little skull and a great deal of jaw; his hair concealed his forehead and fell over his eyebrows; between his eyes there was a permanent, central frown, like an imprint of wrath; his gaze was obscure; his mouth pursed up and terrible; his air that of ferocious command.
jaw - mâchoire
forehead - front
eyebrows - sourcils, sourcil
pursed - pincé, bourse, portemonnaie, portefeuille, sac a main
This man was composed of two very simple and two very good sentiments, comparatively; but he rendered them almost bad, by dint of exaggerating them,"respect for authority, hatred of rebellion; and in his eyes, murder, robbery, all crimes, are only forms of rebellion.
sentiments - sentiments, sentiment
comparatively - comparativement
He enveloped in a blind and profound faith every one who had a function in the state, from the prime minister to the rural policeman. He covered with scorn, aversion, and disgust every one who had once crossed the legal threshold of evil. He was absolute, and admitted no exceptions. On the one hand, he said, "The functionary can make no mistake; the magistrate is never the wrong.
scorn - mépriser, dédaigner, mépris, dédain
aversion - l'aversion, aversion
disgust - dégout, dégouter, dégout
functionary - fonctionnaire
" On the other hand, he said, "These men are irremediably lost. Nothing good can come from them." He fully shared the opinion of those extreme minds which attribute to human law I know not what power of making, or, if the reader will have it so, of authenticating, demons, and who place a Styx at the base of society.
irremediably - irrémédiablement
attribute - attribut, épithete or déterminant
authenticating - l'authentification, authentifier
demons - démons, démon, diable
Styx - styx
He was stoical, serious, austere; a melancholy dreamer, humble and haughty, like fanatics. His glance was like a gimlet, cold and piercing. His whole life hung on these two words: watchfulness and supervision.
stoical - stoique, stoique
fanatics - fanatiques, fanatique
gimlet - vrille, gimlet, vriller
watchfulness - la vigilance, vigilance
supervision - supervision, surveillance
He had introduced a straight line into what is the most crooked thing in the world; he possessed the conscience of his usefulness, the religion of his functions, and he was a spy as other men are priests. Woe to the man who fell into his hands! He would have arrested his own father, if the latter had escaped from the galleys, and would have denounced his mother, if she had broken her ban.
most crooked - le plus tordu
usefulness - utilité
spy - espion, espionne, espionner
And he would have done it with that sort of inward satisfaction which is conferred by virtue. And, withal, a life of privation, isolation, abnegation, chastity, with never a diversion. It was implacable duty; the police understood, as the Spartans understood Sparta, a pitiless lying in wait, a ferocious honesty, a marble informer, Brutus in Vidocq.
privation - privation
Spartans - les spartiates, spartiate
Brutus - Brutus
Javert's whole person was expressive of the man who spies and who withdraws himself from observation. The mystical school of Joseph de Maistre, which at that epoch seasoned with lofty cosmogony those things which were called the ultra newspapers, would not have failed to declare that Javert was a symbol.
spies - espions, espion, espionne, espionner
mystical - mystique
Joseph - joseph, sourate Youssouf, José
cosmogony - cosmogonie
His brow was not visible; it disappeared beneath his hat: his eyes were not visible, since they were lost under his eyebrows: his chin was not visible, for it was plunged in his cravat: his hands were not visible; they were drawn up in his sleeves: and his cane was not visible; he carried it under his coat.
But when the occasion presented itself, there was suddenly seen to emerge from all this shadow, as from an ambuscade, a narrow and angular forehead, a baleful glance, a threatening chin, enormous hands, and a monstrous cudgel.
ambuscade - embuscade, embusquer
baleful - maléfique, sinistre
In his leisure moments, which were far from frequent, he read, although he hated books; this caused him to be not wholly illiterate. This could be recognized by some emphasis in his speech.
illiterate - analphabete, illettré, illettrée, analphabete
As we have said, he had no vices. When he was pleased with himself, he permitted himself a pinch of snuff. Therein lay his connection with humanity.
pinch - pincer, chiper, pincement, pincée
The reader will have no difficulty in understanding that Javert was the terror of that whole class which the annual statistics of the Ministry of Justice designates under the rubric, Vagrants. The name of Javert routed them by its mere utterance; the face of Javert petrified them at sight.
annual statistics - des statistiques annuelles
ministry - ministere, ministere, cabinet, ministere du culte
designates - désigne, désigner
Rubric - rubrique
vagrants - des vagabonds, itinérant/-e, vagabond/-e
at sight - a vue
Such was this formidable man.
Javert was like an eye constantly fixed on M. Madeleine. An eye full of suspicion and conjecture. M. Madeleine had finally perceived the fact; but it seemed to be of no importance to him. He did not even put a question to Javert; he neither sought nor avoided him; he bore that embarrassing and almost oppressive gaze without appearing to notice it.
conjecture - conjecture, conjecturer
oppressive - oppressif
He treated Javert with ease and courtesy, as he did all the rest of the world.
It was divined, from some words which escaped Javert, that he had secretly investigated, with that curiosity which belongs to the race, and into which there enters as much instinct as will, all the anterior traces which Father Madeleine might have left elsewhere.
He seemed to know, and he sometimes said in covert words, that some one had gleaned certain information in a certain district about a family which had disappeared. Once he chanced to say, as he was talking to himself, "I think I have him!" Then he remained pensive for three days, and uttered not a word. It seemed that the thread which he thought he held had broken.
covert - secrete, secret, clandestin
gleaned - glanés, glaner
thread - fil, processus léger, exétron, fil de discussion, filer
Moreover, and this furnishes the necessary corrective for the too absolute sense which certain words might present, there can be nothing really infallible in a human creature, and the peculiarity of instinct is that it can become confused, thrown off the track, and defeated. Otherwise, it would be superior to intelligence, and the beast would be found to be provided with a better light than man.
furnishes - meubles, meubler, fournir, livrer
corrective - corrective, correcteur
Javert was evidently somewhat disconcerted by the perfect naturalness and tranquillity of M. Madeleine.
disconcerted - déconcerté, déconcerter, fr
One day, nevertheless, his strange manner appeared to produce an impression on M. Madeleine. It was on the following occasion.
CHAPTER VI"FATHER FAUCHELEVENT
One morning M. Madeleine was passing through an unpaved alley of M. sur M.; he heard a noise, and saw a group some distance away. He approached. An old man named Father Fauchelevent had just fallen beneath his cart, his horse having tumbled down.
unpaved - non pavé
tumbled - culbuté, culbute, dégringoler, culbuter
This Fauchelevent was one of the few enemies whom M. Madeleine had at that time. When Madeleine arrived in the neighborhood, Fauchelevent, an ex-notary and a peasant who was almost educated, had a business which was beginning to be in a bad way. Fauchelevent had seen this simple workman grow rich, while he, a lawyer, was being ruined.
This had filled him with jealousy, and he had done all he could, on every occasion, to injure Madeleine. Then bankruptcy had come; and as the old man had nothing left but a cart and a horse, and neither family nor children, he had turned carter.
bankruptcy - la faillite, faillite, banqueroute
The horse had two broken legs and could not rise. The old man was caught in the wheels. The fall had been so unlucky that the whole weight of the vehicle rested on his breast. The cart was quite heavily laden. Father Fauchelevent was rattling in the throat in the most lamentable manner. They had tried, but in vain, to drag him out.
heavily laden - lourdement chargé
rattling - le cliquetis, (rattle) le cliquetis
lamentable - lamentable
An unmethodical effort, aid awkwardly given, a wrong shake, might kill him. It was impossible to disengage him otherwise than by lifting the vehicle off of him. Javert, who had come up at the moment of the accident, had sent for a jack-screw.
unmethodical - sans méthode
disengage - se désengager, désengager
M. Madeleine arrived. People stood aside respectfully.
respectfully - respectueusement
"Help!" cried old Fauchelevent. "Who will be good and save the old man?"
M. Madeleine turned towards those present:"
"Is there a jack-screw to be had?"
"One has been sent for," answered the peasant.
"How long will it take to get it?"
"They have gone for the nearest, to Flachot's place, where there is a farrier; but it makes no difference; it will take a good quarter of an hour."
farrier - maréchal-ferrant, maréchale-ferrante
"A quarter of an hour!" exclaimed Madeleine.
It had rained on the preceding night; the soil was soaked.
soaked - trempé, tremper, faire tremper, immerger, éponger
The cart was sinking deeper into the earth every moment, and crushing the old carter's breast more and more. It was evident that his ribs would be broken in five minutes more.
ribs - des côtes, côte
"It is impossible to wait another quarter of an hour," said Madeleine to the peasants, who were staring at him.
"But it will be too late then! Don't you see that the cart is sinking?"
"Listen," resumed Madeleine; "there is still room enough under the cart to allow a man to crawl beneath it and raise it with his back. Only half a minute, and the poor man can be taken out. Is there any one here who has stout loins and heart? There are five louis d'or to be earned!"
crawl - ramper
loins - les reins, lombes-p, filet (in US), côtes premieres-p (in UK)
Not a man in the group stirred.
"Ten louis," said Madeleine.
The persons present dropped their eyes. One of them muttered: "A man would need to be devilish strong. And then he runs the risk of getting crushed!"
devilish - diabolique
"Come," began Madeleine again, "twenty louis."
The same silence.
"It is not the will which is lacking," said a voice.
M. Madeleine turned round, and recognized Javert. He had not noticed him on his arrival.
Javert went on:"
"It is strength. One would have to be a terrible man to do such a thing as lift a cart like that on his back."
Then, gazing fixedly at M. Madeleine, he went on, emphasizing every word that he uttered:"
"Monsieur Madeleine, I have never known but one man capable of doing what you ask."
Javert added, with an air of indifference, but without removing his eyes from Madeleine:"
"He was a convict."
"Ah!" said Madeleine.
"In the galleys at Toulon."
Madeleine turned pale.
Meanwhile, the cart continued to sink slowly. Father Fauchelevent rattled in the throat, and shrieked:"
rattled - secouée, (faire) cliqueter
shrieked - a crié, hurlement, crier
"I am strangling! My ribs are breaking! a screw! something! Ah!"
strangling - étranglement, (strangle), étrangler
Madeleine glanced about him.
"Is there, then, no one who wishes to earn twenty louis and save the life of this poor old man?"
No one stirred. Javert resumed:"
"I have never known but one man who could take the place of a screw, and he was that convict."
"Ah! It is crushing me!" cried the old man.
Madeleine raised his head, met Javert's falcon eye still fixed upon him, looked at the motionless peasants, and smiled sadly. Then, without saying a word, he fell on his knees, and before the crowd had even had time to utter a cry, he was underneath the vehicle.
falcon - faucon
underneath - dessous, en dessous, du dessous, d'en dessous
A terrible moment of expectation and silence ensued.
They beheld Madeleine, almost flat on his stomach beneath that terrible weight, make two vain efforts to bring his knees and his elbows together. They shouted to him, "Father Madeleine, come out!" Old Fauchelevent himself said to him, "Monsieur Madeleine, go away! You see that I am fated to die! Leave me! You will get yourself crushed also!" Madeleine made no reply.
All the spectators were panting. The wheels had continued to sink, and it had become almost impossible for Madeleine to make his way from under the vehicle.
panting - haletant, (pant) haletant
Suddenly the enormous mass was seen to quiver, the cart rose slowly, the wheels half emerged from the ruts. They heard a stifled voice crying, "Make haste! Help!" It was Madeleine, who had just made a final effort.
They rushed forwards. The devotion of a single man had given force and courage to all. The cart was raised by twenty arms. Old Fauchelevent was saved.
Madeleine rose. He was pale, though dripping with perspiration. His clothes were torn and covered with mud. All wept. The old man kissed his knees and called him the good God. As for him, he bore upon his countenance an indescribable expression of happy and celestial suffering, and he fixed his tranquil eye on Javert, who was still staring at him.
CHAPTER VII"FAUCHELEVENT BECOMES A GARDENER IN PARIS
Fauchelevent had dislocated his kneepan in his fall. Father Madeleine had him conveyed to an infirmary which he had established for his workmen in the factory building itself, and which was served by two sisters of charity. On the following morning the old man found a thousand-franc bank-note on his night-stand, with these words in Father Madeleine's writing: "I purchase your horse and cart.
dislocated - disloqué, disloquer, luxer, déboîter
kneepan - kneepan
infirmary - l'infirmerie, infimerie, infirmerie
factory building - le bâtiment de l'usine
bank-note - (bank-note) billet de banque
" The cart was broken, and the horse was dead. Fauchelevent recovered, but his knee remained stiff. M. Madeleine, on the recommendation of the sisters of charity and of his priest, got the good man a place as gardener in a female convent in the Rue Saint-Antoine in Paris.
Some time afterwards, M. Madeleine was appointed mayor. The first time that Javert beheld M. Madeleine clothed in the scarf which gave him authority over the town, he felt the sort of shudder which a watch-dog might experience on smelling a wolf in his master's clothes. From that time forth he avoided him as much as he possibly could.
scarf - écharpe, cache nez, éventé, fichu, foulard
When the requirements of the service imperatively demanded it, and he could not do otherwise than meet the mayor, he addressed him with profound respect.
imperatively - impérativement
This prosperity created at M. sur M. by Father Madeleine had, besides the visible signs which we have mentioned, another symptom which was nonetheless significant for not being visible. This never deceives.
nonetheless - néanmoins
When the population suffers, when work is lacking, when there is no commerce, the tax-payer resists imposts through penury, he exhausts and oversteps his respite, and the state expends a great deal of money in the charges for compelling and collection. When work is abundant, when the country is rich and happy, the taxes are paid easily and cost the state nothing.
penury - pénurie
exhausts - les pots d'échappement, épuiser, échappement
oversteps - des dépassements, outrepasser
respite - un répit, répit
expends - dépense, dépenser
abundant - abondante
It may be said, that there is one infallible thermometer of the public misery and riches,"the cost of collecting the taxes. In the course of seven years the expense of collecting the taxes had diminished three-fourths in the arrondissement of M. sur M., and this led to this arrondissement being frequently cited from all the rest by M. de VillĂ¨le, then Minister of Finance.
thermometer - thermometre, thermometre
Such was the condition of the country when Fantine returned thither. No one remembered her. Fortunately, the door of M. Madeleine's factory was like the face of a friend. She presented herself there, and was admitted to the women's workroom.
workroom - salle de travail, atelier
The trade was entirely new to Fantine; she could not be very skilful at it, and she therefore earned but little by her day's work; but it was sufficient; the problem was solved; she was earning her living.
CHAPTER VIII"MADAME VICTURNIEN EXPENDS THIRTY FRANCS ON MORALITY
When Fantine saw that she was making her living, she felt joyful for a moment. To live honestly by her own labor, what mercy from heaven! The taste for work had really returned to her. She bought a looking-glass, took pleasure in surveying in it her youth, her beautiful hair, her fine teeth; she forgot many things; she thought only of Cosette and of the possible future, and was almost happy.
joyful - allegre, joyeux
honestly - honnetement, honnetement, franchement
She hired a little room and furnished on credit on the strength of her future work"a lingering trace of her improvident ways. As she was not able to say that she was married she took good care, as we have seen, not to mention her little girl.
improvident - imprévoyante
At first, as the reader has seen, she paid the ThĂ©nardiers promptly. As she only knew how to sign her name, she was obliged to write through a public letter-writer.
She wrote often, and this was noticed. It began to be said in an undertone, in the women's workroom, that Fantine "wrote letters" and that "she had ways about her."
undertone - sous-entendu, nuance
There is no one for spying on people's actions like those who are not concerned in them. Why does that gentleman never come except at nightfall? Why does Mr. So-and-So never hang his key on its nail on Tuesday? Why does he always take the narrow streets? Why does Madame always descend from her hackney-coach before reaching her house?
spying - l'espionnage, espionnage, épiant, (spy), espion, espionne
nightfall - a la tombée de la nuit, tombée de la nuit
hackney - haquenée, hackney
Why does she send out to purchase six sheets of note paper, when she has a "whole stationer's shop full of it?" etc.
note paper - du papier a lettres
stationer - papeterie, papetier/-iere
There exist beings who, for the sake of obtaining the key to these enigmas, which are, moreover, of no consequence whatever to them, spend more money, waste more time, take more trouble, than would be required for ten good actions, and that gratuitously, for their own pleasure, without receiving any other payment for their curiosity than curiosity.
enigmas - des énigmes, énigme
They will follow up such and such a man or woman for whole days; they will do sentry duty for hours at a time on the corners of the streets, under alley-way doors at night, in cold and rain; they will bribe errand-porters, they will make the drivers of hackney-coaches and lackeys tipsy, buy a waiting-maid, suborn a porter. Why? For no reason.
sentry - sentinelle
bribe - pot-de-vin, verser un pot-de-vin, soudoyer, corrompre
errand - course, commission
porters - les porteurs, porteur/-euse
tipsy - éméché, égayé, gris, pompette
suborn - suborn
A pure passion for seeing, knowing, and penetrating into things. A pure itch for talking. And often these secrets once known, these mysteries made public, these enigmas illuminated by the light of day, bring on catastrophies, duels, failures, the ruin of families, and broken lives, to the great joy of those who have "found out everything," without any interest in the matter, and by pure instinct.
penetrating - pénétrant, pénétrer
itch - démangeaisons, démanger, démangeaison, prurit
catastrophies - des catastrophes
duels - duels, duel, croiser le fer
A sad thing.
Certain persons are malicious solely through a necessity for talking. Their conversation, the chat of the drawing-room, gossip of the anteroom, is like those chimneys which consume wood rapidly; they need a great amount of combustibles; and their combustibles are furnished by their neighbors.
solely - uniquement, exclusivement, seulement
combustibles - des combustibles, combustible
So Fantine was watched.
In addition, many a one was jealous of her golden hair and of her white teeth.
jealous - jaloux, jalouse, envieux, rench:
It was remarked that in the workroom she often turned aside, in the midst of the rest, to wipe away a tear. These were the moments when she was thinking of her child; perhaps, also, of the man whom she had loved.
wipe away - essuyer
Breaking the gloomy bonds of the past is a mournful task.
It was observed that she wrote twice a month at least, and that she paid the carriage on the letter. They managed to obtain the address: Monsieur, Monsieur ThĂ©nardier, inn-keeper at Montfermeil. The public writer, a good old man who could not fill his stomach with red wine without emptying his pocket of secrets, was made to talk in the wine-shop.
In short, it was discovered that Fantine had a child. "She must be a pretty sort of a woman." An old gossip was found, who made the trip to Montfermeil, talked to the ThĂ©nardiers, and said on her return: "For my five and thirty francs I have freed my mind. I have seen the child."
The gossip who did this thing was a gorgon named Madame Victurnien, the guardian and door-keeper of every one's virtue. Madame Victurnien was fifty-six, and re-enforced the mask of ugliness with the mask of age. A quavering voice, a whimsical mind. This old dame had once been young"astonishing fact!
Gorgon - gorgone
guardian - gardien, tuteur, tutrice, curateur, curatrice
enforced - appliqué, renforcer, intensifier, imposer, obliger
mask - masque
ugliness - la laideur, laideur
quavering - des vacillements, (quaver), croche
whimsical - fantaisiste, capricieux, étrange, drôle, amusant
In her youth, in '93, she had married a monk who had fled from his cloister in a red cap, and passed from the Bernardines to the Jacobins. She was dry, rough, peevish, sharp, captious, almost venomous; all this in memory of her monk, whose widow she was, and who had ruled over her masterfully and bent her to his will. She was a nettle in which the rustle of the cassock was visible.
monk - moine, religieux
cloister - cloître, (la vie des) cloîtres
Jacobins - les jacobins, jacobin
captious - captieux, piege, pinailleur
venomous - venimeux
masterfully - magistralement
At the Restoration she had turned bigot, and that with so much energy that the priests had forgiven her her monk. She had a small property, which she bequeathed with much ostentation to a religious community. She was in high favor at the episcopal palace of Arras. So this Madame Victurnien went to Montfermeil, and returned with the remark, "I have seen the child."
bequeathed - légué, léguer, transmettre, passer, donner, offrir
religious community - communauté religieuse
All this took time. Fantine had been at the factory for more than a year, when, one morning, the superintendent of the workroom handed her fifty francs from the mayor, told her that she was no longer employed in the shop, and requested her, in the mayor's name, to leave the neighborhood.
Superintendent - le directeur de l'école, surintendant, superintendant
This was the very month when the ThĂ©nardiers, after having demanded twelve francs instead of six, had just exacted fifteen francs instead of twelve.
Fantine was overwhelmed. She could not leave the neighborhood; she was in debt for her rent and furniture. Fifty francs was not sufficient to cancel this debt. She stammered a few supplicating words. The superintendent ordered her to leave the shop on the instant. Besides, Fantine was only a moderately good workwoman.
supplicating - suppliante, supplier
moderately - modérément
workwoman - femme au travail
Overcome with shame, even more than with despair, she quitted the shop, and returned to her room. So her fault was now known to every one.
She no longer felt strong enough to say a word. She was advised to see the mayor; she did not dare. The mayor had given her fifty francs because he was good, and had dismissed her because he was just. She bowed before the decision.
CHAPTER IX"MADAME VICTURNIEN'S SUCCESS
So the monk's widow was good for something.
But M. Madeleine had heard nothing of all this. Life is full of just such combinations of events. M. Madeleine was in the habit of almost never entering the women's workroom.
At the head of this room he had placed an elderly spinster, whom the priest had provided for him, and he had full confidence in this superintendent,"a truly respectable person, firm, equitable, upright, full of the charity which consists in giving, but not having in the same degree that charity which consists in understanding and in forgiving. M. Madeleine relied wholly on her.
The best men are often obliged to delegate their authority. It was with this full power, and the conviction that she was doing right, that the superintendent had instituted the suit, judged, condemned, and executed Fantine.
delegate - délégué, déléguée, déléguer
As regards the fifty francs, she had given them from a fund which M. Madeleine had intrusted to her for charitable purposes, and for giving assistance to the workwomen, and of which she rendered no account.
Fantine tried to obtain a situation as a servant in the neighborhood; she went from house to house. No one would have her. She could not leave town. The second-hand dealer, to whom she was in debt for her furniture"and what furniture!"said to her, "If you leave, I will have you arrested as a thief." The householder, whom she owed for her rent, said to her, "You are young and pretty; you can pay.
second-hand dealer - vendeur d'occasion
householder - maître de maison
" She divided the fifty francs between the landlord and the furniture-dealer, returned to the latter three-quarters of his goods, kept only necessaries, and found herself without work, without a trade, with nothing but her bed, and still about fifty francs in debt.
furniture-dealer - (furniture-dealer) vendeur de meubles
She began to make coarse shirts for soldiers of the garrison, and earned twelve sous a day. Her daughter cost her ten. It was at this point that she began to pay the ThĂ©nardiers irregularly.
irregularly - irrégulierement
However, the old woman who lighted her candle for her when she returned at night, taught her the art of living in misery. Back of living on little, there is the living on nothing. These are the two chambers; the first is dark, the second is black.
Fantine learned how to live without fire entirely in the winter; how to give up a bird which eats a half a farthing's worth of millet every two days; how to make a coverlet of one's petticoat, and a petticoat of one's coverlet; how to save one's candle, by taking one's meals by the light of the opposite window.
farthing - farthing
coverlet - couvre-lit
petticoat - cotillon, jupon, combinaison
No one knows all that certain feeble creatures, who have grown old in privation and honesty, can get out of a sou. It ends by being a talent. Fantine acquired this sublime talent, and regained a little courage.
grown old - vieilli
regained - retrouvée, reconquérir, reprendre
At this epoch she said to a neighbor, "Bah! I say to myself, by only sleeping five hours, and working all the rest of the time at my sewing, I shall always manage to nearly earn my bread. And, then, when one is sad, one eats less. Well, sufferings, uneasiness, a little bread on one hand, trouble on the other,"all this will support me."
sewing - cousant, suture, (sew) cousant
sufferings - souffrances, souffrance, douleur
It would have been a great happiness to have her little girl with her in this distress. She thought of having her come. But what then! Make her share her own destitution! And then, she was in debt to the ThĂ©nardiers! How could she pay them? And the journey! How pay for that?
destitution - l'indigence, dénuement, indigence
The old woman who had given her lessons in what may be called the life of indigence, was a sainted spinster named Marguerite, who was pious with a true piety, poor and charitable towards the poor, and even towards the rich, knowing how to write just sufficiently to sign herself Marguerite, and believing in God, which is science.
indigence - l'indigence, indigence
There are many such virtuous people in this lower world; some day they will be in the world above. This life has a morrow.
At first, Fantine had been so ashamed that she had not dared to go out.
When she was in the street, she divined that people turned round behind her, and pointed at her; every one stared at her and no one greeted her; the cold and bitter scorn of the passers-by penetrated her very flesh and soul like a north wind.
It seems as though an unfortunate woman were utterly bare beneath the sarcasm and the curiosity of all in small towns. In Paris, at least, no one knows you, and this obscurity is a garment. Oh! how she would have liked to betake herself to Paris! Impossible!
sarcasm - sarcasme
betake - prendre
She was obliged to accustom herself to disrepute, as she had accustomed herself to indigence. Gradually she decided on her course. At the expiration of two or three months she shook off her shame, and began to go about as though there were nothing the matter. "It is all the same to me," she said.
disrepute - le discrédit, discrédit
shook off - secoué
She went and came, bearing her head well up, with a bitter smile, and was conscious that she was becoming brazen-faced.
brazen - effronté, cuivreux, aigu, dur comme de la pierre
Madame Victurnien sometimes saw her passing, from her window, noticed the distress of "that creature" who, "thanks to her," had been "put back in her proper place," and congratulated herself. The happiness of the evil-minded is black.
congratulated - félicité, féliciter
Excess of toil wore out Fantine, and the little dry cough which troubled her increased. She sometimes said to her neighbor, Marguerite, "Just feel how hot my hands are!"
dry cough - une toux seche
Nevertheless, when she combed her beautiful hair in the morning with an old broken comb, and it flowed about her like floss silk, she experienced a moment of happy coquetry.
combed - peigné, combe
floss - du fil dentaire
CHAPTER X"RESULT OF THE SUCCESS
She had been dismissed towards the end of the winter; the summer passed, but winter came again. Short days, less work. Winter: no warmth, no light, no noonday, the evening joining on to the morning, fogs, twilight; the window is gray; it is impossible to see clearly at it. The sky is but a vent-hole. The whole day is a cavern. The sun has the air of a beggar. A frightful season!
noonday - midi
fogs - les brouillards, brouillard
Winter changes the water of heaven and the heart of man into a stone. Her creditors harrassed her.
creditors - les créanciers, créancier, créanciere
harrassed - harcelés
Fantine earned too little. Her debts had increased. The ThĂ©nardiers, who were not promptly paid, wrote to her constantly letters whose contents drove her to despair, and whose carriage ruined her. One day they wrote to her that her little Cosette was entirely naked in that cold weather, that she needed a woollen skirt, and that her mother must send at least ten francs for this.
She received the letter, and crushed it in her hands all day long. That evening she went into a barber's shop at the corner of the street, and pulled out her comb. Her admirable golden hair fell to her knees.
barber - coiffeur, coiffeuse, barbier
comb - peigne, peignent, peigner, peignons, peignez
"What splendid hair!" exclaimed the barber.
"How much will you give me for it?" said she.
"Cut it off."
She purchased a knitted petticoat and sent it to the ThĂ©nardiers. This petticoat made the ThĂ©nardiers furious. It was the money that they wanted. They gave the petticoat to Ă‰ponine. The poor Lark continued to shiver.
Fantine thought: "My child is no longer cold. I have clothed her with my hair." She put on little round caps which concealed her shorn head, and in which she was still pretty.
Shorn - tondus, (shear), couper, tondre, cisailler, cisailles, cisaille
dark thoughts held possession of Fantine's heart.
dark thoughts - des pensées sombres
When she saw that she could no longer dress her hair, she began to hate every one about her. She had long shared the universal veneration for Father Madeleine; yet, by dint of repeating to herself that it was he who had discharged her, that he was the cause of her unhappiness, she came to hate him also, and most of all.
When she passed the factory in working hours, when the workpeople were at the door, she affected to laugh and sing.
workpeople - les travailleurs
An old workwoman who once saw her laughing and singing in this fashion said, "There's a girl who will come to a bad end."
She took a lover, the first who offered, a man whom she did not love, out of bravado and with rage in her heart. He was a miserable scamp, a sort of mendicant musician, a lazy beggar, who beat her, and who abandoned her as she had taken him, in disgust.
She adored her child.
The lower she descended, the darker everything grew about her, the more radiant shone that little angel at the bottom of her heart. She said, "When I get rich, I will have my Cosette with me;" and she laughed. Her cough did not leave her, and she had sweats on her back.
cough - tousser, toux
sweats - sweats, sueur
One day she received from the ThĂ©nardiers a letter couched in the following terms: "Cosette is ill with a malady which is going the rounds of the neighborhood. A miliary fever, they call it. Expensive drugs are required. This is ruining us, and we can no longer pay for them. If you do not send us forty francs before the week is out, the little one will be dead."
miliary - militaire
She burst out laughing, and said to her old neighbor: "Ah! they are good! Forty francs! the idea! That makes two napoleons! Where do they think I am to get them? These peasants are stupid, truly."
Nevertheless she went to a dormer window in the staircase and read the letter once more. Then she descended the stairs and emerged, running and leaping and still laughing.
dormer window - lucarne
leaping - sauter, bondir
Some one met her and said to her, "What makes you so gay?"
She replied: "A fine piece of stupidity that some country people have written to me. They demand forty francs of me. So much for you, you peasants!"
As she crossed the square, she saw a great many people collected around a carriage of eccentric shape, upon the top of which stood a man dressed in red, who was holding forth. He was a quack dentist on his rounds, who was offering to the public full sets of teeth, opiates, powders and elixirs.
eccentric - excentrique
quack - charlatanisme, couin-couin
opiates - les opiacés, opiacé
elixirs - élixirs, élixir
Fantine mingled in the group, and began to laugh with the rest at the harangue, which contained slang for the populace and jargon for respectable people. The tooth-puller espied the lovely, laughing girl, and suddenly exclaimed: "You have beautiful teeth, you girl there, who are laughing; if you want to sell me your palettes, I will give you a gold napoleon apiece for them."
slang - l'argot, argot
puller - l'extracteur
palettes - palettes, palette
apiece - chacun, chacune
"What are my palettes?" asked Fantine.
"The palettes," replied the dental professor, "are the front teeth, the two upper ones."
dental - dentaire, dental
"How horrible!" exclaimed Fantine.
"Two napoleons!" grumbled a toothless old woman who was present. "Here's a lucky girl!"
Fantine fled and stopped her ears that she might not hear the hoarse voice of the man shouting to her: "Reflect, my beauty! two napoleons; they may prove of service. If your heart bids you, come this evening to the inn of the Tillac d'Argent; you will find me there."
argent - argent
Fantine returned home. She was furious, and related the occurrence to her good neighbor Marguerite: "Can you understand such a thing? Is he not an abominable man? How can they allow such people to go about the country! Pull out my two front teeth! Why, I should be horrible! My hair will grow again, but my teeth! Ah! what a monster of a man!
Occurrence - occurrence
grow again - grandir a nouveau
I should prefer to throw myself head first on the pavement from the fifth story! He told me that he should be at the Tillac d'Argent this evening."
head first - la tete la premiere
"And what did he offer?" asked Marguerite.
"That makes forty francs."
"Yes," said Fantine; "that makes forty francs."
She remained thoughtful, and began her work. At the expiration of a quarter of an hour she left her sewing and went to read the ThĂ©nardiers'letter once more on the staircase.
On her return, she said to Marguerite, who was at work beside her:"
"What is a miliary fever? Do you know?"
"Yes," answered the old spinster; "it is a disease."
"Does it require many drugs?"
"Oh! terrible drugs."
"How does one get it?"
"It is a malady that one gets without knowing how."