Middlemarch with English-French Dictionary by George Eliot (online free books)

Middlemarch avec un dictionnaire anglais-français pratique (best ebooks to read)

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Middlemarch Text

George - george, Georges, Jorioz


Prelude - prélude

Who that cares much to know the history of man, and how the mysterious mixture behaves under the varying experiments of Time, has not dwelt, at least briefly, on the life of saint Theresa, has not smiled with some gentleness at the thought of the little girl walking forth one morning hand-in-hand with her still smaller brother, to go and seek martyrdom in the country of the Moors?

mysterious - mystérieux

varying - varier

dwelt - a habité, résider, s'appesantir sur

briefly - brievement, brievement, concisément

saint - Saint

gentleness - la douceur, rench:

forth - avant, en avant

seek - chercher

martyrdom - le martyre, martyre

moors - landes, lande

Out they toddled from rugged Avila, wide-eyed and helpless-looking as two fawns, but with human hearts, already beating to a national idea; until domestic reality met them in the shape of uncles, and turned them back from their great resolve. That child-pilgrimage was a fit beginning.

toddled - a fait du sur-place, chanceler

rugged - robuste, déchiqueté, accidenté, (rug), tapis, couverture

helpless - sans défense, désemparé

fawns - des faons, faon

domestic - domestique, amily, intérieur

resolve - résoudre, résolvons, résolvent, résolvez

pilgrimage - pelerinage, pelerinage, peleriner

Theresa's passionate, ideal nature demanded an epic life: what were many-volumed romances of chivalry and the social conquests of a brilliant girl to her?

passionate - passionné

demanded - demandée, demande, exigence, exiger

epic - épique, épopée

volumed - volumé, volume, tome

romances - romans d'amour, romance, idylle, amour romantique

chivalry - chevalerie, galanterie

conquests - conquetes, conquete

Her flame quickly burned up that light fuel; and, fed from within, soared after some illimitable satisfaction, some object which would never justify weariness, which would reconcile self-despair with the rapturous consciousness of life beyond self. She found her epos in the reform of a religious order.

flame - flamme, polémique

soared - s'est envolée, planer, monter, s'élever

illimitable - illimité

satisfaction - satisfaction

justify - justifier

reconcile - se réconcilier, réconcilier

self - soi, soi-meme

despair - le désespoir, désespérer, désespoir

rapturous - ravie

consciousness - la conscience, conscience

beyond - au-dela, au-dela, par-dela

epos - epos

Reform - la réforme, réforme, réformer

That Spanish woman who lived three hundred years ago, was certainly not the last of her kind.

Spanish - espagnol, castillan

Many Theresas have been born who found for themselves no epic life wherein there was a constant unfolding of far-resonant action; perhaps only a life of mistakes, the offspring of a certain spiritual grandeur ill-matched with the meanness of opportunity; perhaps a tragic failure which found no sacred poet and sank unwept into oblivion.

wherein - ou

constant - constant, constante

unfolding - en cours, (unfold), déplier, dérouler, checkdéplier

resonant - résonnante, résonant

offspring - de la progéniture, enfant, enfance, progéniture, descendance

spiritual - spirituel

grandeur - grandeur, splendeur

meanness - la méchanceté, abjection

tragic - tragique

failure - l'échec, échec, daube, flop, panne

sacred - sacrée, sacré, saint

unwept - sans amour

oblivion - l'oubli, oubli, néant

With dim lights and tangled circumstance they tried to shape their thought and deed in noble agreement; but after all, to common eyes their struggles seemed mere inconsistency and formlessness; for these later-born Theresas were helped by no coherent social faith and order which could perform the function of knowledge for the ardently willing soul.

dim - dim, faible, vague

tangled - enchevetrés, désordre, enchevetrement

circumstance - circonstances, circonstance

deed - acte, action, ouvre, exploit, haut fait, (dee)

noble - noble, aristocrate, aristocratique

struggles - des luttes, lutte, lutter, s'efforcer, combattre

mere - simple

inconsistency - incohérence, inconséquence

coherent - cohérent

Faith - la foi, foi, rench:, confiance

ardently - généreuxse, véhément

soul - âme

Their ardor alternated between a vague ideal and the common yearning of womanhood; so that the one was disapproved as extravagance, and the other condemned as a lapse.

ardor - l'ardeur, ardeur, ferveur

alternated - en alternance, alternatif, alternative, alterner

vague - vague

yearning - désir, (yearn) désir

womanhood - la féminité, féminité

disapproved - désapprouvé, désapprouver

condemned - condamnée, condamner, déclarer coupable

lapse - laps de temps, erreur, faute

Some have felt that these blundering lives are due to the inconvenient indefiniteness with which the Supreme Power has fashioned the natures of women: if there were one level of feminine incompetence as strict as the ability to count three and no more, the social lot of women might be treated with scientific certitude.

blundering - maladresses, embrouillant, (blunder), gaffe

inconvenient - genant

supreme - supreme, supreme

feminine - féminine, féminin, féminin (2)

incompetence - incompétence

strict - stricte, strict

certitude - certitude

Meanwhile the indefiniteness remains, and the limits of variation are really much wider than any one would imagine from the sameness of women's coiffure and the favorite love-stories in prose and verse. Here and there a cygnet is reared uneasily among the ducklings in the brown pond, and never finds the living stream in fellowship with its own oary-footed kind.

variation - variation, variante, déclinaison

coiffure - coiffure

prose - prose

verse - vers, strophe

cygnet - cygnet, cygneau, jeune cygne, petit du cygne

reared - élevé, arriere

uneasily - mal a l'aise

ducklings - canetons

pond - étang, mare

stream - flux, ruisseau, ru, rupt, filet, flot, courant

fellowship - la fraternité, confrérie, fraternité, camaraderie, bourse

Here and there is born a Saint Theresa, foundress of nothing, whose loving heart-beats and sobs after an unattained goodness tremble off and are dispersed among hindrances, instead of centring in some long-recognizable deed.

Saint - Saint

foundress - fondateurrice

sobs - sanglots, fdp-p

unattained - inatteignable

goodness - la bonté, bonté, bonté divine, corbleu, crebleu, jarnibleu

tremble - trembler, vibrer, tremblement, vibration

dispersed - dispersé, disperser, qualifier

hindrances - des obstacles, entrave, obstacle

recognizable - reconnaissable



Since I can do no good because a woman,

Reach constantly at something that is near it.

constantly - constamment, en boucle


maid - femme de ménage, demoiselle, jeune fille, bonne

tragedy - tragédie

Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress.

relief - secours, allégement, relief, soulagement

Her hand and wrist were so finely formed that she could wear sleeves not less bare of style than those in which the Blessed Virgin appeared to Italian painters; and her profile as well as her stature and bearing seemed to gain the more dignity from her plain garments, which by the side of provincial fashion gave her the impressiveness of a fine quotation from the Bible,"or from one of our elder poets,"in a paragraph of to-day's newspaper. She was usually spoken of as being remarkably clever, but with the addition that her sister Celia had more common-sense. Nevertheless, Celia wore scarcely more trimmings; and it was only to close observers that her dress differed from her sister's, and had a shade of coquetry in its arrangements; for Miss Brooke's plain dressing was due to mixed conditions, in most of which her sister shared. The pride of being ladies had something to do with it: the Brooke connections, though not exactly aristocratic, were unquestionably "good:" if you inquired backward for a generation or two, you would not find any yard-measuring or parcel-tying forefathers"anything lower than an admiral or a clergyman; and there was even an ancestor discernible as a Puritan gentleman who served under Cromwell, but afterwards conformed, and managed to come out of all political troubles as the proprietor of a respectable family estate. Young women of such birth, living in a quiet country-house, and attending a village church hardly larger than a parlor, naturally regarded frippery as the ambition of a huckster's daughter. Then there was well-bred economy, which in those days made show in dress the first item to be deducted from, when any margin was required for expenses more distinctive of rank. Such reasons would have been enough to account for plain dress, quite apart from religious feeling; but in Miss Brooke's case, religion alone would have determined it; and Celia mildly acquiesced in all her sister's sentiments, only infusing them with that common-sense which is able to accept momentous doctrines without any eccentric agitation. Dorothea knew many passages of Pascal's Pensees and of Jeremy Taylor by heart; and to her the destinies of mankind, seen by the light of Christianity, made the solicitudes of feminine fashion appear an occupation for Bedlam. She could not reconcile the anxieties of a spiritual life involving eternal consequences, with a keen interest in gimp and artificial protrusions of drapery. Her mind was theoretic, and yearned by its nature after some lofty conception of the world which might frankly include the parish of Tipton and her own rule of conduct there; she was enamoured of intensity and greatness, and rash in embracing whatever seemed to her to have those aspects; likely to seek martyrdom, to make retractations, and then to incur martyrdom after all in a quarter where she had not sought it. Certainly such elements in the character of a marriageable girl tended to interfere with her lot, and hinder it from being decided according to custom, by good looks, vanity, and merely canine affection. With all this, she, the elder of the sisters, was not yet twenty, and they had both been educated, since they were about twelve years old and had lost their parents, on plans at once narrow and promiscuous, first in an English family and afterwards in a Swiss family at Lausanne, their bachelor uncle and guardian trying in this way to remedy the disadvantages of their orphaned condition.

wrist - poignet

finely - finement

sleeves - manches, manche, chemise (inner), gaine (outer), manchon

bare - a nu, dénudé, dégarnir, nu

blessed - bienheureux, béni, (bless)

Virgin - vierge

gain - gain, gagner, produit

dignity - dignité, forme, rang

plain - simple, unie, net, plaine

garments - vetements, vetement

provincial - provinciale, provincial

impressiveness - impressionnant

Bible - la bible, Bible

remarkably - remarquablement

nevertheless - néanmoins, toutefois, pourtant, malgré tout

scarcely - a peine, a peine, guere

observers - observateurs, observateur

differed - différaient, différer (de)

shade - ombre, store, nuance, ton, esprit, ombrager, faire de l'ombre

coquetry - coquetterie, coquetisme

pride - l'orgueil, orgueil, fierté

aristocratic - aristocratique

unquestionably - incontestablement

inquired - a demandé, enqueter, renseigner

backward - a l'envers, arriéré, en arriere, a reculons

parcel - colis, paquet, parcelle, empaqueter, emballer, envelopper

forefathers - les ancetres, aieul, ancetre

admiral - amiral

clergyman - ecclésiastique, pretre, clerc

ancestor - ancetre, ancetre

Puritan - puritain

conformed - conforme, s'aligner, se conformer (a)

Proprietor - propriétaire

respectable - respectable, convenable

estate - patrimoine, noblesse, proprieté, biens, domaine, propriété

parlor - parloir, salon, salle de traite

regarded - considérée, considérer

frippery - friperie, oripeaux

huckster - colporteur, bonimenteur

bred - élevé, (breed), se reproduire, engendrer, élever, race

deducted - déduit, décompter, déduire

margin - marge

expenses - dépenses, dépense

distinctive - distinctif

mildly - légerement

acquiesced - acquiescé, acquiescer

sentiments - sentiments, sentiment

infusing - infusion, infuser

momentous - important

doctrines - doctrines, doctrine

eccentric - excentrique

agitation - l'agitation, agitation

passages - passages, passage

Pascal - pascal

Taylor - taylor, Tailler, Couture, Couturier, Sartre, Quemener, Thayer

destinies - destins, destin

mankind - l'humanité, humanité, genre humain, hommes

Christianity - le christianisme, christianisme, chrétienté

occupation - profession, occupation

bedlam - le chaos, cour du roi Pétaud, pétaudiere

anxieties - angoisses, anxiété, inquiétude, angoisse

eternal - éternelle, éternel

gimp - gimp

artificial - artificiels

protrusions - protubérances, protubérance

drapery - draperie, rideau

theoretic - théorétique, théorique

yearned - désiré, aspirer a

lofty - noble, haut

conception - conception

frankly - franchement

parish - paroisse

conduct - comportement, conduite, se comporter, conduire, mener

intensity - l'intensité, intensité

greatness - la grandeur, grandeur

rash - éruption cutanée, déviation

embracing - embrasser, étreindre, accolade

Aspects - aspects, aspect, rench: -neededr

incur - incurable, encourir, s'attirer, subir, impliquer, occasioner

sought - recherchée, chercher

marriageable - mariable

interfere - meler

hinder - entraver, gener, embarrasser, (hind) entraver

vanity - la vanité, vanité

merely - simplement, uniquement, seulement

canine - canine, canin

promiscuous - aux mours légeres

Swiss - suisse, helvétique, Suissesse

bachelor - célibataire, licence

guardian - gardien, tuteur, tutrice, curateur, curatrice

remedy - remede, remede, recours, remédier

orphaned - orphelin, orpheline

It was hardly a year since they had come to live at Tipton Grange with their uncle, a man nearly sixty, of acquiescent temper, miscellaneous opinions, and uncertain vote. He had travelled in his younger years, and was held in this part of the county to have contracted a too rambling habit of mind. Mr.

grange - close

acquiescent - acquiescé

temper - caractere, tempérament, humeur, état d'esprit, recuit

miscellaneous - divers

uncertain - incertaine

county - comté

contracted - sous contrat, contracter

Brooke's conclusions were as difficult to predict as the weather: it was only safe to say that he would act with benevolent intentions, and that he would spend as little money as possible in carrying them out.

benevolent - bienveillante, bienveillant

For the most glutinously indefinite minds enclose some hard grains of habit; and a man has been seen lax about all his own interests except the retention of his snuff-box, concerning which he was watchful, suspicious, and greedy of clutch.

glutinously - de façon gluante

lax - lax, relâché, laxiste

retention - rétention, droit de rétention

snuff - tabac a priser, coryza

concerning - concernant, inquiétude, souci, soin, préoccupation

watchful - attentif, vigilant

suspicious - suspect, méfiant, soupçonneux, suspicieux

greedy - avaricieux, cupide, avide, gourmand

clutch - embrayage, agriffons, couplage, saisir, agriffez, agriffent

In Mr. Brooke the hereditary strain of Puritan energy was clearly in abeyance; but in his niece Dorothea it glowed alike through faults and virtues, turning sometimes into impatience of her uncle's talk or his way of "letting things be" on his estate, and making her long all the more for the time when she would be of age and have some command of money for generous schemes.

hereditary - héréditaire

strain - souche, accablement

in abeyance - en suspens

niece - niece, niece

glowed - a brillé, briller, luire, irradier, lueur, éclat

alike - comme, semblable, pareil, analogue, pareillement

faults - défauts, défaut, faute, faille

virtues - vertus, vertu

Impatience - impatience

be of age - etre majeur

Command - commandement, ordre, maîtrise, commande, commander, ordonner

schemes - des schémas, plan, combine, machination, schéma

She was regarded as an heiress; for not only had the sisters seven hundred a-year each from their parents, but if Dorothea married and had a son, that son would inherit Mr. Brooke's estate, presumably worth about three thousand a-year"a rental which seemed wealth to provincial families, still discussing Mr.

heiress - héritiere, héritiere, successeuse, successrice

inherit - hériter

presumably - vraisemblablement

wealth - la richesse, richesse, profusion, abondance, checkfortune

Peel's late conduct on the Catholic question, innocent of future gold-fields, and of that gorgeous plutocracy which has so nobly exalted the necessities of genteel life.

peel - peler, pelent, pelage, coque, pelons, pelez

Catholic - catholique

gorgeous - magnifique

plutocracy - ploutocratie

nobly - noblement

necessities - des nécessités, nécessité, besoin

genteel - gentillesse, a la mode

And how should Dorothea not marry?"a girl so handsome and with such prospects? Nothing could hinder it but her love of extremes, and her insistence on regulating life according to notions which might cause a wary man to hesitate before he made her an offer, or even might lead her at last to refuse all offers.

handsome - beau

prospects - des perspectives, perspective

insistence - l'insistance, insistance

regulating - réglementer, régler

notions - notions, notion

wary - méfiance, méfiant, circonspect

hesitate - hésiter

refuse - refuser, refusons, refusent, refusez

offers - offres, offrir, proposer

A young lady of some birth and fortune, who knelt suddenly down on a brick floor by the side of a sick laborer and prayed fervidly as if she thought herself living in the time of the Apostles"who had strange whims of fasting like a Papist, and of sitting up at night to read old theological books!

Fortune - la fortune, destin, bonne chance, fortune

knelt - a genoux, agenouiller

brick - brique, soutien, rouge brique, en brique, briquer

laborer - travailleur, ouvrier

fervidly - avec ferveur

apostles - apôtres, apôtre

whims - des caprices, caprice

Papist - papiste

Such a wife might awaken you some fine morning with a new scheme for the application of her income which would interfere with political economy and the keeping of saddle-horses: a man would naturally think twice before he risked himself in such fellowship. Women were expected to have weak opinions; but the great safeguard of society and of domestic life was, that opinions were not acted on.

awaken - réveiller, se réveiller

scheme - le projet, plan, combine, machination, schéma, systeme

income - revenus, revenu, recette

saddle - selle, ensellement

safeguard - sauvegarde, protéger

Sane people did what their neighbors did, so that if any lunatics were at large, one might know and avoid them.

sane - sain, sain d'esprit

lunatics - des fous, dément, démente, aliéné, aliénée, lunatique

The rural opinion about the new young ladies, even among the cottagers, was generally in favor of Celia, as being so amiable and innocent-looking, while Miss Brooke's large eyes seemed, like her religion, too unusual and striking. Poor Dorothea!

rural - rural

amiable - aimable, avenant, affable

striking - frappant, éclatant, (strike), biffer, rayer, barrer, frapper

compared with her, the innocent-looking Celia was knowing and worldly-wise; so much subtler is a human mind than the outside tissues which make a sort of blazonry or clock-face for it.

worldly - laique

wise - sage, sensé, genre, raisonnable

subtler - plus subtil, subtil, délicat, astucieux

tissues - les tissus, tissu, mouchoir en papier, kleenex

blazonry - blason

Yet those who approached Dorothea, though prejudiced against her by this alarming hearsay, found that she had a charm unaccountably reconcilable with it. Most men thought her bewitching when she was on horseback. She loved the fresh air and the various aspects of the country, and when her eyes and cheeks glowed with mingled pleasure she looked very little like a devotee.

approached - approché, (s')approcher (de)

prejudiced - des préjugés, préjugé, idée préconçue, préjudice

hearsay - oui-dire, oui-dire, on-dit, rumeur

charm - charme, excitation, grâce

unaccountably - de façon inexplicable

reconcilable - conciliables

bewitching - envoutant, ensorceler, envouter

horseback - a cheval, a cheval

cheeks - joues, joue, fesse, culot, toupet, potence de bringuebale

mingled - mélangés, mélanger

devotee - dévoué, inconditionnel, dévot

Riding was an indulgence which she allowed herself in spite of conscientious qualms; she felt that she enjoyed it in a pagan sensuous way, and always looked forward to renouncing it.

indulgence - indulgence

spite - dépit, rancune

conscientious - consciencieux

qualms - des scrupules, scrupule

pagan - paien, paien, immoral, incivilisé, paienne

renouncing - renoncement, renoncer a

She was open, ardent, and not in the least self-admiring; indeed, it was pretty to see how her imagination adorned her sister Celia with attractions altogether superior to her own, and if any gentleman appeared to come to the Grange from some other motive than that of seeing Mr.

ardent - ardent, gloss

imagination - l'imagination, imagination

adorned - orné, décorer, orner, parer

altogether - tout a fait, completement, en meme temps, quoi qu'il en soit

superior - supérieur

motive - motif, mobile, theme, motiver, moteur, mouvant

Brooke, she concluded that he must be in love with Celia: Sir James Chettam, for example, whom she constantly considered from Celia's point of view, inwardly debating whether it would be good for Celia to accept him. That he should be regarded as a suitor to herself would have seemed to her a ridiculous irrelevance.

James - james, Jacques

inwardly - intérieurement

debating - débattre, débat, discussion

suitor - plaideur, prétendant, soupirant

ridiculous - ridicule

irrelevance - sans objet, nonertinence, insignifiance

Dorothea, with all her eagerness to know the truths of life, retained very childlike ideas about marriage.

retained - retenue, retenir, conserver, maintenir

She felt sure that she would have accepted the judicious Hooker, if she had been born in time to save him from that wretched mistake he made in matrimony; or John Milton when his blindness had come on; or any of the other great men whose odd habits it would have been glorious piety to endure; but an amiable handsome baronet, who said "Exactly" to her remarks even when she expressed uncertainty,"how could he affect her as a lover? The really delightful marriage must be that where your husband was a sort of father, and could teach you even Hebrew, if you wished it.

judicious - judicieux

hooker - prostituée, putain

wretched - misérable

matrimony - le mariage, mariage

blindness - la cécité, cécité

glorious - glorieux, splendide

piety - la piété, piété

endure - endurer, perdurer, supporter

remarks - remarques, remarque

uncertainty - l'incertitude, incertitude

lover - amante, amant, maîtresse

delightful - délicieux

Hebrew - l'hébreu, hébreu, hébraique

These peculiarities of Dorothea's character caused Mr. Brooke to be all the more blamed in neighboring families for not securing some middle-aged lady as guide and companion to his nieces.

peculiarities - particularités, singularité, bizarrerie, étrangeté

blamed - blâmé, blâmer

securing - sécurisation, sur, sécuriser

companion - compagnon, compagne

nieces - nieces, niece

But he himself dreaded so much the sort of superior woman likely to be available for such a position, that he allowed himself to be dissuaded by Dorothea's objections, and was in this case brave enough to defy the world"that is to say, Mrs. Cadwallader the Rector's wife, and the small group of gentry with whom he visited in the northeast corner of Loamshire.

dreaded - redouté, redouter, craindre, crainte

dissuaded - dissuadé, dissuader

objections - objections, objection

defy - défier, désobéir a

rector - recteur

gentry - gentry

northeast - nord-est

So Miss Brooke presided in her uncle's household, and did not at all dislike her new authority, with the homage that belonged to it.

presided - présidé, présider

household - foyer, ménage, maisonnée, domestique

homage - hommage

Sir James Chettam was going to dine at the Grange to-day with another gentleman whom the girls had never seen, and about whom Dorothea felt some venerating expectation.

dine - dîner

venerating - vénérer

expectation - attentes, attente

This was the Reverend Edward Casaubon, noted in the county as a man of profound learning, understood for many years to be engaged on a great work concerning religious history; also as a man of wealth enough to give lustre to his piety, and having views of his own which were to be more clearly ascertained on the publication of his book.

Reverend - révérend

Edward - edward, Édouard

profound - profond

lustre - l'éclat, lustre, éclat

ascertained - vérifié, constater, définir

publication - publication

His very name carried an impressiveness hardly to be measured without a precise chronology of scholarship.

precise - précis, préciser

Chronology - chronologie

scholarship - bourse, bourse d'études, érudition

Early in the day Dorothea had returned from the infant school which she had set going in the village, and was taking her usual place in the pretty sitting-room which divided the bedrooms of the sisters, bent on finishing a plan for some buildings (a kind of work which she delighted in), when Celia, who had been watching her with a hesitating desire to propose something, said"

infant school - l'école maternelle

delighted - ravie, plaisir, délice, joie, enchanter, ravir

hesitating - hésitant, hésiter

desire - désirer, désir

propose - proposer, demander en mariage

"Dorothea, dear, if you don't mind"if you are not very busy"suppose we looked at mamma's jewels to-day, and divided them? It is exactly six months to-day since uncle gave them to you, and you have not looked at them yet."

mamma - mamma, maman

jewels - bijoux, joyau, bijou, pierre d'horlogerie, rubis

Celia's face had the shadow of a pouting expression in it, the full presence of the pout being kept back by an habitual awe of Dorothea and principle; two associated facts which might show a mysterious electricity if you touched them incautiously. To her relief, Dorothea's eyes were full of laughter as she looked up.

shadow - l'ombre, ombre, prendre en filature, filer

pouting - faire la moue, (pout) faire la moue

presence - présence

kept back - Retenu

habitual - habituel

awe - la stupeur, crainte, révérence, admiration

principle - principe

associated - associés, fréquenter, associer

incautiously - de maniere imprudente

"What a wonderful little almanac you are, Celia! Is it six calendar or six lunar months?"

almanac - almanach

calendar - calendrier, agenda, emploi du temps, programme

lunar - lunaire, sélénite, rench: t-needed r

"It is the last day of September now, and it was the first of April when uncle gave them to you. You know, he said that he had forgotten them till then. I believe you have never thought of them since you locked them up in the cabinet here."

till then - jusqu'a ce moment-la

cabinet - armoire, cabinet

"Well, dear, we should never wear them, you know." Dorothea spoke in a full cordial tone, half caressing, half explanatory. She had her pencil in her hand, and was making tiny side-plans on a margin.

cordial - cordial, sirop

tone - ton, tonalité, tonale

caressing - caressant, (cares) caressant

explanatory - explicatif

Celia colored, and looked very grave. "I think, dear, we are wanting in respect to mamma's memory, to put them by and take no notice of them. And," she added, after hesitating a little, with a rising sob of mortification, "necklaces are quite usual now; and Madame Poincon, who was stricter in some things even than you are, used to wear ornaments.

grave - tombe

sob - sanglot, fdp

mortification - mortification

necklaces - colliers, collier, supplice du pneu

stricter - plus stricte, strict

ornaments - ornements, ornement, ornement musical

And Christians generally"surely there are women in heaven now who wore jewels." Celia was conscious of some mental strength when she really applied herself to argument.

Christians - les chrétiens, chrétien, chrétienne, Christian

Heaven - le paradis, ciel, paradis, au-dela, cieux

conscious - conscient

"You would like to wear them?" exclaimed Dorothea, an air of astonished discovery animating her whole person with a dramatic action which she had caught from that very Madame Poincon who wore the ornaments. "Of course, then, let us have them out. Why did you not tell me before? But the keys, the keys!" She pressed her hands against the sides of her head and seemed to despair of her memory.

exclaimed - s'est exclamé, exclamer

astonished - étonné, étonner, surprendre

animating - animer, animé

dramatic - dramatique, spectaculaire

"They are here," said Celia, with whom this explanation had been long meditated and prearranged.

meditated - médité, méditer

"Pray open the large drawer of the cabinet and get out the jewel-box."

drawer - tiroir, souscripteur

jewel - joyau, bijou, pierre d'horlogerie, rubis

The casket was soon open before them, and the various jewels spread out, making a bright parterre on the table. It was no great collection, but a few of the ornaments were really of remarkable beauty, the finest that was obvious at first being a necklace of purple amethysts set in exquisite gold work, and a pearl cross with five brilliants in it.

casket - cercueil, coffret

parterre - parterre

remarkable - remarquable

necklace - collier, supplice du pneu

amethysts - améthystes, améthyste

exquisite - exquis

pearl - perle, joyau, perlure, parisienne, sédanoise

Dorothea immediately took up the necklace and fastened it round her sister's neck, where it fitted almost as closely as a bracelet; but the circle suited the Henrietta-Maria style of Celia's head and neck, and she could see that it did, in the pier-glass opposite.

closely - de pres, étroitement, pres

bracelet - bracelet

pier-glass - (pier-glass) Trumeau

"There, Celia! you can wear that with your Indian muslin. But this cross you must wear with your dark dresses."

Indian - indien, amérindien, Indienne

muslin - mousseline

Celia was trying not to smile with pleasure. "O Dodo, you must keep the cross yourself."

"No, no, dear, no," said Dorothea, putting up her hand with careless deprecation.

deprecation - la dépréciation, désapprobation

"Yes, indeed you must; it would suit you"in your black dress, now," said Celia, insistingly. "You might wear that."

insistingly - avec insistance

"Not for the world, not for the world. A cross is the last thing I would wear as a trinket." Dorothea shuddered slightly.

trinket - colifichet, bibelot, breloque, babiole, bricole

shuddered - a tremblé, tremblement, frisson, frissonner, trembler

"Then you will think it wicked in me to wear it," said Celia, uneasily.

wicked - méchante, chicaneur, torve, (wick) méchante

"No, dear, no," said Dorothea, stroking her sister's cheek. "Souls have complexions too: what will suit one will not suit another."

stroking - la caresse, (stroke) la caresse

cheek - joue, fesse, culot, toupet, potence de bringuebale

souls - âmes, âme

complexions - teint, complexion

"But you might like to keep it for mamma's sake."

sake - du saké, dans l'intéret de qqn

"No, I have other things of mamma's"her sandal-wood box which I am so fond of"plenty of things. In fact, they are all yours, dear. We need discuss them no longer. There"take away your property."

sandal - sandale

fond - fond, tendre, amoureux

Celia felt a little hurt. There was a strong assumption of superiority in this Puritanic toleration, hardly less trying to the blond flesh of an unenthusiastic sister than a Puritanic persecution.

assumption - hypothese, assomption, supposition, hypothese, proposition

superiority - supériorité

toleration - tolérance

blond - blond, blonde

flesh - de la chair, chair, peau, viande, corps, pulpe

unenthusiastic - peu enthousiaste

persecution - la persécution, persécution

"But how can I wear ornaments if you, who are the elder sister, will never wear them?"

"Nay, Celia, that is too much to ask, that I should wear trinkets to keep you in countenance. If I were to put on such a necklace as that, I should feel as if I had been pirouetting. The world would go round with me, and I should not know how to walk."

Nay - nay, ou plutôt, voire, que dis-je

trinkets - bibelots, colifichet, bibelot, breloque, babiole, bricole

countenance - visage, approuver

pirouetting - pirouette

go round - faire le tour

Celia had unclasped the necklace and drawn it off. "It would be a little tight for your neck; something to lie down and hang would suit you better," she said, with some satisfaction. The complete unfitness of the necklace from all points of view for Dorothea, made Celia happier in taking it.

unclasped - sans fermoir, dégrafer

She was opening some ring-boxes, which disclosed a fine emerald with diamonds, and just then the sun passing beyond a cloud sent a bright gleam over the table.

ring - anneau, cerne, ring, tinter

disclosed - divulguée, découvrir, laisser voir, révéler, divulguer

emerald - émeraude

gleam - briller, luisent, luisez, brillant, luisons

"How very beautiful these gems are!" said Dorothea, under a new current of feeling, as sudden as the gleam. "It is strange how deeply colors seem to penetrate one, like scent. I suppose that is the reason why gems are used as spiritual emblems in the Revelation of St. John. They look like fragments of heaven. I think that emerald is more beautiful than any of them."

gems - des pierres précieuses, joyau, pierre précieuse, merle blanc

deeply - profondément

penetrate - pénétrer

scent - parfum, odeur, odorat, sentir

emblems - emblemes, embleme

revelation - révélation

fragments - fragments, fragment, fragmenter

"And there is a bracelet to match it," said Celia. "We did not notice this at first."

"They are lovely," said Dorothea, slipping the ring and bracelet on her finely turned finger and wrist, and holding them towards the window on a level with her eyes. All the while her thought was trying to justify her delight in the colors by merging them in her mystic religious joy.

slipping - glissement, glisser

delight - plaisir, délice, joie, enchanter, ravir

merging - fusionner, (merge), amalgamer

mystic - mystique

joy - joie

"You would like those, Dorothea," said Celia, rather falteringly, beginning to think with wonder that her sister showed some weakness, and also that emeralds would suit her own complexion even better than purple amethysts. "You must keep that ring and bracelet"if nothing else. But see, these agates are very pretty and quiet."

falteringly - de maniere hésitante

weakness - faiblesse, point faible

emeralds - émeraudes, émeraude

complexion - le teint, teint, complexion

"Yes! I will keep these"this ring and bracelet," said Dorothea. Then, letting her hand fall on the table, she said in another tone""Yet what miserable men find such things, and work at them, and sell them!" She paused again, and Celia thought that her sister was going to renounce the ornaments, as in consistency she ought to do.

miserable - misérable

paused - en pause, pauser, pause

renounce - renoncer

consistency - cohérence, consistance

"Yes, dear, I will keep these," said Dorothea, decidedly. "But take all the rest away, and the casket."

decidedly - résolument, décidément, clairement

She took up her pencil without removing the jewels, and still looking at them. She thought of often having them by her, to feed her eye at these little fountains of pure color.

fountains - fontaines, fontaine

pure - pure, pur, pudique

"Shall you wear them in company?" said Celia, who was watching her with real curiosity as to what she would do.

curiosity - curiosité

Dorothea glanced quickly at her sister. Across all her imaginative adornment of those whom she loved, there darted now and then a keen discernment, which was not without a scorching quality. If Miss Brooke ever attained perfect meekness, it would not be for lack of inward fire.

glanced - a glissé, jeter un coup d’oil, coup d'oil

imaginative - imaginatif

adornment - parure

darted - dardé, dard, fleche

scorching - brulante, roussir, bruler

attained - atteint, atteindre

meekness - la douceur

inward - vers l'intérieur, intérieur

"Perhaps," she said, rather haughtily. "I cannot tell to what level I may sink."

haughtily - hautainement, avec dédain

Celia blushed, and was unhappy: she saw that she had offended her sister, and dared not say even anything pretty about the gift of the ornaments which she put back into the box and carried away. Dorothea too was unhappy, as she went on with her plan-drawing, questioning the purity of her own feeling and speech in the scene which had ended with that little explosion.

blushed - rougi, rougeur

offended - offensée, offenser, déplaire, blesser, fr

dared - osé, oser

purity - la pureté, pureté

Celia's consciousness told her that she had not been at all in the wrong: it was quite natural and justifiable that she should have asked that question, and she repeated to herself that Dorothea was inconsistent: either she should have taken her full share of the jewels, or, after what she had said, she should have renounced them altogether.

justifiable - justifiable

inconsistent - incohérent

renounced - renoncé, renoncer a

"I am sure"at least, I trust," thought Celia, "that the wearing of a necklace will not interfere with my prayers. And I do not see that I should be bound by Dorothea's opinions now we are going into society, though of course she herself ought to be bound by them. But Dorothea is not always consistent."

trust - confiance, trust, faire confiance, avoir foi en quelqu’un

bound - lié, entrain, (bind), lier, attacher, nouer, connecter, coupler

consistent - cohérent

Thus Celia, mutely bending over her tapestry, until she heard her sister calling her.

thus - donc, ainsi, tellement, pour cette raison, également

mutely - en sourdine

tapestry - tapisserie, rench: t-needed r

"Here, Kitty, come and look at my plan; I shall think I am a great architect, if I have not got incompatible stairs and fireplaces."

Kitty - kitty, minet, chaton, mimi, cagnotte

incompatible - incompatible

fireplaces - les cheminées, âtre, foyer, cheminée

As Celia bent over the paper, Dorothea put her cheek against her sister's arm caressingly. Celia understood the action. Dorothea saw that she had been in the wrong, and Celia pardoned her. Since they could remember, there had been a mixture of criticism and awe in the attitude of Celia's mind towards her elder sister.

caressingly - caressant

criticism - critiques, critique

The younger had always worn a yoke; but is there any yoked creature without its private opinions?

yoked - en couple, joug

creature - créature, etre


Dime; no ves aquel caballero que hacia nosotros viene sobre un caballo rucio rodado que trae puesto en la cabeza un yelmo de oro?'˜Lo que veo y columbro,'respondio Sancho, ˜no es sino un hombre sobre un as no pardo como el mio, que trae sobre la cabeza una cosa que relumbra.'˜Pues ese es el yelmo de Mambrino,'dijo Don Quijote.""CERVANTES.

dime - dix cents, (piece de) dix cents

caballero - caballero

un - un, ONU

en - en

la - La

hombre - hombre

Ese - ESE

"˜Seest thou not yon cavalier who cometh toward us on a dapple-gray steed, and weareth a golden helmet?'˜What I see,'answered Sancho, ˜is nothing but a man on a gray ass like my own, who carries something shiny on his head.'˜Just so,'answered Don Quixote: ˜and that resplendent object is the helmet of Mambrino.'"

thou - tu

yon - celui la

cavalier - nonchalant, cavalier, chevalier

cometh - vient

toward - vers, envers, pour, pres de

dapple - pommelé, taché, tacheté

Gray - gris

steed - steed, coursier

weareth - porte

helmet - casque

ass - cul, aliboron, ane, âne

Quixote - Quixote

resplendent - resplendissante

"Sir Humphry Davy?" said Mr. Brooke, over the soup, in his easy smiling way, taking up Sir James Chettam's remark that he was studying Davy's Agricultural Chemistry. "Well, now, Sir Humphry Davy; I dined with him years ago at Cartwright's, and Wordsworth was there too"the poet Wordsworth, you know. Now there was something singular.

remark - remarque, remarquent, remarquez, remarquons

agricultural - agricole

dined - dîné, vacarme

singular - singulier

I was at Cambridge when Wordsworth was there, and I never met him"and I dined with him twenty years afterwards at Cartwright's. There's an oddity in things, now. But Davy was there: he was a poet too. Or, as I may say, Wordsworth was poet one, and Davy was poet two. That was true in every sense, you know."

Cambridge - cambridge, l'université de Cambridge

dined - dîné, dîner

oddity - bizarrerie, excentricité

Dorothea felt a little more uneasy than usual. In the beginning of dinner, the party being small and the room still, these motes from the mass of a magistrate's mind fell too noticeably. She wondered how a man like Mr. Casaubon would support such triviality.

more uneasy - plus mal a l'aise

mass - masse, foule, amas

magistrate - magistrat

noticeably - de maniere perceptible

His manners, she thought, were very dignified; the set of his iron-gray hair and his deep eye-sockets made him resemble the portrait of Locke. He had the spare form and the pale complexion which became a student; as different as possible from the blooming Englishman of the red-whiskered type represented by Sir James Chettam.

dignified - digne, honorer

sockets - des prises, prise, douille, orbite (for the eye), cavité

resemble - ressembler

spare - de rechange, épargner, loisirs, économiser

blooming - la floraison, fleur

Englishman - Anglais

whiskered - moustachu, favoris-p, poil de barbe, moustache, vibrisse

"I am reading the Agricultural Chemistry," said this excellent baronet, "because I am going to take one of the farms into my own hands, and see if something cannot be done in setting a good pattern of farming among my tenants. Do you approve of that, Miss Brooke?"

tenants - locataires, (de) locataire

approve - approuver, éprouvé, approuvent, approuvez

"A great mistake, Chettam," interposed Mr. Brooke, "going into electrifying your land and that kind of thing, and making a parlor of your cow-house. It won't do. I went into science a great deal myself at one time; but I saw it would not do. It leads to everything; you can let nothing alone.

interposed - interposée, interposer, intercaler, interrompre, couper

electrifying - électrisant, électrifier, électriser

No, no"see that your tenants don't sell their straw, and that kind of thing; and give them draining-tiles, you know. But your fancy farming will not do"the most expensive sort of whistle you can buy: you may as well keep a pack of hounds."

straw - paille, fétu, jaune paille

draining - drainant, drain, bonde, hémorragie, gouffre, drainer

tiles - tuiles, tuile, carreau

whistle - sifflet, siffler, sifflement, sifflements

hounds - chiens de chasse, chien (de chasse)

"Surely," said Dorothea, "it is better to spend money in finding out how men can make the most of the land which supports them all, than in keeping dogs and horses only to gallop over it. It is not a sin to make yourself poor in performing experiments for the good of all."

gallop - galop, galoper

sin - péché, mal

She spoke with more energy than is expected of so young a lady, but Sir James had appealed to her. He was accustomed to do so, and she had often thought that she could urge him to many good actions when he was her brother-in-law.

appealed - a fait l'objet d'un appel, en appeler (a), supplier

accustomed - habitué, accoutumer

urge - envie, pulsion, pousser, inciter, provoquer, insister

Mr. Casaubon turned his eyes very markedly on Dorothea while she was speaking, and seemed to observe her newly.

markedly - de façon marquée, nettement

observe - observer, remarquer, respecter, garder

newly - nouvellement, récemment

"Young ladies don't understand political economy, you know," said Mr. Brooke, smiling towards Mr. Casaubon. "I remember when we were all reading Adam Smith. There is a book, now. I took in all the new ideas at one time"human perfectibility, now. But some say, history moves in circles; and that may be very well argued; I have argued it myself.

Adam - adam

Smith - smith, Lefevre, Lefébure, Lefebvre

perfectibility - perfectibilité

The fact is, human reason may carry you a little too far"over the hedge, in fact. It carried me a good way at one time; but I saw it would not do. I pulled up; I pulled up in time. But not too hard. I have always been in favor of a little theory: we must have Thought; else we shall be landed back in the dark ages. But talking of books, there is Southey's ˜Peninsular War.

hedge - couverture, haie

Peninsular - péninsulaire

'I am reading that of a morning. You know Southey?"

"No," said Mr. Casaubon, not keeping pace with Mr. Brooke's impetuous reason, and thinking of the book only. "I have little leisure for such literature just now. I have been using up my eyesight on old characters lately; the fact is, I want a reader for my evenings; but I am fastidious in voices, and I cannot endure listening to an imperfect reader.

pace - rythme, pas

impetuous - impétueux

eyesight - la vue, vue, vision

lately - dernierement

fastidious - fastidieux, pointilleux, minutieux, méticuleux, exigeant

imperfect - imparfait

It is a misfortune, in some senses: I feed too much on the inward sources; I live too much with the dead. My mind is something like the ghost of an ancient, wandering about the world and trying mentally to construct it as it used to be, in spite of ruin and confusing changes. But I find it necessary to use the utmost caution about my eyesight."

misfortune - malchance, mésaventure, malheur

wandering - l'errance, errement, errance, divagation, (wander), errer

mentally - mentalement

construct - construction, construire

ruin - la ruine, ruine, ruiner, abîmer, foutre en l'air

utmost - le plus important, extreme, plus grand, supreme, maximum

caution - prudence, admonition, checkavertissement, checkmise en garde

This was the first time that Mr. Casaubon had spoken at any length. He delivered himself with precision, as if he had been called upon to make a public statement; and the balanced sing-song neatness of his speech, occasionally corresponded to by a movement of his head, was the more conspicuous from its contrast with good Mr. Brooke's scrappy slovenliness. Dorothea said to herself that Mr.

precision - précision

neatness - la propreté, netteté

Occasionally - occasionnellement

corresponded - ont correspondu, correspondre (...a qqchose)

more conspicuous - plus visible

Scrappy - scrappy

Casaubon was the most interesting man she had ever seen, not excepting even Monsieur Liret, the Vaudois clergyman who had given conferences on the history of the Waldenses. To reconstruct a past world, doubtless with a view to the highest purposes of truth"what a work to be in any way present at, to assist in, though only as a lamp-holder!

monsieur - Monsieur

doubtless - sans doute, sans aucun doute, sans nul doute, indubitablement

holder - porteur, porteuse, détenteur, détentrice

This elevating thought lifted her above her annoyance at being twitted with her ignorance of political economy, that never-explained science which was thrust as an extinguisher over all her lights.

elevating - l'élévation, élever, augmenter

annoyance - l'agacement, ennui, nuisance, irritation, checkagacement

twitted - twitté, crétin/-e

ignorance - l'ignorance, ignorance

thrust - estocade, poussée, propulser

"But you are fond of riding, Miss Brooke," Sir James presently took an opportunity of saying. "I should have thought you would enter a little into the pleasures of hunting. I wish you would let me send over a chestnut horse for you to try. It has been trained for a lady. I saw you on Saturday cantering over the hill on a nag not worthy of you.

chestnut - châtaigne, marron, châtain, châtaigner, marronnier

cantering - au galop, petit galop

Nag - nag, harceler, houspiller

worthy - digne

My groom shall bring Corydon for you every day, if you will only mention the time."

groom - marié, garçon d'écurie

"Thank you, you are very good. I mean to give up riding. I shall not ride any more," said Dorothea, urged to this brusque resolution by a little annoyance that Sir James would be soliciting her attention when she wanted to give it all to Mr. Casaubon.

urged - pressé, pulsion, pousser, inciter, provoquer, insister

brusque - brusque

resolution - conviction, résolution, détermination

soliciting - sollicitation, (solicit) sollicitation

"No, that is too hard," said Sir James, in a tone of reproach that showed strong interest. "Your sister is given to self-mortification, is she not?" he continued, turning to Celia, who sat at his right hand.

reproach - des reproches, reproche, opprobre, reprocher

"I think she is," said Celia, feeling afraid lest she should say something that would not please her sister, and blushing as prettily as possible above her necklace. "She likes giving up."

blushing - rougir, (blush) rougir

prettily - joliment

"If that were true, Celia, my giving-up would be self-indulgence, not self-mortification. But there may be good reasons for choosing not to do what is very agreeable," said Dorothea.

agreeable - agréable, complaisant

Mr. Brooke was speaking at the same time, but it was evident that Mr. Casaubon was observing Dorothea, and she was aware of it.

evident - évidentes, évident

observing - l'observation, observer, remarquer, respecter, garder

"Exactly," said Sir James. "You give up from some high, generous motive."

"No, indeed, not exactly. I did not say that of myself," answered Dorothea, reddening. Unlike Celia, she rarely blushed, and only from high delight or anger. At this moment she felt angry with the perverse Sir James. Why did he not pay attention to Celia, and leave her to listen to Mr. Casaubon?"if that learned man would only talk, instead of allowing himself to be talked to by Mr.

reddening - le rougissement, rougir, faire rougir

anger - la colere, colere, ire, courroux, rage

perverse - pervers

Brooke, who was just then informing him that the Reformation either meant something or it did not, that he himself was a Protestant to the core, but that Catholicism was a fact; and as to refusing an acre of your ground for a Romanist chapel, all men needed the bridle of religion, which, properly speaking, was the dread of a Hereafter.

informing - informer, avertir (de)

reformation - la réforme, réformation, Réforme, réforme protestante

Protestant - protestant, protestante

core - noyau

Catholicism - le catholicisme, catholicisme

refusing - refusant, refuser de

Acre - acre

Romanist - Romaniste

chapel - chapelle

bridle - bride, brider, refréner, etre susceptible

dread - peur, redouter, craindre, crainte

"I made a great study of theology at one time," said Mr. Brooke, as if to explain the insight just manifested. "I know something of all schools. I knew Wilberforce in his best days. Do you know Wilberforce?"

theology - la théologie, théologie

insight - de la perspicacité, introspection, perspicacité, aperçu

manifested - manifesté, manifeste, bordereau, profession de foi

Mr. Casaubon said, "No."

"Well, Wilberforce was perhaps not enough of a thinker; but if I went into Parliament, as I have been asked to do, I should sit on the independent bench, as Wilberforce did, and work at philanthropy."

thinker - penseur, penseuse, intellectuel

Parliament - le parlement, parlement, pain d'épices

Bench - banc, établi, banquette

philanthropy - philanthropie

Mr. Casaubon bowed, and observed that it was a wide field.

bowed - incliné, (s')incliner devant, saluer d'un signe de tete

observed - observée, observer, remarquer, respecter, garder

"Yes," said Mr. Brooke, with an easy smile, "but I have documents. I began a long while ago to collect documents. They want arranging, but when a question has struck me, I have written to somebody and got an answer. I have documents at my back. But now, how do you arrange your documents?"

struck - frappé, biffer, rayer, barrer, frapper, battre

"In pigeon-holes partly," said Mr. Casaubon, with rather a startled air of effort.

pigeon - pigeon, sourde, colombe

partly - en partie

startled - surpris, sursauter, surprendre

"Ah, pigeon-holes will not do. I have tried pigeon-holes, but everything gets mixed in pigeon-holes: I never know whether a paper is in A or Z."

"I wish you would let me sort your papers for you, uncle," said Dorothea. "I would letter them all, and then make a list of subjects under each letter."

Mr. Casaubon gravely smiled approval, and said to Mr. Brooke, "You have an excellent secretary at hand, you perceive."

gravely - gravement

approval - agrément, approbation

perceive - percevoir

"No, no," said Mr. Brooke, shaking his head; "I cannot let young ladies meddle with my documents. Young ladies are too flighty."

meddle - s'immiscer, s'ingérer, se meler

flighty - volage, candide, insouciant

Dorothea felt hurt. Mr. Casaubon would think that her uncle had some special reason for delivering this opinion, whereas the remark lay in his mind as lightly as the broken wing of an insect among all the other fragments there, and a chance current had sent it alighting on her.

whereas - tandis que, alors que, compte tenu de, vu que

lightly - légerement, légerement

alighting - descendre (de)

When the two girls were in the drawing-room alone, Celia said"

"How very ugly Mr. Casaubon is!"

"Celia! He is one of the most distinguished-looking men I ever saw. He is remarkably like the portrait of Locke. He has the same deep eye-sockets."

distinguished - distingué, distinguer

"Had Locke those two white moles with hairs on them?"

moles - taupes, grain de beauté

"Oh, I dare say! when people of a certain sort looked at him," said Dorothea, walking away a little.

dare - oser, aventurer

"Mr. Casaubon is so sallow."

sallow - pâle, incolore, pâlot, blafard

"All the better. I suppose you admire a man with the complexion of a cochon de lait."

"Dodo!" exclaimed Celia, looking after her in surprise. "I never heard you make such a comparison before."

"Why should I make it before the occasion came? It is a good comparison: the match is perfect."

Miss Brooke was clearly forgetting herself, and Celia thought so.

"I wonder you show temper, Dorothea."

"It is so painful in you, Celia, that you will look at human beings as if they were merely animals with a toilet, and never see the great soul in a man's face."

beings - etres, etre, créature, existence

"Has Mr. Casaubon a great soul?" Celia was not without a touch of naive malice.

naive - naif, naif, ingénu

malice - malveillance, méchanceté

"Yes, I believe he has," said Dorothea, with the full voice of decision. "Everything I see in him corresponds to his pamphlet on Biblical Cosmology."

corresponds - correspond, correspondre (...a qqchose)

pamphlet - brochure, pamphlet

Biblical - biblique

Cosmology - cosmologie

"He talks very little," said Celia

"There is no one for him to talk to."

Celia thought privately, "Dorothea quite despises Sir James Chettam; I believe she would not accept him." Celia felt that this was a pity. She had never been deceived as to the object of the baronet's interest.

privately - en privé

despises - méprise, mépriser, dédaigner

pity - compassion, pitié, dommage, honte, plaindre, avoir pitié de

deceived - trompé, tromper, leurrer, séduire

Sometimes, indeed, she had reflected that Dodo would perhaps not make a husband happy who had not her way of looking at things; and stifled in the depths of her heart was the feeling that her sister was too religious for family comfort. Notions and scruples were like spilt needles, making one afraid of treading, or sitting down, or even eating.

stifled - étouffé, étouffer

depths - profondeurs, profondeur, épaisseur

comfort - le confort, confort, consoler

scruples - des scrupules, scrupule

spilt - renversé, déverser, répandre, renverser, déversement

treading - le piétinement, (tread) le piétinement

When Miss Brooke was at the tea-table, Sir James came to sit down by her, not having felt her mode of answering him at all offensive. Why should he? He thought it probable that Miss Brooke liked him, and manners must be very marked indeed before they cease to be interpreted by preconceptions either confident or distrustful.

mode - mode, maniere

offensive - offensant, offensif, offensive

probable - probable

cease - cesser, s'arreter, cesser de + 'infinitive'

interpreted - interprétées, interpréter, traduire

preconceptions - des idées préconçues, préconception

distrustful - méfiant, suspicieux

She was thoroughly charming to him, but of course he theorized a little about his attachment. He was made of excellent human dough, and had the rare merit of knowing that his talents, even if let loose, would not set the smallest stream in the county on fire: hence he liked the prospect of a wife to whom he could say, "What shall we do?

thoroughly - a fond, absolument, completement

charming - charmant, (charm)

theorized - théorisée, théoriser

attachment - l'attachement, attachement, dépendance, piece jointe, saisie

dough - pâte, fric, oseille, galette, pognon

merit - mérite, mériter

loose - en vrac, ample, desserré

hence - d'ou, d'ici, ainsi, donc, d'ou

prospect - prospect, perspective, prospecter

" about this or that; who could help her husband out with reasons, and would also have the property qualification for doing so. As to the excessive religiousness alleged against Miss Brooke, he had a very indefinite notion of what it consisted in, and thought that it would die out with marriage.

excessive - excessif

religiousness - la religiosité

alleged - allégué, prétendre, alléguer

notion - notion

die out - s'éteindre

In short, he felt himself to be in love in the right place, and was ready to endure a great deal of predominance, which, after all, a man could always put down when he liked. Sir James had no idea that he should ever like to put down the predominance of this handsome girl, in whose cleverness he delighted. Why not?

predominance - prédominance

cleverness - l'ingéniosité

A man's mind"what there is of it"has always the advantage of being masculine,"as the smallest birch-tree is of a higher kind than the most soaring palm,"and even his ignorance is of a sounder quality. Sir James might not have originated this estimate; but a kind Providence furnishes the limpest personality with a little gum or starch in the form of tradition.

masculine - masculin

birch - le bouleau, bouleau, badine, baguette, verge, verger

soaring - l'envol, (soar), planer, monter, s'élever, grimper en fleche

palm - palmier, paume

originated - d'origine, instituer, prendre sa source

estimate - estimation, devis, estimer

Providence - la providence, Providence

furnishes - meubles, meubler, fournir, livrer

limpest - le plus mou, mou, faible

gum - chewing-gum, gomme, gencive

starch - l'amidon, amidon, rigidité, appret, empois, cati, amidonner

"Let me hope that you will rescind that resolution about the horse, Miss Brooke," said the persevering admirer. "I assure you, riding is the most healthy of exercises."

rescind - abroger, annuler

persevering - persévérant, persévérer

admirer - admirateur, admiratrice

assure - assurer, rassurer

"I am aware of it," said Dorothea, coldly. "I think it would do Celia good"if she would take to it."

coldly - froidement

"But you are such a perfect horsewoman."

horsewoman - cavaliere, écuyere

"Excuse me; I have had very little practice, and I should be easily thrown."

Excuse - pardon, excuser, pardonner, justifier, prétexte, excuse

"Then that is a reason for more practice. Every lady ought to be a perfect horsewoman, that she may accompany her husband."

accompany - accompagner

"You see how widely we differ, Sir James. I have made up my mind that I ought not to be a perfect horsewoman, and so I should never correspond to your pattern of a lady." Dorothea looked straight before her, and spoke with cold brusquerie, very much with the air of a handsome boy, in amusing contrast with the solicitous amiability of her admirer.

widely - largement, généralement, fréquemment, communément

differ - different, différer, séparer

correspond - correspondre (...a qqchose), correspondre (...avec qqun)

brusquerie - brusquerie

amusing - amusant, amuser

solicitous - sollicitante

amiability - l'amabilité

"I should like to know your reasons for this cruel resolution. It is not possible that you should think horsemanship wrong."

horsemanship - l'équitation

"It is quite possible that I should think it wrong for me."

"Oh, why?" said Sir James, in a tender tone of remonstrance.

tender - l'appel d'offres, doux, adjudication, affectieux

Mr. Casaubon had come up to the table, teacup in hand, and was listening.

teacup - tasse a thé, tasse a thé

"We must not inquire too curiously into motives," he interposed, in his measured way. "Miss Brooke knows that they are apt to become feeble in the utterance: the aroma is mixed with the grosser air. We must keep the germinating grain away from the light."

inquire - demander, enqueter

curiously - curieusement

motives - motivations, motif, mobile, theme, motiver

apt - apt, doué

feeble - faible

utterance - énoncé

aroma - arôme, parfum

grosser - plus grossier, (gross), brut, dégoutant, dégueulasse, grossier

Dorothea colored with pleasure, and looked up gratefully to the speaker. Here was a man who could understand the higher inward life, and with whom there could be some spiritual communion; nay, who could illuminate principle with the widest knowledge: a man whose learning almost amounted to a proof of whatever he believed!

gratefully - avec gratitude

communion - la communion, communion

illuminate - éclairer, illuminer

Proof - la preuve, preuve, épreuve

Dorothea's inferences may seem large; but really life could never have gone on at any period but for this liberal allowance of conclusions, which has facilitated marriage under the difficulties of civilization. Has any one ever pinched into its pilulous smallness the cobweb of pre-matrimonial acquaintanceship?

inferences - des déductions, inférence, déduction

liberal - libéral, large, généreux, de gauche

allowance - l'allocation, indemnité, jeu

facilitated - facilitée, faciliter

civilization - la civilisation, civilisation

pinched - pincé, pincer, chiper, pincement, pincée

smallness - la petitesse, petitesse

cobweb - toile d'araignée

pre - pré

matrimonial - matrimonial

acquaintanceship - des connaissances

"Certainly," said good Sir James. "Miss Brooke shall not be urged to tell reasons she would rather be silent upon. I am sure her reasons would do her honor."

be silent - se taire

honor - l'honneur, honneur, honorer

He was not in the least jealous of the interest with which Dorothea had looked up at Mr. Casaubon: it never occurred to him that a girl to whom he was meditating an offer of marriage could care for a dried bookworm towards fifty, except, indeed, in a religious sort of way, as for a clergyman of some distinction.

jealous - jaloux, jalouse, envieux, rench:

meditating - méditer

bookworm - rat de bibliotheque, rat de bibliotheque, papivore

distinction - distinction, différence

However, since Miss Brooke had become engaged in a conversation with Mr. Casaubon about the Vaudois clergy, Sir James betook himself to Celia, and talked to her about her sister; spoke of a house in town, and asked whether Miss Brooke disliked London.

become engaged - s'engager

clergy - le clergé, clergé

Away from her sister, Celia talked quite easily, and Sir James said to himself that the second Miss Brooke was certainly very agreeable as well as pretty, though not, as some people pretended, more clever and sensible than the elder sister. He felt that he had chosen the one who was in all respects the superior; and a man naturally likes to look forward to having the best.

more clever - plus intelligente

He would be the very Mawworm of bachelors who pretended not to expect it.

bachelors - bacheliers, célibataire, licence


"Say, goddess, what ensued, when Raphael,

goddess - déesse

ensued - s'ensuivit, résulter, découler

The affable archangel . . .

affable - affable, aimable, doux

Archangel - l'archange, archange


eve - veille

The story heard attentive, and was filled

attentive - attentif

With admiration, and deep muse, to hear

admiration - l'admiration, admiration

muse - muse

Of things so high and strange."

"Paradise Lost, B. vii.

paradise - le paradis, paradis, cieux

If it had really occurred to Mr. Casaubon to think of Miss Brooke as a suitable wife for him, the reasons that might induce her to accept him were already planted in her mind, and by the evening of the next day the reasons had budded and bloomed. For they had had a long conversation in the morning, while Celia, who did not like the company of Mr.

induce - induire

budded - bourgeonné, bourgeon

bloomed - fleuri, fleur

Casaubon's moles and sallowness, had escaped to the vicarage to play with the curate's ill-shod but merry children.

sallowness - pâleur

vicarage - le presbytere, vicariat

curate - conservateur, vicaire

merry - joyeux, gai, heureuse, jovial

Dorothea by this time had looked deep into the ungauged reservoir of Mr. Casaubon's mind, seeing reflected there in vague labyrinthine extension every quality she herself brought; had opened much of her own experience to him, and had understood from him the scope of his great work, also of attractively labyrinthine extent.

ungauged - non jaugé

reservoir - réservoir

labyrinthine - labyrinthique

extension - extension

scope - champ d'application, bordure, allonge, scope

attractively - de maniere attrayante

extent - mesure, étendue

For he had been as instructive as Milton's "affable archangel;" and with something of the archangelic manner he told her how he had undertaken to show (what indeed had been attempted before, but not with that thoroughness, justice of comparison, and effectiveness of arrangement at which Mr.

instructive - instructif

archangelic - archangélique

undertaken - entrepris, entreprendre

attempted - tenté, tenter, essayer, tentative, attentat

thoroughness - la rigueur, rigueur

justice - justice, équité, conseiller

effectiveness - l'efficacité, efficacité

Casaubon aimed) that all the mythical systems or erratic mythical fragments in the world were corruptions of a tradition originally revealed. Having once mastered the true position and taken a firm footing there, the vast field of mythical constructions became intelligible, nay, luminous with the reflected light of correspondences.

mythical - mythique

erratic - erratique

corruptions - corruptions, corruption, pourriture, concussion

revealed - révélée, révéler, laisser voir

mastered - maîtrisée, maître/-tresse

firm - ferme, social, robuste, maison de commerce, solide

vast - vaste

constructions - constructions, construction

intelligible - intelligible

luminous - lumineux

correspondences - correspondances, correspondance, chronique

But to gather in this great harvest of truth was no light or speedy work. His notes already made a formidable range of volumes, but the crowning task would be to condense these voluminous still-accumulating results and bring them, like the earlier vintage of Hippocratic books, to fit a little shelf. In explaining this to Dorothea, Mr.

harvest - la récolte, récolte, moisson, récolter, moissonner, recueillir

speedy - prompt, rapide

formidable - formidable

volumes - volumes, volume, tome

crowning - couronnement, (crown) couronnement

condense - condenser, se condenser

voluminous - volumineux

accumulating - s'accumuler, accumuler

vintage - vintage, vendange, récolte, cru

Casaubon expressed himself nearly as he would have done to a fellow-student, for he had not two styles of talking at command: it is true that when he used a Greek or Latin phrase he always gave the English with scrupulous care, but he would probably have done this in any case.

fellow-student - (fellow-student) camarade de classe

Greek - grec, grecque, grecques

Latin - latine

scrupulous - scrupuleux

A learned provincial clergyman is accustomed to think of his acquaintances as of "lords, knyghtes, and other noble and worthi men, that conne Latyn but lytille."

acquaintances - des connaissances, relation, qualifier

lords - seigneurs, châtelain, seigneur, monsieur

worthi - valent-ils la peine

conne - conne

Dorothea was altogether captivated by the wide embrace of this conception. Here was something beyond the shallows of ladies'school literature: here was a living Bossuet, whose work would reconcile complete knowledge with devoted piety; here was a modern Augustine who united the glories of doctor and saint.

captivated - captivé, captiver

Embrace - étreindre, embrasser, accolade, embrassement, embrassade

shallows - les hauts-fonds, peu profond, superficiel

devoted - dévouée, consacrer, vouer

Augustine - augustine, Augustin

glories - gloires, gloire

The sanctity seemed no less clearly marked than the learning, for when Dorothea was impelled to open her mind on certain themes which she could speak of to no one whom she had before seen at Tipton, especially on the secondary importance of ecclesiastical forms and articles of belief compared with that spiritual religion, that submergence of self in communion with Divine perfection which seemed to her to be expressed in the best Christian books of widely distant ages, she found in Mr. Casaubon a listener who understood her at once, who could assure her of his own agreement with that view when duly tempered with wise conformity, and could mention historical examples before unknown to her.

sanctity - sainteté

impelled - poussé, motiver, inciter, pousser, propulser, éjecter

Ecclesiastical - ecclésiastique

submergence - submersion

divine - divine, divin

perfection - la perfection, perfection

Christian - chrétien, chrétienne, Christian

distant - distante, distant, lointain, éloigné

duly - dument, dument, ponctuellement

tempered - tempéré, caractere, tempérament, humeur, état d'esprit, recuit

conformity - conformité

unknown - inconnu, inconnue

"He thinks with me," said Dorothea to herself, "or rather, he thinks a whole world of which my thought is but a poor twopenny mirror. And his feelings too, his whole experience"what a lake compared with my little pool!"

twopenny - twopenny

feelings - sentiments

Miss Brooke argued from words and dispositions not less unhesitatingly than other young ladies of her age. Signs are small measurable things, but interpretations are illimitable, and in girls of sweet, ardent nature, every sign is apt to conjure up wonder, hope, belief, vast as a sky, and colored by a diffused thimbleful of matter in the shape of knowledge.

dispositions - dispositions, disposition, tempérament

unhesitatingly - sans hésitation

measurable - mesurable

interpretations - interprétations, interprétation

conjure up - faire apparaître

diffused - diffusée, (se) diffuser, (se) répandre

thimbleful - un dé a coudre

They are not always too grossly deceived; for Sinbad himself may have fallen by good-luck on a true description, and wrong reasoning sometimes lands poor mortals in right conclusions: starting a long way off the true point, and proceeding by loops and zigzags, we now and then arrive just where we ought to be. Because Miss Brooke was hasty in her trust, it is not therefore clear that Mr.

grossly - grossierement, grossierement

mortals - mortels, mortel, mortelle

proceeding - la poursuite de la procédure, acte, (proceed), avancer

loops - boucles, boucle, circuit fermé

zigzags - zigzags, zigzag, zigzaguer

hasty - hâtive, hâtif

Casaubon was unworthy of it.

unworthy - indigne

He stayed a little longer than he had intended, on a slight pressure of invitation from Mr. Brooke, who offered no bait except his own documents on machine-breaking and rick-burning. Mr.

Slight - insignifiant, léger

offered - proposé, offrir, proposer

bait - appât, eche, leurre, eche

rick - rick

Casaubon was called into the library to look at these in a heap, while his host picked up first one and then the other to read aloud from in a skipping and uncertain way, passing from one unfinished passage to another with a "Yes, now, but here!" and finally pushing them all aside to open the journal of his youthful Continental travels.

heap - tas, pile, monceau

aloud - a haute voix, a voix haute, a haute voix, fort

skipping - sauter, sautiller

unfinished - inachevé

passage - passage, corridoir, couloir

aside - a part, a côté, en passant, aparté

youthful - juvénile, jeune

Continental - continental

"Look here"here is all about Greece. Rhamnus, the ruins of Rhamnus"you are a great Grecian, now. I don't know whether you have given much study to the topography. I spent no end of time in making out these things"Helicon, now. Here, now!"˜We started the next morning for Parnassus, the double-peaked Parnassus.'All this volume is about Greece, you know," Mr.

Greece - la grece, Grece

Rhamnus - Rhamnus

ruins - des ruines, ruine, ruiner, abîmer

Grecian - hellénique

topography - la topographie, topographie

Helicon - hélicon

Parnassus - Le Parnasse

peaked - en crete, pic

volume - volume, tome

Brooke wound up, rubbing his thumb transversely along the edges of the leaves as he held the book forward.

wound - blessons, blessent, blessez, blessure, blesser

rubbing - le frottement, frottage, froissement, lessivage

thumb - pouce, feuilleter

transversely - transversalement


Casaubon made a dignified though somewhat sad audience; bowed in the right place, and avoided looking at anything documentary as far as possible, without showing disregard or impatience; mindful that this desultoriness was associated with the institutions of the country, and that the man who took him on this severe mental scamper was not only an amiable host, but a landholder and custos rotulorum. Was his endurance aided also by the reflection that Mr. Brooke was the uncle of Dorothea?

somewhat - en quelque sorte, assez, quelque peu

disregard - ne pas en tenir compte, mépris, ignorer, mépriser

mindful - etre attentif a qqch

desultoriness - la désuétude

institutions - institutions, institution

severe - sévere, grave, sévere

scamper - se dérober, détaler

landholder - propriétaire foncier

endurance - l'endurance, endurance

aided - aidée, aide

reflection - réflexion, reflet, eaning 4

Certainly he seemed more and more bent on making her talk to him, on drawing her out, as Celia remarked to herself; and in looking at her his face was often lit up by a smile like pale wintry sunshine.

remarked - remarqué, remarque

wintry - hivernal, hibernal

sunshine - soleil, lumiere du soleil

Before he left the next morning, while taking a pleasant walk with Miss Brooke along the gravelled terrace, he had mentioned to her that he felt the disadvantage of loneliness, the need of that cheerful companionship with which the presence of youth can lighten or vary the serious toils of maturity.

gravelled - gravillonné, graviers-p, gravillons-p, gravier

terrace - toit-terrasse, terrasse, gradins

loneliness - la solitude, solitude

lighten - alléger

vary - varier

toils - labeur, travailler

maturity - maturité

And he delivered this statement with as much careful precision as if he had been a diplomatic envoy whose words would be attended with results. Indeed, Mr. Casaubon was not used to expect that he should have to repeat or revise his communications of a practical or personal kind.

diplomatic - diplomatique

envoy - envoyé, émissaire

The inclinations which he had deliberately stated on the 2d of October he would think it enough to refer to by the mention of that date; judging by the standard of his own memory, which was a volume where a vide supra could serve instead of repetitions, and not the ordinary long-used blotting-book which only tells of forgotten writing. But in this case Mr.

inclinations - inclinations, inclinaison, fr

deliberately - délibérément

supra - supra

repetitions - répétitions, répétition

blotting - blotting, (blot), tache, (ink) pâté, souillure, tacher

Casaubon's confidence was not likely to be falsified, for Dorothea heard and retained what he said with the eager interest of a fresh young nature to which every variety in experience is an epoch.

confidence - assurance, confiance en soi, confiance, confidence

falsified - falsifié, falsifier

eager - enthousiaste, désireux

epoch - époque, ere, période, singularité, évenement

It was three o'clock in the beautiful breezy autumn day when Mr. Casaubon drove off to his Rectory at Lowick, only five miles from Tipton; and Dorothea, who had on her bonnet and shawl, hurried along the shrubbery and across the park that she might wander through the bordering wood with no other visible companionship than that of Monk, the Great St.

breezy - brise, aéré

rectory - le presbytere, presbytere, cure

bonnet - bonnet, orth America, casquette, béret, capot

shawl - châle

shrubbery - des arbustes, fruticée

wander - errer, vaguer, divaguer

visible - visible

monk - moine, religieux

Bernard dog, who always took care of the young ladies in their walks. There had risen before her the girl's vision of a possible future for herself to which she looked forward with trembling hope, and she wanted to wander on in that visionary future without interruption.

visionary - visionnaire, illusoire, imaginaire, prophétique, utopique

interruption - interruption

She walked briskly in the brisk air, the color rose in her cheeks, and her straw bonnet (which our contemporaries might look at with conjectural curiosity as at an obsolete form of basket) fell a little backward.

briskly - rapidement, vivement

contemporaries - contemporains, contemporain

conjectural - conjectural

obsolete - obsolete, dépassé

basket - panier

She would perhaps be hardly characterized enough if it were omitted that she wore her brown hair flatly braided and coiled behind so as to expose the outline of her head in a daring manner at a time when public feeling required the meagreness of nature to be dissimulated by tall barricades of frizzed curls and bows, never surpassed by any great race except the Feejeean.

characterized - caractérisé, caractériser, dépeindre

omitted - omis, omettre

braided - tressé, tresser

coiled - enroulé, enrouler

expose - exposer, dénoncer

outline - les grandes lignes, contour, silhouette, esquisse, aperçu

daring - audacieux, courageux, checktéméraire, checkhardi

public feeling - le sentiment du public

meagreness - la méfiance

barricades - barricades, barricade, barricader

frizzed - frisé, friser

curls - boucles, boucle, rotationnel, boucler

bows - arcs, (bow) arcs

surpassed - surpassé, surpasser, dépasser, excéder

This was a trait of Miss Brooke's asceticism. But there was nothing of an ascetic's expression in her bright full eyes, as she looked before her, not consciously seeing, but absorbing into the intensity of her mood, the solemn glory of the afternoon with its long swathes of light between the far-off rows of limes, whose shadows touched each other.

trait - trait

asceticism - l'ascétisme, ascétisme, ascese

consciously - consciemment

absorbing - absorbant, absorber, éponger

solemn - solennel

glory - gloire

swathes - des bandes, envelopper

rows - rangées, rang(ée)

limes - des citrons verts, chaux

shadows - ombres, ombre, prendre en filature, t+filer

All people, young or old (that is, all people in those ante-reform times), would have thought her an interesting object if they had referred the glow in her eyes and cheeks to the newly awakened ordinary images of young love: the illusions of Chloe about Strephon have been sufficiently consecrated in poetry, as the pathetic loveliness of all spontaneous trust ought to be.

ante - ante, mise, miser

glow - l'éclat, briller, luire, irradier, lueur, éclat

awakened - éveillé, réveiller, se réveiller

illusions - des illusions, illusion

sufficiently - suffisamment

consecrated - consacré, consacrer

pathetic - pathétique

loveliness - la beauté, beauté, charme

spontaneous - spontanée

Miss Pippin adoring young Pumpkin, and dreaming along endless vistas of unwearying companionship, was a little drama which never tired our fathers and mothers, and had been put into all costumes.

adoring - adorer

pumpkin - citrouille, potiron

endless - sans fin, infini, interminable, perpétuel

vistas - des panoramas, vue, point de vue

unwearying - inlassable

Let but Pumpkin have a figure which would sustain the disadvantages of the shortwaisted swallow-tail, and everybody felt it not only natural but necessary to the perfection of womanhood, that a sweet girl should be at once convinced of his virtue, his exceptional ability, and above all, his perfect sincerity.

sustain - soutenir, maintenir, subvenir

shortwaisted - taille courte

swallow - avaler, avalons, empiffrer, hirondelle, avalez

sweet girl - une fille douce

virtue - la vertu, vertu

exceptional - exceptionnel

sincerity - la sincérité, sincérité

But perhaps no persons then living"certainly none in the neighborhood of Tipton"would have had a sympathetic understanding for the dreams of a girl whose notions about marriage took their color entirely from an exalted enthusiasm about the ends of life, an enthusiasm which was lit chiefly by its own fire, and included neither the niceties of the trousseau, the pattern of plate, nor even the honors and sweet joys of the blooming matron.

neighborhood - voisinage, environs, quartier, checkvoisinage

sympathetic - sympathique

entirely - entierement, entierement, entierement (1)

enthusiasm - l'enthousiasme, enthousiasme, passion

chiefly - principalement, surtout

niceties - des gentillesses, raffinement

honors - les honneurs, honneur, honorer

joys - joies, joie

Matron - matron, matrone

It had now entered Dorothea's mind that Mr. Casaubon might wish to make her his wife, and the idea that he would do so touched her with a sort of reverential gratitude. How good of him"nay, it would be almost as if a winged messenger had suddenly stood beside her path and held out his hand towards her!

reverential - révérencieux

gratitude - la gratitude, gratitude

messenger - messager, coursier

beside - a côté, aupres

For a long while she had been oppressed by the indefiniteness which hung in her mind, like a thick summer haze, over all her desire to make her life greatly effective. What could she do, what ought she to do?

oppressed - opprimés, opprimer, oppresser

haze - brume, chicaner, fumées

greatly - grandement

"she, hardly more than a budding woman, but yet with an active conscience and a great mental need, not to be satisfied by a girlish instruction comparable to the nibblings and judgments of a discursive mouse.

budding - en herbe, (bud)

conscience - conscience

satisfied - satisfaits, satisfaire

girlish - fillette

comparable - comparable

judgments - jugements, jugement, sentence, verdict

discursive - discursive

With some endowment of stupidity and conceit, she might have thought that a Christian young lady of fortune should find her ideal of life in village charities, patronage of the humbler clergy, the perusal of "Female Scripture Characters," unfolding the private experience of Sara under the Old Dispensation, and Dorcas under the New, and the care of her soul over her embroidery in her own boudoir"with a background of prospective marriage to a man who, if less strict than herself, as being involved in affairs religiously inexplicable, might be prayed for and seasonably exhorted. From such contentment poor Dorothea was shut out. The intensity of her religious disposition, the coercion it exercised over her life, was but one aspect of a nature altogether ardent, theoretic, and intellectually consequent: and with such a nature struggling in the bands of a narrow teaching, hemmed in by a social life which seemed nothing but a labyrinth of petty courses, a walled-in maze of small paths that led no whither, the outcome was sure to strike others as at once exaggeration and inconsistency. The thing which seemed to her best, she wanted to justify by the completest knowledge; and not to live in a pretended admission of rules which were never acted on. Into this soul-hunger as yet all her youthful passion was poured; the union which attracted her was one that would deliver her from her girlish subjection to her own ignorance, and give her the freedom of voluntary submission to a guide who would take her along the grandest path.

Endowment - dotation

stupidity - stupidité, idiotie, ânerie, sottise

conceit - la vanité, vanité, orgueil, concept

Patronage - soutien, mécénat, parrainage, clientele, clientélisme, patronage

humbler - plus humble, (humble) plus humble

perusal - la lecture, lecture

dispensation - dérogation, dispense

embroidery - la broderie, broderie

boudoir - boudoir

prospective - prospective, prospectif

affairs - affaires, aventure, liaison

religiously - religieusement

inexplicable - inexplicable

seasonably - de façon saisonniere

exhorted - exhorté, exhorter

contentment - le contentement, contentement

disposition - disposition, tempérament

coercion - la coercition, coercition

aspect - aspect, rench: t-needed r

intellectually - intellectuellement

consequent - conséquent

struggling - en difficulté, luttant, (struggle), lutte, lutter, s'efforcer

hemmed - ourlé, ourlet

labyrinth - labyrinthe

petty - petit, insignifiant, mesquin

maze - labyrinthe, dédale

whither - ou

outcome - issue, résultat, dénouement

strike - greve, biffer, rayer, barrer, frapper, battre, faire greve

exaggeration - exagération

admission - l'admission, admission

hunger - la faim, faim

girlish - féminin, fille

subjection - l'assujettissement, soumission

freedom - la liberté, liberté

voluntary - volontaire, bénévole

submission - soumission

grandest - le plus grand, magnifique

"I should learn everything then," she said to herself, still walking quickly along the bridle road through the wood. "It would be my duty to study that I might help him the better in his great works. There would be nothing trivial about our lives. Every-day things with us would mean the greatest things. It would be like marrying Pascal.

trivial - insignifiante, trivial, anodin, banal

I should learn to see the truth by the same light as great men have seen it by. And then I should know what to do, when I got older: I should see how it was possible to lead a grand life here"now"in England.

grand - grand, grandiose

I don't feel sure about doing good in any way now: everything seems like going on a mission to a people whose language I don't know;"unless it were building good cottages"there can be no doubt about that. Oh, I hope I should be able to get the people well housed in Lowick! I will draw plenty of plans while I have time."

mission - mission

Dorothea checked herself suddenly with self-rebuke for the presumptuous way in which she was reckoning on uncertain events, but she was spared any inward effort to change the direction of her thoughts by the appearance of a cantering horseman round a turning of the road. The well-groomed chestnut horse and two beautiful setters could leave no doubt that the rider was Sir James Chettam.

rebuke - la réprimande, reproche, réprimande, reprendre, réprimander

presumptuous - présomptueux

reckoning - le calcul, calculer, estimer

spared - épargnée, espar

thoughts - réflexions, idée, pensée

horseman - cavalier

groomed - toiletté, garçon d'écurie

setters - ?, setter

rider - cavalier, cavaliere

He discerned Dorothea, jumped off his horse at once, and, having delivered it to his groom, advanced towards her with something white on his arm, at which the two setters were barking in an excited manner.

discerned - discernée, discerner

barking - aboiement

"How delightful to meet you, Miss Brooke," he said, raising his hat and showing his sleekly waving blond hair. "It has hastened the pleasure I was looking forward to."

sleekly - glissante

hastened - s'est hâté, dépecher

Miss Brooke was annoyed at the interruption. This amiable baronet, really a suitable husband for Celia, exaggerated the necessity of making himself agreeable to the elder sister. Even a prospective brother-in-law may be an oppression if he will always be presupposing too good an understanding with you, and agreeing with you even when you contradict him.

exaggerated - exagéré, exagérer, outrer

necessity - nécessité, besoin

oppression - l'oppression, oppression

presupposing - présupposer

contradict - contredire

The thought that he had made the mistake of paying his addresses to herself could not take shape: all her mental activity was used up in persuasions of another kind. But he was positively obtrusive at this moment, and his dimpled hands were quite disagreeable. Her roused temper made her color deeply, as she returned his greeting with some haughtiness.

persuasions - persuasions, persuasion

positively - positivement

obtrusive - genante

dimpled - a fossettes, alvéole, fossette

disagreeable - incompatible, désagréable

roused - réveillé, réveiller

haughtiness - l'arrogance, orgueil, hautaineté

Sir James interpreted the heightened color in the way most gratifying to himself, and thought he never saw Miss Brooke looking so handsome.

heightened - renforcée, hausser

gratifying - gratifiante, gratifier

"I have brought a little petitioner," he said, "or rather, I have brought him to see if he will be approved before his petition is offered." He showed the white object under his arm, which was a tiny Maltese puppy, one of nature's most naive toys.

petitioner - pétitionnaire

approved - approuvée, approuver

Maltese - Maltais, Maltaise, bichon maltais

puppy - chiot, raton

most naive - le plus naif

"It is painful to me to see these creatures that are bred merely as pets," said Dorothea, whose opinion was forming itself that very moment (as opinions will) under the heat of irritation.

creatures - créatures, créature, etre

irritation - l'irritation, irritation

"Oh, why?" said Sir James, as they walked forward.

"I believe all the petting that is given them does not make them happy. They are too helpless: their lives are too frail. A weasel or a mouse that gets its own living is more interesting. I like to think that the animals about us have souls something like our own, and either carry on their own little affairs or can be companions to us, like Monk here. Those creatures are parasitic."

frail - fragile, souffreteuxse

weasel - belette, belette d'Europe, belette pygmée, petite belette

Companions - compagnons, compagnon, compagne

parasitic - parasites

"I am so glad I know that you do not like them," said good Sir James. "I should never keep them for myself, but ladies usually are fond of these Maltese dogs. Here, John, take this dog, will you?"

The objectionable puppy, whose nose and eyes were equally black and expressive, was thus got rid of, since Miss Brooke decided that it had better not have been born. But she felt it necessary to explain.

objectionable - répréhensible

expressive - expressif

rid - rid, débarrasser

"You must not judge of Celia's feeling from mine. I think she likes these small pets. She had a tiny terrier once, which she was very fond of. It made me unhappy, because I was afraid of treading on it. I am rather short-sighted."

terrier - terrier, (fox-)terrier, (terry) terrier

"You have your own opinion about everything, Miss Brooke, and it is always a good opinion."

What answer was possible to such stupid complimenting?

complimenting - des compliments, compliment, complimenter, faire un compliment

"Do you know, I envy you that," Sir James said, as they continued walking at the rather brisk pace set by Dorothea.

envy - l'envie, envie, jalousie, convoitise, envier

brisk - animé, vif, stimulant

"I don't quite understand what you mean."

"Your power of forming an opinion. I can form an opinion of persons. I know when I like people. But about other matters, do you know, I have often a difficulty in deciding. One hears very sensible things said on opposite sides."

"Or that seem sensible. Perhaps we don't always discriminate between sense and nonsense."

discriminate - discriminer

nonsense - des absurdités, betise, absurdité, sottise (s)

Dorothea felt that she was rather rude.

"Exactly," said Sir James. "But you seem to have the power of discrimination."

discrimination - la discrimination, discrimination

"On the contrary, I am often unable to decide. But that is from ignorance. The right conclusion is there all the same, though I am unable to see it."

contrary - contraire, contrepied

"I think there are few who would see it more readily. Do you know, Lovegood was telling me yesterday that you had the best notion in the world of a plan for cottages"quite wonderful for a young lady, he thought. You had a real genus, to use his expression. He said you wanted Mr. Brooke to build a new set of cottages, but he seemed to think it hardly probable that your uncle would consent.

readily - facilement, volontiers, aisément

genus - genre, (genu)

consent - consentir, approuver, agréer, consentement, approbation

Do you know, that is one of the things I wish to do"I mean, on my own estate. I should be so glad to carry out that plan of yours, if you would let me see it. Of course, it is sinking money; that is why people object to it. Laborers can never pay rent to make it answer. But, after all, it is worth doing."

laborers - les travailleurs, ouvrier

"Worth doing! yes, indeed," said Dorothea, energetically, forgetting her previous small vexations. "I think we deserve to be beaten out of our beautiful houses with a scourge of small cords"all of us who let tenants live in such sties as we see round us. Life in cottages might be happier than ours, if they were real houses fit for human beings from whom we expect duties and affections."

energetically - énergétiquement

vexations - vexations, tracas, tracasserie, contrariété

deserve - mériter

A scourge - Une plaie

cords - cordons, corde, cordon

sties - sties, porcherie

"Will you show me your plan?"

"Yes, certainly. I dare say it is very faulty. But I have been examining all the plans for cottages in Loudon's book, and picked out what seem the best things. Oh what a happiness it would be to set the pattern about here! I think instead of Lazarus at the gate, we should put the pigsty cottages outside the park-gate."

faulty - défectueux

Lazarus - lazare

pigsty - porcherie, bordel

Dorothea was in the best temper now. Sir James, as brother in-law, building model cottages on his estate, and then, perhaps, others being built at Lowick, and more and more elsewhere in imitation"it would be as if the spirit of Oberlin had passed over the parishes to make the life of poverty beautiful!

elsewhere - ailleurs

imitation - imitation

parishes - les paroisses, paroisse (noun), paroissial (adjective)

Sir James saw all the plans, and took one away to consult upon with Lovegood. He also took away a complacent sense that he was making great progress in Miss Brooke's good opinion. The Maltese puppy was not offered to Celia; an omission which Dorothea afterwards thought of with surprise; but she blamed herself for it. She had been engrossing Sir James.

consult - consulter

complacent - complaisant

omission - omission, oubli

engrossing - captivant, grossoyer, accaparer, rafler, s'emparer de

After all, it was a relief that there was no puppy to tread upon.

tread - la bande de roulement, piétiner, escabeau

Celia was present while the plans were being examined, and observed Sir James's illusion. "He thinks that Dodo cares about him, and she only cares about her plans. Yet I am not certain that she would refuse him if she thought he would let her manage everything and carry out all her notions. And how very uncomfortable Sir James would be! I cannot bear notions."

illusion - illusion

It was Celia's private luxury to indulge in this dislike. She dared not confess it to her sister in any direct statement, for that would be laying herself open to a demonstration that she was somehow or other at war with all goodness.

indulge - se faire plaisir, céder, succomber, dorloter, gâter, choyer

confess - avouer, confesser

demonstration - démonstration, manifestation

somehow - d'une maniere ou d'une autre

But on safe opportunities, she had an indirect mode of making her negative wisdom tell upon Dorothea, and calling her down from her rhapsodic mood by reminding her that people were staring, not listening. Celia was not impulsive: what she had to say could wait, and came from her always with the same quiet staccato evenness.

wisdom - la sagesse, sagesse

rhapsodic - rhapsodique

impulsive - impulsif

evenness - planéité

When people talked with energy and emphasis she watched their faces and features merely. She never could understand how well-bred persons consented to sing and open their mouths in the ridiculous manner requisite for that vocal exercise.

emphasis - l'accent, accent, emphase, graisse (4)

consented - a consenti, consentir, approuver, agréer, consentement

requisite - nécessaire

vocal - vocal

It was not many days before Mr. Casaubon paid a morning visit, on which he was invited again for the following week to dine and stay the night. Thus Dorothea had three more conversations with him, and was convinced that her first impressions had been just.

He was all she had at first imagined him to be: almost everything he had said seemed like a specimen from a mine, or the inscription on the door of a museum which might open on the treasures of past ages; and this trust in his mental wealth was all the deeper and more effective on her inclination because it was now obvious that his visits were made for her sake.

specimen - spécimen, exemple

inscription - inscription, légende, dédicace

treasures - des trésors, trésor, garder précieusement

inclination - inclinaison, checktendance

This accomplished man condescended to think of a young girl, and take the pains to talk to her, not with absurd compliment, but with an appeal to her understanding, and sometimes with instructive correction. What delightful companionship! Mr.

accomplished - accompli, accomplir

condescended to - avec condescendance

absurd - absurde

compliment - compliment, complimenter, faire un compliment

appeal - appel, manifeste, vocation, pourvoi

correction - correction, rectification

Casaubon seemed even unconscious that trivialities existed, and never handed round that small-talk of heavy men which is as acceptable as stale bride-cake brought forth with an odor of cupboard. He talked of what he was interested in, or else he was silent and bowed with sad civility.

unconscious - inconscient, subconscient

handed round - Distribuer

acceptable - acceptable

stale - périmé, rassis

odor - odeur

civility - civilité, politesse

To Dorothea this was adorable genuineness, and religious abstinence from that artificiality which uses up the soul in the efforts of pretence. For she looked as reverently at Mr. Casaubon's religious elevation above herself as she did at his intellect and learning.

adorable - adorable

abstinence - l'abstinence, abstinence, abstinence sexuelle

pretence - prétention

reverently - avec révérence

elevation - l'élévation, élévation

He assented to her expressions of devout feeling, and usually with an appropriate quotation; he allowed himself to say that he had gone through some spiritual conflicts in his youth; in short, Dorothea saw that here she might reckon on understanding, sympathy, and guidance. On one"only one"of her favorite themes she was disappointed. Mr.

assented - a donné son assentiment, assentiment

appropriate - approprié, idoine, approprier

conflicts - conflits, conflit, incompatibilité

reckon - le reconnaître, considérer

sympathy - compassion, sympathie, condoléance

guidance - d'orientation, guidage, conseils, direction

Casaubon apparently did not care about building cottages, and diverted the talk to the extremely narrow accommodation which was to be had in the dwellings of the ancient Egyptians, as if to check a too high standard.

apparently - apparemment, évidemment, en apparence

diverted - détourné, dévier, divertir

After he was gone, Dorothea dwelt with some agitation on this indifference of his; and her mind was much exercised with arguments drawn from the varying conditions of climate which modify human needs, and from the admitted wickedness of pagan despots. Should she not urge these arguments on Mr. Casaubon when he came again?

indifference - l'indifférence, indifférence

modify - modifier

wickedness - méchanceté, perversité, iniquité, mauvaise action

despots - des despotes, despote

But further reflection told her that she was presumptuous in demanding his attention to such a subject; he would not disapprove of her occupying herself with it in leisure moments, as other women expected to occupy themselves with their dress and embroidery"would not forbid it when"Dorothea felt rather ashamed as she detected herself in these speculations.

demanding - exigeant, demande, exigence, exiger

disapprove - désapprouver

occupying - l'occupation, occuper, habiter

forbid - interdire, nier, dénier

ashamed - honteux

detected - détecté, détecter

speculations - des spéculations, spéculation

But her uncle had been invited to go to Lowick to stay a couple of days: was it reasonable to suppose that Mr. Casaubon delighted in Mr. Brooke's society for its own sake, either with or without documents?

reasonable - raisonnable

Meanwhile that little disappointment made her delight the more in Sir James Chettam's readiness to set on foot the desired improvements. He came much oftener than Mr. Casaubon, and Dorothea ceased to find him disagreeable since he showed himself so entirely in earnest; for he had already entered with much practical ability into Lovegood's estimates, and was charmingly docile.

disappointment - déception

readiness - l'état de préparation, préparation

desired - souhaitée, désirer, désir

ceased - cessé, cesser, s'arreter, cesser de + 'infinitive'

Estimates - estimations, estimation, devis, estimer

charmingly - avec charme, irritant

docile - docile

She proposed to build a couple of cottages, and transfer two families from their old cabins, which could then be pulled down, so that new ones could be built on the old sites. Sir James said "Exactly," and she bore the word remarkably well.

proposed - proposée, proposer, demander en mariage

transfer - transférer, transfert

cabins - cabines, cabane, cabine

Certainly these men who had so few spontaneous ideas might be very useful members of society under good feminine direction, if they were fortunate in choosing their sisters-in-law! It is difficult to say whether there was or was not a little wilfulness in her continuing blind to the possibility that another sort of choice was in question in relation to her.

wilfulness - la volonté

blind - aveugle, mal-voyant, mal-voyante, store, blind, aveugler

But her life was just now full of hope and action: she was not only thinking of her plans, but getting down learned books from the library and reading many things hastily (that she might be a little less ignorant in talking to Mr.

getting down - a descendre

hastily - hâtivement, précipitamment, a la hâte

ignorant - ignorant

Casaubon), all the while being visited with conscientious questionings whether she were not exalting these poor doings above measure and contemplating them with that self-satisfaction which was the last doom of ignorance and folly.

contemplating - contempler, envisager, étudier

doom - doom, mort, ruine, perte, condamner

folly - folie, sottise


1st Gent. Our deeds are fetters that we forge ourselves.

gent - gent

deeds - des actes, acte, action, ouvre, exploit, haut fait, prouesse

fetters - des entraves, entrave, fers-p, obstacle, entraver

forge - forge, forgez, forgent, forgeons, modelage, forger

2d Gent. Ay, truly: but I think it is the world

Ay - il est vrai que

truly - vraiment

That brings the iron.

"Sir James seems determined to do everything you wish," said Celia, as they were driving home from an inspection of the new building-site.

inspection - l'inspection, inspection, rench: t-needed r

"He is a good creature, and more sensible than any one would imagine," said Dorothea, inconsiderately.

inconsiderately - inconsidérément

"You mean that he appears silly."

"No, no," said Dorothea, recollecting herself, and laying her hand on her sister's a moment, "but he does not talk equally well on all subjects."

recollecting - se souvenir de

"I should think none but disagreeable people do," said Celia, in her usual purring way. "They must be very dreadful to live with. Only think! at breakfast, and always."

purring - ronronner, (pur) ronronner

dreadful - épouvantable, redoutable, affreux, terrible

Dorothea laughed. "O Kitty, you are a wonderful creature!" She pinched Celia's chin, being in the mood now to think her very winning and lovely"fit hereafter to be an eternal cherub, and if it were not doctrinally wrong to say so, hardly more in need of salvation than a squirrel. "Of course people need not be always talking well.

chin - menton

cherub - chérubin

doctrinally - sur le plan doctrinal

Salvation - le salut, salut

squirrel - écureuil

Only one tells the quality of their minds when they try to talk well."

"You mean that Sir James tries and fails."

"I was speaking generally. Why do you catechise me about Sir James? It is not the object of his life to please me."

catechise - catéchiser

"Now, Dodo, can you really believe that?"

"Certainly. He thinks of me as a future sister"that is all." Dorothea had never hinted this before, waiting, from a certain shyness on such subjects which was mutual between the sisters, until it should be introduced by some decisive event. Celia blushed, but said at once"

hinted - a fait allusion, indication, soupçon, faire allusion

shyness - timidité

mutual - mutuelle, mutuel

decisive - décisif

"Pray do not make that mistake any longer, Dodo. When Tantripp was brushing my hair the other day, she said that Sir James's man knew from Mrs. Cadwallader's maid that Sir James was to marry the eldest Miss Brooke."

"How can you let Tantripp talk such gossip to you, Celia?" said Dorothea, indignantly, not the less angry because details asleep in her memory were now awakened to confirm the unwelcome revelation. "You must have asked her questions. It is degrading."

gossip - des ragots, commere, commérage, ragot, cancan

indignantly - avec indignation

unwelcome - indésirable

"I see no harm at all in Tantripp's talking to me. It is better to hear what people say. You see what mistakes you make by taking up notions. I am quite sure that Sir James means to make you an offer; and he believes that you will accept him, especially since you have been so pleased with him about the plans. And uncle too"I know he expects it.

harm - le mal, mal, tort, dommage, nuire a, faire du mal a

Every one can see that Sir James is very much in love with you."

The revulsion was so strong and painful in Dorothea's mind that the tears welled up and flowed abundantly. All her dear plans were embittered, and she thought with disgust of Sir James's conceiving that she recognized him as her lover. There was vexation too on account of Celia.

abundantly - abondamment

embittered - aigri, aigrir

disgust - dégout, dégouter, dégout

conceiving - concevoir, tomber enceinte

vexation - vexation, tracas, tracasserie, contrariété

"How could he expect it?" she burst forth in her most impetuous manner. "I have never agreed with him about anything but the cottages: I was barely polite to him before."

burst - l'éclatement, éclater, faire éclater, rompre, briser

barely - a peine, a peine

polite to - Poli envers

"But you have been so pleased with him since then; he has begun to feel quite sure that you are fond of him."

"Fond of him, Celia! How can you choose such odious expressions?" said Dorothea, passionately.

odious - odieux

passionately - passionnément

"Dear me, Dorothea, I suppose it would be right for you to be fond of a man whom you accepted for a husband."

Dear me - Cher moi

"It is offensive to me to say that Sir James could think I was fond of him. Besides, it is not the right word for the feeling I must have towards the man I would accept as a husband."

besides - d'ailleurs, aupres

"Well, I am sorry for Sir James. I thought it right to tell you, because you went on as you always do, never looking just where you are, and treading in the wrong place. You always see what nobody else sees; it is impossible to satisfy you; yet you never see what is quite plain. That's your way, Dodo.

satisfy - satisfaire

" Something certainly gave Celia unusual courage; and she was not sparing the sister of whom she was occasionally in awe. Who can tell what just criticisms Murr the Cat may be passing on us beings of wider speculation?

courage - bravoure, courage, cour, vaillance

sparing - épargnant, se passer de

criticisms - critiques, critique

Murr - murr

speculation - spéculation

"It is very painful," said Dorothea, feeling scourged. "I can have no more to do with the cottages. I must be uncivil to him. I must tell him I will have nothing to do with them. It is very painful." Her eyes filled again with tears.

scourged - flagellé, fléau, écourgée, fouet, fouetter

uncivil - incivilités

"Wait a little. Think about it. You know he is going away for a day or two to see his sister. There will be nobody besides Lovegood." Celia could not help relenting. "Poor Dodo," she went on, in an amiable staccato. "It is very hard: it is your favorite fad to draw plans."

relenting - se détendre, (relent), se retirer

fad - une mode, mode, lubie

"Fad to draw plans! Do you think I only care about my fellow-creatures'houses in that childish way? I may well make mistakes. How can one ever do anything nobly Christian, living among people with such petty thoughts?"

fellow - un camarade, ensemble, mâle

childish - enfantin, puéril, gamin

No more was said; Dorothea was too much jarred to recover her temper and behave so as to show that she admitted any error in herself.

jarred - jarred, pot

recover - récupérer, captons, capter, recouvrent, recouvrer, recouvrons

She was disposed rather to accuse the intolerable narrowness and the purblind conscience of the society around her: and Celia was no longer the eternal cherub, but a thorn in her spirit, a pink-and-white nullifidian, worse than any discouraging presence in the "Pilgrim's Progress." The fad of drawing plans!

disposed - disposé, débarrasser

accuse - accuser

intolerable - intolérable

narrowness - l'étroitesse, étroitesse

purblind - purblind

thorn - épine, thorn

nullifidian - nullifidien

discouraging - décourageant, décourager, dissuader

pilgrim - pelerin, pelerin

What was life worth"what great faith was possible when the whole effect of one's actions could be withered up into such parched rubbish as that? When she got out of the carriage, her cheeks were pale and her eyelids red.

withered - flétrie, (se) faner

parched - desséché, assoiffer

carriage - transport, rench: t-needed r, carrosse, port, chariot

eyelids - paupieres, paupiere

She was an image of sorrow, and her uncle who met her in the hall would have been alarmed, if Celia had not been close to her looking so pretty and composed, that he at once concluded Dorothea's tears to have their origin in her excessive religiousness. He had returned, during their absence, from a journey to the county town, about a petition for the pardon of some criminal.

sorrow - peine, chagrin

composed - composé, composer

origin - origine, source

absence - absence, manque, absence du fer

petition - pétition, pétitionner

"Well, my dears," he said, kindly, as they went up to kiss him, "I hope nothing disagreeable has happened while I have been away."

"No, uncle," said Celia, "we have been to Freshitt to look at the cottages. We thought you would have been at home to lunch."

"I came by Lowick to lunch"you didn't know I came by Lowick. And I have brought a couple of pamphlets for you, Dorothea"in the library, you know; they lie on the table in the library."

pamphlets - des brochures, pamphlet

It seemed as if an electric stream went through Dorothea, thrilling her from despair into expectation. They were pamphlets about the early Church. The oppression of Celia, Tantripp, and Sir James was shaken off, and she walked straight to the library. Celia went up-stairs. Mr.

thrilling - passionnante, exciter

shaken off - secouée

Brooke was detained by a message, but when he re-entered the library, he found Dorothea seated and already deep in one of the pamphlets which had some marginal manuscript of Mr. Casaubon's,"taking it in as eagerly as she might have taken in the scent of a fresh bouquet after a dry, hot, dreary walk.

detained - détenu, détenir, arreter

marginal - marginale, marginal, périphérique, adjacent, limitrophe

manuscript - manuscrit

eagerly - avec empressement, avidement

bouquet - bouquet

dreary - lugubre, terne, insipide, maussade

She was getting away from Tipton and Freshitt, and her own sad liability to tread in the wrong places on her way to the New Jerusalem.

liability - responsabilité, passif

tread in - Marcher sur

Jerusalem - jérusalem

Mr. Brooke sat down in his arm-chair, stretched his legs towards the wood-fire, which had fallen into a wondrous mass of glowing dice between the dogs, and rubbed his hands gently, looking very mildly towards Dorothea, but with a neutral leisurely air, as if he had nothing particular to say. Dorothea closed her pamphlet, as soon as she was aware of her uncle's presence, and rose as if to go.

arm-chair - (arm-chair) fauteuil

stretched - étiré, étendre, s'étendre, s'étirer, étirement

wondrous - merveilleux

glowing - rayonnante, briller, luire, irradier, lueur

rubbed - frotté, friction, hic, frotter, polir

neutral - neutre, point mort

leisurely - tranquillement

Usually she would have been interested about her uncle's merciful errand on behalf of the criminal, but her late agitation had made her absent-minded.

merciful - miséricordieux

errand - course, commission

absent - absente, absent

"I came back by Lowick, you know," said Mr. Brooke, not as if with any intention to arrest her departure, but apparently from his usual tendency to say what he had said before. This fundamental principle of human speech was markedly exhibited in Mr. Brooke. "I lunched there and saw Casaubon's library, and that kind of thing. There's a sharp air, driving. Won't you sit down, my dear? You look cold.

tendency - tendance

fundamental - fondamentale, fondement, fondamental

exhibited - exposée, exposer, exposition, piece a conviction


Dorothea felt quite inclined to accept the invitation. Some times, when her uncle's easy way of taking things did not happen to be exasperating, it was rather soothing. She threw off her mantle and bonnet, and sat down opposite to him, enjoying the glow, but lifting up her beautiful hands for a screen. They were not thin hands, or small hands; but powerful, feminine, maternal hands.

exasperating - exaspérant, exaspérer

soothing - apaisant, pacifiant, rassurant, (sooth)

mantle - manteau, les renes, manchon

opposite to - en face de

maternal - maternelle

She seemed to be holding them up in propitiation for her passionate desire to know and to think, which in the unfriendly mediums of Tipton and Freshitt had issued in crying and red eyelids.

propitiation - propitiation, expier

unfriendly - inamicale, déplaisant

mediums - les supports

She bethought herself now of the condemned criminal. "What news have you brought about the sheep-stealer, uncle?"

stealer - voleur

"What, poor Bunch?"well, it seems we can't get him off"he is to be hanged."

bunch - bunch, groupe, bouquet, botte, grappe, bande, peloton, tas

hanged - pendu

Dorothea's brow took an expression of reprobation and pity.

brow - sourcils, andouiller d'oil, maître andouiller

reprobation - la réprobation

"Hanged, you know," said Mr. Brooke, with a quiet nod. "Poor Romilly! he would have helped us. I knew Romilly. Casaubon didn't know Romilly. He is a little buried in books, you know, Casaubon is."

nod - hochement de tete, dodeliner, hocher, hochement

"When a man has great studies and is writing a great work, he must of course give up seeing much of the world. How can he go about making acquaintances?"

"That's true. But a man mopes, you know. I have always been a bachelor too, but I have that sort of disposition that I never moped; it was my way to go about everywhere and take in everything. I never moped: but I can see that Casaubon does, you know. He wants a companion"a companion, you know."

That's true - C'est vrai

mopes - mopes, broyer du noir, se morfondre

moped - cyclomoteur, mobylette, (mop), serpilliere

"It would be a great honor to any one to be his companion," said Dorothea, energetically.

"You like him, eh?" said Mr. Brooke, without showing any surprise, or other emotion. "Well, now, I've known Casaubon ten years, ever since he came to Lowick. But I never got anything out of him"any ideas, you know. However, he is a tiptop man and may be a bishop"that kind of thing, you know, if Peel stays in. And he has a very high opinion of you, my dear."

eh - eh

tiptop - tiptop

bishop - éveque, eveque

Dorothea could not speak.

"The fact is, he has a very high opinion indeed of you. And he speaks uncommonly well"does Casaubon. He has deferred to me, you not being of age. In short, I have promised to speak to you, though I told him I thought there was not much chance. I was bound to tell him that. I said, my niece is very young, and that kind of thing. But I didn't think it necessary to go into everything.

uncommonly - de maniere inhabituelle

deferred - différé, différer

However, the long and the short of it is, that he has asked my permission to make you an offer of marriage"of marriage, you know," said Mr. Brooke, with his explanatory nod. "I thought it better to tell you, my dear."

No one could have detected any anxiety in Mr. Brooke's manner, but he did really wish to know something of his niece's mind, that, if there were any need for advice, he might give it in time. What feeling he, as a magistrate who had taken in so many ideas, could make room for, was unmixedly kind. Since Dorothea did not speak immediately, he repeated, "I thought it better to tell you, my dear."

anxiety - l'anxiété, anxiété, inquiétude, angoisse

unmixedly - sans mélange

"Thank you, uncle," said Dorothea, in a clear unwavering tone. "I am very grateful to Mr. Casaubon. If he makes me an offer, I shall accept him. I admire and honor him more than any man I ever saw."

unwavering - inébranlable

Mr. Brooke paused a little, and then said in a lingering low tone, "Ah? ¦ Well! He is a good match in some respects. But now, Chettam is a good match. And our land lies together. I shall never interfere against your wishes, my dear. People should have their own way in marriage, and that sort of thing"up to a certain point, you know. I have always said that, up to a certain point.

Lingering - s'attarder, qui s'attardent, (linger), s'installer, stagner

I wish you to marry well; and I have good reason to believe that Chettam wishes to marry you. I mention it, you know."

"It is impossible that I should ever marry Sir James Chettam," said Dorothea. "If he thinks of marrying me, he has made a great mistake."

"That is it, you see. One never knows. I should have thought Chettam was just the sort of man a woman would like, now."

"Pray do not mention him in that light again, uncle," said Dorothea, feeling some of her late irritation revive.

Mr. Brooke wondered, and felt that women were an inexhaustible subject of study, since even he at his age was not in a perfect state of scientific prediction about them. Here was a fellow like Chettam with no chance at all.

inexhaustible - inépuisable

"Well, but Casaubon, now. There is no hurry"I mean for you. It's true, every year will tell upon him. He is over five-and-forty, you know. I should say a good seven-and-twenty years older than you. To be sure,"if you like learning and standing, and that sort of thing, we can't have everything. And his income is good"he has a handsome property independent of the Church"his income is good.

Still he is not young, and I must not conceal from you, my dear, that I think his health is not over-strong. I know nothing else against him."

conceal - dissimuler, cacher

"I should not wish to have a husband very near my own age," said Dorothea, with grave decision. "I should wish to have a husband who was above me in judgment and in all knowledge."

judgment - jugement, sentence, verdict, jugement dernier

Mr. Brooke repeated his subdued, "Ah?"I thought you had more of your own opinion than most girls. I thought you liked your own opinion"liked it, you know."

subdued - atténué, soumettre, subjuguer, assujettir

"I cannot imagine myself living without some opinions, but I should wish to have good reasons for them, and a wise man could help me to see which opinions had the best foundation, and would help me to live according to them."

foundation - fondation, fondement, fond de teint

"Very true. You couldn't put the thing better"couldn't put it better, beforehand, you know. But there are oddities in things," continued Mr. Brooke, whose conscience was really roused to do the best he could for his niece on this occasion. "Life isn't cast in a mould"not cut out by rule and line, and that sort of thing. I never married myself, and it will be the better for you and yours.

beforehand - a l'avance

oddities - bizarreries, bizarrerie, excentricité

cast - casting, jeter, diriger, lancer, additionner, sommer, muer

mould - moule, modeler

The fact is, I never loved any one well enough to put myself into a noose for them. It is a noose, you know. Temper, now. There is temper. And a husband likes to be master."

noose - noud coulant, noud coulant, lacs

Master - maître, patron, maîtriser, maitre, maîtrisent

"I know that I must expect trials, uncle. Marriage is a state of higher duties. I never thought of it as mere personal ease," said poor Dorothea.

trials - des essais, proces

ease - l'aisance, facilité, repos, abaisser, abréger, amoindrir

"Well, you are not fond of show, a great establishment, balls, dinners, that kind of thing. I can see that Casaubon's ways might suit you better than Chettam's. And you shall do as you like, my dear. I would not hinder Casaubon; I said so at once; for there is no knowing how anything may turn out.

establishment - établissement, systeme, classe dirigeante, establishment

You have not the same tastes as every young lady; and a clergyman and scholar"who may be a bishop"that kind of thing"may suit you better than Chettam. Chettam is a good fellow, a good sound-hearted fellow, you know; but he doesn't go much into ideas. I did, when I was his age. But Casaubon's eyes, now. I think he has hurt them a little with too much reading."

scholar - étudiant, expert, savant, érudit

"I should be all the happier, uncle, the more room there was for me to help him," said Dorothea, ardently.

"You have quite made up your mind, I see. Well, my dear, the fact is, I have a letter for you in my pocket." Mr. Brooke handed the letter to Dorothea, but as she rose to go away, he added, "There is not too much hurry, my dear. Think about it, you know."

When Dorothea had left him, he reflected that he had certainly spoken strongly: he had put the risks of marriage before her in a striking manner. It was his duty to do so.

But as to pretending to be wise for young people,"no uncle, however much he had travelled in his youth, absorbed the new ideas, and dined with celebrities now deceased, could pretend to judge what sort of marriage would turn out well for a young girl who preferred Casaubon to Chettam. In short, woman was a problem which, since Mr.

absorbed - absorbé, absorber, éponger

deceased - décédé, déces, décéder, expirer, mourir, trépasser

Brooke's mind felt blank before it, could be hardly less complicated than the revolutions of an irregular solid.

complicated - compliqué, compliquer

revolutions - révolutions, révolution, coup d'état, tour


"Hard students are commonly troubled with gowts, catarrhs, rheums, cachexia, bradypepsia, bad eyes, stone, and collick, crudities, oppilations, vertigo, winds, consumptions, and all such diseases as come by over-much sitting: they are most part lean, dry, ill-colored ¦ and all through immoderate pains and extraordinary studies.

commonly - communément, fréquemment

catarrhs - catarrhes, catarrhe

cachexia - cachexie

bradypepsia - bradypepsie

vertigo - vertige, labyrinthite

winds - vents, vent

consumptions - consommations, consommation

lean - maigre, adossons, adossent, appuyer, adossez

immoderate - immodéré

extraordinary - extraordinaire

If you will not believe the truth of this, look upon great Tostatus and Thomas Aquainas'works; and tell me whether those men took pains.""BURTON'S Anatomy of Melancholy, P. I, s. 2.

anatomy - l'anatomie, anatomie

melancholy - mélancolie

This was Mr. Casaubon's letter.

MY DEAR MISS BROOKE,"I have your guardian's permission to address you on a subject than which I have none more at heart. I am not, I trust, mistaken in the recognition of some deeper correspondence than that of date in the fact that a consciousness of need in my own life had arisen contemporaneously with the possibility of my becoming acquainted with you.

recognition - reconnaissance

correspondence - correspondance, chronique

arisen - a vu le jour, se lever, relever

contemporaneously - en meme temps

For in the first hour of meeting you, I had an impression of your eminent and perhaps exclusive fitness to supply that need (connected, I may say, with such activity of the affections as even the preoccupations of a work too special to be abdicated could not uninterruptedly dissimulate); and each succeeding opportunity for observation has given the impression an added depth by convincing me more emphatically of that fitness which I had preconceived, and thus evoking more decisively those affections to which I have but now referred. Our conversations have, I think, made sufficiently clear to you the tenor of my life and purposes: a tenor unsuited, I am aware, to the commoner order of minds. But I have discerned in you an elevation of thought and a capability of devotedness, which I had hitherto not conceived to be compatible either with the early bloom of youth or with those graces of sex that may be said at once to win and to confer distinction when combined, as they notably are in you, with the mental qualities above indicated. It was, I confess, beyond my hope to meet with this rare combination of elements both solid and attractive, adapted to supply aid in graver labors and to cast a charm over vacant hours; and but for the event of my introduction to you (which, let me again say, I trust not to be superficially coincident with foreshadowing needs, but providentially related thereto as stages towards the completion of a life's plan), I should presumably have gone on to the last without any attempt to lighten my solitariness by a matrimonial union.

exclusive - exclusive, exclusif

abdicated - abdiqué, abdiquer

uninterruptedly - sans interruption

observation - observation, remarque

depth - profondeur, épaisseur

emphatically - avec insistance

conceived - conçu, concevoir, tomber enceinte

evoking - évoquer, remémorer

decisively - de maniere décisive

tenor - ténor

capability - capacité

devotedness - dévouement

hitherto - jusqu'a présent, jusqu'ici, jusqu'alors, jusqu'a maintenant

compatible - compatible

bloom - fleurir, fleur

graces - Les grâces, (grace), bénédicité, grâces, grâce, miséricorde

aid - l'aide, aider, aide, assister, secourir

confer - se concerter, conférer, accorder, décerner

notably - notamment

combination - combinaison, sélection, association, groupement, side-car

adapted - adapté, adapter, s'adapter

graver - graver, (grav) graver

labors - travaux, travail

vacant - vacant, vide, niais

superficially - superficiellement

coincident - coincidence

foreshadowing - préfiguration, augure, présage, (foreshadow), augurer

providentially - providentiel

thereto - a cet effet

completion - l'achevement, achevement, exécution

attempt - tenter, essayer, tentative, attentat

solitariness - la solitude, solitarisme

Such, my dear Miss Brooke, is the accurate statement of my feelings; and I rely on your kind indulgence in venturing now to ask you how far your own are of a nature to confirm my happy presentiment. To be accepted by you as your husband and the earthly guardian of your welfare, I should regard as the highest of providential gifts.

accurate - exacte

rely - s'appuyer, compter sur

venturing - s'aventurer, (venture), risquer, oser

presentiment - pressentiment

earthly - terrestre

welfare - l'aide sociale, bien-etre, aide sociale

regard - regard, considérer, égard, estime

providential - providentiel

In return I can at least offer you an affection hitherto unwasted, and the faithful consecration of a life which, however short in the sequel, has no backward pages whereon, if you choose to turn them, you will find records such as might justly cause you either bitterness or shame.

unwasted - non gaspillé

faithful - fidele, fidele, loyal

consecration - la consécration, consécration

sequel - suite

whereon - ou, au dessus de quoi

justly - a juste titre, justement

bitterness - l'amertume, amertume

shame - la honte, honte, vergogne

I await the expression of your sentiments with an anxiety which it would be the part of wisdom (were it possible) to divert by a more arduous labor than usual. But in this order of experience I am still young, and in looking forward to an unfavorable possibility I cannot but feel that resignation to solitude will be more difficult after the temporary illumination of hope.

await - attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter

divert - détourner, dévier, divertir

arduous - difficile, ardu

labor - travail

unfavorable - défavorable

resignation - démission, résignation

solitude - la solitude, solitude

temporary - temporaire, provisoire, intérimaire

illumination - l'éclairage, illumination, enluminure

In any case, I shall remain,

Yours with sincere devotion,

sincere - sincere, sincere

devotion - la dévotion, dévouement, dévotion


Dorothea trembled while she read this letter; then she fell on her knees, buried her face, and sobbed. She could not pray: under the rush of solemn emotion in which thoughts became vague and images floated uncertainly, she could but cast herself, with a childlike sense of reclining, in the lap of a divine consciousness which sustained her own.

trembled - tremblait, trembler, vibrer, tremblement, vibration

sobbed - sangloté, fdp-p

rush - rush, ruée, affluence, gazer, galoper, bousculer

floated - flotté, flotter

uncertainly - incertaine

lap - tour, clapoter

sustained - soutenue, maintenir, subvenir

She remained in that attitude till it was time to dress for dinner.

How could it occur to her to examine the letter, to look at it critically as a profession of love? Her whole soul was possessed by the fact that a fuller life was opening before her: she was a neophyte about to enter on a higher grade of initiation.

critically - de maniere critique

possessed - possédé, posséder, s'emparer de

neophyte - néophyte

initiation - l'initiation, initiation

She was going to have room for the energies which stirred uneasily under the dimness and pressure of her own ignorance and the petty peremptoriness of the world's habits.

stirred - remué, brasser, agiter

dimness - obscurité

Now she would be able to devote herself to large yet definite duties; now she would be allowed to live continually in the light of a mind that she could reverence. This hope was not unmixed with the glow of proud delight"the joyous maiden surprise that she was chosen by the man whom her admiration had chosen.

devote - dévote, consacrer, vouer

reverence - révérence

joyous - joyeux

maiden - jeune fille, jeune femme, demoiselle, pucelle, vierge

All Dorothea's passion was transfused through a mind struggling towards an ideal life; the radiance of her transfigured girlhood fell on the first object that came within its level. The impetus with which inclination became resolution was heightened by those little events of the day which had roused her discontent with the actual conditions of her life.

transfused - transfusé, transfuser

girlhood - l'enfance

impetus - l'impulsion, élan

discontent - mécontentement, checkprotestation

actual - réel, effectif, checkeffectif, checkprésent

After dinner, when Celia was playing an "air, with variations," a small kind of tinkling which symbolized the aesthetic part of the young ladies'education, Dorothea went up to her room to answer Mr. Casaubon's letter. Why should she defer the answer?

variations - variations, variation, variante, déclinaison

tinkling - tintements, tintement, (tinkle), tinter

symbolized - symbolisée, symboliser

aesthetic - esthétique

defer - reporter, différons, différez, (def) reporter

She wrote it over three times, not because she wished to change the wording, but because her hand was unusually uncertain, and she could not bear that Mr. Casaubon should think her handwriting bad and illegible. She piqued herself on writing a hand in which each letter was distinguishable without any large range of conjecture, and she meant to make much use of this accomplishment, to save Mr.

unusually - de façon inhabituelle

handwriting - l'écriture, écriture de main

illegible - illisible

piqued - piquée, dépit

distinguishable - distinguables

conjecture - conjecture, conjecturer

accomplishment - l'accomplissement, accomplissement

Casaubon's eyes. Three times she wrote.

MY Dear Mr. CASAUBON,"I am very grateful to you for loving me, and thinking me worthy to be your wife. I can look forward to no better happiness than that which would be one with yours. If I said more, it would only be the same thing written out at greater length, for I cannot now dwell on any other thought than that I may be through life

Dear Mr - Cher Monsieur

written out - écrit

dwell - s'attarder, résider, s'appesantir sur

Yours devotedly,

devotedly - avec dévouement


Later in the evening she followed her uncle into the library to give him the letter, that he might send it in the morning. He was surprised, but his surprise only issued in a few moments'silence, during which he pushed about various objects on his writing-table, and finally stood with his back to the fire, his glasses on his nose, looking at the address of Dorothea's letter.

silence - le silence, silence

"Have you thought enough about this, my dear?" he said at last.

"There was no need to think long, uncle. I know of nothing to make me vacillate. If I changed my mind, it must be because of something important and entirely new to me."

vacillate - vaciller, hésiter

"Ah!"then you have accepted him? Then Chettam has no chance? Has Chettam offended you"offended you, you know? What is it you don't like in Chettam?"

"There is nothing that I like in him," said Dorothea, rather impetuously.

impetuously - impétueusement

Mr. Brooke threw his head and shoulders backward as if some one had thrown a light missile at him. Dorothea immediately felt some self-rebuke, and said"

missile - projectile, missile

"I mean in the light of a husband. He is very kind, I think"really very good about the cottages. A well-meaning man."

"But you must have a scholar, and that sort of thing? Well, it lies a little in our family. I had it myself"that love of knowledge, and going into everything"a little too much"it took me too far; though that sort of thing doesn't often run in the female-line; or it runs underground like the rivers in Greece, you know"it comes out in the sons. Clever sons, clever mothers.

I went a good deal into that, at one time. However, my dear, I have always said that people should do as they like in these things, up to a certain point. I couldn't, as your guardian, have consented to a bad match. But Casaubon stands well: his position is good. I am afraid Chettam will be hurt, though, and Mrs. Cadwallader will blame me."

blame - blâme, gronder, blâment, blâmons, blâmez, blâmer

That evening, of course, Celia knew nothing of what had happened. She attributed Dorothea's abstracted manner, and the evidence of further crying since they had got home, to the temper she had been in about Sir James Chettam and the buildings, and was careful not to give further offence: having once said what she wanted to say, Celia had no disposition to recur to disagreeable subjects.

attributed - attribuée, attribut, épithete or déterminant

abstracted - abstraites, résumé, abstrait

offence - offense, insulte

recur - récidiver, resurvenir, revenir, réapparaître

It had been her nature when a child never to quarrel with any one"only to observe with wonder that they quarrelled with her, and looked like turkey-cocks; whereupon she was ready to play at cat's cradle with them whenever they recovered themselves.

quarrelled - se sont disputés, dispute

turkey - la dinde, dinde, dindon, viande de dinde

cocks - bites, oiseau mâle, coq

cradle - berceau, bers, bercer

recovered - récupéré, recouvrer (la santé)

And as to Dorothea, it had always been her way to find something wrong in her sister's words, though Celia inwardly protested that she always said just how things were, and nothing else: she never did and never could put words together out of her own head. But the best of Dodo was, that she did not keep angry for long together.

Now, though they had hardly spoken to each other all the evening, yet when Celia put by her work, intending to go to bed, a proceeding in which she was always much the earlier, Dorothea, who was seated on a low stool, unable to occupy herself except in meditation, said, with the musical intonation which in moments of deep but quiet feeling made her speech like a fine bit of recitative"

stool - tabouret

occupy - occuper, habiter

meditation - méditation

intonation - l'intonation, intonation

recitative - récitatif

"Celia, dear, come and kiss me," holding her arms open as she spoke.

Celia knelt down to get the right level and gave her little butterfly kiss, while Dorothea encircled her with gentle arms and pressed her lips gravely on each cheek in turn.

butterfly - papillon, pansement papillon

encircled - encerclé, encercler

"Don't sit up, Dodo, you are so pale to-night: go to bed soon," said Celia, in a comfortable way, without any touch of pathos.

pathos - pathos, pathétique

"No, dear, I am very, very happy," said Dorothea, fervently.

fervently - avec ferveur, fervemment

"So much the better," thought Celia. "But how strangely Dodo goes from one extreme to the other."

strangely - étrangement

The next day, at luncheon, the butler, handing something to Mr. Brooke, said, "Jonas is come back, sir, and has brought this letter."

butler - sommelier, majordome

Mr. Brooke read the letter, and then, nodding toward Dorothea, said, "Casaubon, my dear: he will be here to dinner; he didn't wait to write more"didn't wait, you know."

nodding - hochement de tete, (nod), dodeliner, hocher, hochement

It could not seem remarkable to Celia that a dinner guest should be announced to her sister beforehand, but, her eyes following the same direction as her uncle's, she was struck with the peculiar effect of the announcement on Dorothea. It seemed as if something like the reflection of a white sunlit wing had passed across her features, ending in one of her rare blushes.

dinner guest - Convive

peculiar - particulier, extraordinaire, bizarre, curieux

sunlit - ensoleillé

blushes - des fards a joues, rougeur

For the first time it entered into Celia's mind that there might be something more between Mr. Casaubon and her sister than his delight in bookish talk and her delight in listening. Hitherto she had classed the admiration for this "ugly" and learned acquaintance with the admiration for Monsieur Liret at Lausanne, also ugly and learned.

bookish - livresque, bouquineur, rat de bibliotheque, scolaire, pédant

acquaintance - une connaissance, relation

Dorothea had never been tired of listening to old Monsieur Liret when Celia's feet were as cold as possible, and when it had really become dreadful to see the skin of his bald head moving about. Why then should her enthusiasm not extend to Mr. Casaubon simply in the same way as to Monsieur Liret? And it seemed probable that all learned men had a sort of schoolmaster's view of young people.

bald head - tete chauve

extend - étendre, prolonger

But now Celia was really startled at the suspicion which had darted into her mind. She was seldom taken by surprise in this way, her marvellous quickness in observing a certain order of signs generally preparing her to expect such outward events as she had an interest in. Not that she now imagined Mr.

suspicion - suspicion, soupçon

seldom - rarement

marvellous - merveilleux

quickness - la rapidité, rapidité

outward - externe

Casaubon to be already an accepted lover: she had only begun to feel disgust at the possibility that anything in Dorothea's mind could tend towards such an issue. Here was something really to vex her about Dodo: it was all very well not to accept Sir James Chettam, but the idea of marrying Mr. Casaubon! Celia felt a sort of shame mingled with a sense of the ludicrous.

vex - vex, ennuyer, énerver, vexer 'informal', tourmenter

ludicrous - ridicule

But perhaps Dodo, if she were really bordering on such an extravagance, might be turned away from it: experience had often shown that her impressibility might be calculated on.

impressibility - l'impressionnabilité

calculated - calculée, calculer

The day was damp, and they were not going to walk out, so they both went up to their sitting-room; and there Celia observed that Dorothea, instead of settling down with her usual diligent interest to some occupation, simply leaned her elbow on an open book and looked out of the window at the great cedar silvered with the damp.

damp - humide, moite, mouillé, humidité, grisou, amortir

settling down - s'installer

diligent - diligent

leaned - penché, pencher

elbow - coude, coup de coude, jouer des coudes

cedar - du cedre, cedre

She herself had taken up the making of a toy for the curate's children, and was not going to enter on any subject too precipitately.

precipitately - précipitamment

Dorothea was in fact thinking that it was desirable for Celia to know of the momentous change in Mr. Casaubon's position since he had last been in the house: it did not seem fair to leave her in ignorance of what would necessarily affect her attitude towards him; but it was impossible not to shrink from telling her.

desirable - souhaitable, désirable

shrink - rétrécissement, se réduire, rétrécir, se resserrer

Dorothea accused herself of some meanness in this timidity: it was always odious to her to have any small fears or contrivances about her actions, but at this moment she was seeking the highest aid possible that she might not dread the corrosiveness of Celia's pretty carnally minded prose.

accused - accusé, accuser

timidity - timidité

contrivances - des artifices, appareil, dispositif, stratageme

seeking - a la recherche, chercher

corrosiveness - corrosivité

carnally - charnellement

Her reverie was broken, and the difficulty of decision banished, by Celia's small and rather guttural voice speaking in its usual tone, of a remark aside or a "by the bye."

reverie - reverie

banished - banni, bannir

guttural - guttural

"Is any one else coming to dine besides Mr. Casaubon?"

"Not that I know of."

"I hope there is some one else. Then I shall not hear him eat his soup so."

"What is there remarkable about his soup-eating?"

"Really, Dodo, can't you hear how he scrapes his spoon? And he always blinks before he speaks. I don't know whether Locke blinked, but I'm sure I am sorry for those who sat opposite to him if he did."

scrapes - des éraflures, gratter, racler, effleurer

blinks - clignote, montie des fontaines, (blink), ciller

blinked - clignoté, ciller, cligner des yeux, clignoter

"Celia," said Dorothea, with emphatic gravity, "pray don't make any more observations of that kind."

emphatic - emphatique

gravity - la gravité, gravité, pesanteur

observations - observations, observation, remarque

"Why not? They are quite true," returned Celia, who had her reasons for persevering, though she was beginning to be a little afraid.

"Many things are true which only the commonest minds observe."

"Then I think the commonest minds must be rather useful. I think it is a pity Mr. Casaubon's mother had not a commoner mind: she might have taught him better." Celia was inwardly frightened, and ready to run away, now she had hurled this light javelin.

hurled - lancé, projeter, débecter, débecqueter

javelin - javelot

Dorothea's feelings had gathered to an avalanche, and there could be no further preparation.

avalanche - avalanche

preparation - préparation, concoction

"It is right to tell you, Celia, that I am engaged to marry Mr. Casaubon."

Perhaps Celia had never turned so pale before. The paper man she was making would have had his leg injured, but for her habitual care of whatever she held in her hands. She laid the fragile figure down at once, and sat perfectly still for a few moments. When she spoke there was a tear gathering.

fragile - fragile

"Oh, Dodo, I hope you will be happy." Her sisterly tenderness could not but surmount other feelings at this moment, and her fears were the fears of affection.

sisterly - entre sours, sour

tenderness - tendresse

surmount - surmonter

Dorothea was still hurt and agitated.

"It is quite decided, then?" said Celia, in an awed under tone. "And uncle knows?"

awed - impressionné, crainte, révérence, admiration

"I have accepted Mr. Casaubon's offer. My uncle brought me the letter that contained it; he knew about it beforehand."

"I beg your pardon, if I have said anything to hurt you, Dodo," said Celia, with a slight sob. She never could have thought that she should feel as she did. There was something funereal in the whole affair, and Mr. Casaubon seemed to be the officiating clergyman, about whom it would be indecent to make remarks.

beg - mendier, implorer, prier

funereal - funebre

affair - affaire, aventure, liaison

indecent - indécent

"Never mind, Kitty, do not grieve. We should never admire the same people. I often offend in something of the same way; I am apt to speak too strongly of those who don't please me."

grieve - faire son deuil, chagriner, affliger, affligeons, affligent

offend - offenser, déplaire, blesser, checkblesser, checkinsulter

In spite of this magnanimity Dorothea was still smarting: perhaps as much from Celia's subdued astonishment as from her small criticisms. Of course all the world round Tipton would be out of sympathy with this marriage. Dorothea knew of no one who thought as she did about life and its best objects.

magnanimity - la magnanimité, magnanimité

astonishment - l'étonnement, étonnement

Nevertheless before the evening was at an end she was very happy. In an hour's tĂŞte-Ă -tĂŞte with Mr. Casaubon she talked to him with more freedom than she had ever felt before, even pouring out her joy at the thought of devoting herself to him, and of learning how she might best share and further all his great ends. Mr. Casaubon was touched with an unknown delight (what man would not have been?

devoting - consacrer, vouer

) at this childlike unrestrained ardor: he was not surprised (what lover would have been?) that he should be the object of it.

unrestrained - sans retenue

"My dear young lady"Miss Brooke"Dorothea!" he said, pressing her hand between his hands, "this is a happiness greater than I had ever imagined to be in reserve for me. That I should ever meet with a mind and person so rich in the mingled graces which could render marriage desirable, was far indeed from my conception.

reserve - réservation, réserve, réserves, remplaçant

render - l'équarrissage, rendre

You have all"nay, more than all"those qualities which I have ever regarded as the characteristic excellences of womanhood. The great charm of your sex is its capability of an ardent self-sacrificing affection, and herein we see its fitness to round and complete the existence of our own.

characteristic - caractéristique

excellences - excellences, excellence

sacrificing - sacrifier, sacrifice, offrande

herein - ici, ci-dedans

existence - l'existence, existence

Hitherto I have known few pleasures save of the severer kind: my satisfactions have been those of the solitary student. I have been little disposed to gather flowers that would wither in my hand, but now I shall pluck them with eagerness, to place them in your bosom."

severer - plus sévere, grave, sévere

satisfactions - des satisfactions, satisfaction

solitary - solitaire, seul, un a un

wither - se flétrir, flétrissure

pluck - tirer, pincer, plumer, voler, abats, persévérance, (du) cour

bosom - poitrine, sein, intime

No speech could have been more thoroughly honest in its intention: the frigid rhetoric at the end was as sincere as the bark of a dog, or the cawing of an amorous rook. Would it not be rash to conclude that there was no passion behind those sonnets to Delia which strike us as the thin music of a mandolin?

thoroughly honest - parfaitement honnete

frigid - frigide

rhetoric - rhétorique

bark - l'écorce, écorce, coque, aboyer

cawing - croassement, (caw), croasser

amorous - amoureuse

rook - tour, frauder

sonnets - sonnets, sonnet

mandolin - mandoline

Dorothea's faith supplied all that Mr. Casaubon's words seemed to leave unsaid: what believer sees a disturbing omission or infelicity? The text, whether of prophet or of poet, expands for whatever we can put into it, and even his bad grammar is sublime.

believer - croyant, croyante

disturbing - dérangeant, déranger, perturber, gener

infelicity - infélicité

prophet - prophete, prophete, prophétesse, devin

Grammar - grammaire

sublime - sublime, auguste

"I am very ignorant"you will quite wonder at my ignorance," said Dorothea. "I have so many thoughts that may be quite mistaken; and now I shall be able to tell them all to you, and ask you about them. But," she added, with rapid imagination of Mr. Casaubon's probable feeling, "I will not trouble you too much; only when you are inclined to listen to me.

rapid - rapide, rapides

You must often be weary with the pursuit of subjects in your own track. I shall gain enough if you will take me with you there."

weary - fatigué, las, lasser

pursuit - poursuite

"How should I be able now to persevere in any path without your companionship?" said Mr. Casaubon, kissing her candid brow, and feeling that heaven had vouchsafed him a blessing in every way suited to his peculiar wants. He was being unconsciously wrought upon by the charms of a nature which was entirely without hidden calculations either for immediate effects or for remoter ends.

persevere - persévérer

candid - sincere, spontané, candide

vouchsafed - garantie, accorder de maniere clémente

blessing - la bénédiction, bénédiction, grâce, troupeau, harde

unconsciously - inconsciemment

charms - des breloques, charme

calculations - calculs, calcul

It was this which made Dorothea so childlike, and, according to some judges, so stupid, with all her reputed cleverness; as, for example, in the present case of throwing herself, metaphorically speaking, at Mr. Casaubon's feet, and kissing his unfashionable shoe-ties as if he were a Protestant Pope. She was not in the least teaching Mr.

reputed - réputé, réputation

metaphorically - métaphoriquement

unfashionable - démodé

pope - pape

Casaubon to ask if he were good enough for her, but merely asking herself anxiously how she could be good enough for Mr. Casaubon. Before he left the next day it had been decided that the marriage should take place within six weeks. Why not? Mr. Casaubon's house was ready. It was not a parsonage, but a considerable mansion, with much land attached to it.

anxiously - avec anxiété, anxieusement

parsonage - le presbytere, cure, presbytere

considerable - considérable

mansion - manoir, demeure

The parsonage was inhabited by the curate, who did all the duty except preaching the morning sermon.

inhabited - habité, habiter

preaching - la prédication, prechant, (preach), precher, proclamer

sermon - sermon


My lady's tongue is like the meadow blades,

meadow - prairie, pré

blades - lames, lame

That cut you stroking them with idle hand.

idle - au ralenti, fainéant

Nice cutting is her function: she divides

With spiritual edge the millet-seed,

millet - le millet, millet

And makes intangible savings.

intangible - intangible

Savings - des économies, économie, épargne

As Mr. Casaubon's carriage was passing out of the gateway, it arrested the entrance of a pony phaeton driven by a lady with a servant seated behind. It was doubtful whether the recognition had been mutual, for Mr. Casaubon was looking absently before him; but the lady was quick-eyed, and threw a nod and a "How do you do?" in the nick of time.

gateway - porte, passerelle, gateway, checkpasserelle

pony - poney

phaeton - phaéton

doubtful - douteux, douteuse

absently - par distraction, distraitement

nick - nick, Nico

In spite of her shabby bonnet and very old Indian shawl, it was plain that the lodge-keeper regarded her as an important personage, from the low curtsy which was dropped on the entrance of the small phaeton.

shabby - râpé, usé, élimé, miteux, minable

Lodge - cabane, maison du portier, loge, rench: t-needed r, loger

keeper - gardien, gardienne, perle, conservateur, conservatrice

personage - personnage

curtsy - la révérence, révérence

"Well, Mrs. Fitchett, how are your fowls laying now?" said the high-colored, dark-eyed lady, with the clearest chiselled utterance.

fowls - volailles, volaille, oiseau de basse-cour

chiselled - ciselé, ciseau

"Pretty well for laying, madam, but they've ta'en to eating their eggs: I've no peace o'mind with 'em at all."

madam - madame, mere maquerelle, tenanciere

ta - ta, merci

"Oh, the cannibals! Better sell them cheap at once. What will you sell them a couple? One can't eat fowls of a bad character at a high price."

cannibals - des cannibales, cannibale

"Well, madam, half-a-crown: I couldn't let 'em go, not under."

crown - couronne, couronner

"Half-a-crown, these times! Come now"for the Rector's chicken-broth on a Sunday. He has consumed all ours that I can spare. You are half paid with the sermon, Mrs. Fitchett, remember that. Take a pair of tumbler-pigeons for them"little beauties. You must come and see them. You have no tumblers among your pigeons."

Come now - viens/venez maintenant

broth - bouillon, soupe

pigeons - pigeons, pigeon

tumblers - gobelets, tumbler

"Well, madam, Master Fitchett shall go and see 'em after work. He's very hot on new sorts; to oblige you."

oblige - imposer, obliger, etre redevable a

"Oblige me! It will be the best bargain he ever made. A pair of church pigeons for a couple of wicked Spanish fowls that eat their own eggs! Don't you and Fitchett boast too much, that is all!"

bargain - marché, accord, affaire, bonne affaire, marchander

boast - se vanter, vantent, vantez, vantons, fanfaronner, vanter

The phaeton was driven onwards with the last words, leaving Mrs. Fitchett laughing and shaking her head slowly, with an interjectional "Surely, surely!""from which it might be inferred that she would have found the country-side somewhat duller if the Rector's lady had been less free-spoken and less of a skinflint.

onwards - a partir de, en avant

interjectional - interjectionnel

inferred - déduit, déduire, inférer

duller - plus terne, émoussé, ennuyeux, barbant, mat, terne, sot, obtus

skinflint - la peau de chagrin

Indeed, both the farmers and laborers in the parishes of Freshitt and Tipton would have felt a sad lack of conversation but for the stories about what Mrs.

farmers - agriculteurs, agriculteur, fermier

Cadwallader said and did: a lady of immeasurably high birth, descended, as it were, from unknown earls, dim as the crowd of heroic shades"who pleaded poverty, pared down prices, and cut jokes in the most companionable manner, though with a turn of tongue that let you know who she was. Such a lady gave a neighborliness to both rank and religion, and mitigated the bitterness of uncommuted tithe.

immeasurably - de maniere incommensurable

descended - descendu, descendre

earls - les comtes, comte

heroic - héroique, héroique

shades - nuances, alose

pleaded - plaidée, plaider

pared - pared, éplucher, peler, rogner

most companionable - le plus agréable

neighborliness - le voisinage

rank - rang, rangée, unie, standing

mitigated - atténuée, réduire, atténuer, mitiger

uncommuted - non commutée

tithe - la dîme, dîme

A much more exemplary character with an infusion of sour dignity would not have furthered their comprehension of the Thirty-nine Articles, and would have been less socially uniting.

more exemplary - plus exemplaire

infusion - perfusion, infusion

sour - aigre, sur, rance, tourné, acerbe, acariâtre

comprehension - compréhension, entendement

socially - socialement

Mr. Brooke, seeing Mrs. Cadwallader's merits from a different point of view, winced a little when her name was announced in the library, where he was sitting alone.

merits - mérites, mérite, mériter

winced - a fait un clin d'oil, grimacer

"I see you have had our Lowick Cicero here," she said, seating herself comfortably, throwing back her wraps, and showing a thin but well-built figure. "I suspect you and he are brewing some bad polities, else you would not be seeing so much of the lively man. I shall inform against you: remember you are both suspicious characters since you took Peel's side about the Catholic Bill.

Cicero - cicéron

comfortably - confortablement, agréablement

throwing back - Lancer en arriere

wraps - enveloppes, enrouler (autour de)

suspect - suspecter, soupçonner, suspect

brewing - brassage, (brew)

lively - fringant, spirituel

inform - informer, renseignent, faire savoir, renseignons, informez

I shall tell everybody that you are going to put up for Middlemarch on the Whig side when old Pinkerton resigns, and that Casaubon is going to help you in an underhand manner: going to bribe the voters with pamphlets, and throw open the public-houses to distribute them. Come, confess!"

resigns - démissionne, démissionner

underhand - en dessous de la main

bribe - pot-de-vin, verser un pot-de-vin, soudoyer, corrompre

voters - électeurs, votant, votante

distribute - distribuer, répartir

"Nothing of the sort," said Mr. Brooke, smiling and rubbing his eye-glasses, but really blushing a little at the impeachment. "Casaubon and I don't talk politics much. He doesn't care much about the philanthropic side of things; punishments, and that kind of thing. He only cares about Church questions. That is not my line of action, you know."

impeachment - la mise en accusation, destitution, impeachment

talk politics - parler de politique

"Ra-a-ther too much, my friend. I have heard of your doings. Who was it that sold his bit of land to the Papists at Middlemarch? I believe you bought it on purpose. You are a perfect Guy Faux. See if you are not burnt in effigy this 5th of November coming. Humphrey would not come to quarrel with you about it, so I am come."

Papists - papistes, papiste

faux - faux

effigy - effigie

quarrel - querelle, bagarrer, noise, algarade, dispute

"Very good. I was prepared to be persecuted for not persecuting"not persecuting, you know."

Persecuted - persécutés, persécuter

persecuting - persécuter

"There you go! That is a piece of clap-trap you have got ready for the hustings. Now, do not let them lure you to the hustings, my dear Mr. Brooke. A man always makes a fool of himself, speechifying: there's no excuse but being on the right side, so that you can ask a blessing on your humming and hawing. You will lose yourself, I forewarn you.

clap - applaudir, claquent, claquer, applaudissement, claquez

trap - piege

got ready - etre pret

hustings - les réunions

lure - leurre, attrait

fool - idiot, dinde, fou, bouffon, mat, duper, tromper

humming - fredonner, (hum), bourdonner, fourmiller

forewarn - prévenir, précautionner

You will make a Saturday pie of all parties'opinions, and be pelted by everybody."

pie - tarte, saccager, pâte, pâté

pelted - pelé, lancer

"That is what I expect, you know," said Mr. Brooke, not wishing to betray how little he enjoyed this prophetic sketch""what I expect as an independent man. As to the Whigs, a man who goes with the thinkers is not likely to be hooked on by any party. He may go with them up to a certain point"up to a certain point, you know. But that is what you ladies never understand."

betray - trahir, livrer

prophetic - prophétique

sketch - croquis, croquer, esquisser, esquisse, ébauche, sketch

thinkers - penseurs, penseur, penseuse, intellectuel

hooked - accroché, crochet, agrafe, hook, accrocher, ferrer

"Where your certain point is? No. I should like to be told how a man can have any certain point when he belongs to no party"leading a roving life, and never letting his friends know his address. ˜Nobody knows where Brooke will be"there's no counting on Brooke'"that is what people say of you, to be quite frank. Now, do turn respectable.

frank - franche, franc

How will you like going to Sessions with everybody looking shy on you, and you with a bad conscience and an empty pocket?"

Sessions - les sessions, séance, session

"I don't pretend to argue with a lady on politics," said Mr. Brooke, with an air of smiling indifference, but feeling rather unpleasantly conscious that this attack of Mrs. Cadwallader's had opened the defensive campaign to which certain rash steps had exposed him. "Your sex are not thinkers, you know"varium et mutabile semper"that kind of thing. You don't know Virgil. I knew""Mr.

unpleasantly - désagréable

defensive - défensif

exposed - exposée, exposer, dénoncer

et - et

Virgil - virgile

Brooke reflected in time that he had not had the personal acquaintance of the Augustan poet""I was going to say, poor Stoddart, you know. That was what he said. You ladies are always against an independent attitude"a man's caring for nothing but truth, and that sort of thing.

And there is no part of the county where opinion is narrower than it is here"I don't mean to throw stones, you know, but somebody is wanted to take the independent line; and if I don't take it, who will?"

"Who? Why, any upstart who has got neither blood nor position. People of standing should consume their independent nonsense at home, not hawk it about. And you! who are going to marry your niece, as good as your daughter, to one of our best men. Sir James would be cruelly annoyed: it will be too hard on him if you turn round now and make yourself a Whig sign-board."

upstart - un nouveau départ, parvenu, arriviste, nouveau riche

hawk - faucon, autour

cruelly - cruellement

turn round - faire demi-tour

Mr. Brooke again winced inwardly, for Dorothea's engagement had no sooner been decided, than he had thought of Mrs. Cadwallader's prospective taunts. It might have been easy for ignorant observers to say, "Quarrel with Mrs. Cadwallader;" but where is a country gentleman to go who quarrels with his oldest neighbors?

engagement - l'engagement, fiançailles

taunts - des railleries, accabler de sarcasmes

quarrels - querelles, dispute

Who could taste the fine flavor in the name of Brooke if it were delivered casually, like wine without a seal? Certainly a man can only be cosmopolitan up to a certain point.

flavor - gout, saveur, style, assaisonner

casually - de rencontre

seal - sceau

Cosmopolitan - cosmopolite

"I hope Chettam and I shall always be good friends; but I am sorry to say there is no prospect of his marrying my niece," said Mr. Brooke, much relieved to see through the window that Celia was coming in.

relieved - soulagé, soulager, relayer, faire ses besoins, se soulager

"Why not?" said Mrs. Cadwallader, with a sharp note of surprise. "It is hardly a fortnight since you and I were talking about it."

fortnight - quinze jours, deux semaines, quinzaine

"My niece has chosen another suitor"has chosen him, you know. I have had nothing to do with it. I should have preferred Chettam; and I should have said Chettam was the man any girl would have chosen. But there is no accounting for these things. Your sex is capricious, you know."

capricious - capricieux

"Why, whom do you mean to say that you are going to let her marry?" Mrs. Cadwallader's mind was rapidly surveying the possibilities of choice for Dorothea.

rapidly - rapidement

But here Celia entered, blooming from a walk in the garden, and the greeting with her delivered Mr. Brooke from the necessity of answering immediately. He got up hastily, and saying, "By the way, I must speak to Wright about the horses," shuffled quickly out of the room.

shuffled - mélangé, battage, battre, mélanger, traîner les pieds

"My dear child, what is this?"this about your sister's engagement?" said Mrs. Cadwallader.

"She is engaged to marry Mr. Casaubon," said Celia, resorting, as usual, to the simplest statement of fact, and enjoying this opportunity of speaking to the Rector's wife alone.

resorting - le recours, avoir recours (a)

"This is frightful. How long has it been going on?"

frightful - effrayante, effrayant

"I only knew of it yesterday. They are to be married in six weeks."

"Well, my dear, I wish you joy of your brother-in-law."

"I am so sorry for Dorothea."

"Sorry! It is her doing, I suppose."

"Yes; she says Mr. Casaubon has a great soul."

"With all my heart."

"Oh, Mrs. Cadwallader, I don't think it can be nice to marry a man with a great soul."

"Well, my dear, take warning. You know the look of one now; when the next comes and wants to marry you, don't you accept him."

"I'm sure I never should."

"No; one such in a family is enough. So your sister never cared about Sir James Chettam? What would you have said to him for a brother-in-law?"

"I should have liked that very much. I am sure he would have been a good husband. Only," Celia added, with a slight blush (she sometimes seemed to blush as she breathed), "I don't think he would have suited Dorothea."

blush - rougir

"Not high-flown enough?"

"Dodo is very strict. She thinks so much about everything, and is so particular about what one says. Sir James never seemed to please her."

"She must have encouraged him, I am sure. That is not very creditable."

creditable - crédible

"Please don't be angry with Dodo; she does not see things. She thought so much about the cottages, and she was rude to Sir James sometimes; but he is so kind, he never noticed it."

"Well," said Mrs. Cadwallader, putting on her shawl, and rising, as if in haste, "I must go straight to Sir James and break this to him. He will have brought his mother back by this time, and I must call. Your uncle will never tell him. We are all disappointed, my dear. Young people should think of their families in marrying.

haste - hâte

I set a bad example"married a poor clergyman, and made myself a pitiable object among the De Bracys"obliged to get my coals by stratagem, and pray to heaven for my salad oil. However, Casaubon has money enough; I must do him that justice. As to his blood, I suppose the family quarterings are three cuttle-fish sable, and a commentator rampant.

pitiable - pitoyable

obliged - obligée, imposer, obliger, rendre service

stratagem - stratageme, stratageme

salad oil - de l'huile de salade

quarterings - les quartiers, écartelement

cuttle - la seiche

sable - zibeline, martre, sable

commentator - commentateur

rampant - rampante, rampant, effréné

By the bye, before I go, my dear, I must speak to your Mrs. Carter about pastry. I want to send my young cook to learn of her. Poor people with four children, like us, you know, can't afford to keep a good cook. I have no doubt Mrs. Carter will oblige me. Sir James's cook is a perfect dragon."

pastry - pâtisserie

Dragon - le dragon, dragon

In less than an hour, Mrs. Cadwallader had circumvented Mrs. Carter and driven to Freshitt Hall, which was not far from her own parsonage, her husband being resident in Freshitt and keeping a curate in Tipton.

circumvented - contournée, contourner, circonvenir, cerner

resident - résident, résidente, habitant, habitante

Sir James Chettam had returned from the short journey which had kept him absent for a couple of days, and had changed his dress, intending to ride over to Tipton Grange. His horse was standing at the door when Mrs. Cadwallader drove up, and he immediately appeared there himself, whip in hand. Lady Chettam had not yet returned, but Mrs.

whip - fouet, whip, fouetter, flageller, défaire, battre

Cadwallader's errand could not be despatched in the presence of grooms, so she asked to be taken into the conservatory close by, to look at the new plants; and on coming to a contemplative stand, she said"

grooms - mariés, garçon d'écurie

conservatory - jardin d'hiver, serre

contemplative - contemplatif

"I have a great shock for you; I hope you are not so far gone in love as you pretended to be."

shock - choc, choquons, offusquer, choquez, choquer, secouer

It was of no use protesting against Mrs. Cadwallader's way of putting things. But Sir James's countenance changed a little. He felt a vague alarm.

"I do believe Brooke is going to expose himself after all. I accused him of meaning to stand for Middlemarch on the Liberal side, and he looked silly and never denied it"talked about the independent line, and the usual nonsense."

denied - refusée, nier, démentir, refuser

"Is that all?" said Sir James, much relieved.

"Why," rejoined Mrs. Cadwallader, with a sharper note, "you don't mean to say that you would like him to turn public man in that way"making a sort of political Cheap Jack of himself?"

Jack - Jeannot, Jacques, Jacob, Jack

"He might be dissuaded, I should think. He would not like the expense."

expense - dépenses, dépense

"That is what I told him. He is vulnerable to reason there"always a few grains of common-sense in an ounce of miserliness. Miserliness is a capital quality to run in families; it's the safe side for madness to dip on. And there must be a little crack in the Brooke family, else we should not see what we are to see."

vulnerable - vulnérable

ounce - once

miserliness - l'avarice, avarice

madness - la folie, folie

dip - trempette, immersion

crack - crack, croustiller, fissure, craquement, fracas, craquer

"What? Brooke standing for Middlemarch?"

standing for - défendre

"Worse than that. I really feel a little responsible. I always told you Miss Brooke would be such a fine match. I knew there was a great deal of nonsense in her"a flighty sort of Methodistical stuff. But these things wear out of girls. However, I am taken by surprise for once."

wear out - s'épuiser

"What do you mean, Mrs. Cadwallader?" said Sir James. His fear lest Miss Brooke should have run away to join the Moravian Brethren, or some preposterous sect unknown to good society, was a little allayed by the knowledge that Mrs. Cadwallader always made the worst of things. "What has happened to Miss Brooke? Pray speak out."

Moravian - Moravien

brethren - freres

preposterous - absurde

sect - secte

allayed - apaisée, apaiser, pacifier, soulager

"Very well. She is engaged to be married." Mrs. Cadwallader paused a few moments, observing the deeply hurt expression in her friend's face, which he was trying to conceal by a nervous smile, while he whipped his boot; but she soon added, "Engaged to Casaubon."

whipped - fouetté, fouet, whip, fouetter, flageller, défaire, battre

Sir James let his whip fall and stooped to pick it up. Perhaps his face had never before gathered so much concentrated disgust as when he turned to Mrs. Cadwallader and repeated, "Casaubon?"

stooped - vouté, se baisser

"Even so. You know my errand now."

"Good God! It is horrible! He is no better than a mummy!" (The point of view has to be allowed for, as that of a blooming and disappointed rival.)

mummy - maman

rival - rival, rivale, rivaliser

"She says, he is a great soul."A great bladder for dried peas to rattle in!" said Mrs. Cadwallader.

bladder - vésicule, vessie, cubi

peas - pois, (pea) pois

rattle - cliquetis, claquer, pétarade, ferrailler

"What business has an old bachelor like that to marry?" said Sir James. "He has one foot in the grave."

"He means to draw it out again, I suppose."

"Brooke ought not to allow it: he should insist on its being put off till she is of age. She would think better of it then. What is a guardian for?"

insist - insister

"As if you could ever squeeze a resolution out of Brooke!"

squeeze - de la compression, presser, comprimer, tasser, serrer

"Cadwallader might talk to him."

"Not he! Humphrey finds everybody charming. I never can get him to abuse Casaubon. He will even speak well of the bishop, though I tell him it is unnatural in a beneficed clergyman; what can one do with a husband who attends so little to the decencies? I hide it as well as I can by abusing everybody myself. Come, come, Cheer up!

abuse - abus, défaut, abuser, insulter, tourmenter, abusons

unnatural - contre nature

decencies - des décences, décence

abusing - abuser (de)

Cheer up - encourager

you are well rid of Miss Brooke, a girl who would have been requiring you to see the stars by daylight. Between ourselves, little Celia is worth two of her, and likely after all to be the better match. For this marriage to Casaubon is as good as going to a nunnery."

daylight - la lumiere du jour, jour, lumiere du jour

nunnery - couvent

"Oh, on my own account"it is for Miss Brooke's sake I think her friends should try to use their influence."

"Well, Humphrey doesn't know yet. But when I tell him, you may depend on it he will say, ˜Why not? Casaubon is a good fellow"and young"young enough.'These charitable people never know vinegar from wine till they have swallowed it and got the colic. However, if I were a man I should prefer Celia, especially when Dorothea was gone. The truth is, you have been courting one and have won the other.

charitable - charitable

vinegar - vinaigre

swallowed - avalé, avaler

colic - coliques, colique

I can see that she admires you almost as much as a man expects to be admired. If it were any one but me who said so, you might think it exaggeration. Good-by!"

good-by - (good-by) bien par

Sir James handed Mrs. Cadwallader to the phaeton, and then jumped on his horse. He was not going to renounce his ride because of his friend's unpleasant news"only to ride the faster in some other direction than that of Tipton Grange.

renounce - renoncer, renoncez, renonçons, renoncent, désister

Now, why on earth should Mrs. Cadwallader have been at all busy about Miss Brooke's marriage; and why, when one match that she liked to think she had a hand in was frustrated, should she have straightway contrived the preliminaries of another? Was there any ingenious plot, any hide-and-seek course of action, which might be detected by a careful telescopic watch?

frustrated - frustré, frustrer

straightway - tout de suite

contrived - artificiel, combiner, inventer

preliminaries - préliminaires, préliminaire

ingenious - ingénieux

telescopic - télescopique

Not at all: a telescope might have swept the parishes of Tipton and Freshitt, the whole area visited by Mrs. Cadwallader in her phaeton, without witnessing any interview that could excite suspicion, or any scene from which she did not return with the same unperturbed keenness of eye and the same high natural color.

telescope - télescope, lunette

swept - balayé, balayer, balayage

witnessing - le témoignage, témoignage, témoin, preuve, témoigner

unperturbed - imperturbable

keenness - l'ardeur

In fact, if that convenient vehicle had existed in the days of the Seven Sages, one of them would doubtless have remarked, that you can know little of women by following them about in their pony-phaetons.

sages - sages, sauge

Even with a microscope directed on a water-drop we find ourselves making interpretations which turn out to be rather coarse; for whereas under a weak lens you may seem to see a creature exhibiting an active voracity into which other smaller creatures actively play as if they were so many animated tax-pennies, a stronger lens reveals to you certain tiniest hairlets which make vortices for these victims while the swallower waits passively at his receipt of custom. In this way, metaphorically speaking, a strong lens applied to Mrs. Cadwallader's match-making will show a play of minute causes producing what may be called thought and speech vortices to bring her the sort of food she needed. Her life was rurally simple, quite free from secrets either foul, dangerous, or otherwise important, and not consciously affected by the great affairs of the world. All the more did the affairs of the great world interest her, when communicated in the letters of high-born relations: the way in which fascinating younger sons had gone to the dogs by marrying their mistresses; the fine old-blooded idiocy of young Lord Tapir, and the furious gouty humors of old Lord Megatherium; the exact crossing of genealogies which had brought a coronet into a new branch and widened the relations of scandal,"these were topics of which she retained details with the utmost accuracy, and reproduced them in an excellent pickle of epigrams, which she herself enjoyed the more because she believed as unquestionably in birth and no-birth as she did in game and vermin. She would never have disowned any one on the ground of poverty: a De Bracy reduced to take his dinner in a basin would have seemed to her an example of pathos worth exaggerating, and I fear his aristocratic vices would not have horrified her. But her feeling towards the vulgar rich was a sort of religious hatred: they had probably made all their money out of high retail prices, and Mrs. Cadwallader detested high prices for everything that was not paid in kind at the Rectory: such people were no part of God's design in making the world; and their accent was an affliction to the ears. A town where such monsters abounded was hardly more than a sort of low comedy, which could not be taken account of in a well-bred scheme of the universe. Let any lady who is inclined to be hard on Mrs. Cadwallader inquire into the comprehensiveness of her own beautiful views, and be quite sure that they afford accommodation for all the lives which have the honor to coexist with hers.

microscope - microscope

coarse - grossier, brut, vulgaire

lens - lentille, cristallin, filmer

exhibiting - exposer, exposition, piece a conviction

voracity - voracité

actively - activement

animated - animée, animé, animer

reveals - révele, révéler, laisser voir

hairlets - des boucles d'oreilles

vortices - tourbillons

swallower - avaleur

passively - passivement

rurally - en milieu rural

foul - la faute, infâme

otherwise - autrement

mistresses - maîtresses, maîtresse, amante

idiocy - l'idiotie, idiotie

Lord - châtelain, seigneur, monsieur

tapir - tapir, rench Guiana

furious - furieux

gouty - goutteux

humors - les humeurs, humour

Megatherium - Mégatherium

genealogies - les généalogies, généalogie

Coronet - coronet, couronne

widened - élargi, s’élargir, élargir

Scandal - scandale, esclandre

accuracy - l'exactitude, exactitude, précision

reproduced - reproduit, reproduire, se reproduire

pickle - cornichon, marinade(s)

epigrams - épigrammes, épigramme

vermin - la vermine, vermine

disowned - désavouée, renier

basin - bassin, cuvette, bassine, lavabo

exaggerating - exagérer, outrer

vices - vices, étau

vulgar - vulgaire, obscene

hatred - la haine, haine

retail - le commerce de détail, vente au détail

detested - détesté, détester, mépriser

accent - accent, emphase, souligner, accentuer

affliction - affliction, détresse

monsters - des monstres, monstre, bete, monstrueux

abounded - ont abondé, foisonner, abonder

universe - univers

comprehensiveness - l'exhaustivité

coexist - coexister

With such a mind, active as phosphorus, biting everything that came near into the form that suited it, how could Mrs. Cadwallader feel that the Miss Brookes and their matrimonial prospects were alien to her? especially as it had been the habit of years for her to scold Mr. Brooke with the friendliest frankness, and let him know in confidence that she thought him a poor creature.

phosphorus - phosphore

alien - étranger, étrangere, extraterrestre, alien

scold - chipie, furie, mégere, gronder, réprimander

frankness - la franchise, franchise

From the first arrival of the young ladies in Tipton she had prearranged Dorothea's marriage with Sir James, and if it had taken place would have been quite sure that it was her doing: that it should not take place after she had preconceived it, caused her an irritation which every thinker will sympathize with.

sympathize - sympathiser, compatir

She was the diplomatist of Tipton and Freshitt, and for anything to happen in spite of her was an offensive irregularity. As to freaks like this of Miss Brooke's, Mrs.

diplomatist - diplomate

irregularity - irrégularité

freaks - des monstres, monstre, anormal

Cadwallader had no patience with them, and now saw that her opinion of this girl had been infected with some of her husband's weak charitableness: those Methodistical whims, that air of being more religious than the rector and curate together, came from a deeper and more constitutional disease than she had been willing to believe.

patience - la patience, patience

infected - infecté, infecter

charitableness - bonté

more religious - plus religieux

constitutional - constitutionnel, constitutionnelle

"However," said Mrs. Cadwallader, first to herself and afterwards to her husband, "I throw her over: there was a chance, if she had married Sir James, of her becoming a sane, sensible woman. He would never have contradicted her, and when a woman is not contradicted, she has no motive for obstinacy in her absurdities. But now I wish her joy of her hair shirt."

contradicted - contredit, contredire

obstinacy - l'obstination, entetement, obstination

It followed that Mrs. Cadwallader must decide on another match for Sir James, and having made up her mind that it was to be the younger Miss Brooke, there could not have been a more skilful move towards the success of her plan than her hint to the baronet that he had made an impression on Celia's heart.

skilful - pu

hint - indice, indication, soupçon, faire allusion

For he was not one of those gentlemen who languish after the unattainable Sappho's apple that laughs from the topmost bough"the charms which

languish - dépérir, se cachectiser, se rabougrir, devenir étique, languir

unattainable - inaccessible, inatteignable

Sappho - Sappho

bough - rameau, branche

"Smile like the knot of cowslips on the cliff,

knot - noud, nodale

cliff - falaise, escarpé

Not to be come at by the willing hand."

He had no sonnets to write, and it could not strike him agreeably that he was not an object of preference to the woman whom he had preferred. Already the knowledge that Dorothea had chosen Mr. Casaubon had bruised his attachment and relaxed its hold.

agreeably - a l'aise, agréablement

preference - préférence

bruised - contusionné, contusionner, meurtrir, taler, cotir, se taler

Although Sir James was a sportsman, he had some other feelings towards women than towards grouse and foxes, and did not regard his future wife in the light of prey, valuable chiefly for the excitements of the chase.

sportsman - sportif, athlete

grouse - tétras, rouspéter

foxes - renards, renard, t+goupil, rench: -neededr, roublard

prey - la proie, butin, prise, proie

chase - poursuite, chassez, chassons, poursuivre, pousser, chasser

Neither was he so well acquainted with the habits of primitive races as to feel that an ideal combat for her, tomahawk in hand, so to speak, was necessary to the historical continuity of the marriage-tie.

primitive - primitif, primitive

combat - combat, bataille, lutte, combattre

tomahawk - tomahawk

continuity - continuité

On the contrary, having the amiable vanity which knits us to those who are fond of us, and disinclines us to those who are indifferent, and also a good grateful nature, the mere idea that a woman had a kindness towards him spun little threads of tenderness from out his heart towards hers.

knits - tricots, tricoter, souder, unir, se souder

indifferent - indifférent

kindness - la gentillesse, bonté

spun - filé, tournoyer, (faire) tourner

threads - fils, fil, processus léger, exétron

Thus it happened, that after Sir James had ridden rather fast for half an hour in a direction away from Tipton Grange, he slackened his pace, and at last turned into a road which would lead him back by a shorter cut. Various feelings wrought in him the determination after all to go to the Grange to-day as if nothing new had happened.

determination - détermination

He could not help rejoicing that he had never made the offer and been rejected; mere friendly politeness required that he should call to see Dorothea about the cottages, and now happily Mrs. Cadwallader had prepared him to offer his congratulations, if necessary, without showing too much awkwardness.

rejoicing - se réjouir, réjouissant, gaieté, (rejoice), réjouir

politeness - la politesse, politesse

congratulations - félicitations, félicitation

awkwardness - maladresse

He really did not like it: giving up Dorothea was very painful to him; but there was something in the resolve to make this visit forthwith and conquer all show of feeling, which was a sort of file-biting and counter-irritant.

forthwith - immédiatement, aussitôt, séance tenante, de ce pas

conquer - conquérir

counter - compteur, numérateur, jeton

And without his distinctly recognizing the impulse, there certainly was present in him the sense that Celia would be there, and that he should pay her more attention than he had done before.

distinctly - distinctement

impulse - impulsion

We mortals, men and women, devour many a disappointment between breakfast and dinner-time; keep back the tears and look a little pale about the lips, and in answer to inquiries say, "Oh, nothing!" Pride helps us; and pride is not a bad thing when it only urges us to hide our own hurts"not to hurt others.

devour - dévorer

inquiries - des demandes de renseignements, enquete

urges - des envies, pulsion, pousser, inciter, provoquer


"Piacer e popone

Vuol la sua stagione."

"Italian Proverb.

proverb - proverbe

Mr. Casaubon, as might be expected, spent a great deal of his time at the Grange in these weeks, and the hindrance which courtship occasioned to the progress of his great work"the Key to all Mythologies"naturally made him look forward the more eagerly to the happy termination of courtship.

hindrance - entrave, obstacle

courtship - la cour, cour

Mythologies - mythologies, mythologie

termination - la résiliation, terminaison, fin

But he had deliberately incurred the hindrance, having made up his mind that it was now time for him to adorn his life with the graces of female companionship, to irradiate the gloom which fatigue was apt to hang over the intervals of studious labor with the play of female fancy, and to secure in this, his culminating age, the solace of female tendance for his declining years.

incurred - encourus, encourir, s'attirer, subir, impliquer, occasioner

adorn - décorer, orner, parer

irradiate - irradier

gloom - obscurité, pénombre, grisaille, morosité, noirceur

fatigue - la fatigue, fatigue, épuisement, corvée, fatiguer

hang over - Une gueule de bois

intervals - intervalles, intervalle

studious - studieux

secure - sécurisé, sur, sécuriser

culminating - le point culminant, aboutir a, conduire a, déboucher sur

solace - consolation, réconfort, soulager, consoler

tendance - tendance

declining - en déclin, déclin

Hence he determined to abandon himself to the stream of feeling, and perhaps was surprised to find what an exceedingly shallow rill it was. As in droughty regions baptism by immersion could only be performed symbolically, Mr.

abandon - abandonner, renoncer, abandonnent, abandonnons, délaisser

exceedingly - excessivement, extremement, énormément

shallow - superficielle, peu profond, superficiel, haut-fond, baisse

rill - rill, ruisselet

droughty - la sécheresse

baptism - le bapteme, bapteme

immersion - l'immersion, immersion

symbolically - symboliquement

Casaubon found that sprinkling was the utmost approach to a plunge which his stream would afford him; and he concluded that the poets had much exaggerated the force of masculine passion. Nevertheless, he observed with pleasure that Miss Brooke showed an ardent submissive affection which promised to fulfil his most agreeable previsions of marriage.

sprinkling - l'aspersion, (sprinkle), saupoudrer, asperger

approach - approche, approchons, abordent, abordez, rapprochons

plunge - plonger

submissive - soumis

fulfil - remplir, accomplir

It had once or twice crossed his mind that possibly there was some deficiency in Dorothea to account for the moderation of his abandonment; but he was unable to discern the deficiency, or to figure to himself a woman who would have pleased him better; so that there was clearly no reason to fall back upon but the exaggerations of human tradition.

deficiency - déficience, carence

moderation - modération

abandonment - l'abandon, désertion, abandon

discern - discerner

exaggerations - des exagérations, exagération

"Could I not be preparing myself now to be more useful?" said Dorothea to him, one morning, early in the time of courtship; "could I not learn to read Latin and Greek aloud to you, as Milton's daughters did to their father, without understanding what they read?"

"I fear that would be wearisome to you," said Mr. Casaubon, smiling; "and, indeed, if I remember rightly, the young women you have mentioned regarded that exercise in unknown tongues as a ground for rebellion against the poet."

rightly - a juste titre

rebellion - la rébellion, rébellion

"Yes; but in the first place they were very naughty girls, else they would have been proud to minister to such a father; and in the second place they might have studied privately and taught themselves to understand what they read, and then it would have been interesting. I hope you don't expect me to be naughty and stupid?"

naughty - malicieux, malin, méchant, vilain, risqué

minister - ministre, ministériel

"I expect you to be all that an exquisite young lady can be in every possible relation of life. Certainly it might be a great advantage if you were able to copy the Greek character, and to that end it were well to begin with a little reading."

Dorothea seized this as a precious permission. She would not have asked Mr. Casaubon at once to teach her the languages, dreading of all things to be tiresome instead of helpful; but it was not entirely out of devotion to her future husband that she wished to know Latin and Greek. Those provinces of masculine knowledge seemed to her a standing-ground from which all truth could be seen more truly.

seized - saisi, saisir

precious - précieux

dreading - redouté, redouter, craindre, crainte

tiresome - lassant

provinces - provinces, province, qualifier

As it was, she constantly doubted her own conclusions, because she felt her own ignorance: how could she be confident that one-roomed cottages were not for the glory of God, when men who knew the classics appeared to conciliate indifference to the cottages with zeal for the glory?

Classics - les classiques, classique

zeal - le zele, zele, assiduité

Perhaps even Hebrew might be necessary"at least the alphabet and a few roots"in order to arrive at the core of things, and judge soundly on the social duties of the Christian. And she had not reached that point of renunciation at which she would have been satisfied with having a wise husband: she wished, poor child, to be wise herself.

alphabet - alphabet

roots - des racines, racine

soundly - fortement, solidement

renunciation - renoncement, renonciation

Miss Brooke was certainly very naive with all her alleged cleverness. Celia, whose mind had never been thought too powerful, saw the emptiness of other people's pretensions much more readily. To have in general but little feeling, seems to be the only security against feeling too much on any particular occasion.

emptiness - le vide, vide, néant, vacuité

However, Mr. Casaubon consented to listen and teach for an hour together, like a schoolmaster of little boys, or rather like a lover, to whom a mistress's elementary ignorance and difficulties have a touching fitness. Few scholars would have disliked teaching the alphabet under such circumstances.

Mistress - madame, maîtresse, amante

elementary - élémentaire

scholars - des universitaires, étudiant, expert, savant, érudit

circumstances - circonstances, circonstance

But Dorothea herself was a little shocked and discouraged at her own stupidity, and the answers she got to some timid questions about the value of the Greek accents gave her a painful suspicion that here indeed there might be secrets not capable of explanation to a woman's reason.

shocked - choqué, choc

discouraged - découragé, décourager, dissuader

timid - timide, craintif

accents - des accents, accent

capable - capable

Mr. Brooke had no doubt on that point, and expressed himself with his usual strength upon it one day that he came into the library while the reading was going forward.

"Well, but now, Casaubon, such deep studies, classics, mathematics, that kind of thing, are too taxing for a woman"too taxing, you know."

"Dorothea is learning to read the characters simply," said Mr. Casaubon, evading the question. "She had the very considerate thought of saving my eyes."

evading - se soustraire, esquiver, s'évader

considerate - attentionné

"Ah, well, without understanding, you know"that may not be so bad. But there is a lightness about the feminine mind"a touch and go"music, the fine arts, that kind of thing"they should study those up to a certain point, women should; but in a light way, you know. A woman should be able to sit down and play you or sing you a good old English tune.

lightness - aisance

tune - l'accord, mélodie, air, tube, accorder, syntoniser

That is what I like; though I have heard most things"been at the opera in Vienna: Gluck, Mozart, everything of that sort. But I'm a conservative in music"it's not like ideas, you know. I stick to the good old tunes."

opera - l'opéra, opéra, (opus) l'opéra

Vienna - Vienne

conservative - conservateur, conservatrice, prudent

tunes - des airs, mélodie, air, tube, accorder, syntoniser

"Mr. Casaubon is not fond of the piano, and I am very glad he is not," said Dorothea, whose slight regard for domestic music and feminine fine art must be forgiven her, considering the small tinkling and smearing in which they chiefly consisted at that dark period. She smiled and looked up at her betrothed with grateful eyes.

forgiven - pardonné, pardonner

smearing - maculage, badigeonner, couvrir, diffamer, trace, traînée

betrothed - fiancés, fiancé, fiancée, (betroth), fiancer

If he had always been asking her to play the "Last Rose of Summer," she would have required much resignation. "He says there is only an old harpsichord at Lowick, and it is covered with books."

harpsichord - clavecin

"Ah, there you are behind Celia, my dear. Celia, now, plays very prettily, and is always ready to play. However, since Casaubon does not like it, you are all right. But it's a pity you should not have little recreations of that sort, Casaubon: the bow always strung"that kind of thing, you know"will not do."

recreations - loisirs, divertissement

bow - l'arc, arc

"I never could look on it in the light of a recreation to have my ears teased with measured noises," said Mr. Casaubon. "A tune much iterated has the ridiculous effect of making the words in my mind perform a sort of minuet to keep time"an effect hardly tolerable, I imagine, after boyhood.

recreation - récréation, pacification

teased - taquiné, taquiner

iterated - itéré, itérer

minuet - menuet

tolerable - tolérable

As to the grander forms of music, worthy to accompany solemn celebrations, and even to serve as an educating influence according to the ancient conception, I say nothing, for with these we are not immediately concerned."

grander - plus grand, magnifique

concerned - préoccupé, inquiétude, souci, soin, préoccupation

"No; but music of that sort I should enjoy," said Dorothea. "When we were coming home from Lausanne my uncle took us to hear the great organ at Freiberg, and it made me sob."

organ - organe, orgue

"That kind of thing is not healthy, my dear," said Mr. Brooke. "Casaubon, she will be in your hands now: you must teach my niece to take things more quietly, eh, Dorothea?"

He ended with a smile, not wishing to hurt his niece, but really thinking that it was perhaps better for her to be early married to so sober a fellow as Casaubon, since she would not hear of Chettam.

sober - sobre, cuver

"It is wonderful, though," he said to himself as he shuffled out of the room""it is wonderful that she should have liked him. However, the match is good. I should have been travelling out of my brief to have hindered it, let Mrs. Cadwallader say what she will. He is pretty certain to be a bishop, is Casaubon. That was a very seasonable pamphlet of his on the Catholic Question:"a deanery at least.

brief - bref, court

hindered - entravé, gener, entraver

seasonable - saisonnieres

Deanery - doyenné

They owe him a deanery."

owe - doit, devoir

And here I must vindicate a claim to philosophical reflectiveness, by remarking that Mr. Brooke on this occasion little thought of the Radical speech which, at a later period, he was led to make on the incomes of the bishops. What elegant historian would neglect a striking opportunity for pointing out that his heroes did not foresee the history of the world, or even their own actions?

vindicate - blanchir, faire valoir, défendre, revendiquer, affirmer

philosophical - philosophique

reflectiveness - la capacité de réflexion

remarking - remarque

radical - radical, génial, super, radicale, racine, clé

incomes - les revenus, revenu, recette

bishops - éveques, éveque

historian - historien, historienne

neglect - négliger, négligence

foresee - prévoir, anticiper

"For example, that Henry of Navarre, when a Protestant baby, little thought of being a Catholic monarch; or that Alfred the Great, when he measured his laborious nights with burning candles, had no idea of future gentlemen measuring their idle days with watches. Here is a mine of truth, which, however vigorously it may be worked, is likely to outlast our coal.

monarch - monarque

laborious - laborieux

candles - bougies, bougie, chandelle

vigorously - vigoureusement

outlast - survivre, durer, perdurer

But of Mr. Brooke I make a further remark perhaps less warranted by precedent"namely, that if he had foreknown his speech, it might not have made any great difference. To think with pleasure of his niece's husband having a large ecclesiastical income was one thing"to make a Liberal speech was another thing; and it is a narrow mind which cannot look at a subject from various points of view.

warranted - justifiée, garantie, mandat, mandat de conformité

precedent - précédent, décision de principe

namely - a savoir, nommément, c'est-a-dire, a savoir

foreknown - connu a l'avance, prévoir


"Oh, rescue her! I am her brother now,

rescue - secours, délivrer, secourir, sauver, checksauver, sauvetage

And you her father. Every gentle maid

Should have a guardian in each gentleman."

It was wonderful to Sir James Chettam how well he continued to like going to the Grange after he had once encountered the difficulty of seeing Dorothea for the first time in the light of a woman who was engaged to another man.

encountered - rencontré, rencontrer, rencontre

Of course the forked lightning seemed to pass through him when he first approached her, and he remained conscious throughout the interview of hiding uneasiness; but, good as he was, it must be owned that his uneasiness was less than it would have been if he had thought his rival a brilliant and desirable match. He had no sense of being eclipsed by Mr.

lightning - la foudre, éclair, éloise, foudre

eclipsed - éclipsé, éclipse, éclipser

Casaubon; he was only shocked that Dorothea was under a melancholy illusion, and his mortification lost some of its bitterness by being mingled with compassion.

compassion - la compassion, compassion

Nevertheless, while Sir James said to himself that he had completely resigned her, since with the perversity of a Desdemona she had not affected a proposed match that was clearly suitable and according to nature; he could not yet be quite passive under the idea of her engagement to Mr. Casaubon.

resigned - résigné, démissionner

passive - passive, passif

On the day when he first saw them together in the light of his present knowledge, it seemed to him that he had not taken the affair seriously enough. Brooke was really culpable; he ought to have hindered it. Who could speak to him? Something might be done perhaps even now, at least to defer the marriage. On his way home he turned into the Rectory and asked for Mr. Cadwallader.

culpable - coupable

Happily, the Rector was at home, and his visitor was shown into the study, where all the fishing tackle hung. But he himself was in a little room adjoining, at work with his turning apparatus, and he called to the baronet to join him there.

fishing tackle - du matériel de peche

adjoining - adjacente, adjoindre, toucher

apparatus - l'appareil, appareil

The two were better friends than any other landholder and clergyman in the county"a significant fact which was in agreement with the amiable expression of their faces.

significant - significative, significatif

Mr. Cadwallader was a large man, with full lips and a sweet smile; very plain and rough in his exterior, but with that solid imperturbable ease and good-humor which is infectious, and like great grassy hills in the sunshine, quiets even an irritated egoism, and makes it rather ashamed of itself. "Well, how are you?" he said, showing a hand not quite fit to be grasped. "Sorry I missed you before.

exterior - extérieur

imperturbable - imperturbable

humor - l'humour, humour, humeur

infectious - infectieux

grassy - herbeux

irritated - irritée, agacer (displeasure)

egoism - l'égoisme, égoisme

grasped - saisi, saisir, agripper, comprendre

Is there anything particular? You look vexed."

vexed - contrarié, ennuyer, énerver, vexer 'informal', tourmenter, vexer

Sir James's brow had a little crease in it, a little depression of the eyebrow, which he seemed purposely to exaggerate as he answered.

crease - pli, froisser

depression - la dépression, dépression

eyebrow - sourcils, sourcil

purposely - a dessein, expres

exaggerate - exagérer, outrer

"It is only this conduct of Brooke's. I really think somebody should speak to him."

"What? meaning to stand?" said Mr. Cadwallader, going on with the arrangement of the reels which he had just been turning. "I hardly think he means it. But where's the harm, if he likes it? Any one who objects to Whiggery should be glad when the Whigs don't put up the strongest fellow. They won't overturn the Constitution with our friend Brooke's head for a battering ram."

reels - bobines, reel, bobine, enrouleur, embobiner, enrouler, tituber

Whiggery - La whiggery

overturn - renverser, retourner, capoter, casser

constitution - constitution

battering - coups de poing, battre

ram - bélier, RAM, mémoire RAM

"Oh, I don't mean that," said Sir James, who, after putting down his hat and throwing himself into a chair, had begun to nurse his leg and examine the sole of his boot with much bitterness. "I mean this marriage. I mean his letting that blooming young girl marry Casaubon."

sole - unique, seul, semelle, plante, sole

"What is the matter with Casaubon? I see no harm in him"if the girl likes him."

"She is too young to know what she likes. Her guardian ought to interfere. He ought not to allow the thing to be done in this headlong manner. I wonder a man like you, Cadwallader"a man with daughters, can look at the affair with indifference: and with such a heart as yours! Do think seriously about it."

headlong - tete baissée, la tete la premiere

"I am not joking; I am as serious as possible," said the Rector, with a provoking little inward laugh. "You are as bad as Elinor. She has been wanting me to go and lecture Brooke; and I have reminded her that her friends had a very poor opinion of the match she made when she married me."

provoking - provoquer

"But look at Casaubon," said Sir James, indignantly. "He must be fifty, and I don't believe he could ever have been much more than the shadow of a man. Look at his legs!"

"confound you handsome young fellows! you think of having it all your own way in the world. You don't understand women. They don't admire you half so much as you admire yourselves. Elinor used to tell her sisters that she married me for my ugliness"it was so various and amusing that it had quite conquered her prudence."

confound you - vous déconcerter

fellows - des camarades, homme, type

ugliness - la laideur, laideur

conquered - conquis, conquérir

"You! it was easy enough for a woman to love you. But this is no question of beauty. I don't like Casaubon." This was Sir James's strongest way of implying that he thought ill of a man's character.

implying - sous-entendu, impliquer, insinuer, sous-entendre

"Why? what do you know against him?" said the Rector laying down his reels, and putting his thumbs into his armholes with an air of attention.

thumbs - pouces, pouce, feuilleter

armholes - les emmanchures, emmanchure

Sir James paused. He did not usually find it easy to give his reasons: it seemed to him strange that people should not know them without being told, since he only felt what was reasonable. At last he said"

"Now, Cadwallader, has he got any heart?"

"Well, yes. I don't mean of the melting sort, but a sound kernel, that you may be sure of. He is very good to his poor relations: pensions several of the women, and is educating a young fellow at a good deal of expense. Casaubon acts up to his sense of justice. His mother's sister made a bad match"a Pole, I think"lost herself"at any rate was disowned by her family.

melting - la fonte, fusion, (melt), fondre (1), se dissoudre (2)

kernel - fond, cour, amande, cerneau, grain, noyau

pensions - pensions, pension, retraite, (demi) pension, pensioner

pole - pôle, poteau, pieu, Gaule, pole

If it had not been for that, Casaubon would not have had so much money by half. I believe he went himself to find out his cousins, and see what he could do for them. Every man would not ring so well as that, if you tried his metal. You would, Chettam; but not every man."

"I don't know," said Sir James, coloring. "I am not so sure of myself." He paused a moment, and then added, "That was a right thing for Casaubon to do. But a man may wish to do what is right, and yet be a sort of parchment code. A woman may not be happy with him.

parchment - parchemin, vélin

And I think when a girl is so young as Miss Brooke is, her friends ought to interfere a little to hinder her from doing anything foolish. You laugh, because you fancy I have some feeling on my own account. But upon my honor, it is not that. I should feel just the same if I were Miss Brooke's brother or uncle."

foolish - sot, stupide, bete, idiot

"Well, but what should you do?"

"I should say that the marriage must not be decided on until she was of age. And depend upon it, in that case, it would never come off. I wish you saw it as I do"I wish you would talk to Brooke about it."

Sir James rose as he was finishing his sentence, for he saw Mrs. Cadwallader entering from the study. She held by the hand her youngest girl, about five years old, who immediately ran to papa, and was made comfortable on his knee.

papa - papa

"I hear what you are talking about," said the wife. "But you will make no impression on Humphrey. As long as the fish rise to his bait, everybody is what he ought to be. Bless you, Casaubon has got a trout-stream, and does not care about fishing in it himself: could there be a better fellow?"

bless - bénir, bénis, bénissez, bénissent, bénissons

trout - truite

"Well, there is something in that," said the Rector, with his quiet, inward laugh. "It is a very good quality in a man to have a trout-stream."

"But seriously," said Sir James, whose vexation had not yet spent itself, "don't you think the Rector might do some good by speaking?"

"Oh, I told you beforehand what he would say," answered Mrs. Cadwallader, lifting up her eyebrows. "I have done what I could: I wash my hands of the marriage."

eyebrows - sourcils, sourcil

"In the first place," said the Rector, looking rather grave, "it would be nonsensical to expect that I could convince Brooke, and make him act accordingly. Brooke is a very good fellow, but pulpy; he will run into any mould, but he won't keep shape."

nonsensical - absurde

accordingly - en conséquence, conséquemment

pulpy - pulpeux, feuilletonesque

"He might keep shape long enough to defer the marriage," said Sir James.

"But, my dear Chettam, why should I use my influence to Casaubon's disadvantage, unless I were much surer than I am that I should be acting for the advantage of Miss Brooke? I know no harm of Casaubon. I don't care about his Xisuthrus and Fee-fo-fum and the rest; but then he doesn't care about my fishing-tackle.

fee - frais, honoraires, tarif

fum - fum

tackle - tacle, combattre, affronter, tacler, plaquer

As to the line he took on the Catholic Question, that was unexpected; but he has always been civil to me, and I don't see why I should spoil his sport. For anything I can tell, Miss Brooke may be happier with him than she would be with any other man."

unexpected - inattendu

civil - civile, civil

spoil - gâter, gâcher, tourner, dévoiler, révéler

"Humphrey! I have no patience with you. You know you would rather dine under the hedge than with Casaubon alone. You have nothing to say to each other."

"What has that to do with Miss Brooke's marrying him? She does not do it for my amusement."

amusement - l'amusement, amusement

"He has got no good red blood in his body," said Sir James.

"No. Somebody put a drop under a magnifying-glass and it was all semicolons and parentheses," said Mrs. Cadwallader.

magnifying-glass - (magnifying-glass) une loupe

semicolons - les points-virgules, point-virgule

parentheses - parentheses, parenthese, parentheses-p

"Why does he not bring out his book, instead of marrying," said Sir James, with a disgust which he held warranted by the sound feeling of an English layman.

layman - laic, profane

"Oh, he dreams footnotes, and they run away with all his brains. They say, when he was a little boy, he made an abstract of ˜Hop o'my Thumb,'and he has been making abstracts ever since. Ugh! And that is the man Humphrey goes on saying that a woman may be happy with."

Footnotes - notes de bas de page, note en bas de page, note de bas de page

hop - hop, sauter a cloche-pied

abstracts - des résumés, résumé, abstrait

Ugh - ugh, beurk

"Well, he is what Miss Brooke likes," said the Rector. "I don't profess to understand every young lady's taste."

"But if she were your own daughter?" said Sir James.

"That would be a different affair. She is not my daughter, and I don't feel called upon to interfere. Casaubon is as good as most of us. He is a scholarly clergyman, and creditable to the cloth. Some Radical fellow speechifying at Middlemarch said Casaubon was the learned straw-chopping incumbent, and Freke was the brick-and-mortar incumbent, and I was the angling incumbent.

scholarly - érudit, universitaire

chopping - hacher, (chop) hacher

incumbent - en titre, titulaire

mortar - mortier

And upon my word, I don't see that one is worse or better than the other." The Rector ended with his silent laugh. He always saw the joke of any satire against himself. His conscience was large and easy, like the rest of him: it did only what it could do without any trouble.

satire - satire

Clearly, there would be no interference with Miss Brooke's marriage through Mr. Cadwallader; and Sir James felt with some sadness that she was to have perfect liberty of misjudgment. It was a sign of his good disposition that he did not slacken at all in his intention of carrying out Dorothea's design of the cottages.

interference - l'interférence, ingérence, interférence

felt with - ressentie avec

sadness - tristesse, malheur

liberty - liberté

misjudgment - erreur d'appréciation

Doubtless this persistence was the best course for his own dignity: but pride only helps us to be generous; it never makes us so, any more than vanity makes us witty.

persistence - persistance

witty - de l'esprit, fin

She was now enough aware of Sir James's position with regard to her, to appreciate the rectitude of his perseverance in a landlord's duty, to which he had at first been urged by a lover's complaisance, and her pleasure in it was great enough to count for something even in her present happiness. Perhaps she gave to Sir James Chettam's cottages all the interest she could spare from Mr.

rectitude - la rectitude, rectitude, droiture, rigueur

perseverance - la persévérance, persévérance

landlord - propriétaire, patron

complaisance - complaisance

Casaubon, or rather from the symphony of hopeful dreams, admiring trust, and passionate self devotion which that learned gentleman had set playing in her soul. Hence it happened that in the good baronet's succeeding visits, while he was beginning to pay small attentions to Celia, he found himself talking with more and more pleasure to Dorothea.

Symphony - symphonie

hopeful - d'espoir, encourageant

She was perfectly unconstrained and without irritation towards him now, and he was gradually discovering the delight there is in frank kindness and companionship between a man and a woman who have no passion to hide or confess.

unconstrained - sans contrainte

gradually - progressivement


1st Gent. An ancient land in ancient oracles

oracles - oracles, oracle

Is called "law-thirsty": all the struggle there

Struggle - lutte, lutter, s'efforcer, combattre

Was after order and a perfect rule.

Pray, where lie such lands now? . . .

2d Gent. Why, where they lay of old"in human souls.

Mr. Casaubon's behavior about settlements was highly satisfactory to Mr. Brooke, and the preliminaries of marriage rolled smoothly along, shortening the weeks of courtship. the betrothed bride must see her future home, and dictate any changes that she would like to have made there. A woman dictates before marriage in order that she may have an appetite for submission afterwards.

behavior - comportement, conduite

settlements - des reglements, reglement, solution, colonie, agglomération

satisfactory to - satisfaisant pour

smoothly - en douceur, souplement, doucement

shortening - le shortening, graisse alimentaire, raccourcissement

the betrothed - les fiancés

dictates - dicte, dicter

appetite - l'appétit, appétit

And certainly, the mistakes that we male and female mortals make when we have our own way might fairly raise some wonder that we are so fond of it.

On a gray but dry November morning Dorothea drove to Lowick in company with her uncle and Celia. Mr. Casaubon's home was the manor-house. Close by, visible from some parts of the garden, was the little church, with the old parsonage opposite. In the beginning of his career, Mr. Casaubon had only held the living, but the death of his brother had put him in possession of the manor also.

Manor - manoir, maison-forte, seigneurie

It had a small park, with a fine old oak here and there, and an avenue of limes towards the southwest front, with a sunk fence between park and pleasure-ground, so that from the drawing-room windows the glance swept uninterruptedly along a slope of greensward till the limes ended in a level of corn and pastures, which often seemed to melt into a lake under the setting sun.

oak - chene, chene, chenes

avenue - avenue

southwest - sud-ouest

glance - regard, jeter un coup d’oil

slope - pente, inclinaison

greensward - vert

corn - mais

pastures - pâturages, pâture, pâturage, pré, prairie

melt - la fonte, fondre (1), se dissoudre (2)

setting sun - le soleil couchant

This was the happy side of the house, for the south and east looked rather melancholy even under the brightest morning. The grounds here were more confined, the flower-beds showed no very careful tendance, and large clumps of trees, chiefly of sombre yews, had risen high, not ten yards from the windows.

confined - confiné, confiner, limite

clumps - des touffes, amas, touffe, massif

sombre - sombre

yews - les ifs, if

The building, of greenish stone, was in the old English style, not ugly, but small-windowed and melancholy-looking: the sort of house that must have children, many flowers, open windows, and little vistas of bright things, to make it seem a joyous home.

greenish - verdâtre, verdouillard

In this latter end of autumn, with a sparse remnant of yellow leaves falling slowly athwart the dark evergreens in a stillness without sunshine, the house too had an air of autumnal decline, and Mr. Casaubon, when he presented himself, had no bloom that could be thrown into relief by that background.

sparse - clairsemée, épars, clairsemé

remnant - vestige, reste

athwart - l'athmosphere, a travers, d'un coté a l'autre

evergreens - les arbres a feuilles persistantes, a feuilles persistantes

stillness - l'immobilité, calme, immobilité

autumnal - automnale

decline - déclin

"Oh dear!" Celia said to herself, "I am sure Freshitt Hall would have been pleasanter than this.

" She thought of the white freestone, the pillared portico, and the terrace full of flowers, Sir James smiling above them like a prince issuing from his enchantment in a rose-bush, with a handkerchief swiftly metamorphosed from the most delicately odorous petals"Sir James, who talked so agreeably, always about things which had common-sense in them, and not about learning!

freestone - pierre de taille

pillared - a piliers, pilier, pile

portico - portique

enchantment - l'enchantement, enchantement, ensorcellement

bush - buisson, arbuste, brousse

handkerchief - mouchoir

metamorphosed - métamorphosé, métamorphiser

delicately - délicatement

odorous - odorant

petals - pétales, pétale

Celia had those light young feminine tastes which grave and weatherworn gentlemen sometimes prefer in a wife; but happily Mr. Casaubon's bias had been different, for he would have had no chance with Celia.

weatherworn - usé par le temps

bias - partialité, préjugé, partiris, biais

Dorothea, on the contrary, found the house and grounds all that she could wish: the dark book-shelves in the long library, the carpets and curtains with colors subdued by time, the curious old maps and bird's-eye views on the walls of the corridor, with here and there an old vase below, had no oppression for her, and seemed more cheerful than the casts and pictures at the Grange, which her uncle had long ago brought home from his travels"they being probably among the ideas he had taken in at one time. To poor Dorothea these severe classical nudities and smirking Renaissance-Correggiosities were painfully inexplicable, staring into the midst of her Puritanic conceptions: she had never been taught how she could bring them into any sort of relevance with her life. But the owners of Lowick apparently had not been travellers, and Mr. Casaubon's studies of the past were not carried on by means of such aids.

Curious - vous etes curieux, curieux, intéressant, singulier

corridor - couloir, corridor, couloir aérien

vase - vase

more cheerful - plus joyeux

casts - les plâtres, jeter, diriger, lancer, additionner, sommer

nudities - des nudités, nudité

smirking - sourire en coin, ricanerie, ricaner

painfully - douloureusement

midst - centre, milieu

conceptions - conceptions, conception

relevance - pertinence

owners - propriétaires, propriétaire

travellers - voyageurs, voyageur, voyageuse

Aids - le sida, SIDA, (aid) le sida

Dorothea walked about the house with delightful emotion. Everything seemed hallowed to her: this was to be the home of her wifehood, and she looked up with eyes full of confidence to Mr. Casaubon when he drew her attention specially to some actual arrangement and asked her if she would like an alteration. All appeals to her taste she met gratefully, but saw nothing to alter.

wifehood - l'épouse

specially - particulierement, spécialement

alteration - modification, altération, altérer

appeals - des appels, en appeler (a), supplier

His efforts at exact courtesy and formal tenderness had no defect for her. She filled up all blanks with unmanifested perfections, interpreting him as she interpreted the works of Providence, and accounting for seeming discords by her own deafness to the higher harmonies. And there are many blanks left in the weeks of courtship which a loving faith fills with happy assurance.

courtesy - courtoisie, politesse, indulgence

defect - défaut, déserter, passer a, rench: t-needed r

unmanifested - non manifesté

perfections - perfections, perfection

interpreting - l'interprétation, interpréter, traduire

discords - discordes, discorde

deafness - la surdité, surdité

harmonies - harmonies, harmonie

assurance - l'assurance, assurance, culot

"Now, my dear Dorothea, I wish you to favor me by pointing out which room you would like to have as your boudoir," said Mr. Casaubon, showing that his views of the womanly nature were sufficiently large to include that requirement.

womanly - féminine, féminin

requirement - exigence, besoin, demande, contrainte

"It is very kind of you to think of that," said Dorothea, "but I assure you I would rather have all those matters decided for me. I shall be much happier to take everything as it is"just as you have been used to have it, or as you will yourself choose it to be. I have no motive for wishing anything else."

"Oh, Dodo," said Celia, "will you not have the bow-windowed room up-stairs?"

Mr. Casaubon led the way thither. The bow-window looked down the avenue of limes; the furniture was all of a faded blue, and there were miniatures of ladies and gentlemen with powdered hair hanging in a group. A piece of tapestry over a door also showed a blue-green world with a pale stag in it. The chairs and tables were thin-legged and easy to upset.

thither - la, la, d'ici la

faded - fanée, (s')affaiblir, diminuer

miniatures - des figurines, miniature, enluminure, figurine

stag - cerf, bouf

It was a room where one might fancy the ghost of a tight-laced lady revisiting the scene of her embroidery. A light bookcase contained duodecimo volumes of polite literature in calf, completing the furniture.

laced - lacé, lacet

revisiting - en cours de révision, revoir

bookcase - bibliotheque, bibliotheque

duodecimo - in-duodecimo, in-douze, in-12o

calf - veau, mollet

"Yes," said Mr. Brooke, "this would be a pretty room with some new hangings, sofas, and that sort of thing. A little bare now."

sofas - canapés, canapé, sofa

"No, uncle," said Dorothea, eagerly. "Pray do not speak of altering anything. There are so many other things in the world that want altering"I like to take these things as they are. And you like them as they are, don't you?" she added, looking at Mr. Casaubon. "Perhaps this was your mother's room when she was young."

altering - modifier, transformer, changer, altérer

"It was," he said, with his slow bend of the head.

"This is your mother," said Dorothea, who had turned to examine the group of miniatures. "It is like the tiny one you brought me; only, I should think, a better portrait. And this one opposite, who is this?"

"Her elder sister. They were, like you and your sister, the only two children of their parents, who hang above them, you see."

"The sister is pretty," said Celia, implying that she thought less favorably of Mr. Casaubon's mother. It was a new opening to Celia's imagination, that he came of a family who had all been young in their time"the ladies wearing necklaces.

favorably - favorablement

"It is a peculiar face," said Dorothea, looking closely. "Those deep gray eyes rather near together"and the delicate irregular nose with a sort of ripple in it"and all the powdered curls hanging backward. Altogether it seems to me peculiar rather than pretty. There is not even a family likeness between her and your mother."

delicate - délicate, délicat, délicat (1, 2)

ripple - ondulation

family likeness - Ressemblance familiale

"No. And they were not alike in their lot."

"You did not mention her to me," said Dorothea.

"My aunt made an unfortunate marriage. I never saw her."

unfortunate - malheureux, infortuné, malencontreux

Dorothea wondered a little, but felt that it would be indelicate just then to ask for any information which Mr. Casaubon did not proffer, and she turned to the window to admire the view. The sun had lately pierced the gray, and the avenue of limes cast shadows.

indelicate - indélicat

proffer - proposer, offrir, entreprendre

pierced - percé, percer

"Shall we not walk in the garden now?" said Dorothea.

"And you would like to see the church, you know," said Mr. Brooke. "It is a droll little church. And the village. It all lies in a nut-shell. By the way, it will suit you, Dorothea; for the cottages are like a row of alms-houses"little gardens, gilly-flowers, that sort of thing."

droll - drolatique, fantaisiste

Row - rangée, tintamarre, canoter, ramer

alms - l'aumône, aumône

gilly - gilly

"Yes, please," said Dorothea, looking at Mr. Casaubon, "I should like to see all that." She had got nothing from him more graphic about the Lowick cottages than that they were "not bad."

graphic - graphique, cru, explicite, imagé

They were soon on a gravel walk which led chiefly between grassy borders and clumps of trees, this being the nearest way to the church, Mr. Casaubon said. At the little gate leading into the churchyard there was a pause while Mr. Casaubon went to the parsonage close by to fetch a key. Celia, who had been hanging a little in the rear, came up presently, when she saw that Mr.

gravel walk - Chemin de gravier

pause - pauser, pause

fetch - chercher, apporter, aveignez, amener, aveignent, apportons

rear - arriere, verso, élever

Casaubon was gone away, and said in her easy staccato, which always seemed to contradict the suspicion of any malicious intent"

malicious - malveillante

intent - l'intention, intention, résolu, déterminé, buté

"Do you know, Dorothea, I saw some one quite young coming up one of the walks."

"Is that astonishing, Celia?"

astonishing - étonnante, étonner, surprendre

"There may be a young gardener, you know"why not?" said Mr. Brooke. "I told Casaubon he should change his gardener."

gardener - jardinier, jardiniere

"No, not a gardener," said Celia; "a gentleman with a sketch-book. He had light-brown curls. I only saw his back. But he was quite young."

"The curate's son, perhaps," said Mr. Brooke. "Ah, there is Casaubon again, and Tucker with him. He is going to introduce Tucker. You don't know Tucker yet."

tucker - tucker

Mr. Tucker was the middle-aged curate, one of the "inferior clergy," who are usually not wanting in sons. But after the introduction, the conversation did not lead to any question about his family, and the startling apparition of youthfulness was forgotten by every one but Celia. She inwardly declined to believe that the light-brown curls and slim figure could have any relationship to Mr.

inferior - inférieur

apparition - apparition

youthfulness - la jeunesse

declined - refusé, déclin

slim - mince, svelte, maigrir, mincir

Tucker, who was just as old and musty-looking as she would have expected Mr. Casaubon's curate to be; doubtless an excellent man who would go to heaven (for Celia wished not to be unprincipled), but the corners of his mouth were so unpleasant.

musty - moisi

unprincipled - sans principes

Celia thought with some dismalness of the time she should have to spend as bridesmaid at Lowick, while the curate had probably no pretty little children whom she could like, irrespective of principle.

dismalness - la morosité

bridesmaid - demoiselle d'honneur

irrespective - indépendamment

Mr. Tucker was invaluable in their walk; and perhaps Mr. Casaubon had not been without foresight on this head, the curate being able to answer all Dorothea's questions about the villagers and the other parishioners. Everybody, he assured her, was well off in Lowick: not a cottager in those double cottages at a low rent but kept a pig, and the strips of garden at the back were well tended.

invaluable - inestimable

foresight - la prévoyance, clairvoyance, prévoyance, prescience

villagers - villageois, villageoise

parishioners - paroissiens, paroissien, paroissienne

assured - assurée, assurerent, assura, assurai

cottager - propriétaire de chalet

strips - bandes, enlever

The small boys wore excellent corduroy, the girls went out as tidy servants, or did a little straw-plaiting at home: no looms here, no Dissent; and though the public disposition was rather towards laying by money than towards spirituality, there was not much vice. The speckled fowls were so numerous that Mr. Brooke observed, "Your farmers leave some barley for the women to glean, I see.

corduroy - velours côtelé

plaiting - tresser, (plait), pli

looms - métiers a tisser, métier a tisser

dissent - dissidence

spirituality - la spiritualité, spiritualité

vice - vice, vertu

numerous - nombreux

barley - de l'orge, orge

glean - glaner

The poor folks here might have a fowl in their pot, as the good French king used to wish for all his people. The French eat a good many fowls"skinny fowls, you know."

fowl - volaille, poule

skinny - maigre

"I think it was a very cheap wish of his," said Dorothea, indignantly. "Are kings such monsters that a wish like that must be reckoned a royal virtue?"

reckoned - a calculé, considérer

"And if he wished them a skinny fowl," said Celia, "that would not be nice. But perhaps he wished them to have fat fowls."

"Yes, but the word has dropped out of the text, or perhaps was subauditum; that is, present in the king's mind, but not uttered," said Mr. Casaubon, smiling and bending his head towards Celia, who immediately dropped backward a little, because she could not bear Mr. Casaubon to blink at her.

uttered - prononcée, complet, total

blink at - cligner des yeux

Dorothea sank into silence on the way back to the house.

She felt some disappointment, of which she was yet ashamed, that there was nothing for her to do in Lowick; and in the next few minutes her mind had glanced over the possibility, which she would have preferred, of finding that her home would be in a parish which had a larger share of the world's misery, so that she might have had more active duties in it.

misery - la misere, misere

Then, recurring to the future actually before her, she made a picture of more complete devotion to Mr. Casaubon's aims in which she would await new duties. Many such might reveal themselves to the higher knowledge gained by her in that companionship.

recurring - récurrente, se reproduire

reveal - révéler, laisser voir

Gained - gagné, gagner

Mr. Tucker soon left them, having some clerical work which would not allow him to lunch at the Hall; and as they were re-entering the garden through the little gate, Mr. Casaubon said"

clerical - administratif, clérical

"You seem a little sad, Dorothea. I trust you are pleased with what you have seen."

"I am feeling something which is perhaps foolish and wrong," answered Dorothea, with her usual openness""almost wishing that the people wanted more to be done for them here. I have known so few ways of making my life good for anything. Of course, my notions of usefulness must be narrow. I must learn new ways of helping people."

openness - l'ouverture, franchise

usefulness - utilité

"Doubtless," said Mr. Casaubon. "Each position has its corresponding duties. Yours, I trust, as the mistress of Lowick, will not leave any yearning unfulfilled."

corresponding - correspondant, correspondre (...a qqchose)

unfulfilled - insatisfaits

"Indeed, I believe that," said Dorothea, earnestly. "Do not suppose that I am sad."

earnestly - sincerement, sérieusement

"That is well. But, if you are not tired, we will take another way to the house than that by which we came."

Dorothea was not at all tired, and a little circuit was made towards a fine yew-tree, the chief hereditary glory of the grounds on this side of the house. As they approached it, a figure, conspicuous on a dark background of evergreens, was seated on a bench, sketching the old tree. Mr. Brooke, who was walking in front with Celia, turned his head, and said"

circuit - circuit

yew - oui, if

chief - chef

conspicuous - qui se remarque aisément, visible, voyant, remarquable

sketching - le croquis, croquer, esquisser, esquisse, ébauche

"Who is that youngster, Casaubon?"

youngster - jeune, ado, enfant

They had come very near when Mr. Casaubon answered"

"That is a young relative of mine, a second cousin: the grandson, in fact," he added, looking at Dorothea, "of the lady whose portrait you have been noticing, my aunt Julia."

grandson - petit-fils

The young man had laid down his sketch-book and risen. His bushy light-brown curls, as well as his youthfulness, identified him at once with Celia's apparition.

"Dorothea, let me introduce to you my cousin, Mr. Ladislaw. Will, this is Miss Brooke."

The cousin was so close now, that, when he lifted his hat, Dorothea could see a pair of gray eyes rather near together, a delicate irregular nose with a little ripple in it, and hair falling backward; but there was a mouth and chin of a more prominent, threatening aspect than belonged to the type of the grandmother's miniature.

threatening - menaçante, menaçant, (threaten), menacer

miniature - miniature, enluminure, figurine

Young Ladislaw did not feel it necessary to smile, as if he were charmed with this introduction to his future second cousin and her relatives; but wore rather a pouting air of discontent.

charmed - charmé, charme

"You are an artist, I see," said Mr. Brooke, taking up the sketch-book and turning it over in his unceremonious fashion.

unceremonious - sans cérémonie

"No, I only sketch a little. There is nothing fit to be seen there," said young Ladislaw, coloring, perhaps with temper rather than modesty.

modesty - la modestie, modestie

"Oh, come, this is a nice bit, now. I did a little in this way myself at one time, you know. Look here, now; this is what I call a nice thing, done with what we used to call brio." Mr. Brooke held out towards the two girls a large colored sketch of stony ground and trees, with a pool.

stony - pierreux, froid, sec

"I am no judge of these things," said Dorothea, not coldly, but with an eager deprecation of the appeal to her. "You know, uncle, I never see the beauty of those pictures which you say are so much praised. They are a language I do not understand.

Praised - loué, louange, louer, féliciter, prôner, vénérer

I suppose there is some relation between pictures and nature which I am too ignorant to feel"just as you see what a Greek sentence stands for which means nothing to me." Dorothea looked up at Mr. Casaubon, who bowed his head towards her, while Mr. Brooke said, smiling nonchalantly"

nonchalantly - avec nonchalance

"Bless me, now, how different people are! But you had a bad style of teaching, you know"else this is just the thing for girls"sketching, fine art and so on. But you took to drawing plans; you don't understand morbidezza, and that kind of thing.

You will come to my house, I hope, and I will show you what I did in this way," he continued, turning to young Ladislaw, who had to be recalled from his preoccupation in observing Dorothea.

recalled - rappelée, rappeler, souvenir

Ladislaw had made up his mind that she must be an unpleasant girl, since she was going to marry Casaubon, and what she said of her stupidity about pictures would have confirmed that opinion even if he had believed her. As it was, he took her words for a covert judgment, and was certain that she thought his sketch detestable.

covert - secrete, secret, clandestin

detestable - détestable

There was too much cleverness in her apology: she was laughing both at her uncle and himself. But what a voice! It was like the voice of a soul that had once lived in an Aeolian harp. This must be one of Nature's inconsistencies. There could be no sort of passion in a girl who would marry Casaubon. But he turned from her, and bowed his thanks for Mr. Brooke's invitation.

apology - des excuses, excuse, apologie

Aeolian - aeolian, éolien

harp - harpe

"We will turn over my Italian engravings together," continued that good-natured man. "I have no end of those things, that I have laid by for years. One gets rusty in this part of the country, you know. Not you, Casaubon; you stick to your studies; but my best ideas get undermost"out of use, you know. You clever young men must guard against indolence.

engravings - gravures, gravure

good-natured - (good-natured) Bonne humeur

rusty - rubigineux

undermost - le plus bas

indolence - l'indolence, indolence, oisiveté

I was too indolent, you know: else I might have been anywhere at one time."

"That is a seasonable admonition," said Mr. Casaubon; "but now we will pass on to the house, lest the young ladies should be tired of standing."

When their backs were turned, young Ladislaw sat down to go on with his sketching, and as he did so his face broke into an expression of amusement which increased as he went on drawing, till at last he threw back his head and laughed aloud. Partly it was the reception of his own artistic production that tickled him; partly the notion of his grave cousin as the lover of that girl; and partly Mr.

artistic - artistique

tickled - chatouillé, chatouiller

Brooke's definition of the place he might have held but for the impediment of indolence. Mr. Will Ladislaw's sense of the ludicrous lit up his features very agreeably: it was the pure enjoyment of comicality, and had no mixture of sneering and self-exaltation.

impediment - obstacle, empechement, irritant, entrave

enjoyment - jouissance, plaisir

comicality - comique

sneering - ricaner, ricaneur, gouailleur, (sneer)

"What is your nephew going to do with himself, Casaubon?" said Mr. Brooke, as they went on.

nephew - neveu

"My cousin, you mean"not my nephew."

"Yes, yes, cousin. But in the way of a career, you know."

"The answer to that question is painfully doubtful. On leaving Rugby he declined to go to an English university, where I would gladly have placed him, and chose what I must consider the anomalous course of studying at Heidelberg. And now he wants to go abroad again, without any special object, save the vague purpose of what he calls culture, preparation for he knows not what.

gladly - heureusement, volontiers

anomalous - anormal

go abroad - aller a l'étranger

He declines to choose a profession."

declines - diminue, déclin

"He has no means but what you furnish, I suppose."

furnish - meubler, fournir, livrer

"I have always given him and his friends reason to understand that I would furnish in moderation what was necessary for providing him with a scholarly education, and launching him respectably. I am therefore bound to fulfil the expectation so raised," said Mr. Casaubon, putting his conduct in the light of mere rectitude: a trait of delicacy which Dorothea noticed with admiration.

Launching - lancement, lancer

respectably - respectueusement

delicacy - délicatesse, gourmandise

"He has a thirst for travelling; perhaps he may turn out a Bruce or a Mungo Park," said Mr. Brooke. "I had a notion of that myself at one time."

thirst - soif, avoir soif, désirer

Mungo - mungo

"No, he has no bent towards exploration, or the enlargement of our geognosis: that would be a special purpose which I could recognize with some approbation, though without felicitating him on a career which so often ends in premature and violent death.

exploration - l'exploration, exploration

enlargement - l'élargissement, élargissement, agrandissement

geognosis - géognose

approbation - approbation

premature - prématurée, prématuré

But so far is he from having any desire for a more accurate knowledge of the earth's surface, that he said he should prefer not to know the sources of the Nile, and that there should be some unknown regions preserved as hunting grounds for the poetic imagination."

earth's surface - la surface de la terre

Nile - le nil, Nil

preserved - préservée, confiture, conserve, réserve naturelle

poetic - poétique

"Well, there is something in that, you know," said Mr. Brooke, who had certainly an impartial mind.

impartial - impartiale

"It is, I fear, nothing more than a part of his general inaccuracy and indisposition to thoroughness of all kinds, which would be a bad augury for him in any profession, civil or sacred, even were he so far submissive to ordinary rule as to choose one."

inaccuracy - l'inexactitude, erreur, checkfaute, inacuratesse

augury - l'augure, augure

"Perhaps he has conscientious scruples founded on his own unfitness," said Dorothea, who was interesting herself in finding a favorable explanation. "Because the law and medicine should be very serious professions to undertake, should they not? People's lives and fortunes depend on them."

favorable - favorable

undertake - entreprendre

fortunes - fortune, destin, bonne chance

"Doubtless; but I fear that my young relative Will Ladislaw is chiefly determined in his aversion to these callings by a dislike to steady application, and to that kind of acquirement which is needful instrumentally, but is not charming or immediately inviting to self-indulgent taste.

aversion - l'aversion, aversion

steady - stable, lisse, régulier

acquirement - l'acquisition

needful - nécessaire

instrumentally - de maniere instrumentale

indulgent - indulgent

I have insisted to him on what Aristotle has stated with admirable brevity, that for the achievement of any work regarded as an end there must be a prior exercise of many energies or acquired facilities of a secondary order, demanding patience. I have pointed to my own manuscript volumes, which represent the toil of years preparatory to a work not yet accomplished. But in vain.

insisted - insisté, insister

Aristotle - aristote

admirable - admirable

brevity - la brieveté, concision, brieveté, laconisme

Prior - avant, antérieur

acquired - acquis, acquérir

facilities - des installations, facilité, infrastructure

toil - labeur, travailler

preparatory - préparatoire

vain - vaine, rench: vaniteux, frivole, vain, futile

To careful reasoning of this kind he replies by calling himself Pegasus, and every form of prescribed work ˜harness.'"

Pegasus - pegasus, Pégase

prescribed - prescrite, prescrire, indiquer, ordonner

harness - harnais, harnacher

Celia laughed. She was surprised to find that Mr. Casaubon could say something quite amusing.

"Well, you know, he may turn out a Byron, a Chatterton, a Churchill"that sort of thing"there's no telling," said Mr. Brooke. "Shall you let him go to Italy, or wherever else he wants to go?"

Italy - l'italie, Italie

wherever - ou

"Yes; I have agreed to furnish him with moderate supplies for a year or so; he asks no more. I shall let him be tried by the test of freedom."

moderate - modéré, moderer, modérer

"That is very kind of you," said Dorothea, looking up at Mr. Casaubon with delight. "It is noble. After all, people may really have in them some vocation which is not quite plain to themselves, may they not? They may seem idle and weak because they are growing. We should be very patient with each other, I think."

vocation - vocation

"I suppose it is being engaged to be married that has made you think patience good," said Celia, as soon as she and Dorothea were alone together, taking off their wrappings.

"You mean that I am very impatient, Celia."

impatient - impatient

"Yes; when people don't do and say just what you like." Celia had become less afraid of "saying things" to Dorothea since this engagement: cleverness seemed to her more pitiable than ever.

more pitiable - plus pitoyable


"He had catched a great cold, had he had no other clothes to wear than the skin of a bear not yet killed.""FULLER.

catched - attrapé

Young Ladislaw did not pay that visit to which Mr. Brooke had invited him, and only six days afterwards Mr. Casaubon mentioned that his young relative had started for the Continent, seeming by this cold vagueness to waive inquiry. Indeed, Will had declined to fix on any more precise destination than the entire area of Europe.

waive - renoncer (a)

inquiry - demande, enquete

entire - entiere, entier, entiere

Genius, he held, is necessarily intolerant of fetters: on the one hand it must have the utmost play for its spontaneity; on the other, it may confidently await those messages from the universe which summon it to its peculiar work, only placing itself in an attitude of receptivity towards all sublime chances. The attitudes of receptivity are various, and Will had sincerely tried many of them.

genius - génie

intolerant - intolérants, intolérant

spontaneity - la spontanéité, spontanéité

confidently - en toute confiance

summon - convoquer, appeler, convoquez, convoquons

receptivity - réceptivité

sincerely - sincerement

He was not excessively fond of wine, but he had several times taken too much, simply as an experiment in that form of ecstasy; he had fasted till he was faint, and then supped on lobster; he had made himself ill with doses of opium.

excessively - de maniere excessive, excessivement, bien trop (much too...)

ecstasy - l'ecstasy, extase, ecstasy, exta

faint - évanouissement, s'évanouir, défailles, défaillez, défaillir

Lobster - homard

doses - doses, dose

opium - l'opium, opium

Nothing greatly original had resulted from these measures; and the effects of the opium had convinced him that there was an entire dissimilarity between his constitution and De Quincey's. The superadded circumstance which would evolve the genius had not yet come; the universe had not yet beckoned. Even Caesar's fortune at one time was but a grand presentiment.

dissimilarity - la dissemblance, dissimilitude

evolve - évoluer, progresser, élaborer

beckoned - fait signe, faire signe

Caesar - césar

We know what a masquerade all development is, and what effective shapes may be disguised in helpless embryos. In fact, the world is full of hopeful analogies and handsome dubious eggs called possibilities.

masquerade - bal masqué, mascarade, déguiser

disguised - déguisé, déguisement, déguiser

embryos - embryons, embryon

analogies - analogies, analogie

dubious - douteux, dubitatif, louche, sceptique

Will saw clearly enough the pitiable instances of long incubation producing no chick, and but for gratitude would have laughed at Casaubon, whose plodding application, rows of note-books, and small taper of learned theory exploring the tossed ruins of the world, seemed to enforce a moral entirely encouraging to Will's generous reliance on the intentions of the universe with regard to himself.

instances - instances, instance

incubation - incubation

chick - poussin, bath

plodding - en se creusant la tete, (plod) en se creusant la tete

tossed - ballotté, jet, au pile ou face, tirage au sort, pile ou face

enforce - faire respecter, renforcer, intensifier, imposer, obliger

moral - moral, moralité, morale

reliance - la confiance, confiance, dépendance

He held that reliance to be a mark of genius; and certainly it is no mark to the contrary; genius consisting neither in self-conceit nor in humility, but in a power to make or do, not anything in general, but something in particular. Let him start for the Continent, then, without our pronouncing on his future. Among all forms of mistake, prophecy is the most gratuitous.

humility - l'humilité, humilité

prophecy - prophétie

gratuitous - gratuit

But at present this caution against a too hasty judgment interests me more in relation to Mr. Casaubon than to his young cousin. If to Dorothea Mr.

Casaubon had been the mere occasion which had set alight the fine inflammable material of her youthful illusions, does it follow that he was fairly represented in the minds of those less impassioned personages who have hitherto delivered their judgments concerning him? I protest against any absolute conclusion, any prejudice derived from Mrs.

alight - s'enflammer, amerrissent, amerris, amerrissons, amerrissez

inflammable - inflammable

personages - personnages, personnage

absolute - absolue, absolu

prejudice - préjugés, préjugé, idée préconçue, préjudice

derived - dérivés, tirer, trouver, déduire, conclure, dériver

Cadwallader's contempt for a neighboring clergyman's alleged greatness of soul, or Sir James Chettam's poor opinion of his rival's legs,"from Mr. Brooke's failure to elicit a companion's ideas, or from Celia's criticism of a middle-aged scholar's personal appearance.

contempt - le mépris, mépris, outrage

elicit - éliciter, susciter, causer, réaliser, obtenir, raisonner

I am not sure that the greatest man of his age, if ever that solitary superlative existed, could escape these unfavorable reflections of himself in various small mirrors; and even Milton, looking for his portrait in a spoon, must submit to have the facial angle of a bumpkin. Moreover, if Mr.

superlative - summum, superlatif, supreme

reflections - réflexions, réflexion, reflet, qualifiereaning 4

submit - se soumettre

facial - facial, faciale

bumpkin - bumpkin, plouc, péquenaud, manant

Moreover - de plus, en plus, au surplus, en outre

Casaubon, speaking for himself, has rather a chilling rhetoric, it is not therefore certain that there is no good work or fine feeling in him. Did not an immortal physicist and interpreter of hieroglyphs write detestable verses? Has the theory of the solar system been advanced by graceful manners and conversational tact?

chilling - refroidir, (chill) refroidir

immortal - immortel, inoubliable

physicist - physicien

interpreter - interprete, interprete, interpréteur

hieroglyphs - des hiéroglyphes, hiéroglyphe

verses - versets, strophe

solar - solaire

graceful - gracieux

conversational - conversationnel

tact - tact

Suppose we turn from outside estimates of a man, to wonder, with keener interest, what is the report of his own consciousness about his doings or capacity: with what hindrances he is carrying on his daily labors; what fading of hopes, or what deeper fixity of self-delusion the years are marking off within him; and with what spirit he wrestles against universal pressure, which will one day be too heavy for him, and bring his heart to its final pause. Doubtless his lot is important in his own eyes; and the chief reason that we think he asks too large a place in our consideration must be our want of room for him, since we refer him to the Divine regard with perfect confidence; nay, it is even held sublime for our neighbor to expect the utmost there, however little he may have got from us. Mr. Casaubon, too, was the centre of his own world; if he was liable to think that others were providentially made for him, and especially to consider them in the light of their fitness for the author of a "Key to all Mythologies," this trait is not quite alien to us, and, like the other mendicant hopes of mortals, claims some of our pity.

capacity - capacité

fading - s'estomper, déteignant, (fad), mode, lubie

fixity - fixité

delusion - illusion, délire

wrestles - lutte, lutter

universal - universel

consideration - considération, checkraison, checkmotif, checkrécompense

liable - responsable

Mendicant - mendiant

Certainly this affair of his marriage with Miss Brooke touched him more nearly than it did any one of the persons who have hitherto shown their disapproval of it, and in the present stage of things I feel more tenderly towards his experience of success than towards the disappointment of the amiable Sir James. For in truth, as the day fixed for his marriage came nearer, Mr.

disapproval - désapprobation

tenderly - tendrement

Casaubon did not find his spirits rising; nor did the contemplation of that matrimonial garden scene, where, as all experience showed, the path was to be bordered with flowers, prove persistently more enchanting to him than the accustomed vaults where he walked taper in hand.

contemplation - contemplation

persistently - de façon persistante

enchanting - enchanteresse, enchanter

vaults - voutes, cave voutée

He did not confess to himself, still less could he have breathed to another, his surprise that though he had won a lovely and noble-hearted girl he had not won delight,"which he had also regarded as an object to be found by search.

It is true that he knew all the classical passages implying the contrary; but knowing classical passages, we find, is a mode of motion, which explains why they leave so little extra force for their personal application.

motion - mouvement, motion

Poor Mr. Casaubon had imagined that his long studious bachelorhood had stored up for him a compound interest of enjoyment, and that large drafts on his affections would not fail to be honored; for we all of us, grave or light, get our thoughts entangled in metaphors, and act fatally on the strength of them.

bachelorhood - le célibat, célibat

compound interest - l'intéret composé

drafts - des projets, courant d'air, gorgée, biere a la pression

honored - honoré, honneur, honorer

entangled - enchevetrés, intriquer, empetrer, tortiller

metaphors - des métaphores, métaphore

fatally - fatalement

And now he was in danger of being saddened by the very conviction that his circumstances were unusually happy: there was nothing external by which he could account for a certain blankness of sensibility which came over him just when his expectant gladness should have been most lively, just when he exchanged the accustomed dulness of his Lowick library for his visits to the Grange.

saddened - attristé, attrister

external - externe

blankness - le vide

expectant - en attente, expectatif

gladness - la joie, allégresse

dulness - l'ennui

Here was a weary experience in which he was as utterly condemned to loneliness as in the despair which sometimes threatened him while toiling in the morass of authorship without seeming nearer to the goal. And his was that worst loneliness which would shrink from sympathy.

utterly - tout a fait

threatened - menacé, menacer

toiling - au travail, lancinant, (toil), travailler

morass - morasse, marais, marécage, bourbier

authorship - la paternité de l'ouvre, paternité

He could not but wish that Dorothea should think him not less happy than the world would expect her successful suitor to be; and in relation to his authorship he leaned on her young trust and veneration, he liked to draw forth her fresh interest in listening, as a means of encouragement to himself: in talking to her he presented all his performance and intention with the reflected confidence of the pedagogue, and rid himself for the time of that chilling ideal audience which crowded his laborious uncreative hours with the vaporous pressure of Tartarean shades.

veneration - vénération

encouragement - d'encouragement, encouragement

pedagogue - pédagogue

uncreative - peu créatif

vaporous - vaporeux

shades - nuances, ombre, store, nuance, ton, esprit

For to Dorothea, after that toy-box history of the world adapted to young ladies which had made the chief part of her education, Mr.

chief part - la partie principale

Casaubon's talk about his great book was full of new vistas; and this sense of revelation, this surprise of a nearer introduction to Stoics and Alexandrians, as people who had ideas not totally unlike her own, kept in abeyance for the time her usual eagerness for a binding theory which could bring her own life and doctrine into strict connection with that amazing past, and give the remotest sources of knowledge some bearing on her actions. That more complete teaching would come"Mr. Casaubon would tell her all that: she was looking forward to higher initiation in ideas, as she was looking forward to marriage, and blending her dim conceptions of both. It would be a great mistake to suppose that Dorothea would have cared about any share in Mr. Casaubon's learning as mere accomplishment; for though opinion in the neighborhood of Freshitt and Tipton had pronounced her clever, that epithet would not have described her to circles in whose more precise vocabulary cleverness implies mere aptitude for knowing and doing, apart from character. All her eagerness for acquirement lay within that full current of sympathetic motive in which her ideas and impulses were habitually swept along. She did not want to deck herself with knowledge"to wear it loose from the nerves and blood that fed her action; and if she had written a book she must have done it as Saint Theresa did, under the command of an authority that constrained her conscience. But something she yearned for by which her life might be filled with action at once rational and ardent; and since the time was gone by for guiding visions and spiritual directors, since prayer heightened yearning but not instruction, what lamp was there but knowledge? Surely learned men kept the only oil; and who more learned than Mr. Casaubon?

Stoics - les stoiciens, stoicien, stoique

abeyance - vacance, vacant, suspension, en suspens

binding - contraignante, contraignant, reliure, liaison, (bind), lier

doctrine - doctrine

blending - mélange, (blend), mélanger, meler, mixer

epithet - épithete, épithete

vocabulary - vocabulaire, lexique

implies - implique, impliquer, insinuer, sous-entendre

impulses - des impulsions, impulsion

habitually - de maniere habituelle

deck - Le pont

nerves - des nerfs, nerf, nervure, toupet, culot, cran

constrained - contraint, astreindre, contraindre, confiner

rational - rationnelle, rationnel

visions - visions, vision, vue, aspiration, apparition

Thus in these brief weeks Dorothea's joyous grateful expectation was unbroken, and however her lover might occasionally be conscious of flatness, he could never refer it to any slackening of her affectionate interest.

unbroken - ininterrompue

flatness - la planéité, planéité, planitude, platitude, matité

slackening - un ralentissement, (slacken) un ralentissement

affectionate - affectueux

The season was mild enough to encourage the project of extending the wedding journey as far as Rome, and Mr. Casaubon was anxious for this because he wished to inspect some manuscripts in the Vatican.

extending - s'étendant, étendre, prolonger

Rome - rome

anxious - anxieux, désireux

manuscripts - manuscrits, manuscrit

Vatican - le vatican, Vatican

"I still regret that your sister is not to accompany us," he said one morning, some time after it had been ascertained that Celia objected to go, and that Dorothea did not wish for her companionship. "You will have many lonely hours, Dorothea, for I shall be constrained to make the utmost use of my time during our stay in Rome, and I should feel more at liberty if you had a companion."

regret - regretter, regret

The words "I should feel more at liberty" grated on Dorothea. For the first time in speaking to Mr. Casaubon she colored from annoyance.

grated - râpé, grille (de foyer)

"You must have misunderstood me very much," she said, "if you think I should not enter into the value of your time"if you think that I should not willingly give up whatever interfered with your using it to the best purpose."

misunderstood - incompris, mal interpréter, méprendre, mécomprendre

willingly - volontairement, volontiers

interfered - interféré, meler

"That is very amiable in you, my dear Dorothea," said Mr. Casaubon, not in the least noticing that she was hurt; "but if you had a lady as your companion, I could put you both under the care of a cicerone, and we could thus achieve two purposes in the same space of time."

cicerone - cicérone

"I beg you will not refer to this again," said Dorothea, rather haughtily. But immediately she feared that she was wrong, and turning towards him she laid her hand on his, adding in a different tone, "Pray do not be anxious about me. I shall have so much to think of when I am alone. And Tantripp will be a sufficient companion, just to take care of me.

be anxious - etre anxieux

sufficient - suffisante, suffisant

I could not bear to have Celia: she would be miserable."

It was time to dress. There was to be a dinner-party that day, the last of the parties which were held at the Grange as proper preliminaries to the wedding, and Dorothea was glad of a reason for moving away at once on the sound of the bell, as if she needed more than her usual amount of preparation.

She was ashamed of being irritated from some cause she could not define even to herself; for though she had no intention to be untruthful, her reply had not touched the real hurt within her. Mr. Casaubon's words had been quite reasonable, yet they had brought a vague instantaneous sense of aloofness on his part.

untruthful - mensonger

instantaneous - instantanée, instantané

aloofness - l'éloignement

"Surely I am in a strangely selfish weak state of mind," she said to herself. "How can I have a husband who is so much above me without knowing that he needs me less than I need him?"

Selfish - égoiste, égoiste

Having convinced herself that Mr. Casaubon was altogether right, she recovered her equanimity, and was an agreeable image of serene dignity when she came into the drawing-room in her silver-gray dress"the simple lines of her dark-brown hair parted over her brow and coiled massively behind, in keeping with the entire absence from her manner and expression of all search after mere effect.

equanimity - l'équanimité, équanimité

serene - serein, enjoué

massively - massivement

search after - chercher apres

Sometimes when Dorothea was in company, there seemed to be as complete an air of repose about her as if she had been a picture of Santa Barbara looking out from her tower into the clear air; but these intervals of quietude made the energy of her speech and emotion the more remarked when some outward appeal had touched her.

repose - repos

quietude - la quiétude

She was naturally the subject of many observations this evening, for the dinner-party was large and rather more miscellaneous as to the male portion than any which had been held at the Grange since Mr. Brooke's nieces had resided with him, so that the talking was done in duos and trios more or less inharmonious.

portion - part, portion

resided - a résidé, habiter, résider, demeurer

duos - duos, duo

trios - trios, (trio), trio

inharmonious - inharmonieux

There was the newly elected mayor of Middlemarch, who happened to be a manufacturer; the philanthropic banker his brother-in-law, who predominated so much in the town that some called him a Methodist, others a hypocrite, according to the resources of their vocabulary; and there were various professional men. In fact, Mrs.

elected - élus, élu, élue, choisir, décider, élire

mayor - maire, mairesse, bourgmestre

manufacturer - fabricant, fabricante

banker - banquier

Methodist - méthodiste

hypocrite - hypocrite, pharisien, pharisienne, tartufe

Cadwallader said that Brooke was beginning to treat the Middlemarchers, and that she preferred the farmers at the tithe-dinner, who drank her health unpretentiously, and were not ashamed of their grandfathers'furniture.

unpretentiously - sans prétention

For in that part of the country, before reform had done its notable part in developing the political consciousness, there was a clearer distinction of ranks and a dimmer distinction of parties; so that Mr. Brooke's miscellaneous invitations seemed to belong to that general laxity which came from his inordinate travel and habit of taking too much in the form of ideas.

notable - remarquable, notable, personnage

ranks - rangs, rang

dimmer - variateur de lumiere, gradateur

laxity - laxité

inordinate - démesuré

Already, as Miss Brooke passed out of the dining-room, opportunity was found for some interjectional "asides."

dining - dîner, vacarme

asides - des apartés, a côté, en passant, q

"A fine woman, Miss Brooke! an uncommonly fine woman, by God!" said Mr. Standish, the old lawyer, who had been so long concerned with the landed gentry that he had become landed himself, and used that oath in a deep-mouthed manner as a sort of armorial bearings, stamping the speech of a man who held a good position.

Standish - standish

oath - serment, juron, jurer

Mr. Bulstrode, the banker, seemed to be addressed, but that gentleman disliked coarseness and profanity, and merely bowed. The remark was taken up by Mr. Chichely, a middle-aged bachelor and coursing celebrity, who had a complexion something like an Easter egg, a few hairs carefully arranged, and a carriage implying the consciousness of a distinguished appearance.

coarseness - crudité

profanity - blaspheme, impiété, insanité, gros mot, vulgarité, grossiereté

Easter egg - Un ouf de Pâques

"Yes, but not my style of woman: I like a woman who lays herself out a little more to please us. There should be a little filigree about a woman"something of the coquette. A man likes a sort of challenge. The more of a dead set she makes at you the better."

filigree - filigrane, filigraner

coquette - allumeuse, coquette

"There's some truth in that," said Mr. Standish, disposed to be genial. "And, by God, it's usually the way with them. I suppose it answers some wise ends: Providence made them so, eh, Bulstrode?"

genial - génial, aimable, chaleureux

"I should be disposed to refer coquetry to another source," said Mr. Bulstrode. "I should rather refer it to the devil."

devil - Diable, Satan, type

"Ay, to be sure, there should be a little devil in a woman," said Mr. Chichely, whose study of the fair sex seemed to have been detrimental to his theology. "And I like them blond, with a certain gait, and a swan neck. Between ourselves, the mayor's daughter is more to my taste than Miss Brooke or Miss Celia either. If I were a marrying man I should choose Miss Vincy before either of them."

detrimental - préjudiciable, nuisible, néfaste

gait - démarche

swan - cygne

"Well, make up, make up," said Mr. Standish, jocosely; "you see the middle-aged fellows carry the day."

jocosely - a la plaisanterie

Mr. Chichely shook his head with much meaning: he was not going to incur the certainty of being accepted by the woman he would choose.

certainty - certitude

The Miss Vincy who had the honor of being Mr. Chichely's ideal was of course not present; for Mr. Brooke, always objecting to go too far, would not have chosen that his nieces should meet the daughter of a Middlemarch manufacturer, unless it were on a public occasion. The feminine part of the company included none whom Lady Chettam or Mrs. Cadwallader could object to; for Mrs.

objecting to - s'opposer a

Renfrew, the colonel's widow, was not only unexceptionable in point of breeding, but also interesting on the ground of her complaint, which puzzled the doctors, and seemed clearly a case wherein the fulness of professional knowledge might need the supplement of quackery.

Colonel - colonel

widow - veuve

unexceptionable - sans faille

breeding - l'élevage, (breed), se reproduire, engendrer, élever, race

puzzled - perplexe, mystere, énigme, puzzle, casse-tete, jeu de patience

fulness - la plénitude

supplement - supplément

quackery - charlatanisme

Lady Chettam, who attributed her own remarkable health to home-made bitters united with constant medical attendance, entered with much exercise of the imagination into Mrs. Renfrew's account of symptoms, and into the amazing futility in her case of all strengthening medicines.

home-made - (home-made) fait maison

bitters - des amers, amer, acide

attendance - l'assiduité, présence

futility - futilité

strengthening - le renforcement, renforcer, affermir, raffermir, fortifier

"Where can all the strength of those medicines go, my dear?" said the mild but stately dowager, turning to Mrs. Cadwallader reflectively, when Mrs. Renfrew's attention was called away.

stately - majestueux, imposant

Dowager - douairiere, douairiere, dame

reflectively - de maniere réfléchie

"It strengthens the disease," said the Rector's wife, much too well-born not to be an amateur in medicine. "Everything depends on the constitution: some people make fat, some blood, and some bile"that's my view of the matter; and whatever they take is a sort of grist to the mill."

strengthens - renforce, renforcer, affermir, raffermir, fortifier

amateur - amateur, amatrice, amateuse

bile - bile, fiel

Mill - moulin, bahut, moulons, mouds, moulez, moulent

"Then she ought to take medicines that would reduce"reduce the disease, you know, if you are right, my dear. And I think what you say is reasonable."

"Certainly it is reasonable. You have two sorts of potatoes, fed on the same soil. One of them grows more and more watery""

more watery - plus aqueux

"Ah! like this poor Mrs. Renfrew"that is what I think. Dropsy! There is no swelling yet"it is inward. I should say she ought to take drying medicines, shouldn't you?"or a dry hot-air bath. Many things might be tried, of a drying nature."

Dropsy - l'hydropisie, hydropisie

swelling - gonflement, (swell)

shouldn - devrait

"Let her try a certain person's pamphlets," said Mrs. Cadwallader in an undertone, seeing the gentlemen enter. "He does not want drying."

undertone - sous-entendu, nuance

"Who, my dear?" said Lady Chettam, a charming woman, not so quick as to nullify the pleasure of explanation.

nullify - annuler, nullifier

"The bridegroom"Casaubon. He has certainly been drying up faster since the engagement: the flame of passion, I suppose."

bridegroom - l'époux, jeune marié, futur marié, futur époux

drying up - sécher

"I should think he is far from having a good constitution," said Lady Chettam, with a still deeper undertone. "And then his studies"so very dry, as you say."

"Really, by the side of Sir James, he looks like a death's head skinned over for the occasion. Mark my words: in a year from this time that girl will hate him. She looks up to him as an oracle now, and by-and-by she will be at the other extreme. All flightiness!"

Oracle - oracle

flightiness - l'instabilité

"How very shocking! I fear she is headstrong. But tell me"you know all about him"is there anything very bad? What is the truth?"

shocking - choquant, choc

headstrong - tetu, obstiné

"The truth? he is as bad as the wrong physic"nasty to take, and sure to disagree."

physic - physique

"There could not be anything worse than that," said Lady Chettam, with so vivid a conception of the physic that she seemed to have learned something exact about Mr. Casaubon's disadvantages. "However, James will hear nothing against Miss Brooke. He says she is the mirror of women still."

vivid - vivante, vivide

"That is a generous make-believe of his. Depend upon it, he likes little Celia better, and she appreciates him. I hope you like my little Celia?"

make-believe - (make-believe) faire semblant

"Certainly; she is fonder of geraniums, and seems more docile, though not so fine a figure. But we were talking of physic. Tell me about this new young surgeon, Mr. Lydgate. I am told he is wonderfully clever: he certainly looks it"a fine brow indeed."

fonder - plus affectueux, tendre, amoureux

geraniums - géraniums, géranium, pélargonium

more docile - plus docile

surgeon - chirurgien, chirurgienne

wonderfully - a merveille

"He is a gentleman. I heard him talking to Humphrey. He talks well."

"Yes. Mr. Brooke says he is one of the Lydgates of Northumberland, really well connected. One does not expect it in a practitioner of that kind. For my own part, I like a medical man more on a footing with the servants; they are often all the cleverer. I assure you I found poor Hicks's judgment unfailing; I never knew him wrong. He was coarse and butcher-like, but he knew my constitution.

practitioner - praticien

unfailing - indéfectible

butcher - boucher, charcutier, abattre, (butch), hommasse

It was a loss to me his going off so suddenly. Dear me, what a very animated conversation Miss Brooke seems to be having with this Mr. Lydgate!"

"She is talking cottages and hospitals with him," said Mrs. Cadwallader, whose ears and power of interpretation were quick. "I believe he is a sort of philanthropist, so Brooke is sure to take him up."

interpretation - l'interprétation, interprétation

philanthropist - philanthrope

"James," said Lady Chettam when her son came near, "bring Mr. Lydgate and introduce him to me. I want to test him."

The affable dowager declared herself delighted with this opportunity of making Mr. Lydgate's acquaintance, having heard of his success in treating fever on a new plan.

declared - déclarée, expliquer, déclarer

fever - de la fievre, fievre

Mr. Lydgate had the medical accomplishment of looking perfectly grave whatever nonsense was talked to him, and his dark steady eyes gave him impressiveness as a listener. He was as little as possible like the lamented Hicks, especially in a certain careless refinement about his toilet and utterance. Yet Lady Chettam gathered much confidence in him.

lamented - s'est lamentée, lamentation, complainte, se lamenter, plaindre

refinement - raffinement

He confirmed her view of her own constitution as being peculiar, by admitting that all constitutions might be called peculiar, and he did not deny that hers might be more peculiar than others. He did not approve of a too lowering system, including reckless cupping, nor, on the other hand, of incessant port wine and bark.

constitutions - constitutions, constitution

deny - refuser

more peculiar - plus singuliere

lowering - baissant, (lower) baissant

reckless - irresponsable, insouciant, téméraire, branque

incessant - incessant

port wine - du vin de Porto

He said "I think so" with an air of so much deference accompanying the insight of agreement, that she formed the most cordial opinion of his talents.

deference - respect, déférence

accompanying - accompagnant, accompagner

most cordial - le plus cordial

"I am quite pleased with your protege," she said to Mr. Brooke before going away.

protege - protégé

"My protege?"dear me!"who is that?" said Mr. Brooke.

"This young Lydgate, the new doctor. He seems to me to understand his profession admirably."

admirably - admirablement

"Oh, Lydgate! he is not my protege, you know; only I knew an uncle of his who sent me a letter about him. However, I think he is likely to be first-rate"has studied in Paris, knew Broussais; has ideas, you know"wants to raise the profession."

first-rate - (first-rate) de premier ordre

"Lydgate has lots of ideas, quite new, about ventilation and diet, that sort of thing," resumed Mr. Brooke, after he had handed out Lady Chettam, and had returned to be civil to a group of Middlemarchers.

ventilation - ventilation, aération, confrontation, respiration

resumed - reprise, reprendre

"Hang it, do you think that is quite sound?"upsetting the old treatment, which has made Englishmen what they are?" said Mr. Standish.

"Medical knowledge is at a low ebb among us," said Mr. Bulstrode, who spoke in a subdued tone, and had rather a sickly air. "I, for my part, hail the advent of Mr. Lydgate. I hope to find good reason for confiding the new hospital to his management."

Ebb - le reflux, reflux, jusant, refluer, décliner

sickly - malade, maladif, souffreteux, chétif, valétudinaire, douçâtre

hail - grele

advent - l'avenement, arrivée

confiding - se confier, faire confiance, confier

"That is all very fine," replied Mr. Standish, who was not fond of Mr. Bulstrode; "if you like him to try experiments on your hospital patients, and kill a few people for charity I have no objection. But I am not going to hand money out of my purse to have experiments tried on me. I like treatment that has been tested a little."

objection - objection

purse - sac a main, bourse, portemonnaie, portefeuille, sac a main

tried on - essayé

"Well, you know, Standish, every dose you take is an experiment-an experiment, you know," said Mr. Brooke, nodding towards the lawyer.

dose - dose

"Oh, if you talk in that sense!" said Mr. Standish, with as much disgust at such non-legal quibbling as a man can well betray towards a valuable client.

non - non

quibbling - des querelles, argutie, chicaner, ergoter, chinoiser, chipoter

"I should be glad of any treatment that would cure me without reducing me to a skeleton, like poor Grainger," said Mr. Vincy, the mayor, a florid man, who would have served for a study of flesh in striking contrast with the Franciscan tints of Mr. Bulstrode.

cure - guérir, guérissez, guérissent, cicatriser, guérison

skeleton - squelette, ossature

florid - florissant

Franciscan - franciscain

tints - teintes, nuance, teinte

"It's an uncommonly dangerous thing to be left without any padding against the shafts of disease, as somebody said,"and I think it a very good expression myself."

padding - le rembourrage, rembourrage, (pad) le rembourrage

shafts - arbres, hampe, rachis, cage, entuber

Mr. Lydgate, of course, was out of hearing. He had quitted the party early, and would have thought it altogether tedious but for the novelty of certain introductions, especially the introduction to Miss Brooke, whose youthful bloom, with her approaching marriage to that faded scholar, and her interest in matters socially useful, gave her the piquancy of an unusual combination.

tedious - fastidieux, laborieux

novelty - nouveauté

approaching - en approche, (s')approcher (de)

faded - fanée, mode, lubie

"She is a good creature"that fine girl"but a little too earnest," he thought. "It is troublesome to talk to such women. They are always wanting reasons, yet they are too ignorant to understand the merits of any question, and usually fall back on their moral sense to settle things after their own taste."

troublesome - genants

settle - régler, décréter

Evidently Miss Brooke was not Mr. Lydgate's style of woman any more than Mr. Chichely's. Considered, indeed, in relation to the latter, whose mind was matured, she was altogether a mistake, and calculated to shock his trust in final causes, including the adaptation of fine young women to purplefaced bachelors.

evidently - évidemment, de toute évidence, manifestement

matured - muri, mur

adaptation - l'adaptation, adaptation

purplefaced - a face violette

But Lydgate was less ripe, and might possibly have experience before him which would modify his opinion as to the most excellent things in woman.

ripe - mur, pruine

most excellent - le plus excellent

Miss Brooke, however, was not again seen by either of these gentlemen under her maiden name. Not long after that dinner-party she had become Mrs. Casaubon, and was on her way to Rome.

maiden name - nom de jeune fille


But deeds and language such as men do use,

And persons such as comedy would choose,

When she would show an image of the times,

And sport with human follies, not with crimes.

follies - folies, folie, sottise


Lydgate, in fact, was already conscious of being fascinated by a woman strikingly different from Miss Brooke: he did not in the least suppose that he had lost his balance and fallen in love, but he had said of that particular woman, "She is grace itself; she is perfectly lovely and accomplished. That is what a woman ought to be: she ought to produce the effect of exquisite music.

fascinated - fasciné, fasciner

grace - bénédicité, grâces, grâce, miséricorde

" Plain women he regarded as he did the other severe facts of life, to be faced with philosophy and investigated by science. But Rosamond Vincy seemed to have the true melodic charm; and when a man has seen the woman whom he would have chosen if he had intended to marry speedily, his remaining a bachelor will usually depend on her resolution rather than on his.

Philosophy - philosophie

melodic - mélodique

speedily - rapidement

Lydgate believed that he should not marry for several years: not marry until he had trodden out a good clear path for himself away from the broad road which was quite ready made. He had seen Miss Vincy above his horizon almost as long as it had taken Mr.

trodden - foulée, marcher (sur)

broad - large

horizon - horizon

Casaubon to become engaged and married: but this learned gentleman was possessed of a fortune; he had assembled his voluminous notes, and had made that sort of reputation which precedes performance,"often the larger part of a man's fame. He took a wife, as we have seen, to adorn the remaining quadrant of his course, and be a little moon that would cause hardly a calculable perturbation.

assembled - assemblés, assembler, rassembler

reputation - réputation, renommée (more slang)

precedes - précede, précéder

fame - la notoriété, gloire, célébrité

quadrant - quadrant

calculable - calculable

But Lydgate was young, poor, ambitious. He had his half-century before him instead of behind him, and he had come to Middlemarch bent on doing many things that were not directly fitted to make his fortune or even secure him a good income.

To a man under such circumstances, taking a wife is something more than a question of adornment, however highly he may rate this; and Lydgate was disposed to give it the first place among wifely functions. To his taste, guided by a single conversation, here was the point on which Miss Brooke would be found wanting, notwithstanding her undeniable beauty.

wifely - épouse

notwithstanding - nonobstant

undeniable - indéniable

She did not look at things from the proper feminine angle. The society of such women was about as relaxing as going from your work to teach the second form, instead of reclining in a paradise with sweet laughs for bird-notes, and blue eyes for a heaven.

Certainly nothing at present could seem much less important to Lydgate than the turn of Miss Brooke's mind, or to Miss Brooke than the qualities of the woman who had attracted this young surgeon.

But any one watching keenly the stealthy convergence of human lots, sees a slow preparation of effects from one life on another, which tells like a calculated irony on the indifference or the frozen stare with which we look at our unintroduced neighbor. Destiny stands by sarcastic with our dramatis personae folded in her hand.

keenly - vivement

stealthy - furtif, subreptice

irony - l'ironie, ironie

stare - fixer, regarder (fixement), dévisager

unintroduced - non introduite

destiny - destin, destinée, sort

stands by - en attente

sarcastic - sarcastique

dramatis personae - Personnages dramatiques

Old provincial society had its share of this subtle movement: had not only its striking downfalls, its brilliant young professional dandies who ended by living up an entry with a drab and six children for their establishment, but also those less marked vicissitudes which are constantly shifting the boundaries of social intercourse, and begetting new consciousness of interdependence.

subtle - subtile, subtil, délicat, astucieux

downfalls - les faiblesses, chute

dandies - dandys, dandy, tres bien

drab - terne

vicissitudes - vicissitudes, vicissitude

boundaries - des limites, frontiere, limite, limites-p

intercourse - les rapports sexuels, relation sexuelle

begetting - l'engendrement, engendrer, procréer

interdependence - l'interdépendance, interdépendance

Some slipped a little downward, some got higher footing: people denied aspirates, gained wealth, and fastidious gentlemen stood for boroughs; some were caught in political currents, some in ecclesiastical, and perhaps found themselves surprisingly grouped in consequence; while a few personages or families that stood with rocky firmness amid all this fluctuation, were slowly presenting new aspects in spite of solidity, and altering with the double change of self and beholder. Municipal town and rural parish gradually made fresh threads of connection"gradually, as the old stocking gave way to the savings-bank, and the worship of the solar guinea became extinct; while squires and baronets, and even lords who had once lived blamelessly afar from the civic mind, gathered the faultiness of closer acquaintanceship. Settlers, too, came from distant counties, some with an alarming novelty of skill, others with an offensive advantage in cunning. In fact, much the same sort of movement and mixture went on in old England as we find in older Herodotus, who also, in telling what had been, thought it well to take a woman's lot for his starting-point; though Io, as a maiden apparently beguiled by attractive merchandise, was the reverse of Miss Brooke, and in this respect perhaps bore more resemblance to Rosamond Vincy, who had excellent taste in costume, with that nymph-like figure and pure blondness which give the largest range to choice in the flow and color of drapery. But these things made only part of her charm. She was admitted to be the flower of Mrs. Lemon's school, the chief school in the county, where the teaching included all that was demanded in the accomplished female"even to extras, such as the getting in and out of a carriage. Mrs. Lemon herself had always held up Miss Vincy as an example: no pupil, she said, exceeded that young lady for mental acquisition and propriety of speech, while her musical execution was quite exceptional. We cannot help the way in which people speak of us, and probably if Mrs. Lemon had undertaken to describe Juliet or Imogen, these heroines would not have seemed poetical. The first vision of Rosamond would have been enough with most judges to dispel any prejudice excited by Mrs. Lemon's praise.

slipped - a glissé, glisser

aspirates - les aspirateurs, aspiration, aspirer, pomper, inspirer, inhaler

boroughs - arrondissements, arrondissement

surprisingly - surprenant

Rocky - rocheux, rocheuxse

firmness - la fermeté, fermeté

amid - amid, au milieu de, parmi, entre

fluctuation - fluctuation

solidity - solidité

beholder - le contemplateur, regardeur, observateur

Municipal - municipal

stocking - bas, collante, (stock) bas

savings-bank - (savings-bank) Banque dépargne

worship - culte, adoration, vénération, vénérer, adorer

guinea - Guinée

extinct - éteinte, éteint, disparu

squires - écuyers, (squire) écuyers

blamelessly - de maniere irréprochable

afar - loin, afar

civic - civique, citoyen

faultiness - la faute

settlers - les colons, colon

Counties - comtés, comté

cunning - astucieux, rusé

Herodotus - hérodote

beguiled - séduit, duper, tromper, induire en erreur, exalter, emporter

merchandise - la marchandise, denrée, marchandise

reverse - inverser, verso, inverse

resemblance - ressemblance, comparaison, probabilité

nymph - nymphe

blondness - la cécité

pupil - éleve, pupille, éléve

exceeded - dépassé, excéder, dépasser

acquisition - l'acquisition, acquisition

propriety - la bienséance, décence, correction, bienséance, convenances

execution - l'exécution, exécution

heroines - des héroines, héroine

poetical - poétique

vision - vision, vue, aspiration, apparition

dispel - chasser, dissiper

Praise - des louanges, louange, louer, féliciter, prôner, vénérer

Lydgate could not be long in Middlemarch without having that agreeable vision, or even without making the acquaintance of the Vincy family; for though Mr. Peacock, whose practice he had paid something to enter on, had not been their doctor (Mrs. Vincy not liking the lowering system adopted by him), he had many patients among their connections and acquaintances.

peacock - paon, paonne

adopted - adoptée, adopter

For who of any consequence in Middlemarch was not connected or at least acquainted with the Vincys? They were old manufacturers, and had kept a good house for three generations, in which there had naturally been much intermarrying with neighbors more or less decidedly genteel. Mr. Vincy's sister had made a wealthy match in accepting Mr.

manufacturers - des fabricants, fabricant, fabricante

intermarrying - les mariages mixtes, (se) marier (entre soi)

wealthy - riches, riche, nanti

Bulstrode, who, however, as a man not born in the town, and altogether of dimly known origin, was considered to have done well in uniting himself with a real Middlemarch family; on the other hand, Mr. Vincy had descended a little, having taken an innkeeper's daughter. But on this side too there was a cheering sense of money; for Mrs. Vincy's sister had been second wife to rich old Mr.

dimly - faiblement, obscurément, vaguement, confusément

innkeeper - l'aubergiste, tavernier, hôtelier, aubergiste

cheering - des applaudissements, acclamation(s)

Featherstone, and had died childless years ago, so that her nephews and nieces might be supposed to touch the affections of the widower. And it happened that Mr. Bulstrode and Mr. Featherstone, two of Peacock's most important patients, had, from different causes, given an especially good reception to his successor, who had raised some partisanship as well as discussion. Mr.

childless - sans enfant, sans enfants

nephews - neveux, neveu

widower - veuf

successor - successeur, successeuse, successrice

Wrench, medical attendant to the Vincy family, very early had grounds for thinking lightly of Lydgate's professional discretion, and there was no report about him which was not retailed at the Vincys', where visitors were frequent. Mr. Vincy was more inclined to general good-fellowship than to taking sides, but there was no need for him to be hasty in making any new man acquaintance.

wrench - clé a molette, déménager, clef, clé

discretion - discrétion

retailed - au détail, vente au détail

frequent - fréquents, fréquenter

Rosamond silently wished that her father would invite Mr. Lydgate. She was tired of the faces and figures she had always been used to"the various irregular profiles and gaits and turns of phrase distinguishing those Middlemarch young men whom she had known as boys.

silently - en silence, silencieusement

gaits - les allures, démarche

distinguishing - distinguer

She had been at school with girls of higher position, whose brothers, she felt sure, it would have been possible for her to be more interested in, than in these inevitable Middlemarch companions. But she would not have chosen to mention her wish to her father; and he, for his part, was in no hurry on the subject.

inevitable - inévitable

An alderman about to be mayor must by-and-by enlarge his dinner-parties, but at present there were plenty of guests at his well-spread table.

alderman - échevin, conseiller municipal

enlarge - agrandir, élargir, accroître

That table often remained covered with the relics of the family breakfast long after Mr. Vincy had gone with his second son to the warehouse, and when Miss Morgan was already far on in morning lessons with the younger girls in the schoolroom. It awaited the family laggard, who found any sort of inconvenience (to others) less disagreeable than getting up when he was called.

relics - des reliques, reliquat, relique

warehouse - entrepôt, dépôt

Morgan - morgan, Morgane

schoolroom - salle de classe

awaited - attendue, attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter

laggard - a la traîne, retardataire, traînard

inconvenience - inconvénients, dérangement, désagrément

This was the case one morning of the October in which we have lately seen Mr.

Casaubon visiting the Grange; and though the room was a little overheated with the fire, which had sent the spaniel panting to a remote corner, Rosamond, for some reason, continued to sit at her embroidery longer than usual, now and then giving herself a little shake, and laying her work on her knee to contemplate it with an air of hesitating weariness.

overheated - surchauffé, surchauffer, échauffer

spaniel - épagneul

panting - haletant, (pant) haletant

contemplate - envisager, étudier, contempler

Her mamma, who had returned from an excursion to the kitchen, sat on the other side of the small work-table with an air of more entire placidity, until, the clock again giving notice that it was going to strike, she looked up from the lace-mending which was occupying her plump fingers and rang the bell.

excursion - excursion, randonnée

placidity - placidité

giving notice - donner un préavis

lace - dentelle, pointue

mending - raccommodage, (mend), réparer, raccommoder, rapiécer

plump - dodu, douillet

"knock at Mr. Fred's door again, Pritchard, and tell him it has struck half-past ten."

knock at - frapper

This was said without any change in the radiant good-humor of Mrs. Vincy's face, in which forty-five years had delved neither angles nor parallels; and pushing back her pink capstrings, she let her work rest on her lap, while she looked admiringly at her daughter.

parallels - des paralleles, parallele, parallele a, parallelement

pushing back - repousser

admiringly - avec admiration

"Mamma," said Rosamond, "when Fred comes down I wish you would not let him have red herrings. I cannot bear the smell of them all over the house at this hour of the morning."

herrings - harengs

"Oh, my dear, you are so hard on your brothers! It is the only fault I have to find with you. You are the sweetest temper in the world, but you are so tetchy with your brothers."

fault - défaut, faute, faille

tetchy - irritable

"Not tetchy, mamma: you never hear me speak in an unladylike way."

"Well, but you want to deny them things."

deny - nier, démentir, refuser

"Brothers are so unpleasant."

"Oh, my dear, you must allow for young men. Be thankful if they have good hearts. A woman must learn to put up with little things. You will be married some day."

"Not to any one who is like Fred."

"Don't decry your own brother, my dear. Few young men have less against them, although he couldn't take his degree"I'm sure I can't understand why, for he seems to me most clever. And you know yourself he was thought equal to the best society at college. So particular as you are, my dear, I wonder you are not glad to have such a gentlemanly young man for a brother.

decry - décrier, dénoncer

most clever - le plus intelligent

gentlemanly - gentleman

You are always finding fault with Bob because he is not Fred."

Bob - bob, monter et descendre (sur place)

"Oh no, mamma, only because he is Bob."

"Well, my dear, you will not find any Middlemarch young man who has not something against him."

"But""here Rosamond's face broke into a smile which suddenly revealed two dimples. She herself thought unfavorably of these dimples and smiled little in general society. "But I shall not marry any Middlemarch young man."

dimples - des fossettes, alvéole, fossette

unfavorably - défavorablement

"So it seems, my love, for you have as good as refused the pick of them; and if there's better to be had, I'm sure there's no girl better deserves it."

refused - refusé, refuser de

deserves - mérite, mériter

"Excuse me, mamma"I wish you would not say, ˜the pick of them.'"

"Why, what else are they?"

"I mean, mamma, it is rather a vulgar expression."

"Very likely, my dear; I never was a good speaker. What should I say?"

"The best of them."

"Why, that seems just as plain and common. If I had had time to think, I should have said, ˜the most superior young men.'But with your education you must know."

"What must Rosy know, mother?" said Mr. Fred, who had slid in unobserved through the half-open door while the ladies were bending over their work, and now going up to the fire stood with his back towards it, warming the soles of his slippers.

rosy - rose

slid - glissée, (slide), glisser, déraper, toboggan, glissoire

unobserved - non observée

half-open - (half-open) a moitié ouvert

soles - semelles, plante (du pied)

slippers - des pantoufles, chausson, pantoufle

"Whether it's right to say ˜superior young men,'" said Mrs. Vincy, ringing the bell.

"Oh, there are so many superior teas and sugars now. Superior is getting to be shopkeepers'slang."

shopkeepers - les commerçants, détaillant, détaillante, magasinier

slang - l'argot, argot

"Are you beginning to dislike slang, then?" said Rosamond, with mild gravity.

"Only the wrong sort. All choice of words is slang. It marks a class."

"There is correct English: that is not slang."

"I beg your pardon: correct English is the slang of prigs who write history and essays. And the strongest slang of all is the slang of poets."

prigs - des prigs, bégueule

"You will say anything, Fred, to gain your point."

"Well, tell me whether it is slang or poetry to call an ox a leg-plaiter."

ox - ox, boeuf

plaiter - Plaquette

"Of course you can call it poetry if you like."

"Aha, Miss Rosy, you don't know Homer from slang. I shall invent a new game; I shall write bits of slang and poetry on slips, and give them to you to separate."

Aha - aha, tiens donc

slips - glisse, glisser

"Dear me, how amusing it is to hear young people talk!" said Mrs. Vincy, with cheerful admiration.

"Have you got nothing else for my breakfast, Pritchard?" said Fred, to the servant who brought in coffee and buttered toast; while he walked round the table surveying the ham, potted beef, and other cold remnants, with an air of silent rejection, and polite forbearance from signs of disgust.

buttered - beurré, beurre

Ham - le jambon, jambon

remnants - des vestiges, reste

rejection - refus, rejet

forbearance - l'abstention, longanimité

"Should you like eggs, sir?"

"Eggs, no! Bring me a grilled bone."

grilled - grillé, (faire) griller

"Really, Fred," said Rosamond, when the servant had left the room, "if you must have hot things for breakfast, I wish you would come down earlier. You can get up at six o'clock to go out hunting; I cannot understand why you find it so difficult to get up on other mornings."

"That is your want of understanding, Rosy. I can get up to go hunting because I like it."

go hunting - aller a la chasse

"What would you think of me if I came down two hours after every one else and ordered grilled bone?"

"I should think you were an uncommonly fast young lady," said Fred, eating his toast with the utmost composure.

composure - le sang-froid, calme, quiétude

"I cannot see why brothers are to make themselves disagreeable, any more than sisters."

"I don't make myself disagreeable; it is you who find me so. Disagreeable is a word that describes your feelings and not my actions."

"I think it describes the smell of grilled bone."

"Not at all. It describes a sensation in your little nose associated with certain finicking notions which are the classics of Mrs. Lemon's school. Look at my mother; you don't see her objecting to everything except what she does herself. She is my notion of a pleasant woman."

sensation - sensation

finicking - finicking

"Bless you both, my dears, and don't quarrel," said Mrs. Vincy, with motherly cordiality. "Come, Fred, tell us all about the new doctor. How is your uncle pleased with him?"

cordiality - cordialité

"Pretty well, I think. He asks Lydgate all sorts of questions and then screws up his face while he hears the answers, as if they were pinching his toes. That's his way. Ah, here comes my grilled bone."

screws up - se planté

pinching - le pincement, (pinch), pincer, chiper, pincement, pincée

"But how came you to stay out so late, my dear? You only said you were going to your uncle's."

"Oh, I dined at Plymdale's. We had whist. Lydgate was there too."

whist - whist

"And what do you think of him? He is very gentlemanly, I suppose. They say he is of excellent family"his relations quite county people."

"Yes," said Fred. "There was a Lydgate at John's who spent no end of money. I find this man is a second cousin of his. But rich men may have very poor devils for second cousins."

devils - diables, Diable, Satan, type

"It always makes a difference, though, to be of good family," said Rosamond, with a tone of decision which showed that she had thought on this subject. Rosamond felt that she might have been happier if she had not been the daughter of a Middlemarch manufacturer. She disliked anything which reminded her that her mother's father had been an innkeeper.

Certainly any one remembering the fact might think that Mrs. Vincy had the air of a very handsome good-humored landlady, accustomed to the most capricious orders of gentlemen.

humored - humilié, humour

landlady - propriétaire

most capricious - le plus capricieux

"I thought it was odd his name was Tertius," said the bright-faced matron, "but of course it's a name in the family. But now, tell us exactly what sort of man he is."

"Oh, tallish, dark, clever"talks well"rather a prig, I think."

tallish - grand

prig - prig, bégueule

"I never can make out what you mean by a prig," said Rosamond.

"A fellow who wants to show that he has opinions."

"Why, my dear, doctors must have opinions," said Mrs. Vincy. "What are they there for else?"

"Yes, mother, the opinions they are paid for. But a prig is a fellow who is always making you a present of his opinions."

"I suppose Mary Garth admires Mr. Lydgate," said Rosamond, not without a touch of innuendo.

Mary - marie

garth - garth

innuendo - insinuations, insinuation, sous-entendu

"Really, I can't say." said Fred, rather glumly, as he left the table, and taking up a novel which he had brought down with him, threw himself into an arm-chair. "If you are jealous of her, go oftener to Stone Court yourself and eclipse her."

glumly - avec morosité

eclipse - éclipse, éclipser

"I wish you would not be so vulgar, Fred. If you have finished, pray ring the bell."

"It is true, though"what your brother says, Rosamond," Mrs. Vincy began, when the servant had cleared the table. "It is a thousand pities you haven't patience to go and see your uncle more, so proud of you as he is, and wanted you to live with him. There's no knowing what he might have done for you as well as for Fred.

pities - pités, compassion, pitié, dommage, honte, plaindre

God knows, I'm fond of having you at home with me, but I can part with my children for their good. And now it stands to reason that your uncle Featherstone will do something for Mary Garth."

"Mary Garth can bear being at Stone Court, because she likes that better than being a governess," said Rosamond, folding up her work. "I would rather not have anything left to me if I must earn it by enduring much of my uncle's cough and his ugly relations."

governess - gouvernante, gouverneuse

folding up - se plier

enduring - durable, endurer, perdurer, supporter

cough - tousser, toux

"He can't be long for this world, my dear; I wouldn't hasten his end, but what with asthma and that inward complaint, let us hope there is something better for him in another. And I have no ill-will towards Mary Garth, but there's justice to be thought of. And Mr. Featherstone's first wife brought him no money, as my sister did. Her nieces and nephews can't have so much claim as my sister's.

hasten - se hâter, dépecher

asthma - l'asthme, asthme

ill-will - (ill-will) mauvaise volonté

And I must say I think Mary Garth a dreadful plain girl"more fit for a governess."

"Every one would not agree with you there, mother," said Fred, who seemed to be able to read and listen too.

"Well, my dear," said Mrs. Vincy, wheeling skilfully, "if she had some fortune left her,"a man marries his wife's relations, and the Garths are so poor, and live in such a small way. But I shall leave you to your studies, my dear; for I must go and do some shopping."

skilfully - habilement

"Fred's studies are not very deep," said Rosamond, rising with her mamma, "he is only reading a novel."

"Well, well, by-and-by he'll go to his Latin and things," said Mrs. Vincy, soothingly, stroking her son's head. "There's a fire in the smoking-room on purpose. It's your father's wish, you know"Fred, my dear"and I always tell him you will be good, and go to college again to take your degree."

Fred drew his mother's hand down to his lips, but said nothing.

"I suppose you are not going out riding to-day?" said Rosamond, lingering a little after her mamma was gone.

"No; why?"

"Papa says I may have the chestnut to ride now."

"You can go with me to-morrow, if you like. Only I am going to Stone Court, remember."

morrow - lendemain, matin

"I want to ride so much, it is indifferent to me where we go." Rosamond really wished to go to Stone Court, of all other places.

"Oh, I say, Rosy," said Fred, as she was passing out of the room, "if you are going to the piano, let me come and play some airs with you."

"Pray do not ask me this morning."

"Why not this morning?"

"Really, Fred, I wish you would leave off playing the flute. A man looks very silly playing the flute. And you play so out of tune."

flute - flute

"When next any one makes love to you, Miss Rosamond, I will tell him how obliging you are."

obliging - obligeant, imposer, obliger, rendre service

"Why should you expect me to oblige you by hearing you play the flute, any more than I should expect you to oblige me by not playing it?"

"And why should you expect me to take you out riding?"

This question led to an adjustment, for Rosamond had set her mind on that particular ride.

adjustment - l'ajustement, ajustement, areglement

So Fred was gratified with nearly an hour's practice of "Ar hyd y nos," "Ye banks and braes," and other favorite airs from his "Instructor on the Flute;" a wheezy performance, into which he threw much ambition and an irrepressible hopefulness.

gratified - gratifié, gratifier

ye - ou, lequel

wheezy - sifflante, asthmatique

irrepressible - irrépressible

hopefulness - l'espoir


He had more tow on his distaffe

tow - remorquer, traîner, remorquent, tirage, remorquez

distaffe - la quenouille

Than Gerveis knew.


The ride to Stone Court, which Fred and Rosamond took the next morning, lay through a pretty bit of midland landscape, almost all meadows and pastures, with hedgerows still allowed to grow in bushy beauty and to spread out coral fruit for the birds.

landscape - paysage

meadows - prairies, pré

hedgerows - les haies, rangée de haie

coral - corail, corallien

Little details gave each field a particular physiognomy, dear to the eyes that have looked on them from childhood: the pool in the corner where the grasses were dank and trees leaned whisperingly; the great oak shadowing a bare place in mid-pasture; the high bank where the ash-trees grew; the sudden slope of the old marl-pit making a red background for the burdock; the huddled roofs and ricks of the homestead without a traceable way of approach; the gray gate and fences against the depths of the bordering wood; and the stray hovel, its old, old thatch full of mossy hills and valleys with wondrous modulations of light and shadow such as we travel far to see in later life, and see larger, but not more beautiful. These are the things that make the gamut of joy in landscape to midland-bred souls"the things they toddled among, or perhaps learned by heart standing between their father's knees while he drove leisurely.

physiognomy - la physionomie, physiognomonie

dank - dank

whisperingly - en chuchotant

shadowing - l'ombre, effet de masque, (shadow), ombre

mid - moyenne, mi-, au milieu de, en plein

pasture - pâture, pâturage, pré, prairie

ash - cendres, frene, cendre

marl - marne

pit - fosse, écart, précipice, noyau

Burdock - bardane

huddled - blottis, foule dense et désordonnée, se blottir

homestead - la propriété familiale, propriété, foyer, demeure

stray - égaré, écartez, écartent, écartons, écarter

hovel - masure, taudis

thatch - le chaume, chaume

mossy - moussue

gamut - gamme, palette

But the road, even the byroad, was excellent; for Lowick, as we have seen, was not a parish of muddy lanes and poor tenants; and it was into Lowick parish that Fred and Rosamond entered after a couple of miles'riding.

byroad - par la route

Muddy - morne

lanes - voies, chemin, qualifier

Another mile would bring them to Stone Court, and at the end of the first half, the house was already visible, looking as if it had been arrested in its growth toward a stone mansion by an unexpected budding of farm-buildings on its left flank, which had hindered it from becoming anything more than the substantial dwelling of a gentleman farmer.

flank - flanc, flanchet

substantial - substantielle, substantiel

dwelling - logement, demeure, (dwell), résider, s'appesantir sur

It was not the less agreeable an object in the distance for the cluster of pinnacled corn-ricks which balanced the fine row of walnuts on the right.

cluster - cluster, groupe, grappe, régime, amas, rench: t-needed r

pinnacled - a pinces, cime, pic, pinacle

walnuts - des noix, noyer, noix

Presently it was possible to discern something that might be a gig on the circular drive before the front door.

gig - gig, concert

circular - circulaire, rond

"Dear me," said Rosamond, "I hope none of my uncle's horrible relations are there."

"They are, though. That is Mrs. Waule's gig"the last yellow gig left, I should think. When I see Mrs. Waule in it, I understand how yellow can have been worn for mourning. That gig seems to me more funereal than a hearse. But then Mrs. Waule always has black crape on. How does she manage it, Rosy? Her friends can't always be dying."

mourning - le deuil, deuil, (mourn), déplorer, porter le deuil

hearse - corbillard

dying - teignant, mourant, (dye) teignant

"I don't know at all. And she is not in the least evangelical," said Rosamond, reflectively, as if that religious point of view would have fully accounted for perpetual crape. "And, not poor," she added, after a moment's pause.

evangelical - évangélique

fully - pleinement, entierement, completement

perpetual - perpétuel

"No, by George! They are as rich as Jews, those Waules and Featherstones; I mean, for people like them, who don't want to spend anything. And yet they hang about my uncle like vultures, and are afraid of a farthing going away from their side of the family. But I believe he hates them all."

hang about - s'accrocher

vultures - des vautours, vautour, carencro, charognard

farthing - farthing

The Mrs. Waule who was so far from being admirable in the eyes of these distant connections, had happened to say this very morning (not at all with a defiant air, but in a low, muffled, neutral tone, as of a voice heard through cotton wool) that she did not wish "to enjoy their good opinion.

muffled - étouffé, assourdir

" She was seated, as she observed, on her own brother's hearth, and had been Jane Featherstone five-and-twenty years before she had been Jane Waule, which entitled her to speak when her own brother's name had been made free with by those who had no right to it.

hearth - âtre, foyer, foyers

Jane - jane, Jeanne

entitled - habilité, intituler

"What are you driving at there?" said Mr. Featherstone, holding his stick between his knees and settling his wig, while he gave her a momentary sharp glance, which seemed to react on him like a draught of cold air and set him coughing.

settling - la décantation, sédimentation

wig - perruque

momentary - momentanée

coughing - toux, toussant, (cough), tousser

Mrs. Waule had to defer her answer till he was quiet again, till Mary Garth had supplied him with fresh syrup, and he had begun to rub the gold knob of his stick, looking bitterly at the fire. It was a bright fire, but it made no difference to the chill-looking purplish tint of Mrs.

syrup - sirop

Rub - rub, friction, hic, frotter, polir

knob - poignée, bouton, pommeau, noix, noud

bitterly - amerement, amerement

chill - refroidissement, froid

purplish - violâtre, violacé

tint - teinte, nuance, teindre

Waule's face, which was as neutral as her voice; having mere chinks for eyes, and lips that hardly moved in speaking.

chinks - les chinetoques, fente, fissure

"The doctors can't master that cough, brother. It's just like what I have; for I'm your own sister, constitution and everything. But, as I was saying, it's a pity Mrs. Vincy's family can't be better conducted."

conducted - conduite, comportement, se comporter, conduire, mener

"Tchah! you said nothing o'the sort. You said somebody had made free with my name."

"And no more than can be proved, if what everybody says is true. My brother Solomon tells me it's the talk up and down in Middlemarch how unsteady young Vincy is, and has been forever gambling at billiards since home he came."

Solomon - salomon, Solayman

unsteady - instable, branlant, fébrile

gambling - les jeux d'argent, jeu de hasard

"Nonsense! What's a game at billiards? It's a good gentlemanly game; and young Vincy is not a clodhopper. If your son John took to billiards, now, he'd make a fool of himself."

clodhopper - clodhopper, écrase-merde

"Your nephew John never took to billiards or any other game, brother, and is far from losing hundreds of pounds, which, if what everybody says is true, must be found somewhere else than out of Mr. Vincy the father's pocket. For they say he's been losing money for years, though nobody would think so, to see him go coursing and keeping open house as they do. And I've heard say Mr.

Bulstrode condemns Mrs. Vincy beyond anything for her flightiness, and spoiling her children so."

condemns - condamne, condamner, déclarer coupable

spoiling - gâcher, gâter, tourner, dévoiler, révéler

"What's Bulstrode to me? I don't bank with him."

"Well, Mrs. Bulstrode is Mr. Vincy's own sister, and they do say that Mr. Vincy mostly trades on the Bank money; and you may see yourself, brother, when a woman past forty has pink strings always flying, and that light way of laughing at everything, it's very unbecoming. But indulging your children is one thing, and finding money to pay their debts is another.

unbecoming - inconvenante

indulging - se faire plaisir, céder, succomber, dorloter, gâter, choyer

debts - des dettes, dette

And it's openly said that young Vincy has raised money on his expectations. I don't say what expectations. Miss Garth hears me, and is welcome to tell again. I know young people hang together."

openly - ouvertement

expectations - attentes, attente

hang together - Traîner ensemble

"No, thank you, Mrs. Waule," said Mary Garth. "I dislike hearing scandal too much to wish to repeat it."

Mr. Featherstone rubbed the knob of his stick and made a brief convulsive show of laughter, which had much the same genuineness as an old whist-player's chuckle over a bad hand. Still looking at the fire, he said"

convulsive - convulsif

chuckle - glousser

"And who pretends to say Fred Vincy hasn't got expectations? Such a fine, spirited fellow is like enough to have 'em."

There was a slight pause before Mrs. Waule replied, and when she did so, her voice seemed to be slightly moistened with tears, though her face was still dry.

moistened - humidifié, humidifier, mouiller

"Whether or no, brother, it is naturally painful to me and my brother Solomon to hear your name made free with, and your complaint being such as may carry you off sudden, and people who are no more Featherstones than the Merry-Andrew at the fair, openly reckoning on your property coming to them. And me your own sister, and Solomon your own brother!

And if that's to be it, what has it pleased the Almighty to make families for?" Here Mrs. Waule's tears fell, but with moderation.

Almighty - tout-puissant, toutuissant

"Come, out with it, Jane!" said Mr. Featherstone, looking at her. "You mean to say, Fred Vincy has been getting somebody to advance him money on what he says he knows about my will, eh?"

advance - élever, avancer, avancée, progression, avance, souscription

"I never said so, brother" (Mrs. Waule's voice had again become dry and unshaken). "It was told me by my brother Solomon last night when he called coming from market to give me advice about the old wheat, me being a widow, and my son John only three-and-twenty, though steady beyond anything. And he had it from most undeniable authority, and not one, but many."

unshaken - inébranlable

wheat - du blé, blé, rench: t-needed r

"Stuff and nonsense! I don't believe a word of it. It's all a got-up story. Go to the window, missy; I thought I heard a horse. See if the doctor's coming."

I don't believe a word of it - Je n'en crois pas un mot

missy - missy

"Not got up by me, brother, nor yet by Solomon, who, whatever else he may be"and I don't deny he has oddities"has made his will and parted his property equal between such kin as he's friends with; though, for my part, I think there are times when some should be considered more than others. But Solomon makes it no secret what he means to do."

kin - kin, famille

"The more fool he!" said Mr. Featherstone, with some difficulty; breaking into a severe fit of coughing that required Mary Garth to stand near him, so that she did not find out whose horses they were which presently paused stamping on the gravel before the door.

gravel - graviers, gravillons, gravier

Before Mr. Featherstone's cough was quiet, Rosamond entered, bearing up her riding-habit with much grace. She bowed ceremoniously to Mrs. Waule, who said stiffly, "How do you do, miss?" smiled and nodded silently to Mary, and remained standing till the coughing should cease, and allow her uncle to notice her.

riding-habit - (riding-habit) habitude d'équitation

ceremoniously - cérémonieusement

stiffly - avec raideur, rigidement

nodded - hoché la tete, dodeliner, hocher, hochement

"Heyday, miss!" he said at last, "you have a fine color. Where's Fred?"

Heyday - heyday, âge d’or

"Seeing about the horses. He will be in presently."

"Sit down, sit down. Mrs. Waule, you'd better go."

Even those neighbors who had called Peter Featherstone an old fox, had never accused him of being insincerely polite, and his sister was quite used to the peculiar absence of ceremony with which he marked his sense of blood-relationship. Indeed, she herself was accustomed to think that entire freedom from the necessity of behaving agreeably was included in the Almighty's intentions about families.

Peter - peter, Pierre, P

fox - renard, goupil, rench: t-needed r, roublard, retors, bombe

insincerely - sans sincérité

She rose slowly without any sign of resentment, and said in her usual muffled monotone, "Brother, I hope the new doctor will be able to do something for you. Solomon says there's great talk of his cleverness. I'm sure it's my wish you should be spared. And there's none more ready to nurse you than your own sister and your own nieces, if you'd only say the word.

resentment - le ressentiment, ressentiment, agacement, rancune

be spared - etre épargnée

There's Rebecca, and Joanna, and Elizabeth, you know."

Elizabeth - elizabeth, Élisabeth

"Ay, ay, I remember"you'll see I've remembered 'em all"all dark and ugly. They'd need have some money, eh? There never was any beauty in the women of our family; but the Featherstones have always had some money, and the Waules too. Waule had money too. A warm man was Waule. Ay, ay; money's a good egg; and if you've got money to leave behind you, lay it in a warm nest. Good-by, Mrs. Waule.

nest - nid, patelin

" Here Mr. Featherstone pulled at both sides of his wig as if he wanted to deafen himself, and his sister went away ruminating on this oracular speech of his.

deafen - assourdir, rendre sourd

ruminating - ruminant, ruminer

oracular - oraculaire

Notwithstanding her jealousy of the Vincys and of Mary Garth, there remained as the nethermost sediment in her mental shallows a persuasion that her brother Peter Featherstone could never leave his chief property away from his blood-relations:"else, why had the Almighty carried off his two wives both childless, after he had gained so much by manganese and things, turning up when nobody expected it?"and why was there a Lowick parish church, and the Waules and Powderells all sitting in the same pew for generations, and the Featherstone pew next to them, if, the Sunday after her brother Peter's death, everybody was to know that the property was gone out of the family? The human mind has at no period accepted a moral chaos; and so preposterous a result was not strictly conceivable. But we are frightened at much that is not strictly conceivable.

jealousy - jalousie, envie

nethermost - le plus éloigné

sediment - sédiments, sédiment, sédimenter

persuasion - la persuasion, persuasion

carried off - emportés

manganese - le manganese, manganese

parish church - l'église paroissiale

pew - pew, banc (d'église)

chaos - le chaos, chaos, (chao) le chaos

strictly - strictement

conceivable - concevable

When Fred came in the old man eyed him with a peculiar twinkle, which the younger had often had reason to interpret as pride in the satisfactory details of his appearance.

Twinkle - twinkle, briller, cligner, virevolter

Interpret - interpréter, traduire

satisfactory - satisfaisante, satisfaisant

"You two misses go away," said Mr. Featherstone. "I want to speak to Fred."

"Come into my room, Rosamond, you will not mind the cold for a little while," said Mary. The two girls had not only known each other in childhood, but had been at the same provincial school together (Mary as an articled pupil), so that they had many memories in common, and liked very well to talk in private. Indeed, this tĂŞte-Ă -tĂŞte was one of Rosamond's objects in coming to Stone Court.

Old Featherstone would not begin the dialogue till the door had been closed. He continued to look at Fred with the same twinkle and with one of his habitual grimaces, alternately screwing and widening his mouth; and when he spoke, it was in a low tone, which might be taken for that of an informer ready to be bought off, rather than for the tone of an offended senior.

grimaces - des grimaces, grimace, grimacer, faire des grimaces

alternately - en alternance

screwing - baiser, vissant, vissage, (screw), vis, hélice, visser

widening - l'élargissement, s’élargir, élargir

senior - senior, aîné, supérieur

He was not a man to feel any strong moral indignation even on account of trespasses against himself. It was natural that others should want to get an advantage over him, but then, he was a little too cunning for them.

indignation - l'indignation, indignation

trespasses - des fautes, s'introduire sans permission

"So, sir, you've been paying ten per cent for money which you've promised to pay off by mortgaging my land when I'm dead and gone, eh? You put my life at a twelvemonth, say. But I can alter my will yet."

mortgaging - l'hypotheque, hypotheque, hypothéquer

twelvemonth - douze mois

alter - modifier, altérent, altérez, altérer, altérons

Fred blushed. He had not borrowed money in that way, for excellent reasons. But he was conscious of having spoken with some confidence (perhaps with more than he exactly remembered) about his prospect of getting Featherstone's land as a future means of paying present debts.

"I don't know what you refer to, sir. I have certainly never borrowed any money on such an insecurity. Please do explain."

insecurity - l'insécurité, insécurité

"No, sir, it's you must explain. I can alter my will yet, let me tell you. I'm of sound mind"can reckon compound interest in my head, and remember every fool's name as well as I could twenty years ago. What the deuce? I'm under eighty. I say, you must contradict this story."

compound - composé

deuce - deux

"I have contradicted it, sir," Fred answered, with a touch of impatience, not remembering that his uncle did not verbally discriminate contradicting from disproving, though no one was further from confounding the two ideas than old Featherstone, who often wondered that so many fools took his own assertions for proofs. "But I contradict it again. The story is a silly lie."

verbally - verbalement

contradicting - contradictoire, contredire

disproving - réfuter, infirmer

fools - des imbéciles, dinde, fou, bouffon, mat, duper, tromper

assertions - affirmations, assertion, qualifier

proofs - preuves, preuve, épreuve

"Nonsense! you must bring dockiments. It comes from authority."

dockiments - Les dockiments

"Name the authority, and make him name the man of whom I borrowed the money, and then I can disprove the story."

disprove - réfuter, infirmer

"It's pretty good authority, I think"a man who knows most of what goes on in Middlemarch. It's that fine, religious, charitable uncle o'yours. Come now!" Here Mr. Featherstone had his peculiar inward shake which signified merriment.

signified - signifié, (signify), signifier

merriment - la gaieté, gaieté

"Mr. Bulstrode?"

"Who else, eh?"

"Then the story has grown into this lie out of some sermonizing words he may have let fall about me. Do they pretend that he named the man who lent me the money?"

"If there is such a man, depend upon it Bulstrode knows him. But, supposing you only tried to get the money lent, and didn't get it"Bulstrode 'ud know that too. You bring me a writing from Bulstrode to say he doesn't believe you've ever promised to pay your debts out o'my land. Come now!"

Mr. Featherstone's face required its whole scale of grimaces as a muscular outlet to his silent triumph in the soundness of his faculties.

scale - échelle, escaladez, escalader, escaladent, gravir, bareme

muscular - musculaire, musclé, musculeux

outlet - sortie, conduit, exutoire, issue, dérivatif, magasin d’usine

triumph - triomphe, triomphal

soundness - la solidité

faculties - facultés, faculté

Fred felt himself to be in a disgusting dilemma.

disgusting - dégoutant, dégouter, dégout

dilemma - dilemme

"You must be joking, sir. Mr. Bulstrode, like other men, believes scores of things that are not true, and he has a prejudice against me. I could easily get him to write that he knew no facts in proof of the report you speak of, though it might lead to unpleasantness. But I could hardly ask him to write down what he believes or does not believe about me.

" Fred paused an instant, and then added, in politic appeal to his uncle's vanity, "That is hardly a thing for a gentleman to ask." But he was disappointed in the result.

instant - instantanée, moment

politic - politique

"Ay, I know what you mean. You'd sooner offend me than Bulstrode. And what's he?"he's got no land hereabout that ever I heard tell of. A speckilating fellow! He may come down any day, when the devil leaves off backing him. And that's what his religion means: he wants God A'mighty to come in. That's nonsense!

hereabout - ici

speckilating - spéculation

mighty - puissant

There's one thing I made out pretty clear when I used to go to church"and it's this: God A'mighty sticks to the land. He promises land, and He gives land, and He makes chaps rich with corn and cattle. But you take the other side. You like Bulstrode and speckilation better than Featherstone and land."

chaps - les chaps, type

cattle - du bétail, bétail, bovins

"I beg your pardon, sir," said Fred, rising, standing with his back to the fire and beating his boot with his whip. "I like neither Bulstrode nor speculation." He spoke rather sulkily, feeling himself stalemated.

sulkily - boudeur

stalemated - dans l'impasse, pat, impasse

"Well, well, you can do without me, that's pretty clear," said old Featherstone, secretly disliking the possibility that Fred would show himself at all independent. "You neither want a bit of land to make a squire of you instead of a starving parson, nor a lift of a hundred pound by the way. It's all one to me. I can make five codicils if I like, and I shall keep my bank-notes for a nest-egg.

secretly - secretement, secretement, en cachette

squire - chaperonner

Starving - affamés, affamant, (starve), mourir de faim, crever de faim

parson - parson, curé, curé paroissial, pasteur

codicils - codicilles, codicille

bank-notes - (bank-notes) des billets de banque

It's all one to me."

Fred colored again. Featherstone had rarely given him presents of money, and at this moment it seemed almost harder to part with the immediate prospect of bank-notes than with the more distant prospect of the land.

"I am not ungrateful, sir. I never meant to show disregard for any kind intentions you might have towards me. On the contrary."

ungrateful - ingrat

"Very good. Then prove it. You bring me a letter from Bulstrode saying he doesn't believe you've been cracking and promising to pay your debts out o'my land, and then, if there's any scrape you've got into, we'll see if I can't back you a bit. Come now! That's a bargain. Here, give me your arm. I'll try and walk round the room."

cracking - craquage, (crack) craquage

scrape - gratter, racler, effleurer

walk round - faire le tour

Fred, in spite of his irritation, had kindness enough in him to be a little sorry for the unloved, unvenerated old man, who with his dropsical legs looked more than usually pitiable in walking.

unvenerated - non vénéré

While giving his arm, he thought that he should not himself like to be an old fellow with his constitution breaking up; and he waited good-temperedly, first before the window to hear the wonted remarks about the guinea-fowls and the weather-cock, and then before the scanty book-shelves, of which the chief glories in dark calf were Josephus, Culpepper, Klopstock's "Messiah," and several volumes of the "Gentleman's Magazine."

temperedly - de maniere tempérée

cock - bite, coq

scanty - maigre, insuffisant

Messiah - le messie, messie

"Read me the names o'the books. Come now! you're a college man."

Fred gave him the titles.

"What did missy want with more books? What must you be bringing her more books for?"

"They amuse her, sir. She is very fond of reading."

amuse - amuser

"A little too fond," said Mr. Featherstone, captiously. "She was for reading when she sat with me. But I put a stop to that. She's got the newspaper to read out loud. That's enough for one day, I should think. I can't abide to see her reading to herself. You mind and not bring her any more books, do you hear?"

captiously - captieusement

read out - lire

abide - se maintenir, endurer, tolérer, supporter, souffrir, rester

"Yes, sir, I hear." Fred had received this order before, and had secretly disobeyed it. He intended to disobey it again.

disobeyed - désobéi, désobéir

"Ring the bell," said Mr. Featherstone; "I want missy to come down."

Rosamond and Mary had been talking faster than their male friends. They did not think of sitting down, but stood at the toilet-table near the window while Rosamond took off her hat, adjusted her veil, and applied little touches of her finger-tips to her hair"hair of infantine fairness, neither flaxen nor yellow.

toilet-table - (toilet-table) table de toilette

adjusted - ajustée, ajuster

veil - voile, voiler

finger-tips - (finger-tips) le bout des doigts

infantine - infantine

fairness - l'équité, justice

flaxen - de lin

Mary Garth seemed all the plainer standing at an angle between the two nymphs"the one in the glass, and the one out of it, who looked at each other with eyes of heavenly blue, deep enough to hold the most exquisite meanings an ingenious beholder could put into them, and deep enough to hide the meanings of the owner if these should happen to be less exquisite.

plainer - plus simple, simple

nymphs - nymphes, nymphe

heavenly - paradisiaque, céleste

most exquisite - le plus exquis

Only a few children in Middlemarch looked blond by the side of Rosamond, and the slim figure displayed by her riding-habit had delicate undulations. In fact, most men in Middlemarch, except her brothers, held that Miss Vincy was the best girl in the world, and some called her an angel.

displayed - affichée, représentation, spectacle, moniteur, écran

angel - ange

Mary Garth, on the contrary, had the aspect of an ordinary sinner: she was brown; her curly dark hair was rough and stubborn; her stature was low; and it would not be true to declare, in satisfactory antithesis, that she had all the virtues.

sinner - pécheur, pécheresse

stubborn - tetu, tetu, enteté, borné

declare - expliquer, déclarer

antithesis - antithese, antithese

Plainness has its peculiar temptations and vices quite as much as beauty; it is apt either to feign amiability, or, not feigning it, to show all the repulsiveness of discontent: at any rate, to be called an ugly thing in contrast with that lovely creature your companion, is apt to produce some effect beyond a sense of fine veracity and fitness in the phrase.

temptations - tentations, tentation

feigning - feindre, (feign)

repulsiveness - la répulsion

veracity - véracité, vérité, exactitude

At the age of two-and-twenty Mary had certainly not attained that perfect good sense and good principle which are usually recommended to the less fortunate girl, as if they were to be obtained in quantities ready mixed, with a flavor of resignation as required.

obtained - obtenu, obtenir, se procurer, réussir, avoir succes, avoir

Her shrewdness had a streak of satiric bitterness continually renewed and never carried utterly out of sight, except by a strong current of gratitude towards those who, instead of telling her that she ought to be contented, did something to make her so.

shrewdness - l'astuce

streak - de l'histoire, raie, chésias du genet

satiric - satirique

renewed - renouvelée, renouveler

contented - satisfait

Advancing womanhood had tempered her plainness, which was of a good human sort, such as the mothers of our race have very commonly worn in all latitudes under a more or less becoming headgear. Rembrandt would have painted her with pleasure, and would have made her broad features look out of the canvas with intelligent honesty.

advancing - l'avancement, élever, avancer, avancée, progression

latitudes - latitudes, latitude, parallele, marge

headgear - un couvre-chef, couvre-chef

canvas - toile, canevas

honesty - l'honneteté, honneteté

For honesty, truth-telling fairness, was Mary's reigning virtue: she neither tried to create illusions, nor indulged in them for her own behoof, and when she was in a good mood she had humor enough in her to laugh at herself. When she and Rosamond happened both to be reflected in the glass, she said, laughingly"

reigning - régnant, regne, régner

indulged in - s'est laissé aller

behoof - le béhaviorisme

be reflected - se refléter

laughingly - en riant

"What a brown patch I am by the side of you, Rosy! You are the most unbecoming companion."

patch - patch, rapiécer

"Oh no! No one thinks of your appearance, you are so sensible and useful, Mary. Beauty is of very little consequence in reality," said Rosamond, turning her head towards Mary, but with eyes swerving towards the new view of her neck in the glass.

swerving - une embardée, (swerve), dévier, se détourner

"You mean my beauty," said Mary, rather sardonically.

sardonically - sardoniquement

Rosamond thought, "Poor Mary, she takes the kindest things ill." Aloud she said, "What have you been doing lately?"

"I? Oh, minding the house"pouring out syrup"pretending to be amiable and contented"learning to have a bad opinion of everybody."

"It is a wretched life for you."

"No," said Mary, curtly, with a little toss of her head. "I think my life is pleasanter than your Miss Morgan's."

curtly - sechement

toss - de la balle, jet, au pile ou face, tirage au sort, lancer

"Yes; but Miss Morgan is so uninteresting, and not young."

"She is interesting to herself, I suppose; and I am not at all sure that everything gets easier as one gets older."

"No," said Rosamond, reflectively; "one wonders what such people do, without any prospect. To be sure, there is religion as a support. But," she added, dimpling, "it is very different with you, Mary. You may have an offer."

dimpling - des fossettes, alvéole, fossette

"Has any one told you he means to make me one?"

"Of course not. I mean, there is a gentleman who may fall in love with you, seeing you almost every day."

A certain change in Mary's face was chiefly determined by the resolve not to show any change.

"Does that always make people fall in love?" she answered, carelessly; "it seems to me quite as often a reason for detesting each other."

carelessly - négligemment

detesting - détester, mépriser

"Not when they are interesting and agreeable. I hear that Mr. Lydgate is both."

"Oh, Mr. Lydgate!" said Mary, with an unmistakable lapse into indifference. "You want to know something about him," she added, not choosing to indulge Rosamond's indirectness.

indirectness - indirecte

"Merely, how you like him."

"There is no question of liking at present. My liking always wants some little kindness to kindle it. I am not magnanimous enough to like people who speak to me without seeming to see me."

kindle - kindle, allumer, enflammer

magnanimous - magnanime

"Is he so haughty?" said Rosamond, with heightened satisfaction. "You know that he is of good family?"

haughty - hautain, suffisant

"No; he did not give that as a reason."

"Mary! you are the oddest girl. But what sort of looking man is he? Describe him to me."

"How can one describe a man? I can give you an inventory: heavy eyebrows, dark eyes, a straight nose, thick dark hair, large solid white hands"and"let me see"oh, an exquisite cambric pocket-handkerchief. But you will see him. You know this is about the time of his visits."

inventory - inventaire, inventorier

cambric - cambric

Rosamond blushed a little, but said, meditatively, "I rather like a haughty manner. I cannot endure a rattling young man."

meditatively - de maniere méditative

rattling - le cliquetis, (rattle) le cliquetis

"I did not tell you that Mr. Lydgate was haughty; but il y en a pour tous les goûts, as little Mamselle used to say, and if any girl can choose the particular sort of conceit she would like, I should think it is you, Rosy."

les - les, (LE) les

Mamselle - mamselle

"Haughtiness is not conceit; I call Fred conceited."

conceited - prétentieux, vanité, orgueil, concept

"I wish no one said any worse of him. He should be more careful. Mrs. Waule has been telling uncle that Fred is very unsteady." Mary spoke from a girlish impulse which got the better of her judgment. There was a vague uneasiness associated with the word "unsteady" which she hoped Rosamond might say something to dissipate. But she purposely abstained from mentioning Mrs.

dissipate - se dissiper, dissiper

abstained from - s'est abstenu

Waule's more special insinuation.

insinuation - insinuation

"Oh, Fred is horrid!" said Rosamond. She would not have allowed herself so unsuitable a word to any one but Mary.

horrid - horribles, affreux, horrible, exécrable, désagréable

unsuitable - inadaptée

"What do you mean by horrid?"

"He is so idle, and makes papa so angry, and says he will not take orders."

"I think Fred is quite right."

"How can you say he is quite right, Mary? I thought you had more sense of religion."

"He is not fit to be a clergyman."

"But he ought to be fit."""Well, then, he is not what he ought to be. I know some other people who are in the same case."

be fit - etre en forme

"But no one approves of them. I should not like to marry a clergyman; but there must be clergymen."

approves - approuve, approuver

clergymen - des ecclésiastiques, pretre, clerc

"It does not follow that Fred must be one."

"But when papa has been at the expense of educating him for it! And only suppose, if he should have no fortune left him?"

"I can suppose that very well," said Mary, dryly.

"Then I wonder you can defend Fred," said Rosamond, inclined to push this point.

defend - défendre

"I don't defend him," said Mary, laughing; "I would defend any parish from having him for a clergyman."

"But of course if he were a clergyman, he must be different."

"Yes, he would be a great hypocrite; and he is not that yet."

"It is of no use saying anything to you, Mary. You always take Fred's part."

"Why should I not take his part?" said Mary, lighting up. "He would take mine. He is the only person who takes the least trouble to oblige me."

lighting up - qui s'allument

"You make me feel very uncomfortable, Mary," said Rosamond, with her gravest mildness; "I would not tell mamma for the world."

gravest - le plus grave, tombe

"What would you not tell her?" said Mary, angrily.

"Pray do not go into a rage, Mary," said Rosamond, mildly as ever.

rage - rage, furie, fureur, courroux, rager, faire rage

"If your mamma is afraid that Fred will make me an offer, tell her that I would not marry him if he asked me. But he is not going to do so, that I am aware. He certainly never has asked me."

"Mary, you are always so violent."

"And you are always so exasperating."

"I? What can you blame me for?"

"Oh, blameless people are always the most exasperating. There is the bell"I think we must go down."

blameless - irréprochable

"I did not mean to quarrel," said Rosamond, putting on her hat.

"Quarrel? Nonsense; we have not quarrelled. If one is not to get into a rage sometimes, what is the good of being friends?"

"Am I to repeat what you have said?"

"Just as you please. I never say what I am afraid of having repeated. But let us go down."

Mr. Lydgate was rather late this morning, but the visitors stayed long enough to see him; for Mr. Featherstone asked Rosamond to sing to him, and she herself was so kind as to propose a second favorite song of his""Flow on, thou shining river""after she had sung "Home, sweet home" (which she detested).

This hard-headed old Overreach approved of the sentimental song, as the suitable garnish for girls, and also as fundamentally fine, sentiment being the right thing for a song.

garnish - garnir, garniture

fundamentally - fondamentalement

sentiment - sentiment

Mr. Featherstone was still applauding the last performance, and assuring missy that her voice was as clear as a blackbird's, when Mr. Lydgate's horse passed the window.

applauding - applaudir, ovationner, louer, approuver

assuring - assurer, rassurer

blackbird - le merle, merle, merlesse

His dull expectation of the usual disagreeable routine with an aged patient"who can hardly believe that medicine would not "set him up" if the doctor were only clever enough"added to his general disbelief in Middlemarch charms, made a doubly effective background to this vision of Rosamond, whom old Featherstone made haste ostentatiously to introduce as his niece, though he had never thought it worth while to speak of Mary Garth in that light. Nothing escaped Lydgate in Rosamond's graceful behavior: how delicately she waived the notice which the old man's want of taste had thrust upon her by a quiet gravity, not showing her dimples on the wrong occasion, but showing them afterwards in speaking to Mary, to whom she addressed herself with so much good-natured interest, that Lydgate, after quickly examining Mary more fully than he had done before, saw an adorable kindness in Rosamond's eyes. But Mary from some cause looked rather out of temper.

dull - émoussé, ennuyeux, barbant, mat, terne, sot, obtus

doubly - doublement

ostentatiously - avec ostentation

waived - renoncé, renoncer (a)

"Miss Rosy has been singing me a song"you've nothing to say against that, eh, doctor?" said Mr. Featherstone. "I like it better than your physic."

"That has made me forget how the time was going," said Rosamond, rising to reach her hat, which she had laid aside before singing, so that her flower-like head on its white stem was seen in perfection above her riding-habit. "Fred, we must really go."

"Very good," said Fred, who had his own reasons for not being in the best spirits, and wanted to get away.

"Miss Vincy is a musician?" said Lydgate, following her with his eyes. (Every nerve and muscle in Rosamond was adjusted to the consciousness that she was being looked at. She was by nature an actress of parts that entered into her physique: she even acted her own character, and so well, that she did not know it to be precisely her own.)

nerve - nerf, nervure, toupet, culot, cran

precisely - précisément

"The best in Middlemarch, I'll be bound," said Mr. Featherstone, "let the next be who she will. Eh, Fred? Speak up for your sister."

"I'm afraid I'm out of court, sir. My evidence would be good for nothing."

I'm afraid - J'ai peur

"Middlemarch has not a very high standard, uncle," said Rosamond, with a pretty lightness, going towards her whip, which lay at a distance.

Lydgate was quick in anticipating her. He reached the whip before she did, and turned to present it to her. She bowed and looked at him: he of course was looking at her, and their eyes met with that peculiar meeting which is never arrived at by effort, but seems like a sudden divine clearance of haze.

anticipating - anticiper, prévoir

clearance - l'autorisation, tolérance, gabarit, autorisation, braderie

I think Lydgate turned a little paler than usual, but Rosamond blushed deeply and felt a certain astonishment. After that, she was really anxious to go, and did not know what sort of stupidity her uncle was talking of when she went to shake hands with him.

Yet this result, which she took to be a mutual impression, called falling in love, was just what Rosamond had contemplated beforehand. Ever since that important new arrival in Middlemarch she had woven a little future, of which something like this scene was the necessary beginning.

contemplated - envisagée, envisager, étudier, contempler

new arrival - nouveau venu

woven - tissé, (weave)

Strangers, whether wrecked and clinging to a raft, or duly escorted and accompanied by portmanteaus, have always had a circumstantial fascination for the virgin mind, against which native merit has urged itself in vain.

wrecked - épave, carcasse, accident, bousiller, ruiner

clinging - s'accrocher, s'accrocher (a)

raft - radeau, train de bois

escorted - escorté, escorte, escorter

accompanied - accompagné, accompagner

And a stranger was absolutely necessary to Rosamond's social romance, which had always turned on a lover and bridegroom who was not a Middlemarcher, and who had no connections at all like her own: of late, indeed, the construction seemed to demand that he should somehow be related to a baronet.

romance - le romantisme, romance, idylle, amour romantique

construction - construction

demand - demande, exigence, exiger

Now that she and the stranger had met, reality proved much more moving than anticipation, and Rosamond could not doubt that this was the great epoch of her life. She judged of her own symptoms as those of awakening love, and she held it still more natural that Mr. Lydgate should have fallen in love at first sight of her.

awakening - l'éveil, réveil, (awaken), réveiller, se réveiller

These things happened so often at balls, and why not by the morning light, when the complexion showed all the better for it? Rosamond, though no older than Mary, was rather used to being fallen in love with; but she, for her part, had remained indifferent and fastidiously critical towards both fresh sprig and faded bachelor. And here was Mr.

fastidiously - avec minutie

critical - critique

sprig - brin, rameau

Lydgate suddenly corresponding to her ideal, being altogether foreign to Middlemarch, carrying a certain air of distinction congruous with good family, and possessing connections which offered vistas of that middle-class heaven, rank; a man of talent, also, whom it would be especially delightful to enslave: in fact, a man who had touched her nature quite newly, and brought a vivid interest into her life which was better than any fancied "might-be" such as she was in the habit of opposing to the actual.

congruous - congruent, congru

possessing - posséder, s'emparer de

enslave - asservir, esclavagiser

opposing - s'opposant, s'opposer a, opposer

Thus, in riding home, both the brother and the sister were preoccupied and inclined to be silent.

preoccupied - préoccupé, préoccuper

Rosamond, whose basis for her structure had the usual airy slightness, was of remarkably detailed and realistic imagination when the foundation had been once presupposed; and before they had ridden a mile she was far on in the costume and introductions of her wedded life, having determined on her house in Middlemarch, and foreseen the visits she would pay to her husband's high-bred relatives at a distance, whose finished manners she could appropriate as thoroughly as she had done her school accomplishments, preparing herself thus for vaguer elevations which might ultimately come. There was nothing financial, still less sordid, in her previsions: she cared about what were considered refinements, and not about the money that was to pay for them.

airy - aéré

slightness - petitesse

realistic - réaliste

presupposed - présupposé, présupposer

wedded - marié(e), marier, épouser

foreseen - prévue, prévoir, anticiper

accomplishments - des réalisations, accomplissement

vaguer - vaguer, vague

elevations - élévations, élévation

ultimately - en fin de compte

sordid - saleté, sordide, avide, crapuleux (1, 3)

refinements - raffinements, raffinement

Fred's mind, on the other hand, was busy with an anxiety which even his ready hopefulness could not immediately quell. He saw no way of eluding Featherstone's stupid demand without incurring consequences which he liked less even than the task of fulfilling it.

quell - quell, étouffer, suffoquer

eluding - éluder

incurring - encourus, encourir, s'attirer, subir, impliquer, occasioner

fulfilling - épanouissant, profondément satisfaisant

His father was already out of humor with him, and would be still more so if he were the occasion of any additional coolness between his own family and the Bulstrodes. Then, he himself hated having to go and speak to his uncle Bulstrode, and perhaps after drinking wine he had said many foolish things about Featherstone's property, and these had been magnified by report.

additional - supplémentaires, additionnel

coolness - de la fraîcheur, frais

magnified - amplifié, agrandir

Fred felt that he made a wretched figure as a fellow who bragged about expectations from a queer old miser like Featherstone, and went to beg for certificates at his bidding. But"those expectations! He really had them, and he saw no agreeable alternative if he gave them up; besides, he had lately made a debt which galled him extremely, and old Featherstone had almost bargained to pay it off.

bragged - s'est vanté, brag, fanfaronner, se vanter

queer - pédé, étrange, bizarre

miser - avare, crevard, grigou, grippe-sou

certificates - certificats, document, certificat, diplôme

bidding - impératifs, (bid) impératifs

debt - de la dette, dette

galled - épouvantée, bile

bargained - négocié, accord, affaire, bonne affaire, marchander, s'accorder

The whole affair was miserably small: his debts were small, even his expectations were not anything so very magnificent. Fred had known men to whom he would have been ashamed of confessing the smallness of his scrapes. Such ruminations naturally produced a streak of misanthropic bitterness.

miserably - misérablement

magnificent - magnifique

confessing - confesser, avouer

ruminations - ruminations, rumination

misanthropic - misanthrope

To be born the son of a Middlemarch manufacturer, and inevitable heir to nothing in particular, while such men as Mainwaring and Vyan"certainly life was a poor business, when a spirited young fellow, with a good appetite for the best of everything, had so poor an outlook.

heir - héritier, héritiere, successeur, successeuse

outlook - perspectives, vue, point de vue

It had not occurred to Fred that the introduction of Bulstrode's name in the matter was a fiction of old Featherstone's; nor could this have made any difference to his position. He saw plainly enough that the old man wanted to exercise his power by tormenting him a little, and also probably to get some satisfaction out of seeing him on unpleasant terms with Bulstrode.

plainly - en toute clarté, simplement, clairement

tormenting - tourmenter, (torment), tourment

Fred fancied that he saw to the bottom of his uncle Featherstone's soul, though in reality half what he saw there was no more than the reflex of his own inclinations. The difficult task of knowing another soul is not for young gentlemen whose consciousness is chiefly made up of their own wishes.

reflex - réflexe, continuateur

Fred's main point of debate with himself was, whether he should tell his father, or try to get through the affair without his father's knowledge. It was probably Mrs. Waule who had been talking about him; and if Mary Garth had repeated Mrs. Waule's report to Rosamond, it would be sure to reach his father, who would as surely question him about it.

debate - débat, discussion, débattre

He said to Rosamond, as they slackened their pace"

"Rosy, did Mary tell you that Mrs. Waule had said anything about me?"

"Yes, indeed, she did."


"That you were very unsteady."

"Was that all?"

"I should think that was enough, Fred."

"You are sure she said no more?"

"Mary mentioned nothing else. But really, Fred, I think you ought to be ashamed."

"Oh, fudge! Don't lecture me. What did Mary say about it?"

fudge - du caramel, fondant, caramel, fudge, balivernes, échappatoire

"I am not obliged to tell you. You care so very much what Mary says, and you are too rude to allow me to speak."

"Of course I care what Mary says. She is the best girl I know."

"I should never have thought she was a girl to fall in love with."

"How do you know what men would fall in love with? Girls never know."

"At least, Fred, let me advise you not to fall in love with her, for she says she would not marry you if you asked her."

"She might have waited till I did ask her."

"I knew it would nettle you, Fred."

nettle - l'ortie, ortie, piquer, irriter, vexer

"Not at all. She would not have said so if you had not provoked her." Before reaching home, Fred concluded that he would tell the whole affair as simply as possible to his father, who might perhaps take on himself the unpleasant business of speaking to Bulstrode.

provoked - provoquée, provoquer



1st Gent. How class your man?"as better than the most,

Or, seeming better, worse beneath that cloak?

beneath - dessous

cloak - cape, pelisse, pelerine

As saint or knave, pilgrim or hypocrite?

knave - chevalier, page, voyou, fourbe, valet

2d Gent. Nay, tell me how you class your wealth of books

The drifted relics of all time.

drifted - a la dérive, dérive, dériver, errer, dévier

As well sort them at once by size and livery:

livery - la livrée

Vellum, tall copies, and the common calf

vellum - vélin

Will hardly cover more diversity

diversity - la diversité, diversité

Than all your labels cunningly devised

cunningly - astucieusement, ingénieusement, d'une maniere rusée

devised - conçu, concevoir, élaborer

To class your unread authors.

In consequence of what he had heard from Fred, Mr. Vincy determined to speak with Mr. Bulstrode in his private room at the Bank at half-past one, when he was usually free from other callers. But a visitor had come in at one o'clock, and Mr. Bulstrode had so much to say to him, that there was little chance of the interview being over in half an hour.

callers - les appelants, téléphoneur, appelant

The banker's speech was fluent, but it was also copious, and he used up an appreciable amount of time in brief meditative pauses. Do not imagine his sickly aspect to have been of the yellow, black-haired sort: he had a pale blond skin, thin gray-besprinkled brown hair, light-gray eyes, and a large forehead.

fluent - fluide, parler couramment '(be fluent in)'

appreciable - appréciable

meditative - méditatif

pauses - des pauses, pauser, pause

haired - cheveux

forehead - front

Loud men called his subdued tone an undertone, and sometimes implied that it was inconsistent with openness; though there seems to be no reason why a loud man should not be given to concealment of anything except his own voice, unless it can be shown that Holy Writ has placed the seat of candor in the lungs. Mr.

implied - implicite, impliquer, insinuer, sous-entendre

concealment - dissimulation

holy - saint, sacré, bénit, checksainte

candor - la franchise, candeur

lungs - poumons, poumon

Bulstrode had also a deferential bending attitude in listening, and an apparently fixed attentiveness in his eyes which made those persons who thought themselves worth hearing infer that he was seeking the utmost improvement from their discourse. Others, who expected to make no great figure, disliked this kind of moral lantern turned on them.

deferential - déférent

attentiveness - l'attention

infer - déduire, inférer

discourse - discours, conversation, checkdiscussion, checkexposé

lantern - lanterne

If you are not proud of your cellar, there is no thrill of satisfaction in seeing your guest hold up his wine-glass to the light and look judicial. Such joys are reserved for conscious merit. Hence Mr. Bulstrode's close attention was not agreeable to the publicans and sinners in Middlemarch; it was attributed by some to his being a Pharisee, and by others to his being Evangelical.

cellar - cave

thrill - l'excitation, exciter

judicial - judiciaire

reserved - réservé, réservation, réserve, réserves-p

publicans - les publicains, patron/-onne de pub

sinners - pécheurs, pécheur, pécheresse

Pharisee - pharisien

Less superficial reasoners among them wished to know who his father and grandfather were, observing that five-and-twenty years ago nobody had ever heard of a Bulstrode in Middlemarch.

superficial - superficielle, superficiel

To his present visitor, Lydgate, the scrutinizing look was a matter of indifference: he simply formed an unfavorable opinion of the banker's constitution, and concluded that he had an eager inward life with little enjoyment of tangible things.

scrutinizing - l'examen minutieux, scruter, dépouiller

tangible - tangible, palpable

"I shall be exceedingly obliged if you will look in on me here occasionally, Mr. Lydgate," the banker observed, after a brief pause. "If, as I dare to hope, I have the privilege of finding you a valuable coadjutor in the interesting matter of hospital management, there will be many questions which we shall need to discuss in private.

privilege - privilege, privilege, privilégier

coadjutor - coadjuteur

As to the new hospital, which is nearly finished, I shall consider what you have said about the advantages of the special destination for fevers. The decision will rest with me, for though Lord Medlicote has given the land and timber for the building, he is not disposed to give his personal attention to the object."

fevers - des fievres, fievre

timber - le bois, bois de construction

"There are few things better worth the pains in a provincial town like this," said Lydgate. "A fine fever hospital in addition to the old infirmary might be the nucleus of a medical school here, when once we get our medical reforms; and what would do more for medical education than the spread of such schools over the country?

infirmary - l'infirmerie, infimerie, infirmerie

nucleus - noyau

reforms - des réformes, réforme, réformer

A born provincial man who has a grain of public spirit as well as a few ideas, should do what he can to resist the rush of everything that is a little better than common towards London. Any valid professional aims may often find a freer, if not a richer field, in the provinces."

resist - résister

valid - valable, valide

One of Lydgate's gifts was a voice habitually deep and sonorous, yet capable of becoming very low and gentle at the right moment. About his ordinary bearing there was a certain fling, a fearless expectation of success, a confidence in his own powers and integrity much fortified by contempt for petty obstacles or seductions of which he had had no experience.

sonorous - sonore

fling - flirt, brandir

fearless - sans peur, courageux, brave, intrépide

fortified - fortifié, fortifier, renforcer, supplémenter

obstacles - obstacles, obstacle

seductions - séductions, séduction

But this proud openness was made lovable by an expression of unaffected good-will. Mr. Bulstrode perhaps liked him the better for the difference between them in pitch and manners; he certainly liked him the better, as Rosamond did, for being a stranger in Middlemarch. One can begin so many things with a new person!"even begin to be a better man.

lovable - aimable, adorable

unaffected - non affectée, indifférent (a)

pitch - de l'emplacement, dresser

"I shall rejoice to furnish your zeal with fuller opportunities," Mr. Bulstrode answered; "I mean, by confiding to you the superintendence of my new hospital, should a maturer knowledge favor that issue, for I am determined that so great an object shall not be shackled by our two physicians.

rejoice - se réjouir, réjouir

superintendence - superintendance

maturer - plus mur, (mature) plus mur

physicians - médecins, médecin, femme médecin, docteur

Indeed, I am encouraged to consider your advent to this town as a gracious indication that a more manifest blessing is now to be awarded to my efforts, which have hitherto been much withstood. With regard to the old infirmary, we have gained the initial point"I mean your election.

indication - indication

manifest - manifeste, bordereau, profession de foi, proclamation

withstood - résisté, résister

initial point - point initial

And now I hope you will not shrink from incurring a certain amount of jealousy and dislike from your professional brethren by presenting yourself as a reformer."

"I will not profess bravery," said Lydgate, smiling, "but I acknowledge a good deal of pleasure in fighting, and I should not care for my profession, if I did not believe that better methods were to be found and enforced there as well as everywhere else."

bravery - la bravoure, courage

acknowledge - reconnaître, accuser réception, certifier

enforced - appliqué, renforcer, intensifier, imposer, obliger

"The standard of that profession is low in Middlemarch, my dear sir," said the banker. "I mean in knowledge and skill; not in social status, for our medical men are most of them connected with respectable townspeople here. My own imperfect health has induced me to give some attention to those palliative resources which the divine mercy has placed within our reach.

status - état, statut

townspeople - les habitants de la ville

induced - induite, induire

Palliative - palliatif

mercy - la pitié, miséricorde, pitié

I have consulted eminent men in the metropolis, and I am painfully aware of the backwardness under which medical treatment labors in our provincial districts."

consulted - consultée, concerter

metropolis - métropole

backwardness - le retard, arriération, retard

districts - districts, district, fr

"Yes;"with our present medical rules and education, one must be satisfied now and then to meet with a fair practitioner. As to all the higher questions which determine the starting-point of a diagnosis"as to the philosophy of medical evidence"any glimmering of these can only come from a scientific culture of which country practitioners have usually no more notion than the man in the moon."

diagnosis - diagnostic, diagnose

glimmering - scintillant, (glimmer), lueur, émettre une lueur

practitioners - praticiens, praticien

Mr. Bulstrode, bending and looking intently, found the form which Lydgate had given to his agreement not quite suited to his comprehension. Under such circumstances a judicious man changes the topic and enters on ground where his own gifts may be more useful.

intently - attentivement

"I am aware," he said, "that the peculiar bias of medical ability is towards material means. Nevertheless, Mr. Lydgate, I hope we shall not vary in sentiment as to a measure in which you are not likely to be actively concerned, but in which your sympathetic concurrence may be an aid to me. You recognize, I hope; the existence of spiritual interests in your patients?"

"Certainly I do. But those words are apt to cover different meanings to different minds."

"Precisely. And on such subjects wrong teaching is as fatal as no teaching. Now a point which I have much at heart to secure is a new regulation as to clerical attendance at the old infirmary. The building stands in Mr. Farebrother's parish. You know Mr. Farebrother?"

fatal - fatale, fatal

regulation - reglement, reglement, réglementation, régulation

"I have seen him. He gave me his vote. I must call to thank him. He seems a very bright pleasant little fellow. And I understand he is a naturalist."

naturalist - naturaliste

"Mr. Farebrother, my dear sir, is a man deeply painful to contemplate. I suppose there is not a clergyman in this country who has greater talents." Mr. Bulstrode paused and looked meditative.

"I have not yet been pained by finding any excessive talent in Middlemarch," said Lydgate, bluntly.

bluntly - sans détour, abruptement, a bruleourpoint, sans ménagement

"What I desire," Mr. Bulstrode continued, looking still more serious, "is that Mr. Farebrother's attendance at the hospital should be superseded by the appointment of a chaplain"of Mr. Tyke, in fact"and that no other spiritual aid should be called in."

superseded - remplacée, supplanter

chaplain - aumônier, chapelain

Tyke - tyke, bâtard

"As a medical man I could have no opinion on such a point unless I knew Mr. Tyke, and even then I should require to know the cases in which he was applied." Lydgate smiled, but he was bent on being circumspect.

circumspect - circonspect

"Of course you cannot enter fully into the merits of this measure at present. But""here Mr.

Bulstrode began to speak with a more chiselled emphasis""the subject is likely to be referred to the medical board of the infirmary, and what I trust I may ask of you is, that in virtue of the cooperation between us which I now look forward to, you will not, so far as you are concerned, be influenced by my opponents in this matter."

cooperation - coopération, coopérative

opponents - des opposants, adversaire

"I hope I shall have nothing to do with clerical disputes," said Lydgate. "The path I have chosen is to work well in my own profession."

disputes - litiges, dispute, litige, discuter, argumenter

"My responsibility, Mr. Lydgate, is of a broader kind. With me, indeed, this question is one of sacred accountableness; whereas with my opponents, I have good reason to say that it is an occasion for gratifying a spirit of worldly opposition. But I shall not therefore drop one iota of my convictions, or cease to identify myself with that truth which an evil generation hates.

broader - plus large, large

accountableness - l'obligation de rendre compte

opposition - l'opposition, opposition

iota - iota

evil - le mal, mauvais, torve

I have devoted myself to this object of hospital-improvement, but I will boldly confess to you, Mr. Lydgate, that I should have no interest in hospitals if I believed that nothing more was concerned therein than the cure of mortal diseases. I have another ground of action, and in the face of persecution I will not conceal it."

boldly - hardiment

Therein - dans

mortal - mortel, mortelle

Mr. Bulstrode's voice had become a loud and agitated whisper as he said the last words.

whisper - chuchotement, chuchoter, susurrer, murmurer

"There we certainly differ," said Lydgate. But he was not sorry that the door was now opened, and Mr. Vincy was announced. That florid sociable personage was become more interesting to him since he had seen Rosamond.

sociable - sociable

Not that, like her, he had been weaving any future in which their lots were united; but a man naturally remembers a charming girl with pleasure, and is willing to dine where he may see her again. Before He took leave, Mr.

weaving - le tissage, tissage, (weave) le tissage

charming girl - une fille charmante

He took leave - Il a pris congé

Vincy had given that invitation which he had been "in no hurry about," for Rosamond at breakfast had mentioned that she thought her uncle Featherstone had taken the new doctor into great favor.

Mr. Bulstrode, alone with his brother-in-law, poured himself out a glass of water, and opened a sandwich-box.

"I cannot persuade you to adopt my regimen, Vincy?"

adopt - adopter

regimen - régime

"No, no; I've no opinion of that system. Life wants padding," said Mr. Vincy, unable to omit his portable theory. "However," he went on, accenting the word, as if to dismiss all irrelevance, "what I came here to talk about was a little affair of my young scapegrace, Fred's."

omit - omettre

Portable - portable, portatif

accenting - l'accentuation, accent

dismiss - licencier

scapegrace - scapegrace

"That is a subject on which you and I are likely to take quite as different views as on diet, Vincy."

"I hope not this time." (Mr. Vincy was resolved to be good-humored.) "The fact is, it's about a whim of old Featherstone's. Somebody has been cooking up a story out of spite, and telling it to the old man, to try to set him against Fred.

resolved - résolu, prendre la résolution de

whim - caprice

He's very fond of Fred, and is likely to do something handsome for him; indeed he has as good as told Fred that he means to leave him his land, and that makes other people jealous."

"Vincy, I must repeat, that you will not get any concurrence from me as to the course you have pursued with your eldest son. It was entirely from worldly vanity that you destined him for the Church: with a family of three sons and four daughters, you were not warranted in devoting money to an expensive education which has succeeded in nothing but in giving him extravagant idle habits.

pursued - poursuivie, poursuivre, rechercher

You are now reaping the consequences."

reaping - moissonner, faucher

To point out other people's errors was a duty that Mr. Bulstrode rarely shrank from, but Mr. Vincy was not equally prepared to be patient.

shrank - s'est rétréci, se réduire, rétrécir, se resserrer

When a man has the immediate prospect of being mayor, and is ready, in the interests of commerce, to take up a firm attitude on politics generally, he has naturally a sense of his importance to the framework of things which seems to throw questions of private conduct into the background. And this particular reproof irritated him more than any other.

commerce - le commerce, commerce, rapports

framework - structure, cadre, checkcarcasse, checkcharpente

reproof - reproche, semonce

It was eminently superfluous to him to be told that he was reaping the consequences. But he felt his neck under Bulstrode's yoke; and though he usually enjoyed kicking, he was anxious to refrain from that relief.

eminently - éminemment

superfluous - superflue, superflu

yoke - joug

refrain - refrain

"As to that, Bulstrode, It's no use going back. I'm not one of your pattern men, and I don't pretend to be. I couldn't foresee everything in the trade; there wasn't a finer business in Middlemarch than ours, and the lad was clever.

It's no use - Ça ne sert a rien

wasn - n'était

lad - lad, garçon, gars, jeune homme, palefrenier

My poor brother was in the Church, and would have done well"had got preferment already, but that stomach fever took him off: else he might have been a dean by this time. I think I was justified in what I tried to do for Fred. If you come to religion, it seems to me a man shouldn't want to carve out his meat to an ounce beforehand:"one must trust a little to Providence and be generous.

preferment - Prématuration

dean - doyen

justified - justifiée, justifier

carve - sculpter

It's a good British feeling to try and raise your family a little: in my opinion, it's a father's duty to give his sons a fine chance."

"I don't wish to act otherwise than as your best friend, Vincy, when I say that what you have been uttering just now is one mass of worldliness and inconsistent folly."

uttering - prononcer, (utter) prononcer

worldliness - la mondanité

"Very well," said Mr. Vincy, kicking in spite of resolutions, "I never professed to be anything but worldly; and, what's more, I don't see anybody else who is not worldly. I suppose you don't conduct business on what you call unworldly principles. The only difference I see is that one worldliness is a little bit honester than another."

resolutions - résolutions, conviction, résolution, détermination

principles - principes, principe

"This kind of discussion is unfruitful, Vincy," said Mr. Bulstrode, who, finishing his sandwich, had thrown himself back in his chair, and shaded his eyes as if weary. "You had some more particular business."

unfruitful - infructueux

shaded - ombragée, alose

more particular - plus particulier

"Yes, yes. The long and short of it is, somebody has told old Featherstone, giving you as the authority, that Fred has been borrowing or trying to borrow money on the prospect of his land. Of course you never said any such nonsense.

But the old fellow will insist on it that Fred should bring him a denial in your handwriting; that is, just a bit of a note saying you don't believe a word of such stuff, either of his having borrowed or tried to borrow in such a fool's way. I suppose you can have no objection to do that."

denial - négation, dénégation, refus, déni, rejet

"Pardon me. I have an objection. I am by no means sure that your son, in his recklessness and ignorance"I will use no severer word"has not tried to raise money by holding out his future prospects, or even that some one may not have been foolish enough to supply him on so vague a presumption: there is plenty of such lax money-lending as of other folly in the world."

severer - plus sévere, rompre, trancher, sectionner

presumption - présomption

"But Fred gives me his honor that he has never borrowed money on the pretence of any understanding about his uncle's land. He is not a liar. I don't want to make him better than he is. I have blown him up well"nobody can say I wink at what he does. But he is not a liar.

liar - menteur, menteuse

wink at - Un clin d'oil

And I should have thought"but I may be wrong"that there was no religion to hinder a man from believing the best of a young fellow, when you don't know worse. It seems to me it would be a poor sort of religion to put a spoke in his wheel by refusing to say you don't believe such harm of him as you've got no good reason to believe."

"I am not at all sure that I should be befriending your son by smoothing his way to the future possession of Featherstone's property. I cannot regard wealth as a blessing to those who use it simply as a harvest for this world.

befriending - l'amitié, se lier d'amitié

You do not like to hear these things, Vincy, but on this occasion I feel called upon to tell you that I have no motive for furthering such a disposition of property as that which you refer to. I do not shrink from saying that it will not tend to your son's eternal welfare or to the glory of God.

Why then should you expect me to pen this kind of affidavit, which has no object but to keep up a foolish partiality and secure a foolish bequest?"

affidavit - affidavit, attestation sur l'honneur

partiality - partialité

bequest - legs

"If you mean to hinder everybody from having money but saints and evangelists, you must give up some profitable partnerships, that's all I can say," Mr. Vincy burst out very bluntly.

Saints - les saints, Saint

Evangelists - des évangélistes, évangéliste

profitable - profitable, fructueux, lucratif, rentable

partnerships - des partenariats, partenariat, compagnie, société

"It may be for the glory of God, but it is not for the glory of the Middlemarch trade, that Plymdale's house uses those blue and green dyes it gets from the Brassing manufactory; they rot the silk, that's all I know about it. Perhaps if other people knew so much of the profit went to the glory of God, they might like it better.

dyes - colorants, (se) teindre

Brassing - brassage, (de) laiton

manufactory - fabrication

rot - pourriture, pourrir

silk - soie

But I don't mind so much about that"I could get up a pretty row, if I chose."

I don't mind - Ça ne me dérange pas

Mr. Bulstrode paused a little before he answered. "You pain me very much by speaking in this way, Vincy. I do not expect you to understand my grounds of action"it is not an easy thing even to thread a path for principles in the intricacies of the world"still less to make the thread clear for the careless and the scoffing.

thread - fil, processus léger, exétron, fil de discussion, filer

Scoffing - moquerie, (scoff) moquerie

You must remember, if you please, that I stretch my tolerance towards you as my wife's brother, and that it little becomes you to complain of me as withholding material help towards the worldly position of your family. I must remind you that it is not your own prudence or judgment that has enabled you to keep your place in the trade."

stretch - étendre, s'étendre, s'étirer, étirement

tolerance - tolérance

enabled - activée, autoriser, permettre, activer

"Very likely not; but you have been no loser by my trade yet," said Mr. Vincy, thoroughly nettled (a result which was seldom much retarded by previous resolutions). "And when you married Harriet, I don't see how you could expect that our families should not hang by the same nail. If you've changed your mind, and want my family to come down in the world, you'd better say so.

loser - perdant, perdante

nettled - nettoyée, ortie, piquer, irriter, vexer

retarded - attardé, retard, retardé

I've never changed; I'm a plain Churchman now, just as I used to be before doctrines came up. I take the world as I find it, in trade and everything else. I'm contented to be no worse than my neighbors. But if you want us to come down in the world, say so. I shall know better what to do then."

Churchman - ecclésiastique

"You talk unreasonably. Shall you come down in the world for want of this letter about your son?"

unreasonably - de maniere déraisonnable

"Well, whether or not, I consider it very unhandsome of you to refuse it. Such doings may be lined with religion, but outside they have a nasty, dog-in-the-manger look. You might as well slander Fred: it comes pretty near to it when you refuse to say you didn't set a slander going.

unhandsome - pas beau

manger - mangeur, mangeoire

Slander - diffamation (orale), calomnie (orale), calomnier verbalement

It's this sort of thing"this tyrannical spirit, wanting to play bishop and banker everywhere"it's this sort of thing makes a man's name stink."

tyrannical - tyrannique

stink - puer, empester, puanteur, tapage

"Vincy, if you insist on quarrelling with me, it will be exceedingly painful to Harriet as well as myself," said Mr. Bulstrode, with a trifle more eagerness and paleness than usual.

quarrelling - des querelles, (quarrel) des querelles

trifle - bagatelle, broutille, babiole, bricole

paleness - pâleur

"I don't want to quarrel. It's for my interest"and perhaps for yours too"that we should be friends. I bear you no grudge; I think no worse of you than I do of other people.

grudge - rancune

A man who half starves himself, and goes the length in family prayers, and so on, that you do, believes in his religion whatever it may be: you could turn over your capital just as fast with cursing and swearing:"plenty of fellows do. You like to be master, There's no denying that; you must be first chop in heaven, else you won't like it much.

starves - meurt de faim, mourir de faim, crever de faim

cursing - maudissant, (curs) maudissant

swearing - jurant, (swear) jurant

There's no denying - On ne peut pas le nier

chop - chop, hacher

But you're my sister's husband, and we ought to stick together; and if I know Harriet, she'll consider it your fault if we quarrel because you strain at a gnat in this way, and refuse to do Fred a good turn. And I don't mean to say I shall bear it well. I consider it unhandsome."

Gnat - moucheron

Mr. Vincy rose, began to button his great-coat, and looked steadily at his brother-in-law, meaning to imply a demand for a decisive answer.

steadily - régulierement

imply - impliquer, insinuer, sous-entendre

This was not the first time that Mr. Bulstrode had begun by admonishing Mr. Vincy, and had ended by seeing a very unsatisfactory reflection of himself in the coarse unflattering mirror which that manufacturer's mind presented to the subtler lights and shadows of his fellow-men; and perhaps his experience ought to have warned him how the scene would end.

admonishing - l'admonestation, admonester, avertir, réprimander

unsatisfactory - insatisfaisant

unflattering - peu flatteuse

fellow-men - (fellow-men) camarades

But a full-fed fountain will be generous with its waters even in the rain, when they are worse than useless; and a fine fount of admonition is apt to be equally irrepressible.

fountain - fontaine

useless - inutile, inutilisable, bon a rien

It was not in Mr. Bulstrode's nature to comply directly in consequence of uncomfortable suggestions. Before changing his course, he always needed to shape his motives and bring them into accordance with his habitual standard. He said, at last"

comply - se conformer, respecter, acquiescer

accordance - accord, accordance

"I will reflect a little, Vincy. I will mention the subject to Harriet. I shall probably send you a letter."

"Very well. As soon as you can, please. I hope it will all be settled before I see you to-morrow."

settled - réglée, (s')installer


"Follows here the strict receipt

For that sauce to dainty meat,

dainty - délicate, délicat, mignon

Named Idleness, which many eat

idleness - l'oisiveté, oisiveté, inactivité, indolence, inutilité

By preference, and call it sweet:

First watch for morsels, like a hound

morsels - des bouchées, morceau

hound - chien de chasse, chien (de chasse)

Mix well with buffets, stir them round

buffets - des buffets, claque

stir - remuer, affecter

With good thick oil of flatteries, And froth with mean self-lauding lies.

flatteries - des flatteries, flatterie

froth - de l'écume, mousse, écume

lauding - laudatif, glorifier, célébrer, exalter

Serve warm: the vessels you must choose

vessels - navires, vaisseau, recipient

To keep it in are dead men's shoes."

Mr. Bulstrode's consultation of Harriet seemed to have had the effect desired by Mr. Vincy, for early the next morning a letter came which Fred could carry to Mr. Featherstone as the required testimony.

consultation - consultation

testimony - témoignage

The old gentleman was staying in bed on account of the cold weather, and as Mary Garth was not to be seen in the sitting-room, Fred went up-stairs immediately and presented the letter to his uncle, who, propped up comfortably on a bed-rest, was not less able than usual to enjoy his consciousness of wisdom in distrusting and frustrating mankind.

propped - étayé, support

bed-rest - (bed-rest) le repos au lit

distrusting - méfiance, défiance, se méfier

frustrating - frustrant, frustrer

He put on his spectacles to read the letter, pursing up his lips and drawing down their corners.

spectacles - lunettes, spectacle

pursing - poursuivre, bourse, portemonnaie, portefeuille, sac a main

"Under the circumstances I will not decline to state my conviction"tchah! what fine words the fellow puts! He's as fine as an auctioneer"that your son Frederic has not obtained any advance of money on bequests promised by Mr. Featherstone"promised? who said I had ever promised?

auctioneer - commissaire-priseur, commissaireriseur, enchérir

bequests - les legs, legs

I promise nothing"I shall make codicils as long as I like"and that considering the nature of such a proceeding, it is unreasonable to presume that a young man of sense and character would attempt it"ah, but the gentleman doesn't say you are a young man of sense and character, mark you that, sir!

unreasonable - déraisonnable

presume - présumer, supposer

"As to my own concern with any report of such a nature, I distinctly affirm that I never made any statement to the effect that your son had borrowed money on any property that might accrue to him on Mr. Featherstone's demise"Bless my heart! ˜property'"accrue"demise! Lawyer Standish is nothing to him. He couldn't speak finer if he wanted to borrow. Well," Mr.

concern - inquiétude, souci, soin, préoccupation, concerner

accrue - s'accumuler, accroître

demise - la fin, transfert, transmission, mort, chute, fin, échec

Bless my heart - Béni soit mon cour

Featherstone here looked over his spectacles at Fred, while he handed back the letter to him with a contemptuous gesture, "you don't suppose I believe a thing because Bulstrode writes it out fine, eh?"

contemptuous - méprisante, méprisant, dédaigneux, contempteur

gesture - geste, signe

Fred colored. "You wished to have the letter, sir. I should think it very likely that Mr. Bulstrode's denial is as good as the authority which told you what he denies."

denies - nie, nier, démentir, refuser

"Every bit. I never said I believed either one or the other. And now what d'you expect?" said Mr. Featherstone, curtly, keeping on his spectacles, but withdrawing his hands under his wraps.

keeping on - continuer

withdrawing - se retirer, (se) retirer

"I expect nothing, sir." Fred with difficulty restrained himself from venting his irritation. "I came to bring you the letter. If you like I will bid you good morning."

restrained - retenue, (se) contenir/retenir

venting - l'aération, (vent) l'aération

bid - offre, impératifs, prier

"Not yet, not yet. Ring the bell; I want missy to come."

It was a servant who came in answer to the bell.

"Tell missy to come!" said Mr. Featherstone, impatiently. "What business had she to go away?" He spoke in the same tone when Mary came.

impatiently - avec impatience

"Why couldn't you sit still here till I told you to go? I want my waistcoat now. I told you always to put it on the bed."

waistcoat - gilet

Mary's eyes looked rather red, as if she had been crying. It was clear that Mr. Featherstone was in one of his most snappish humors this morning, and though Fred had now the prospect of receiving the much-needed present of money, he would have preferred being free to turn round on the old tyrant and tell him that Mary Garth was too good to be at his beck.

snappish - snappish, harneux, hargneux

tyrant - tyran

beck - beck, au doigt et a l'oeil

Though Fred had risen as she entered the room, she had barely noticed him, and looked as if her nerves were quivering with the expectation that something would be thrown at her. But she never had anything worse than words to dread. When she went to reach the waistcoat from a peg, Fred went up to her and said, "Allow me."

quivering - tremblant, frémir

peg - piquet, cheville, porte-manteau, patere, cheviller, épingler

"Let it alone! You bring it, missy, and lay it down here," said Mr. Featherstone. "Now you go away again till I call you," he added, when the waistcoat was laid down by him. It was usual with him to season his pleasure in showing favor to one person by being especially disagreeable to another, and Mary was always at hand to furnish the condiment. When his own relatives came she was treated better.

condiment - condiment

Slowly he took out a bunch of keys from the waistcoat pocket, and slowly he drew forth a tin box which was under the bed-clothes.

"You expect I am going to give you a little fortune, eh?" he said, looking above his spectacles and pausing in the act of opening the lid.

pausing - une pause, (pause), pauser, pause

lid - couvercle

"Not at all, sir. You were good enough to speak of making me a present the other day, else, of course, I should not have thought of the matter." But Fred was of a hopeful disposition, and a vision had presented itself of a sum just large enough to deliver him from a certain anxiety.

sum - somme

When Fred got into debt, it always seemed to him highly probable that something or other"he did not necessarily conceive what"would come to pass enabling him to pay in due time.

conceive - concevoir, tomber enceinte

enabling - habilitant, autoriser, permettre, activer

And now that the providential occurrence was apparently close at hand, it would have been sheer absurdity to think that the supply would be short of the need: as absurd as a faith that believed in half a miracle for want of strength to believe in a whole one.

Occurrence - occurrence

sheer - transparent, pur

miracle - miracle

The deep-veined hands fingered many bank-notes one after the other, laying them down flat again, while Fred leaned back in his chair, scorning to look eager. He held himself to be a gentleman at heart, and did not like courting an old fellow for his money. At last, Mr.

veined - veiné, veine

scorning - mépris, (scorn), mépriser, dédaigner, dédain

Featherstone eyed him again over his spectacles and presented him with a little sheaf of notes: Fred could see distinctly that there were but five, as the less significant edges gaped towards him. But then, each might mean fifty pounds. He took them, saying"

sheaf - gerbe, faisceau, liasse

"I am very much obliged to you, sir," and was going to roll them up without seeming to think of their value. But this did not suit Mr. Featherstone, who was eying him intently.

"Come, don't you think it worth your while to count 'em? You take money like a lord; I suppose you lose it like one."

"I thought I was not to look a gift-horse in the mouth, sir. But I shall be very happy to count them."

Fred was not so happy, however, after he had counted them. For they actually presented the absurdity of being less than his hopefulness had decided that they must be. What can the fitness of things mean, if not their fitness to a man's expectations? Failing this, absurdity and atheism gape behind him.

atheism - l'athéisme, athéisme

gape - bayer, béer

The collapse for Fred was severe when he found that he held no more than five twenties, and his share in the higher education of this country did not seem to help him. Nevertheless he said, with rapid changes in his fair complexion"

collapse - l'effondrement, s'effondrer, effondrement

"It is very handsome of you, sir."

"I should think it is," said Mr. Featherstone, locking his box and replacing it, then taking off his spectacles deliberately, and at length, as if his inward meditation had more deeply convinced him, repeating, "I should think it handsome."

"I assure you, sir, I am very grateful," said Fred, who had had time to recover his cheerful air.

"So you ought to be. You want to cut a figure in the world, and I reckon Peter Featherstone is the only one you've got to trust to." Here the old man's eyes gleamed with a curiously mingled satisfaction in the consciousness that this smart young fellow relied upon him, and that the smart young fellow was rather a fool for doing so.

gleamed - brillait, luire

relied - s'est appuyé, compter sur

"Yes, indeed: I was not born to very splendid chances. Few men have been more cramped than I have been," said Fred, with some sense of surprise at his own virtue, considering how hardly he was dealt with.

splendid - splendide, fameux

cramped - a l'étroit, crampe

"It really seems a little too bad to have to ride a broken-winded hunter, and see men, who, are not half such good judges as yourself, able to throw away any amount of money on buying bad bargains."

winded - essoufflé

Hunter - hunter, chasseur, chien de chasse, cheval de chasse, chercheur

bargains - des bonnes affaires, accord, affaire, bonne affaire, marchander

"Well, you can buy yourself a fine hunter now. Eighty pound is enough for that, I reckon"and you'll have twenty pound over to get yourself out of any little scrape," said Mr. Featherstone, chuckling slightly.

chuckling - rires, (chuckle) rires

"You are very good, sir," said Fred, with a fine sense of contrast between the words and his feeling.

"Ay, rather a better uncle than your fine uncle Bulstrode. You won't get much out of his spekilations, I think. He's got a pretty strong string round your father's leg, by what I hear, eh?"

spekilations - les discours

"My father never tells me anything about his affairs, sir."

"Well, he shows some sense there. But other people find 'em out without his telling. He'll never have much to leave you: he'll most-like die without a will"he's the sort of man to do it"let 'em make him mayor of Middlemarch as much as they like. But you won't get much by his dying without a will, though you are the eldest son."

Fred thought that Mr. Featherstone had never been so disagreeable before. True, he had never before given him quite so much money at once.

"Shall I destroy this letter of Mr. Bulstrode's, sir?" said Fred, rising with the letter as if he would put it in the fire.

"Ay, ay, I don't want it. It's worth no money to me."

Fred carried the letter to the fire, and thrust the poker through it with much zest. He longed to get out of the room, but he was a little ashamed before his inner self, as well as before his uncle, to run away immediately after pocketing the money.

poker - poker, tisonnier

zest - entrain, zeste

Presently, the farm-bailiff came up to give his master a report, and Fred, to his unspeakable relief, was dismissed with the injunction to come again soon.

bailiff - huissier, huissier de justice

unspeakable - innommable

dismissed - licencié, renvoyer, limoger, licencier, démettre

injunction - injonction

He had longed not only to be set free from his uncle, but also to find Mary Garth. She was now in her usual place by the fire, with sewing in her hands and a book open on the little table by her side. Her eyelids had lost some of their redness now, and she had her usual air of self-command.

sewing - cousant, suture, (sew) cousant

redness - rougeur

"Am I wanted up-stairs?" she said, half rising as Fred entered.

"No; I am only dismissed, because Simmons is gone up."

Mary sat down again, and resumed her work. She was certainly treating him with more indifference than usual: she did not know how affectionately indignant he had felt on her behalf up-stairs.

affectionately - affectueusement

indignant - indigné

"May I stay here a little, Mary, or shall I bore you?"

"Pray sit down," said Mary; "you will not be so heavy a bore as Mr. John Waule, who was here yesterday, and he sat down without asking my leave."

"Poor fellow! I think he is in love with you."

"I am not aware of it. And to me it is one of the most odious things in a girl's life, that there must always be some supposition of falling in love coming between her and any man who is kind to her, and to whom she is grateful. I should have thought that I, at least, might have been safe from all that.

supposition - hypothese, supposition, conjecture

I have no ground for the nonsensical vanity of fancying everybody who comes near me is in love with me."

Mary did not mean to betray any feeling, but in spite of herself she ended in a tremulous tone of vexation.

tremulous - tremblant

"Confound John Waule! I did not mean to make you angry. I didn't know you had any reason for being grateful to me. I forgot what a great service you think it if any one snuffs a candle for you." Fred also had his pride, and was not going to show that he knew what had called forth this outburst of Mary's.

snuffs - les tabacs a priser, tabac a priser

candle - bougie, chandelle

outburst - explosion, transport

"Oh, I am not angry, except with the ways of the world. I do like to be spoken to as if I had common-sense. I really often feel as if I could understand a little more than I ever hear even from young gentlemen who have been to college." Mary had recovered, and she spoke with a suppressed rippling under-current of laughter pleasant to hear.

suppressed - supprimée, contenir, fr

rippling - ondulation, (ripple) ondulation

"I don't care how merry you are at my expense this morning," said Fred, "I thought you looked so sad when you came up-stairs. It is a shame you should stay here to be bullied in that way."

bullied - harcelés, brimeur, brute, tyran, intimider, tourmenter

"Oh, I have an easy life"by comparison. I have tried being a teacher, and I am not fit for that: my mind is too fond of wandering on its own way. I think any hardship is better than pretending to do what one is paid for, and never really doing it. Everything here I can do as well as any one else could; perhaps better than some"Rosy, for example.

hardship - difficultés, misere

Though she is just the sort of beautiful creature that is imprisoned with ogres in fairy tales."

imprisoned - emprisonné, emprisonner, mettre en prison

ogres - ogres, (ogre), ogre

fairy - fée, tapette, folle

tales - contes, conte, récit

"Rosy!" cried Fred, in a tone of profound brotherly scepticism.

brotherly - fraternel

scepticism - scepticisme

"Come, Fred!" said Mary, emphatically; "you have no right to be so critical."

"Do you mean anything particular"just now?"

"No, I mean something general"always."

"Oh, that I am idle and extravagant. Well, I am not fit to be a poor man. I should not have made a bad fellow if I had been rich."

"You would have done your duty in that state of life to which it has not pleased God to call you," said Mary, laughing.

"Well, I couldn't do my duty as a clergyman, any more than you could do yours as a governess. You ought to have a little fellow-feeling there, Mary."

"I never said you ought to be a clergyman. There are other sorts of work. It seems to me very miserable not to resolve on some course and act accordingly."

"So I could, if"" Fred broke off, and stood up, leaning against the mantel-piece.

leaning - penchant, adossant, (lean) penchant

"If you were sure you should not have a fortune?"

"I did not say that. You want to quarrel with me. It is too bad of you to be guided by what other people say about me."

"How can I want to quarrel with you? I should be quarrelling with all my new books," said Mary, lifting the volume on the table. "However naughty you may be to other people, you are good to me."

"Because I like you better than any one else. But I know you despise me."

despise - mépriser, dédaigner

"Yes, I do"a little," said Mary, nodding, with a smile.

"You would admire a stupendous fellow, who would have wise opinions about everything."

stupendous - stupéfiante

"Yes, I should." Mary was sewing swiftly, and seemed provokingly mistress of the situation. When a conversation has taken a wrong turn for us, we only get farther and farther into the swamp of awkwardness. This was what Fred Vincy felt.

provokingly - de maniere provocante

swamp - marécage, marais, submerger

"I suppose a woman is never in love with any one she has always known"ever since she can remember; as a man often is. It is always some new fellow who strikes a girl."

strikes - greves, biffer, rayer, barrer, frapper, battre

"Let me see," said Mary, the corners of her mouth curling archly; "I must go back on my experience. There is Juliet"she seems an example of what you say.

curling - le curling, curling, (curl), boucle, rotationnel, boucler

archly - archaique, malicieusement

But then Ophelia had probably known Hamlet a long while; and Brenda Troil"she had known Mordaunt Merton ever since they were children; but then he seems to have been an estimable young man; and Minna was still more deeply in love with Cleveland, who was a stranger. Waverley was new to Flora MacIvor; but then she did not fall in love with him.

hamlet - hameau

estimable - estimable

Cleveland - cleveland

Flora - flora, flore, flore intestinale

And there are Olivia and Sophia Primrose, and Corinne"they may be said to have fallen in love with new men. Altogether, my experience is rather mixed."

Primrose - primrose, primevere

Mary looked up with some roguishness at Fred, and that look of hers was very dear to him, though the eyes were nothing more than clear windows where observation sat laughingly.

roguishness - diablerie

He was certainly an affectionate fellow, and as he had grown from boy to man, he had grown in love with his old playmate, notwithstanding that share in the higher education of the country which had exalted his views of rank and income.

playmate - compagnon de jeu, compagnon de jeux, playmate

"When a man is not loved, it is no use for him to say that he could be a better fellow"could do anything"I mean, if he were sure of being loved in return."

"Not of the least use in the world for him to say he could be better. Might, could, would"they are contemptible auxiliaries."

contemptible - méprisable

auxiliaries - auxiliaires, auxiliaire

"I don't see how a man is to be good for much unless he has some one woman to love him dearly."

"I think the goodness should come before he expects that."

"You know better, Mary. Women don't love men for their goodness."

"Perhaps not. But if they love them, they never think them bad."

"It is hardly fair to say I am bad."

"I said nothing at all about you."

"I never shall be good for anything, Mary, if you will not say that you love me"if you will not promise to marry me"I mean, when I am able to marry."

"If I did love you, I would not marry you: I would certainly not promise ever to marry you."

"I think that is quite wicked, Mary. If you love me, you ought to promise to marry me."

"On the contrary, I think it would be wicked in me to marry you even if I did love you."

"You mean, just as I am, without any means of maintaining a wife. Of course: I am but three-and-twenty."

maintaining - le maintien, entretenir, maintenir

"In that last point you will alter. But I am not so sure of any other alteration. My father says an idle man ought not to exist, much less, be married."

"Then I am to blow my brains out?"

"No; on the whole I should think you would do better to pass your examination. I have heard Mr. Farebrother say it is disgracefully easy."

examination - l'examen, examen

disgracefully - honteusement

"That is all very fine. Anything is easy to him. Not that cleverness has anything to do with it. I am ten times cleverer than many men who pass."

"Dear me!" said Mary, unable to repress her sarcasm; "that accounts for the curates like Mr. Crowse. Divide your cleverness by ten, and the quotient"dear me!"is able to take a degree. But that only shows you are ten times more idle than the others."

repress - réprimer

sarcasm - sarcasme

curates - conservateurs, vicaire

quotient - quotient

"Well, if I did pass, you would not want me to go into the Church?"

"That is not the question"what I want you to do. You have a conscience of your own, I suppose. There! there is Mr. Lydgate. I must go and tell my uncle."

"Mary," said Fred, seizing her hand as she rose; "if you will not give me some encouragement, I shall get worse instead of better."

seizing - la saisie, emparant, (seize), saisir, emparer

"I will not give you any encouragement," said Mary, reddening. "Your friends would dislike it, and so would mine. My father would think it a disgrace to me if I accepted a man who got into debt, and would not work!"

disgrace - la disgrâce, honte, disgrâce, ignominie

Fred was stung, and released her hand. She walked to the door, but there she turned and said: "Fred, you have always been so good, so generous to me. I am not ungrateful. But never speak to me in that way again."

stung - piqué, piquant, dard

"Very well," said Fred, sulkily, taking up his hat and whip. His complexion showed patches of pale pink and dead white. Like many a plucked idle young gentleman, he was thoroughly in love, and with a plain girl, who had no money! But having Mr. Featherstone's land in the background, and a persuasion that, let Mary say what she would, she really did care for him, Fred was not utterly in despair.

patches - des correctifs, piece, rustine

plucked - plumé, tirer, pincer, plumer, voler, abats-p, persévérance

When he got home, he gave four of the twenties to his mother, asking her to keep them for him. "I don't want to spend that money, mother. I want it to pay a debt with. So keep it safe away from my fingers."

"Bless you, my dear," said Mrs. Vincy. She doted on her eldest son and her youngest girl (a child of six), whom others thought her two naughtiest children. The mother's eyes are not always deceived in their partiality: she at least can best judge who is the tender, filial-hearted child. And Fred was certainly very fond of his mother.

doted - dodu, point

naughtiest - le plus vilain, malicieux, malin, méchant, vilain, risqué

filial - filial

Perhaps it was his fondness for another person also that made him particularly anxious to take some security against his own liability to spend the hundred pounds. For the creditor to whom he owed a hundred and sixty held a firmer security in the shape of a bill signed by Mary's father.

fondness - l'affection, affection

creditor - créancier, créanciere

owed - du, devoir

firmer - plus ferme, (firm) plus ferme


"Black eyes you have left, you say,

Blue eyes fail to draw you;

Yet you seem more rapt to-day,

rapt - rapt, captivé, absorbé, fasciné, ravi

Than of old we saw you.

"Oh, I track the fairest fair

Through new haunts of pleasure;

haunts - hunts, hanter, demeurer, point de rencontre

Footprints here and echoes there

footprints - empreintes de pas, empreinte de pied, empreinte écologique

Echoes - les échos, écho

Guide me to my treasure:

treasure - trésor, garder précieusement

"Lo! she turns"immortal youth

Wrought to mortal stature,

Fresh as starlight's aged truth"

starlight - la lumiere des étoiles, lumiere des étoiles, lumiere d'étoile

Many-namèd Nature!"

A great historian, as he insisted on calling himself, who had the happiness to be dead a hundred and twenty years ago, and so to take his place among the colossi whose huge legs our living pettiness is observed to walk under, glories in his copious remarks and digressions as the least imitable part of his work, and especially in those initial chapters to the successive books of his history, where he seems to bring his armchair to the proscenium and chat with us in all the lusty ease of his fine English. But Fielding lived when the days were longer (for time, like money, is measured by our needs), when summer afternoons were spacious, and the clock ticked slowly in the winter evenings. We belated historians must not linger after his example; and if we did so, it is probable that our chat would be thin and eager, as if delivered from a campstool in a parrot-house. I at least have so much to do in unraveling certain human lots, and seeing how they were woven and interwoven, that all the light I can command must be concentrated on this particular web, and not dispersed over that tempting range of relevancies called the universe.

colossi - colossi, colosse

pettiness - la mesquinerie

digressions - des digressions, digression

imitable - imitable

initial - initial, lettrine, initiale, premiere lettre, parapher

successive - successifs

armchair - fauteuil, chaise bourrée

lusty - lascive

spacious - spacieux, ample, grand, logeable

ticked - tiquée, tic-tac

historians - les historiens, historien, historienne

linger - s'attarder, s'installer, stagner, s'incruster, s'éteindre

campstool - campstool

parrot - perroquet, perroqueter, perrucher

unraveling - s'effilocher, dénouer, démeler, résoudre

interwoven - entrelacés, entrelacer

tempting - tentant, (tempt), tenter, attirer

relevancies - pertinence

At present I have to make the new settler Lydgate better known to any one interested in him than he could possibly be even to those who had seen the most of him since his arrival in Middlemarch.

settler - colon

For surely all must admit that a man may be puffed and belauded, envied, ridiculed, counted upon as a tool and fallen in love with, or at least selected as a future husband, and yet remain virtually unknown"known merely as a cluster of signs for his neighbors'false suppositions.

puffed - soufflé, souffle, bouffée

envied - envié, envie, jalousie, convoitise, envier

ridiculed - ridiculisé, tourner en ridicule

selected - sélectionné, sélect, choisir, sélectionner

virtually - pratiquement, virtuellement

suppositions - des suppositions, hypothese, supposition, conjecture

There was a general impression, however, that Lydgate was not altogether a common country doctor, and in Middlemarch at that time such an impression was significant of great things being expected from him. For everybody's family doctor was remarkably clever, and was understood to have immeasurable skill in the management and training of the most skittish or vicious diseases.

family doctor - médecin de famille

immeasurable - incommensurable

skittish - sceptique, timide

vicious - rench: t-needed r, vicieux

The evidence of his cleverness was of the higher intuitive order, lying in his lady-patients'immovable conviction, and was unassailable by any objection except that their intuitions were opposed by others equally strong; each lady who saw medical truth in Wrench and "the strengthening treatment" regarding Toller and "the lowering system" as medical perdition.

intuitive - intuitif

immovable - inamovible, immeuble

unassailable - inattaquable

intuitions - des intuitions, intuition

opposed - opposée, s'opposer a, opposer

regarding - concernant, considérer

perdition - la perdition, enfer

For the heroic times of copious bleeding and blistering had not yet departed, still less the times of thorough-going theory, when disease in general was called by some bad name, and treated accordingly without shilly-shally"as if, for example, it were to be called insurrection, which must not be fired on with blank-cartridge, but have its blood drawn at once.

bleeding - des saignements, saignant, saignement

blistering - des cloques, ampoule, cloque, boursouflure, phlyctene

departed - parti, partir, s’en aller, dévier, quitter

thorough - approfondi, minutieux, soigné, exhaustif

shally - shally

insurrection - l'insurrection, insurrection

blank-cartridge - (blank-cartridge) cartouche a blanc

The strengtheners and the lowerers were all "clever" men in somebody's opinion, which is really as much as can be said for any living talents. Nobody's imagination had gone so far as to conjecture that Mr. Lydgate could know as much as Dr. Sprague and Dr. Minchin, the two physicians, who alone could offer any hope when danger was extreme, and when the smallest hope was worth a guinea.

lowerers - les plus faibles

Still, I repeat, there was a general impression that Lydgate was something rather more uncommon than any general practitioner in Middlemarch. And this was true.

general practitioner - médecin généraliste

He was but seven-and-twenty, an age at which many men are not quite common"at which they are hopeful of achievement, resolute in avoidance, thinking that Mammon shall never put a bit in their mouths and get astride their backs, but rather that Mammon, if they have anything to do with him, shall draw their chariot.

resolute - résolu, résolue, ferme, déterminé

avoidance - l'évitement, évitement

Mammon - Mammon

astride - a califourchon, a califourchon, a califourchon sur

chariot - chariot, char (de guerre), charriot

He had been left an orphan when he was fresh from a public school. His father, a military man, had made but little provision for three children, and when the boy Tertius asked to have a medical education, it seemed easier to his guardians to grant his request by apprenticing him to a country practitioner than to make any objections on the score of family dignity.

orphan - orphelin, orpheline

military - militaire (1, 2), armée, troupes

provision - disposition, provision, provisionner

guardians - gardiens, gardien, tuteur, tutrice, curateur, curatrice

Grant - la subvention, accorder, admettre

apprenticing - l'apprentissage, apprenti

He was one of the rarer lads who early get a decided bent and make up their minds that there is something particular in life which they would like to do for its own sake, and not because their fathers did it.

lads - les gars, garçon, gars, jeune homme, palefrenier

Most of us who turn to any subject with love remember some morning or evening hour when we got on a high stool to reach down an untried volume, or sat with parted lips listening to a new talker, or for very lack of books began to listen to the voices within, as the first traceable beginning of our love. Something of that sort happened to Lydgate.

untried - non testé

talker - Parleur

He was a quick fellow, and when hot from play, would toss himself in a corner, and in five minutes be deep in any sort of book that he could lay his hands on: if it were Rasselas or Gulliver, so much the better, but Bailey's Dictionary would do, or the Bible with the Apocrypha in it. Something he must read, when he was not riding the pony, or running and hunting, or listening to the talk of men.

Gulliver - Gulliver

All this was true of him at ten years of age; he had then read through "Chrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea," which was neither milk for babes, nor any chalky mixture meant to pass for milk, and it had already occurred to him that books were stuff, and that life was stupid.

chalky - plâtreux, crétacé

His school studies had not much modified that opinion, for though he "did" his classics and mathematics, he was not pre-eminent in them. It was said of him, that Lydgate could do anything he liked, but he had certainly not yet liked to do anything remarkable.

modified - modifié, modifier

He was a vigorous animal with a ready understanding, but no spark had yet kindled in him an intellectual passion; knowledge seemed to him a very superficial affair, easily mastered: judging from the conversation of his elders, he had apparently got already more than was necessary for mature life.

spark - l'étincelle, flammeche, étincelle

kindled - enflammé, allumer, enflammer

intellectual - intellectuel, intellectuelle, intello

elders - les aînés, aîné

mature - mature, pruine, mur

Probably this was not an exceptional result of expensive teaching at that period of short-waisted coats, and other fashions which have not yet recurred. But, one vacation, a wet day sent him to the small home library to hunt once more for a book which might have some freshness for him: in vain!

waisted - taille, ceinture

recurred - s'est-elle reproduite, se reproduire

freshness - fraîcheur

unless, indeed, he took down a dusty row of volumes with gray-paper backs and dingy labels"the volumes of an old Cyclopaedia which he had never disturbed. It would at least be a novelty to disturb them. They were on the highest shelf, and he stood on a chair to get them down.

dusty - poussiéreux

dingy - terne, miteux

Cyclopaedia - cyclopaedia

disturbed - perturbé, déranger, perturber, gener

But he opened the volume which he first took from the shelf: somehow, one is apt to read in a makeshift attitude, just where it might seem inconvenient to do so. The page he opened on was under the head of Anatomy, and the first passage that drew his eyes was on the valves of the heart.

makeshift - de fortune

valves - des soupapes, clapet, soupape, valvule

He was not much acquainted with valves of any sort, but he knew that valvae were folding-doors, and through this crevice came a sudden light startling him with his first vivid notion of finely adjusted mechanism in the human frame.

folding-doors - (folding-doors) des portes en accordéon

crevice - crevasse, fissure

mechanism - mécanisme

A liberal education had of course left him free to read the indecent passages in the school classics, but beyond a general sense of secrecy and obscenity in connection with his internal structure, had left his imagination quite unbiassed, so that for anything he knew his brains lay in small bags at his temples, and he had no more thought of representing to himself how his blood circulated than how paper served instead of gold. But the moment of vocation had come, and before he got down from his chair, the world was made new to him by a presentiment of endless processes filling the vast spaces planked out of his sight by that wordy ignorance which he had supposed to be knowledge. From that hour Lydgate felt the growth of an intellectual passion.

secrecy - le secret, secret, secrétisme

obscenity - obscénité

internal - interne

temples - temples, temple

circulated - diffusée, circuler

planked - planchéié, planche, gainage

wordy - verbeux

We are not afraid of telling over and over again how a man comes to fall in love with a woman and be wedded to her, or else be fatally parted from her.

Is it due to excess of poetry or of stupidity that we are never weary of describing what King James called a woman's "makdom and her fairnesse," never weary of listening to the twanging of the old Troubadour strings, and are comparatively uninterested in that other kind of "makdom and fairnesse" which must be wooed with industrious thought and patient renunciation of small desires?

excess - l'exces, exces, franchise, en exces, en trop, excessif

fairnesse - fairnesse

twanging - le twanging, sonore, (twang) le twanging

troubadour - troubadour, trouvere, trobairitz, troubadouresse

comparatively - comparativement

wooed - courtisé, faire la cour (a)

industrious - industrieux

desires - désirs, désirer, désir

In the story of this passion, too, the development varies: sometimes it is the glorious marriage, sometimes frustration and final parting. And not seldom the catastrophe is bound up with the other passion, sung by the Troubadours.

varies - varie, varier

frustration - frustration

catastrophe - catastrophe

Troubadours - troubadours, troubadour, trouvere, trobairitz, troubadouresse

For in the multitude of middle-aged men who go about their vocations in a daily course determined for them much in the same way as the tie of their cravats, there is always a good number who once meant to shape their own deeds and alter the world a little.

multitude - multitude

vocations - vocations, vocation

cravats - des cravates, foulard

The story of their coming to be shapen after the average and fit to be packed by the gross, is hardly ever told even in their consciousness; for perhaps their ardor in generous unpaid toil cooled as imperceptibly as the ardor of other youthful loves, till one day their earlier self walked like a ghost in its old home and made the new furniture ghastly.

Gross - brut, dégoutant, dégueulasse, grossier, grossiere, grosse

imperceptibly - imperceptiblement

ghastly - épouvantable, effrayant, affreux, horrible

Nothing in the world more subtle than the process of their gradual change! In the beginning they inhaled it unknowingly: you and I may have sent some of our breath towards infecting them, when we uttered our conforming falsities or drew our silly conclusions: or perhaps it came with the vibrations from a woman's glance.

gradual - graduelle, graduel

inhaled - inhalé, inspirer, aspirer, inhaler, ingurgiter

unknowingly - sans le savoir

infecting - infecter

conforming - conforme, s'aligner, se conformer (a)

vibrations - des vibrations, vibration

Lydgate did not mean to be one of those failures, and there was the better hope of him because his scientific interest soon took the form of a professional enthusiasm: he had a youthful belief in his bread-winning work, not to be stifled by that initiation in makeshift called his 'prentice days; and he carried to his studies in London, Edinburgh, and Paris, the conviction that the medical profession as it might be was the finest in the world; presenting the most perfect interchange between science and art; offering the most direct alliance between intellectual conquest and the social good. Lydgate's nature demanded this combination: he was an emotional creature, with a flesh-and-blood sense of fellowship which withstood all the abstractions of special study. He cared not only for "cases," but for John and Elizabeth, especially Elizabeth.

failures - les échecs, échec, daube, flop, panne

prentice - prentice

Edinburgh - édimbourg

medical profession - la profession médicale

most perfect - le plus parfait

interchange - échange, échangeur autoroutier, échangeur routier, échangeur

offering - offre, offrande, (offer)

alliance - l'alliance, alliance

conquest - conquete, conquete

abstractions - abstractions, abstraction

There was another attraction in his profession: it wanted reform, and gave a man an opportunity for some indignant resolve to reject its venal decorations and other humbug, and to be the possessor of genuine though undemanded qualifications.

venal - vénal

decorations - décorations, décoration

possessor - possesseur, possessrice

genuine - authentique

undemanded - non demandée

He went to study in Paris with the determination that when he came home again he would settle in some provincial town as a general practitioner, and resist the irrational severance between medical and surgical knowledge in the interest of his own scientific pursuits, as well as of the general advance: he would keep away from the range of London intrigues, jealousies, and social truckling, and win celebrity, however slowly, as Jenner had done, by the independent value of his work. For it must be remembered that this was a dark period; and in spite of venerable colleges which used great efforts to secure purity of knowledge by making it scarce, and to exclude error by a rigid exclusiveness in relation to fees and appointments, it happened that very ignorant young gentlemen were promoted in town, and many more got a legal right to practise over large areas in the country. Also, the high standard held up to the public mind by the College of Physicians, which gave its peculiar sanction to the expensive and highly rarefied medical instruction obtained by graduates of Oxford and Cambridge, did not hinder quackery from having an excellent time of it; for since professional practice chiefly consisted in giving a great many drugs, the public inferred that it might be better off with more drugs still, if they could only be got cheaply, and hence swallowed large cubic measures of physic prescribed by unscrupulous ignorance which had taken no degrees. Considering that statistics had not yet embraced a calculation as to the number of ignorant or canting doctors which absolutely must exist in the teeth of all changes, it seemed to Lydgate that a change in the units was the most direct mode of changing the numbers. He meant to be a unit who would make a certain amount of difference towards that spreading change which would one day tell appreciably upon the averages, and in the mean time have the pleasure of making an advantageous difference to the viscera of his own patients. But he did not simply aim at a more genuine kind of practice than was common. He was ambitious of a wider effect: he was fired with the possibility that he might work out the proof of an anatomical conception and make a link in the chain of discovery.

resist - résister, s'opposer, rejeter, dégouter, vernis

irrational - irrationnel

surgical - chirurgicale

pursuits - des activités, poursuite

keep away - garder a l'écart

intrigues - intrigues, intrigue, intriguer, conspirer

jealousies - des jalousies, jalousie, envie

truckling - le camionnage, (truckle) le camionnage

scarce - rare

exclude - exclure

rigid - rigide

exclusiveness - l'exclusivité

fees - honoraires, tarif

sanction - approbation, validation, sanction, décret, autoriser, ratifier

Oxford - oxford

cubic - cubique

unscrupulous - sans scrupules

embraced - embrassée, étreindre, embrasser, accolade

calculation - calcul

canting - le canting, (cant) le canting

appreciably - de maniere appréciable

advantageous - avantageux

anatomical - anatomique

Does it seem incongruous to you that a Middlemarch surgeon should dream of himself as a discoverer? Most of us, indeed, know little of the great originators until they have been lifted up among the constellations and already rule our fates.

incongruous - incongru

Discoverer - découvreur

originators - les initiateurs, demandeur, expéditeur

constellations - constellations, constellation

fates - des destins, destin, destinée, sort

But that Herschel, for example, who "broke the barriers of the heavens""did he not once play a provincial church-organ, and give music-lessons to stumbling pianists?

barriers - barrieres, barriere, limite, frontiere

heavens - les cieux, ciel, paradis, au-dela, cieux-p

stumbling - trébucher, chute, faux pas, bourde

pianists - pianistes, pianiste

Each of those Shining Ones had to walk on the earth among neighbors who perhaps thought much more of his gait and his garments than of anything which was to give him a title to everlasting fame: each of them had his little local personal history sprinkled with small temptations and sordid cares, which made the retarding friction of his course towards final companionship with the immortals.

everlasting - éternel, permanent

sprinkled - saupoudré, saupoudrer, asperger

retarding - retarder, retard, retardé, attardé

friction - frottement, friction, désaccord

immortals - immortels, immortel, inoubliable

Lydgate was not blind to the dangers of such friction, but he had plenty of confidence in his resolution to avoid it as far as possible: being seven-and-twenty, he felt himself experienced.

And he was not going to have his vanities provoked by contact with the showy worldly successes of the capital, but to live among people who could hold no rivalry with that pursuit of a great idea which was to be a twin object with the assiduous practice of his profession.

vanities - vanités, vanité

showy - voyante, tape-a-l’oil

rivalry - rivalité

assiduous - assidu

There was fascination in the hope that the two purposes would illuminate each other: the careful observation and inference which was his daily work, the use of the lens to further his judgment in special cases, would further his thought as an instrument of larger inquiry. Was not this the typical pre-eminence of his profession?

inference - inférence, déduction

special cases - des cas particuliers

eminence - éminence

He would be a good Middlemarch doctor, and by that very means keep himself in the track of far-reaching investigation.

investigation - enquete, investigation

On one point he may fairly claim approval at this particular stage of his career: he did not mean to imitate those philanthropic models who make a profit out of poisonous pickles to support themselves while they are exposing adulteration, or hold shares in a gambling-hell that they may have leisure to represent the cause of public morality.

imitate - imiter

pickles - des cornichons, marinade(s)

exposing - exposer, dénoncer

adulteration - adultération, sophistication

hell - l'enfer, enfer

morality - moralité

He intended to begin in his own case some particular reforms which were quite certainly within his reach, and much less of a problem than the demonstrating of an anatomical conception. One of these reforms was to act stoutly on the strength of a recent legal decision, and simply prescribe, without dispensing drugs or taking percentage from druggists.

demonstrating - la démonstration, démontrer, manifester

stoutly - avec acharnement

legal decision - décision juridique

prescribe - prescrire, indiquer, ordonner

dispensing - la distribution, émettre, distribuer, partager, dispenser

This was an innovation for one who had chosen to adopt the style of general practitioner in a country town, and would be felt as offensive criticism by his professional brethren. But Lydgate meant to innovate in his treatment also, and he was wise enough to see that the best security for his practising honestly according to his belief was to get rid of systematic temptations to the contrary.

innovation - l'innovation, innovation

innovate - innover

honestly - honnetement, honnetement, franchement

systematic - systématique

Perhaps that was a more cheerful time for observers and theorizers than the present; we are apt to think it the finest era of the world when America was beginning to be discovered, when a bold sailor, even if he were wrecked, might alight on a new kingdom; and about 1829 the dark territories of Pathology were a fine America for a spirited young adventurer.

era - l'époque, ere, période, époque

bold - audacieux, gros, épais

Kingdom - royaume, regne

territories - territoires, territoire

pathology - pathologie

adventurer - aventurier, aventuriere

Lydgate was ambitious above all to contribute towards enlarging the scientific, rational basis of his profession.

contribute - contribuer

enlarging - l'élargissement, agrandir, élargir, accroître

The more he became interested in special questions of disease, such as the nature of fever or fevers, the more keenly he felt the need for that fundamental knowledge of structure which just at the beginning of the century had been illuminated by the brief and glorious career of Bichat, who died when he was only one-and-thirty, but, like another Alexander, left a realm large enough for many heirs.

illuminated - éclairé, illuminer

Alexander - alexandre

realm - domaine, royaume

heirs - héritiers, héritier, héritiere, successeur, successeuse

That great Frenchman first carried out the conception that living bodies, fundamentally considered, are not associations of organs which can be understood by studying them first apart, and then as it were federally; but must be regarded as consisting of certain primary webs or tissues, out of which the various organs"brain, heart, lungs, and so on"are compacted, as the various accommodations of a house are built up in various proportions of wood, iron, stone, brick, zinc, and the rest, each material having its peculiar composition and proportions. No man, one sees, can understand and estimate the entire structure or its parts"what are its frailties and what its repairs, without knowing the nature of the materials. And the conception wrought out by Bichat, with his detailed study of the different tissues, acted necessarily on medical questions as the turning of gas-light would act on a dim, oil-lit street, showing new connections and hitherto hidden facts of structure which must be taken into account in considering the symptoms of maladies and the action of medicaments. But results which depend on human conscience and intelligence work slowly, and now at the end of 1829, most medical practice was still strutting or shambling along the old paths, and there was still scientific work to be done which might have seemed to be a direct sequence of Bichat's. This great seer did not go beyond the consideration of the tissues as ultimate facts in the living organism, marking the limit of anatomical analysis; but it was open to another mind to say, have not these structures some common basis from which they have all started, as your sarsnet, gauze, net, satin, and velvet from the raw cocoon? Here would be another light, as of oxy-hydrogen, showing the very grain of things, and revising all former explanations. Of this sequence to Bichat's work, already vibrating along many currents of the European mind, Lydgate was enamoured; he longed to demonstrate the more intimate relations of living structure, and help to define men's thought more accurately after the true order. The work had not yet been done, but only prepared for those who knew how to use the preparation. What was the primitive tissue? In that way Lydgate put the question"not quite in the way required by the awaiting answer; but such missing of the right word befalls many seekers. And he counted on quiet intervals to be watchfully seized, for taking up the threads of investigation"on many hints to be won from diligent application, not only of the scalpel, but of the microscope, which research had begun to use again with new enthusiasm of reliance. Such was Lydgate's plan of his future: to do good small work for Middlemarch, and great work for the world.

associations - associations, association

organs - organes, organe, orgue

federally - au niveau fédéral

compacted - compacté, compact

proportions - proportions, proportion

zinc - le zinc, zinc, zinguer

composition - composition, ouvre

frailties - fragilités, fragilité

tissue - tissu, mouchoir en papier, kleenex

gas-light - (gas-light) Une lampe a gaz

maladies - maladies, maladie

medical practice - la pratique médicale

strutting - se pavaner, (strut) se pavaner

shambling - shambling, (shamble) shambling

sequence - suite, séquence

ultimate - dernier, ultime

living organism - organisme vivant

sarsnet - sarsnet

gauze - gaze

satin - satin, satiné

velvet - du velours, velours, duvet (on skin), velours (on antlers)

raw - cru, brut, nu

cocoon - cocon

hydrogen - l'hydrogene, hydrogene

former - ancien, ancienne, ci devant

vibrating - vibrant, vibrer

demonstrate - démontrer, manifester

intimate - intime

accurately - avec précision

awaiting - en attente, attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter

seekers - chercheurs, demandeur

watchfully - vigilante

hints - indices, indication, soupçon, faire allusion

scalpel - scalpel

He was certainly a happy fellow at this time: to be seven-and-twenty, without any fixed vices, with a generous resolution that his action should be beneficent, and with ideas in his brain that made life interesting quite apart from the cultus of horseflesh and other mystic rites of costly observance, which the eight hundred pounds left him after buying his practice would certainly not have gone far in paying for. He was at a starting-point which makes many a man's career a fine subject for betting, if there were any gentlemen given to that amusement who could appreciate the complicated probabilities of an arduous purpose, with all the possible thwartings and furtherings of circumstance, all the niceties of inward balance, by which a man swims and makes his point or else is carried headlong. The risk would remain even with close knowledge of Lydgate's character; for character too is a process and an unfolding. The man was still in the making, as much as the Middlemarch doctor and immortal discoverer, and there were both virtues and faults capable of shrinking or expanding. The faults will not, I hope, be a reason for the withdrawal of your interest in him. Among our valued friends is there not some one or other who is a little too self-confident and disdainful; whose distinguished mind is a little spotted with commonness; who is a little pinched here and protuberant there with native prejudices; or whose better energies are liable to lapse down the wrong channel under the influence of transient solicitations? All these things might be alleged against Lydgate, but then, they are the periphrases of a polite preacher, who talks of Adam, and would not like to mention anything painful to the pew-renters. The particular faults from which these delicate generalities are distilled have distinguishable physiognomies, diction, accent, and grimaces; filling up parts in very various dramas. Our vanities differ as our noses do: all conceit is not the same conceit, but varies in correspondence with the minutiae of mental make in which one of us differs from another. Lydgate's conceit was of the arrogant sort, never simpering, never impertinent, but massive in its claims and benevolently contemptuous. He would do a great deal for noodles, being sorry for them, and feeling quite sure that they could have no power over him: he had thought of joining the Saint Simonians when he was in Paris, in order to turn them against some of their own doctrines. All his faults were marked by kindred traits, and were those of a man who had a fine baritone, whose clothes hung well upon him, and who even in his ordinary gestures had an air of inbred distinction. Where then lay the spots of commonness? says a young lady enamoured of that careless grace. How could there be any commonness in a man so well-bred, so ambitious of social distinction, so generous and unusual in his views of social duty? As easily as there may be stupidity in a man of genius if you take him unawares on the wrong subject, or as many a man who has the best will to advance the social millennium might be ill-inspired in imagining its lighter pleasures; unable to go beyond Offenbach's music, or the brilliant punning in the last burlesque. Lydgate's spots of commonness lay in the complexion of his prejudices, which, in spite of noble intention and sympathy, were half of them such as are found in ordinary men of the world: that distinction of mind which belonged to his intellectual ardor, did not penetrate his feeling and judgment about furniture, or women, or the desirability of its being known (without his telling) that he was better born than other country surgeons. He did not mean to think of furniture at present; but whenever he did so it was to be feared that neither biology nor schemes of reform would lift him above the vulgarity of feeling that there would be an incompatibility in his furniture not being of the best.

beneficent - bienfaisante

cultus - cultus

horseflesh - la chair de cheval

rites - rites, rite

costly - couteux, couteux, lourd

observance - l'observation, observance

probabilities - des probabilités, probabilité

furtherings - les approfondissements

shrinking - se rétrécir, se réduire, rétrécir, se resserrer

withdrawal - retrait, sevrage

self-confident - (self-confident) Confiance en soi

disdainful - dédaigneux

commonness - commun

protuberant - protubérante

prejudices - préjugés, préjugé, idée préconçue, préjudice

transient - passager, provisoire, transitoire, temporaire, bref

solicitations - les sollicitations, sollicitation

periphrases - des périphrases, périphrase

preacher - precheur, prédicateur, precheur

distilled - distillé, distiller

physiognomies - physionomies, physiognomonie

diction - diction

minutiae - des détails, petit détail

differs - differe, différer (de)

simpering - simuler, minauder, minauderie, sourire

massive - massive, massif

benevolently - avec bienveillance

do a great deal for - Faire beaucoup pour

noodles - nouilles, nouille(s)

kindred - apparentés, tribu

traits - traits, trait

baritone - baryton

gestures - gestes, geste, signe

inbred - consanguins, consanguin, (inbreed) consanguins

millennium - millénaire

inspired - inspirée, inspirer

punning - un jeu de mots, (pun) un jeu de mots

burlesque - burlesque, parodie

desirability - la désirabilité, désirabilité

surgeons - chirurgiens, chirurgien, chirurgienne

vulgarity - la vulgarité, vulgarité, grossiereté

incompatibility - incompatibilité

As to women, he had once already been drawn headlong by impetuous folly, which he meant to be final, since marriage at some distant period would of course not be impetuous.

For those who want to be acquainted with Lydgate it will be good to know what was that case of impetuous folly, for it may stand as an example of the fitful swerving of passion to which he was prone, together with the chivalrous kindness which helped to make him morally lovable. The story can be told without many words.

fitful - irréguliere, irrégulier, sporadique

prone - prone, couché sur le ventre, enclin, prédisposé

chivalrous - chevaleresque

It happened when he was studying in Paris, and just at the time when, over and above his other work, he was occupied with some galvanic experiments.

occupied with - occupés par

galvanic - galvanique

One evening, tired with his experimenting, and not being able to elicit the facts he needed, he left his frogs and rabbits to some repose under their trying and mysterious dispensation of unexplained shocks, and went to finish his evening at the theatre of the Porte Saint Martin, where there was a melodrama which he had already seen several times; attracted, not by the ingenious work of the collaborating authors, but by an actress whose part it was to stab her lover, mistaking him for the evil-designing duke of the piece. Lydgate was in love with this actress, as a man is in love with a woman whom he never expects to speak to. She was a Provencale, with dark eyes, a Greek profile, and rounded majestic form, having that sort of beauty which carries a sweet matronliness even in youth, and her voice was a soft cooing. She had but lately come to Paris, and bore a virtuous reputation, her husband acting with her as the unfortunate lover. It was her acting which was "no better than it should be," but the public was satisfied. Lydgate's only relaxation now was to go and look at this woman, just as he might have thrown himself under the breath of the sweet south on a bank of violets for a while, without prejudice to his galvanism, to which he would presently return. But this evening the old drama had a new catastrophe. At the moment when the heroine was to act the stabbing of her lover, and he was to fall gracefully, the wife veritably stabbed her husband, who fell as death willed. A wild shriek pierced the house, and the Provencale fell swooning: a shriek and a swoon were demanded by the play, but the swooning too was real this time. Lydgate leaped and climbed, he hardly knew how, on to the stage, and was active in help, making the acquaintance of his heroine by finding a contusion on her head and lifting her gently in his arms. Paris rang with the story of this death:"was it a murder? Some of the actress's warmest admirers were inclined to believe in her guilt, and liked her the better for it (such was the taste of those times); but Lydgate was not one of these. He vehemently contended for her innocence, and the remote impersonal passion for her beauty which he had felt before, had passed now into personal devotion, and tender thought of her lot. The notion of murder was absurd: no motive was discoverable, the young couple being understood to dote on each other; and it was not unprecedented that an accidental slip of the foot should have brought these grave consequences. The legal investigation ended in Madame Laure's release. Lydgate by this time had had many interviews with her, and found her more and more adorable. She talked little; but that was an additional charm. She was melancholy, and seemed grateful; her presence was enough, like that of the evening light. Lydgate was madly anxious about her affection, and jealous lest any other man than himself should win it and ask her to marry him. But instead of reopening her engagement at the Porte Saint Martin, where she would have been all the more popular for the fatal episode, she left Paris without warning, forsaking her little court of admirers. Perhaps no one carried inquiry far except Lydgate, who felt that all science had come to a stand-still while he imagined the unhappy Laure, stricken by ever-wandering sorrow, herself wandering, and finding no faithful comforter. Hidden actresses, however, are not so difficult to find as some other hidden facts, and it was not long before Lydgate gathered indications that Laure had taken the route to Lyons. He found her at last acting with great success at Avignon under the same name, looking more majestic than ever as a forsaken wife carrying her child in her arms. He spoke to her after the play, was received with the usual quietude which seemed to him beautiful as clear depths of water, and obtained leave to visit her the next day; when he was bent on telling her that he adored her, and on asking her to marry him. He knew that this was like the sudden impulse of a madman"incongruous even with his habitual foibles. No matter! It was the one thing which he was resolved to do. He had two selves within him apparently, and they must learn to accommodate each other and bear reciprocal impediments. Strange, that some of us, with quick alternate vision, see beyond our infatuations, and even while we rave on the heights, behold the wide plain where our persistent self pauses and awaits us.

rabbits - des lapins, lapin/-ine

unexplained - inexpliquée

shocks - chocs, choc

porte - Porte

Martin - martin

melodrama - mélodrame

collaborating - collaborer

Duke - duke, duc

matronliness - matronalité

cooing - roucouler, (coo) roucouler

virtuous - vertueux

relaxation - la détente, relaxation, détente, relaxation (1, 5)

violets - des violettes, violet, violette

galvanism - le galvanisme, galvanisme

heroine - l'héroine, héroine

gracefully - gracieusement

veritably - véritablement

stabbed - poignardé, poignarder

shriek - cri, hurlement, crier

swooning - se pâmer, (swoon) se pâmer

leaped - a sauté, sauter, bondir

contusion - ecchymose, contusion, sang extravasé

admirers - admirateurs, admirateur, admiratrice

guilt - culpabilité

vehemently - avec véhémence

innocence - l'innocence, innocence, candeur

impersonal - impersonnelle

discoverable - découvrable

unprecedented - sans précédent

accidental - accidentelle, accidentel, altération

slip - glisser, fiche, lapsus, patiner

rave - rave, délirer

madly - a la folie, follement

reopening - réouverture, (reopen), rouvrir, réouvrir, rench: se rouvrir

forsaking - l'abandon, (forsake), abandonner, renoncer

comforter - couette, consolateur

indications - indications, indication

more majestic - plus majestueux

forsaken - abandonné, abandonner, renoncer

adored - adorée, adorer

madman - fou, insensé

foibles - des faiblesses, travers, faiblesse, faible

selves - selves, soi-meme

accommodate - d'accueil, héberger, accommoder, s'accommoder

reciprocal - réciproque, inverse

impediments - des obstacles, empechement, irritant, entrave

alternate - alternatif, alternative, alterner

infatuations - des engouements, engouement, béguin, amourette

behold - regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila

persistent - persistante, persistant, tenace

awaits - attend, attendre, s'attendre a, servir, guetter

To have approached Laure with any suit that was not reverentially tender would have been simply a contradiction of his whole feeling towards her.

reverentially - de façon révérencieuse

contradiction - contradiction

"You have come all the way from Paris to find me?" she said to him the next day, sitting before him with folded arms, and looking at him with eyes that seemed to wonder as an untamed ruminating animal wonders. "Are all Englishmen like that?"

"I came because I could not live without trying to see you. You are lonely; I love you; I want you to consent to be my wife; I will wait, but I want you to promise that you will marry me"no one else."

Laure looked at him in silence with a melancholy radiance from under her grand eyelids, until he was full of rapturous certainty, and knelt close to her knees.

"I will tell you something," she said, in her cooing way, keeping her arms folded. "My foot really slipped."

"I know, I know," said Lydgate, deprecatingly. "It was a fatal accident"a dreadful stroke of calamity that bound me to you the more."

deprecatingly - de maniere dépréciative

stroke - accident vasculaire cérébral, caresser

calamity - calamité

Again Laure paused a little and then said, slowly, "I meant to do it."

Lydgate, strong man as he was, turned pale and trembled: moments seemed to pass before he rose and stood at a distance from her.

"There was a secret, then," he said at last, even vehemently. "He was brutal to you: you hated him."

brutal - brutal

"No! he wearied me; he was too fond: he would live in Paris, and not in my country; that was not agreeable to me."

wearied - fatigué, las, lasser

"Great God!" said Lydgate, in a groan of horror. "And you planned to murder him?"

groan - gémir, râle, râlement, gémissement, grognement, grondement

"I did not plan: it came to me in the play"I meant to do it."

Lydgate stood mute, and unconsciously pressed his hat on while he looked at her. He saw this woman"the first to whom he had given his young adoration"amid the throng of stupid criminals.

mute - muet

adoration - l'adoration, adoration

throng - essaim, foule

"You are a good young man," she said. "But I do not like husbands. I will never have another."

Three days afterwards Lydgate was at his galvanism again in his Paris chambers, believing that illusions were at an end for him. He was saved from hardening effects by the abundant kindness of his heart and his belief that human life might be made better.

chambers - chambres, chambre, piece, salle

hardening - durcissement, (harden)

abundant - abondante

But he had more reason than ever for trusting his judgment, now that it was so experienced; and henceforth he would take a strictly scientific view of woman, entertaining no expectations but such as were justified beforehand.

trusting - la confiance, confiance, trust, faire confiance

No one in Middlemarch was likely to have such a notion of Lydgate's past as has here been faintly shadowed, and indeed the respectable townsfolk there were not more given than mortals generally to any eager attempt at exactness in the representation to themselves of what did not come under their own senses.

faintly - faiblement

shadowed - ombragée, ombre, prendre en filature, t+filer

townsfolk - les habitants de la ville

exactness - l'exactitude, exactitude

representation - représentation

Not only young virgins of that town, but gray-bearded men also, were often in haste to conjecture how a new acquaintance might be wrought into their purposes, contented with very vague knowledge as to the way in which life had been shaping him for that instrumentality. Middlemarch, in fact, counted on swallowing Lydgate and assimilating him very comfortably.

virgins - vierges, vierge, q

bearded - barbu, barbe

contented with - etre satisfait de

instrumentality - instrumentalité

swallowing - avaler

assimilating - assimiler, absorber, digérer


"All that in woman is adored

In thy fair self I find"

thy - de l'homme, ton/ta, tes

For the whole sex can but afford

The handsome and the kind."


Charles - charles

The question whether Mr. Tyke should be appointed as salaried chaplain to the hospital was an exciting topic to the Middlemarchers; and Lydgate heard it discussed in a way that threw much light on the power exercised in the town by Mr. Bulstrode.

appointed - nommés, fixer, gloss

The banker was evidently a ruler, but there was an opposition party, and even among his supporters there were some who allowed it to be seen that their support was a compromise, and who frankly stated their impression that the general scheme of things, and especially the casualties of trade, required you to hold a candle to the devil.

ruler - regle, latte, dirigeant, chef

opposition party - parti d'opposition

supporters - supporters, partisan, partisane, supporter, supporteur

compromise - compromis, concession, compromettre

casualties - des victimes, accident, victime, blessé, urgences-p

Mr. Bulstrode's power was not due simply to his being a country banker, who knew the financial secrets of most traders in the town and could touch the springs of their credit; it was fortified by a beneficence that was at once ready and severe"ready to confer obligations, and severe in watching the result.

traders - commerçants, commerçant, trader, marchand

beneficence - bienfaisance

obligations - obligations, obligation, engagement, fr

He had gathered, as an industrious man always at his post, a chief share in administering the town charities, and his private charities were both minute and abundant. He would take a great deal of pains about apprenticing Tegg the shoemaker's son, and he would watch over Tegg's church-going; he would defend Mrs.

administering - administrer, gérer

Tegg - tegg

Shoemaker - shoemaker, cordonnier, cordonniere

church-going - (church-going) aller a léglise

Strype the washerwoman against Stubbs's unjust exaction on the score of her drying-ground, and he would himself scrutinize a calumny against Mrs. Strype. His private minor loans were numerous, but he would inquire strictly into the circumstances both before and after.

washerwoman - lavandiere, blanchisseuse, lavandiere, laveuse

unjust - injuste

exaction - exaction, recouvrement

scrutinize - examiner, scruter, dépouiller

calumny - calomnie

minor - mineur

loans - des prets, pret

In this way a man gathers a domain in his neighbors'hope and fear as well as gratitude; and power, when once it has got into that subtle region, propagates itself, spreading out of all proportion to its external means. It was a principle with Mr. Bulstrode to gain as much power as possible, that he might use it for the glory of God.

domain - domaine, domaine de définition

propagates - se propage, se propager

proportion - proportion

He went through a great deal of spiritual conflict and inward argument in order to adjust his motives, and make clear to himself what God's glory required. But, as we have seen, his motives were not always rightly appreciated. There were many crass minds in Middlemarch whose reflective scales could only weigh things in the lump; and they had a strong suspicion that since Mr.

conflict - conflit, incompatibilité

adjust - ajuster

crass - grossier, grossiere, crasse

reflective - réfléchi

scales - des échelles, graduation

lump - lump, masse, tas, protubérance, renflement

Bulstrode could not enjoy life in their fashion, eating and drinking so little as he did, and worreting himself about everything, he must have a sort of vampire's feast in the sense of mastery.

enjoy life - profiter de la vie

worreting - inquiétant

vampire - vampire, chauve-souris vampire

feast - la fete, délibéré

mastery - maîtrise

The subject of the chaplaincy came up at Mr. Vincy's table when Lydgate was dining there, and the family connection with Mr. Bulstrode did not, he observed, prevent some freedom of remark even on the part of the host himself, though his reasons against the proposed arrangement turned entirely on his objection to Mr. Tyke's sermons, which were all doctrine, and his preference for Mr.

chaplaincy - l'aumônerie

dining - dîner

Sermons - sermons, sermon

Farebrother, whose sermons were free from that taint. Mr. Vincy liked well enough the notion of the chaplain's having a salary, supposing it were given to Farebrother, who was as good a little fellow as ever breathed, and the best preacher anywhere, and companionable too.

taint - taint, entachez, entachent, entachons

companionable - de bonne compagnie

"What line shall you take, then?" said Mr. Chichely, the coroner, a great coursing comrade of Mr. Vincy's.

coroner - médecin légiste, coroner

comrade - camarade f, camarade

"Oh, I'm precious glad I'm not one of the Directors now. I shall vote for referring the matter to the Directors and the Medical Board together. I shall roll some of my responsibility on your shoulders, Doctor," said Mr. Vincy, glancing first at Dr. Sprague, the senior physician of the town, and then at Lydgate who sat opposite.

glancing - un coup d'oil, (glance), jeter un coup d’oil

physician - médecin, femme médecin, docteur

"You medical gentlemen must consult which sort of black draught you will prescribe, eh, Mr. Lydgate?"

"I know little of either," said Lydgate; "but in general, appointments are apt to be made too much a question of personal liking. The fittest man for a particular post is not always the best fellow or the most agreeable. Sometimes, if you wanted to get a reform, your only way would be to pension off the good fellows whom everybody is fond of, and put them out of the question."

pension - pension, retraite, (demi) pension, pensioner, pensionner

Dr. Sprague, who was considered the physician of most "weight," though Dr. Minchin was usually said to have more "penetration," divested his large heavy face of all expression, and looked at his wine-glass while Lydgate was speaking.

penetration - pénétration

Whatever was not problematical and suspected about this young man"for example, a certain showiness as to foreign ideas, and a disposition to unsettle what had been settled and forgotten by his elders"was positively unwelcome to a physician whose standing had been fixed thirty years before by a treatise on Meningitis, of which at least one copy marked "own" was bound in calf.

problematical - problématique

suspected - soupçonné, suspecter, soupçonner

showiness - l'esbroufe

unsettle - déstabiliser, perturber

treatise - traité

Meningitis - méningite

For my part I have some fellow-feeling with Dr. Sprague: one's self-satisfaction is an untaxed kind of property which it is very unpleasant to find deprecated.

deprecated - dépassé, désapprouver de

Lydgate's remark, however, did not meet the sense of the company. Mr. Vincy said, that if he could have his way, he would not put disagreeable fellows anywhere.

"Hang your reforms!" said Mr. Chichely. "There's no greater humbug in the world. You never hear of a reform, but it means some trick to put in new men. I hope you are not one of the ˜Lancet's'men, Mr. Lydgate"wanting to take the coronership out of the hands of the legal profession: your words appear to point that way."

lancet - lancette

coronership - la couronne

"I disapprove of Wakley," interposed Dr. Sprague, "no man more: he is an ill-intentioned fellow, who would sacrifice the respectability of the profession, which everybody knows depends on the London Colleges, for the sake of getting some notoriety for himself. There are men who don't mind about being kicked blue if they can only get talked about.

intentioned - intentionnel

sacrifice - sacrifier, sacrifice, offrande

respectability - respectabilité

But Wakley is right sometimes," the Doctor added, judicially. "I could mention one or two points in which Wakley is in the right."

judicially - judiciairement

"Oh, well," said Mr. Chichely, "I blame no man for standing up in favor of his own cloth; but, coming to argument, I should like to know how a coroner is to judge of evidence if he has not had a legal training?"

"In my opinion," said Lydgate, "legal training only makes a man more incompetent in questions that require knowledge of another kind. People talk about evidence as if it could really be weighed in scales by a blind Justice. No man can judge what is good evidence on any particular subject, unless he knows that subject well. A lawyer is no better than an old woman at a post-mortem examination.

incompetent - incompétent

How is he to know the action of a poison? You might as well say that scanning verse will teach you to scan the potato crops."

crops - les cultures, récolte, produits agricoles

"You are aware, I suppose, that it is not the coroner's business to conduct the post-mortem, but only to take the evidence of the medical witness?" said Mr. Chichely, with some scorn.

witness - témoin

scorn - mépriser, dédaigner, mépris, dédain

"Who is often almost as ignorant as the coroner himself," said Lydgate. "Questions of medical jurisprudence ought not to be left to the chance of decent knowledge in a medical witness, and the coroner ought not to be a man who will believe that strychnine will destroy the coats of the stomach if an ignorant practitioner happens to tell him so."

jurisprudence - la jurisprudence, théorie du droit

decent - integre, décent, substantiel

witness - témoignage, témoin, preuve, témoigner

strychnine - strychnine

Lydgate had really lost sight of the fact that Mr. Chichely was his Majesty's coroner, and ended innocently with the question, "Don't you agree with me, Dr. Sprague?"

Majesty - majesté

innocently - en toute innocence

"To a certain extent"with regard to populous districts, and in the metropolis," said the Doctor. "But I hope it will be long before this part of the country loses the services of my friend Chichely, even though it might get the best man in our profession to succeed him. I am sure Vincy will agree with me."

populous - populeux

"Yes, yes, give me a coroner who is a good coursing man," said Mr. Vincy, jovially. "And in my opinion, you're safest with a lawyer. Nobody can know everything. Most things are ˜visitation of God.'And as to poisoning, why, what you want to know is the law. Come, shall we join the ladies?"

visitation - les visites, droit de visite

Lydgate's private opinion was that Mr. Chichely might be the very coroner without bias as to the coats of the stomach, but he had not meant to be personal. This was one of the difficulties of moving in good Middlemarch society: it was dangerous to insist on knowledge as a qualification for any salaried office. Fred Vincy had called Lydgate a prig, and now Mr.

Chichely was inclined to call him prick-eared; especially when, in the drawing-room, he seemed to be making himself eminently agreeable to Rosamond, whom he had easily monopolized in a tĂŞte-Ă -tĂŞte, since Mrs. Vincy herself sat at the tea-table.

prick - con, piquer, percer

monopolized - monopolisé, monopoliser, accaparer

She resigned no domestic function to her daughter; and the matron's blooming good-natured face, with the two volatile pink strings floating from her fine throat, and her cheery manners to husband and children, was certainly among the great attractions of the Vincy house"attractions which made it all the easier to fall in love with the daughter.

volatile - volatile, volatil

floating - flottant, (float), flotter, flotteur, taloche, char

cheery - heureuse

The tinge of unpretentious, inoffensive vulgarity in Mrs. Vincy gave more effect to Rosamond's refinement, which was beyond what Lydgate had expected.

tinge - teinte, touche, nuance, teindre

unpretentious - sans prétention

inoffensive - inoffensif

Certainly, small feet and perfectly turned shoulders aid the impression of refined manners, and the right thing said seems quite astonishingly right when it is accompanied with exquisite curves of lip and eyelid. And Rosamond could say the right thing; for she was clever with that sort of cleverness which catches every tone except the humorous.

refined - raffiné, raffiner, fr

astonishingly - étonnamment

curves - courbes, courbe, courber

eyelid - paupiere, paupiere

humorous - humoristique

Happily she never attempted to joke, and this perhaps was the most decisive mark of her cleverness.

most decisive - le plus décisif

She and Lydgate readily got into conversation. He regretted that he had not heard her sing the other day at Stone Court. The only pleasure he allowed himself during the latter part of his stay in Paris was to go and hear music.

regretted - regretté, regretter, regret

"You have studied music, probably?" said Rosamond.

"No, I know the notes of many birds, and I know many melodies by ear; but the music that I don't know at all, and have no notion about, delights me"affects me. How stupid the world is that it does not make more use of such a pleasure within its reach!"

melodies - mélodies, mélodie

by ear - a l'oreille

delights - des délices, plaisir, délice, joie, enchanter, ravir

"Yes, and you will find Middlemarch very tuneless. There are hardly any good musicians. I only know two gentlemen who sing at all well."

tuneless - sans accord

"I suppose it is the fashion to sing comic songs in a rhythmic way, leaving you to fancy the tune"very much as if it were tapped on a drum?"

comic - comique, cocasse, comédien, bande dessinée, BD

tapped - taraudé, petit coup

"Ah, you have heard Mr. Bowyer," said Rosamond, with one of her rare smiles. "But we are speaking very ill of our neighbors."

Lydgate was almost forgetting that he must carry on the conversation, in thinking how lovely this creature was, her garment seeming to be made out of the faintest blue sky, herself so immaculately blond, as if the petals of some gigantic flower had just opened and disclosed her; and yet with this infantine blondness showing so much ready, self-possessed grace.

garment - de l'habillement, vetement

faintest - le plus faible, faible, léger

immaculately - de façon immaculée

gigantic - gigantesque, colossal

Since he had had the memory of Laure, Lydgate had lost all taste for large-eyed silence: the divine cow no longer attracted him, and Rosamond was her very opposite. But he recalled himself.

"You will let me hear some music to-night, I hope."

"I will let you hear my attempts, if you like," said Rosamond. "Papa is sure to insist on my singing. But I shall tremble before you, who have heard the best singers in Paris. I have heard very little: I have only once been to London. But our organist at St. Peter's is a good musician, and I go on studying with him."

attempts - tentatives, tenter, essayer, tentative, attentat

organist - organiste

"Tell me what you saw in London."

"Very little." (A more naive girl would have said, "Oh, everything!" But Rosamond knew better.) "A few of the ordinary sights, such as raw country girls are always taken to."

more naive - plus naif

"Do you call yourself a raw country girl?" said Lydgate, looking at her with an involuntary emphasis of admiration, which made Rosamond blush with pleasure. But she remained simply serious, turned her long neck a little, and put up her hand to touch her wondrous hair-plaits"an habitual gesture with her as pretty as any movements of a kitten's paw.

involuntary - involontaire

plaits - tresses, pli

kitten - chaton, blaireautin

paw - patte, pied

Not that Rosamond was in the least like a kitten: she was a sylph caught young and educated at Mrs. Lemon's.

sylph - sylphe, sylphide

"I assure you my mind is raw," she said immediately; "I pass at Middlemarch. I am not afraid of talking to our old neighbors. But I am really afraid of you."

"An accomplished woman almost always knows more than we men, though her knowledge is of a different sort. I am sure you could teach me a thousand things"as an exquisite bird could teach a bear if there were any common language between them. Happily, there is a common language between women and men, and so the bears can get taught."

"Ah, there is Fred beginning to strum! I must go and hinder him from jarring all your nerves," said Rosamond, moving to the other side of the room, where Fred having opened the piano, at his father's desire, that Rosamond might give them some music, was parenthetically performing "Cherry Ripe!" with one hand.

strum - racler, gratter

jarring - secouant, discordant, déroutant, (jar) secouant

parenthetically - entre parentheses

cherry - cerise

Able men who have passed their examinations will do these things sometimes, not less than the plucked Fred.

examinations - les examens, examen

"Fred, pray defer your practising till to-morrow; you will make Mr. Lydgate ill," said Rosamond. "He has an ear."

Fred laughed, and went on with his tune to the end.

Rosamond turned to Lydgate, smiling gently, and said, "You perceive, the bears will not always be taught."

"now then, Rosy!" said Fred, springing from the stool and twisting it upward for her, with a hearty expectation of enjoyment. "Some good rousing tunes first."

now then - maintenant alors

twisting - torsion, (twist), twist, entortiller, tordre

upward - a la hausse

hearty - cordial, copieux

rousing - l'enthousiasme, réveiller

Rosamond played admirably. Her master at Mrs. Lemon's school (close to a county town with a memorable history that had its relics in church and castle) was one of those excellent musicians here and there to be found in our provinces, worthy to compare with many a noted Kapellmeister in a country which offers more plentiful conditions of musical celebrity.

memorable - mémorable

Kapellmeister - Kapellmeister

plentiful - abondante, abondant, copieux, ample

Rosamond, with the executant's instinct, had seized his manner of playing, and gave forth his large rendering of noble music with the precision of an echo. It was almost startling, heard for the first time.

executant - exécutant

instinct - l'instinct, instinct

Echo - echo, écho

A hidden soul seemed to be flowing forth from Rosamond's fingers; and so indeed it was, since souls live on in perpetual echoes, and to all fine expression there goes somewhere an originating activity, if it be only that of an interpreter. Lydgate was taken possession of, and began to believe in her as something exceptional.

originating - a l'origine, instituer, prendre sa source

After all, he thought, one need not be surprised to find the rare conjunctions of nature under circumstances apparently unfavorable: come where they may, they always depend on conditions that are not obvious. He sat looking at her, and did not rise to pay her any compliments, leaving that to others, now that his admiration was deepened.

conjunctions - conjonctions, conjonction

compliments - des compliments, compliment, complimenter, faire un compliment

deepened - approfondi, approfondir, intensifier

Her singing was less remarkable, but also well trained, and sweet to hear as a chime perfectly in tune. It is true she sang "Meet me by moonlight," and "I've been roaming"; for mortals must share the fashions of their time, and none but the ancients can be always classical.

chime - carillon

moonlight - le clair de lune, clair de lune, travailler au noir

roaming - l'itinérance, errer

But Rosamond could also sing "Black-eyed Susan" with effect, or Haydn's canzonets, or "Voi, che sapete," or "Batti, batti""she only wanted to know what her audience liked.

Her father looked round at the company, delighting in their admiration. Her mother sat, like a Niobe before her troubles, with her youngest little girl on her lap, softly beating the child's hand up and down in time to the music. And Fred, notwithstanding his general scepticism about Rosy, listened to her music with perfect allegiance, wishing he could do the same thing on his flute.

delighting - ravissant, plaisir, délice, joie, enchanter, ravir

softly - en douceur, doucement

allegiance - l'allégeance, fidélité, loyauté, allégeance

It was the pleasantest family party that Lydgate had seen since he came to Middlemarch. The Vincys had the readiness to enjoy, the rejection of all anxiety, and the belief in life as a merry lot, which made a house exceptional in most county towns at that time, when Evangelicalism had cast a certain suspicion as of plague-infection over the few amusements which survived in the provinces.

Evangelicalism - l'évangélisme

plague - peste, fléau, plaie, calamité, affliger

infection - l'infection, infection

amusements - divertissements, amusement

At the Vincys'there was always whist, and the card-tables stood ready now, making some of the company secretly impatient of the music. Before it ceased Mr. Farebrother came in"a handsome, broad-chested but otherwise small man, about forty, whose black was very threadbare: the brilliancy was all in his quick gray eyes.

chested - poitrine

threadbare - filiforme, élimé

brilliancy - brillance

He came like a pleasant change in the light, arresting little Louisa with fatherly nonsense as she was being led out of the room by Miss Morgan, greeting everybody with some special word, and seeming to condense more talk into ten minutes than had been held all through the evening. He claimed from Lydgate the fulfilment of a promise to come and see him.

fatherly - paternel

fulfilment - l'accomplissement, satisfaction

"I can't let you off, you know, because I have some beetles to show you. We collectors feel an interest in every new man till he has seen all we have to show him."

beetles - des coléopteres, coléoptere, scarabée

collectors - collectionneurs, collectionneur, collectionneuse, percepteur

But soon he swerved to the whist-table, rubbing his hands and saying, "Come now, let us be serious! Mr. Lydgate? not play? Ah! you are too young and light for this kind of thing."

swerved - a fait une embardée, dévier, se détourner

Lydgate said to himself that the clergyman whose abilities were so painful to Mr. Bulstrode, appeared to have found an agreeable resort in this certainly not erudite household.

resort - station, avoir recours (a)

erudite - érudit

He could half understand it: the good-humor, the good looks of elder and younger, and the provision for passing the time without any labor of intelligence, might make the house beguiling to people who had no particular use for their odd hours.

beguiling - séduisante, duper, tromper, induire en erreur, exalter

Everything looked blooming and joyous except Miss Morgan, who was brown, dull, and resigned, and altogether, as Mrs. Vincy often said, just the sort of person for a governess. Lydgate did not mean to pay many such visits himself. They were a wretched waste of the evenings; and now, when he had talked a little more to Rosamond, he meant to excuse himself and go.

"You will not like us at Middlemarch, I feel sure," she said, when the whist-players were settled. "We are very stupid, and you have been used to something quite different."

players - joueurs, joueur, joueuse, acteur, actrice, comédien, comédienne

"I suppose all country towns are pretty much alike," said Lydgate. "But I have noticed that one always believes one's own town to be more stupid than any other. I have made up my mind to take Middlemarch as it comes, and shall be much obliged if the town will take me in the same way. I have certainly found some charms in it which are much greater than I had expected."

more stupid - plus stupide

"You mean the rides towards Tipton and Lowick; every one is pleased with those," said Rosamond, with simplicity.

simplicity - la simplicité, simplicité

"No, I mean something much nearer to me."

Rosamond rose and reached her netting, and then said, "Do you care about dancing at all? I am not quite sure whether clever men ever dance."

"I would dance with you if you would allow me."

"Oh!" said Rosamond, with a slight deprecatory laugh. "I was only going to say that we sometimes have dancing, and I wanted to know whether you would feel insulted if you were asked to come."

deprecatory - dépréciatif

insulted - insulté, insulter, insulte

"Not on the condition I mentioned."

After this chat Lydgate thought that he was going, but on moving towards the whist-tables, he got interested in watching Mr. Farebrother's play, which was masterly, and also his face, which was a striking mixture of the shrewd and the mild. At ten o'clock supper was brought in (such were the customs of Middlemarch) and there was punch-drinking; but Mr. Farebrother had only a glass of water.

masterly - magistral

shrewd - astucieux, perspicace, sagace, habile, roublard, futé

supper - dîner, souper

Punch - un coup de poing, poinçonnez, poinçonnent, poinçonner

He was winning, but there seemed to be no reason why the renewal of rubbers should end, and Lydgate at last took his leave.

renewal - renouvellement, renouvelement

rubbers - les caoutchoucs, (de) caoutchouc

But as it was not eleven o'clock, he chose to walk in the brisk air towards the tower of St. Botolph's, Mr. Farebrother's church, which stood out dark, square, and massive against the starlight. It was the oldest church in Middlemarch; the living, however, was but a vicarage worth barely four hundred a-year. Lydgate had heard that, and he wondered now whether Mr.

Farebrother cared about the money he won at cards; thinking, "He seems a very pleasant fellow, but Bulstrode may have his good reasons." Many things would be easier to Lydgate if it should turn out that Mr. Bulstrode was generally justifiable. "What is his religious doctrine to me, if he carries some good notions along with it? One must use such brains as are to be found."

These were actually Lydgate's first meditations as he walked away from Mr. Vincy's, and on this ground I fear that many ladies will consider him hardly worthy of their attention.

meditations - méditations, méditation

He thought of Rosamond and her music only in the second place; and though, when her turn came, he dwelt on the image of her for the rest of his walk, he felt no agitation, and had no sense that any new current had set into his life.

He could not marry yet; he wished not to marry for several years; and therefore he was not ready to entertain the notion of being in love with a girl whom he happened to admire. He did admire Rosamond exceedingly; but that madness which had once beset him about Laure was not, he thought, likely to recur in relation to any other woman.

beset - assiégé, assaillir

Certainly, if falling in love had been at all in question, it would have been quite safe with a creature like this Miss Vincy, who had just the kind of intelligence one would desire in a woman"polished, refined, docile, lending itself to finish in all the delicacies of life, and enshrined in a body which expressed this with a force of demonstration that excluded the need for other evidence.

polished - polie, polonais

delicacies - délices, délicatesse, gourmandise

enshrined - consacré, enchâsser

excluded - exclus, exclure

Lydgate felt sure that if ever he married, his wife would have that feminine radiance, that distinctive womanhood which must be classed with flowers and music, that sort of beauty which by its very nature was virtuous, being moulded only for pure and delicate joys.

moulded - moulé, terreau, humus

But since he did not mean to marry for the next five years"his more pressing business was to look into Louis'new book on Fever, which he was specially interested in, because he had known Louis in Paris, and had followed many anatomical demonstrations in order to ascertain the specific differences of typhus and typhoid.

demonstrations - démonstrations, démonstration, manifestation

ascertain - vérification, constater, définir

typhus - le typhus, typhus

typhoid - la typhoide, typhus

He went home and read far into the smallest hour, bringing a much more testing vision of details and relations into this pathological study than he had ever thought it necessary to apply to the complexities of love and marriage, these being subjects on which he felt himself amply informed by literature, and that traditional wisdom which is handed down in the genial conversation of men.

pathological - pathologique

complexities - complexités, complexité

amply - amplement

informed - informé, informer, avertir (de)

Whereas Fever had obscure conditions, and gave him that delightful labor of the imagination which is not mere arbitrariness, but the exercise of disciplined power"combining and constructing with the clearest eye for probabilities and the fullest obedience to knowledge; and then, in yet more energetic alliance with impartial Nature, standing aloof to invent tests by which to try its own work.

obscure - obscure, obscur, sibyllin, obscurcir

arbitrariness - l'arbitraire, arbitrarité, caractere arbitraire

disciplined - discipliné, discipline, pénalité

constructing - construire, construction

obedience - l'obéissance, obéissance

more energetic - plus énergique

aloof - a l'écart, a distance, dédaigneusement, distant, dédaigneux

Many men have been praised as vividly imaginative on the strength of their profuseness in indifferent drawing or cheap narration:"reports of very poor talk going on in distant orbs; or portraits of Lucifer coming down on his bad errands as a large ugly man with bat's wings and spurts of phosphorescence; or exaggerations of wantonness that seem to reflect life in a diseased dream.

vividly - précise

profuseness - profusion

narration - narration

Lucifer - lucifer

errands - des courses, course, commission

bat - chauve-souris, chauve-souris

spurts - des poussées, jaillir

phosphorescence - phosphorescence

But these kinds of inspiration Lydgate regarded as rather vulgar and vinous compared with the imagination that reveals subtle actions inaccessible by any sort of lens, but tracked in that outer darkness through long pathways of necessary sequence by the inward light which is the last refinement of Energy, capable of bathing even the ethereal atoms in its ideally illuminated space.

inspiration - l'inspiration, inspiration

vinous - vineux

inaccessible - inaccessible

darkness - l'obscurité, obscurité, ténebres

pathways - les voies d'acces, voie

ethereal - éthéré

atoms - atomes, atome

ideally - idéalement

He for his part had tossed away all cheap inventions where ignorance finds itself able and at ease: he was enamoured of that arduous invention which is the very eye of research, provisionally framing its object and correcting it to more and more exactness of relation; he wanted to pierce the obscurity of those minute processes which prepare human misery and joy, those invisible thoroughfares which are the first lurking-places of anguish, mania, and crime, that delicate poise and transition which determine the growth of happy or unhappy consciousness.

pierce - percer, perforage

obscurity - l'obscurité, obscurité

invisible - invisible, caché

thoroughfares - les voies de circulation, passage, grand-rue, voie principale

lurking - se cacher, (lurk), s'embusquer, se dissimuler

anguish - l'angoisse, angoissons, angoissez, angoisser, angoissent

mania - la manie, manie

poise - l'équilibre, assurance, aisance, sang-froid, aplomb, poise

transition - transition, transitionner, faire une transition

As he threw down his book, stretched his legs towards the embers in the grate, and clasped his hands at the back of his head, in that agreeable afterglow of excitement when thought lapses from examination of a specific object into a suffusive sense of its connections with all the rest of our existence"seems, as it were, to throw itself on its back after vigorous swimming and float with the repose of unexhausted strength"Lydgate felt a triumphant delight in his studies, and something like pity for those less lucky men who were not of his profession.

grate - grilles, grille, crisser, grincer, râper

clasped - serré, fermoir, serrer

lapses - lapsus, erreur, faute

suffusive - suffusif

float - flotter, flotteur, taloche, char, flottant, float

unexhausted - inépuisé

triumphant - triomphant, triomphal

"If I had not taken that turn when I was a lad," he thought, "I might have got into some stupid draught-horse work or other, and lived always in blinkers. I should never have been happy in any profession that did not call forth the highest intellectual strain, and yet keep me in good warm contact with my neighbors.

blinkers - des oilleres, oillere, paupiere

There is nothing like the medical profession for that: one can have the exclusive scientific life that touches the distance and befriend the old fogies in the parish too. It is rather harder for a clergyman: Farebrother seems to be an anomaly."

befriend - se lier d'amitié

anomaly - anomalie

This last thought brought back the Vincys and all the pictures of the evening. They floated in his mind agreeably enough, and as he took up his bed-candle his lips were curled with that incipient smile which is apt to accompany agreeable recollections.

curled - frisé, boucle, rotationnel, boucler

incipient - naissante

He was an ardent fellow, but at present his ardor was absorbed in love of his work and in the ambition of making his life recognized as a factor in the better life of mankind"like other heroes of science who had nothing but an obscure country practice to begin with.

Poor Lydgate! or shall I say, Poor Rosamond! Each lived in a world of which the other knew nothing.

It had not occurred to Lydgate that he had been a subject of eager meditation to Rosamond, who had neither any reason for throwing her marriage into distant perspective, nor any pathological studies to divert her mind from that ruminating habit, that inward repetition of looks, words, and phrases, which makes a large part in the lives of most girls.

perspective - perspective, perspectif

repetition - répétition

He had not meant to look at her or speak to her with more than the inevitable amount of admiration and compliment which a man must give to a beautiful girl; indeed, it seemed to him that his enjoyment of her music had remained almost silent, for he feared falling into the rudeness of telling her his great surprise at her possession of such accomplishment.

rudeness - l'impolitesse, impolitesse

But Rosamond had registered every look and word, and estimated them as the opening incidents of a preconceived romance"incidents which gather value from the foreseen development and climax.

registered - enregistré, registre, inscription

estimated - estimée, estimation, devis, estimer

Incidents - incidents, incident, frait-divers, fr

climax - l'apogée, climax, apogée, paroxysme, jouissance, orgasme

In Rosamond's romance it was not necessary to imagine much about the inward life of the hero, or of his serious business in the world: of course, he had a profession and was clever, as well as sufficiently handsome; but the piquant fact about Lydgate was his good birth, which distinguished him from all Middlemarch admirers, and presented marriage as a prospect of rising in rank and getting a little nearer to that celestial condition on earth in which she would have nothing to do with vulgar people, and perhaps at last associate with relatives quite equal to the county people who looked down on the Middlemarchers. It was part of Rosamond's cleverness to discern very subtly the faintest aroma of rank, and once when she had seen the Miss Brookes accompanying their uncle at the county assizes, and seated among the aristocracy, she had envied them, notwithstanding their plain dress.

piquant - piquant

celestial - céleste

associate - associé, fréquenter, associer

subtly - subtilement

aristocracy - l'aristocratie, aristocratie

If you think it incredible that to imagine Lydgate as a man of family could cause thrills of satisfaction which had anything to do with the sense that she was in love with him, I will ask you to use your power of comparison a little more effectively, and consider whether red cloth and epaulets have never had an influence of that sort.

thrills - des sensations fortes, exciter

Our passions do not live apart in locked chambers, but, dressed in their small wardrobe of notions, bring their provisions to a common table and mess together, feeding out of the common store according to their appetite.

wardrobe - garde-robe, armoire

Provisions - dispositions, provision, provisionner

Rosamond, in fact, was entirely occupied not exactly with Tertius Lydgate as he was in himself, but with his relation to her; and it was excusable in a girl who was accustomed to hear that all young men might, could, would be, or actually were in love with her, to believe at once that Lydgate could be no exception.

occupied - occupée, occuper, habiter

excusable - excusable

exception - exception

His looks and words meant more to her than other men's, because she cared more for them: she thought of them diligently, and diligently attended to that perfection of appearance, behavior, sentiments, and all other elegancies, which would find in Lydgate a more adequate admirer than she had yet been conscious of.

diligently - avec diligence

adequate - adéquat

For Rosamond, though she would never do anything that was disagreeable to her, was industrious; and now more than ever she was active in sketching her landscapes and market-carts and portraits of friends, in practising her music, and in being from morning till night her own standard of a perfect lady, having always an audience in her own consciousness, with sometimes the not unwelcome addition of a more variable external audience in the numerous visitors of the house. She found time also to read the best novels, and even the second best, and she knew much poetry by heart. Her favorite poem was "Lalla Rookh."

landscapes - paysages, paysage

carts - chariots, charrette

more variable - plus variable

second best - le deuxieme meilleur

"The best girl in the world! He will be a happy fellow who gets her!" was the sentiment of the elderly gentlemen who visited the Vincys; and the rejected young men thought of trying again, as is the fashion in country towns where the horizon is not thick with coming rivals. But Mrs.

elderly - personnes âgées, vieux, ancien, âgé

rivals - rivaux, rival, rivale, rivaliser

Plymdale thought that Rosamond had been educated to a ridiculous pitch, for what was the use of accomplishments which would be all laid aside as soon as she was married?

While her aunt Bulstrode, who had a sisterly faithfulness towards her brother's family, had two sincere wishes for Rosamond"that she might show a more serious turn of mind, and that she might meet with a husband whose wealth corresponded to her habits.

faithfulness - fidélité


"The clerkly person smiled and said

clerkly - clerkly

Promise was a pretty maid,

But being poor she died unwed."

unwed - célibataire

The Rev. Camden Farebrother, whom Lydgate went to see the next evening, lived in an old parsonage, built of stone, venerable enough to match the church which it looked out upon. All the furniture too in the house was old, but with another grade of age"that of Mr. Farebrother's father and grandfather.

Rev - rev, emballer le moteur

There were painted white chairs, with gilding and wreaths on them, and some lingering red silk damask with slits in it.

wreaths - couronnes, couronne, guirlande, tortil

damask - damas, lie-de-vin

slits - fentes, fente, vulve

There were engraved portraits of Lord Chancellors and other celebrated lawyers of the last century; and there were old pier-glasses to reflect them, as well as the little satin-wood tables and the sofas resembling a prolongation of uneasy chairs, all standing in relief against the dark wainscot.

engraved - gravé, graver

Chancellors - les chanceliers, chancelier, chanceliere

pier - quai, jetée, ponton, pile, pilier

resembling - ressemblant, ressembler

uneasy - mal a l'aise, inquiet

wainscot - lambris, panneau

This was the physiognomy of the drawing-room into which Lydgate was shown; and there were three ladies to receive him, who were also old-fashioned, and of a faded but genuine respectability: Mrs.

Farebrother, the Vicar's white-haired mother, befrilled and kerchiefed with dainty cleanliness, upright, quick-eyed, and still under seventy; Miss Noble, her sister, a tiny old lady of meeker aspect, with frills and kerchief decidedly more worn and mended; and Miss Winifred Farebrother, the Vicar's elder sister, well-looking like himself, but nipped and subdued as single women are apt to be who spend their lives in uninterrupted subjection to their elders. Lydgate had not expected to see so quaint a group: knowing simply that Mr. Farebrother was a bachelor, he had thought of being ushered into a snuggery where the chief furniture would probably be books and collections of natural objects. The Vicar himself seemed to wear rather a changed aspect, as most men do when acquaintances made elsewhere see them for the first time in their own homes; some indeed showing like an actor of genial parts disadvantageously cast for the curmudgeon in a new piece. This was not the case with Mr. Farebrother: he seemed a trifle milder and more silent, the chief talker being his mother, while he only put in a good-humored moderating remark here and there. The old lady was evidently accustomed to tell her company what they ought to think, and to regard no subject as quite safe without her steering. She was afforded leisure for this function by having all her little wants attended to by Miss Winifred. Meanwhile tiny Miss Noble carried on her arm a small basket, into which she diverted a bit of sugar, which she had first dropped in her saucer as if by mistake; looking round furtively afterwards, and reverting to her teacup with a small innocent noise as of a tiny timid quadruped. Pray think no ill of Miss Noble. That basket held small savings from her more portable food, destined for the children of her poor friends among whom she trotted on fine mornings; fostering and petting all needy creatures being so spontaneous a delight to her, that she regarded it much as if it had been a pleasant vice that she was addicted to. Perhaps she was conscious of being tempted to steal from those who had much that she might give to those who had nothing, and carried in her conscience the guilt of that repressed desire. One must be poor to know the luxury of giving!

Vicar - curé, vicaire

befrilled - etre rempli

kerchiefed - en kerchief, foulard, fichu

cleanliness - la propreté, propreté

upright - debout, integre, montant

meeker - meeker, humble, modeste, soumis, faible

frills - des fioritures, volant

mended - réparé, réparer, raccommoder, rapiécer, s'améliorer

nipped - nippé, pincer, donner un coup de dent

quaint - pittoresque, singulier, intéressant, curieux

ushered - huissier, ouvreur, escorte, garçon d'honneur, escorter

snuggery - la douilletterie

disadvantageously - de maniere désavantageuse

curmudgeon - bourgeoise, bourru, baderne, ganache, rombiere

more silent - plus silencieux

moderating - la modération, modéré, moderer, modérer

no subject - pas de sujet

steering - la direction, direction, (steer) la direction

saucer - soucoupe, sous-tasse

furtively - furtivement

reverting - revenir en arriere, conversion, retomber, retourner, redevenir

quadruped - quadrupede, quadrupede, tétrapode

more portable - plus portable

trotted - trotté, trotter

fostering - l'accueil familial, éduquer quelqu'un

needy - dans le besoin, nécessiteux

addicted - dépendants, dépendant, dépendante, intoxiqué, intoxiquée g

tempted - tentés, tenter, attirer

repressed - réprimée, réprimer

Mrs. Farebrother welcomed the guest with a lively formality and precision. She presently informed him that they were not often in want of medical aid in that house. She had brought up her children to wear flannel and not to over-eat themselves, which last habit she considered the chief reason why people needed doctors.

formality - formalité

flannel - flanelle

Lydgate pleaded for those whose fathers and mothers had over-eaten themselves, but Mrs. Farebrother held that view of things dangerous: Nature was more just than that; it would be easy for any felon to say that his ancestors ought to have been hanged instead of him. If those who had bad fathers and mothers were bad themselves, they were hanged for that.

pleaded for - a plaidé pour

felon - criminel, criminel/-elle

ancestors - ancetres, ancetre

There was no need to go back on what you couldn't see.

"My mother is like old George the Third," said the Vicar, "she objects to metaphysics."

"I object to what is wrong, Camden. I say, keep hold of a few plain truths, and make everything square with them. When I was young, Mr. Lydgate, there never was any question about right and wrong. We knew our catechism, and that was enough; we learned our creed and our duty. Every respectable Church person had the same opinions.

catechism - catéchisme

creed - croyance, crédo, (cree) croyance

But now, if you speak out of the Prayer-book itself, you are liable to be contradicted."

"That makes rather a pleasant time of it for those who like to maintain their own point," said Lydgate.

maintain - entretenir, maintenir

"But my mother always gives way," said the Vicar, slyly.

gives way - cede le passage

slyly - sournoisement

"No, no, Camden, you must not lead Mr. Lydgate into a mistake about me. I shall never show that disrespect to my parents, to give up what they taught me. Any one may see what comes of turning. If you change once, why not twenty times?"

disrespect - manque de respect, irrespect

"A man might see good arguments for changing once, and not see them for changing again," said Lydgate, amused with the decisive old lady.

amused - amusé, amuser

"Excuse me there. If you go upon arguments, they are never wanting, when a man has no constancy of mind. My father never changed, and he preached plain moral sermons without arguments, and was a good man"few better. When you get me a good man made out of arguments, I will get you a good dinner with reading you the cookery-book. That's my opinion, and I think anybody's stomach will bear me out."

constancy - constance

preached - preché, precher, proclamer

cookery-book - (cookery-book) livre de cuisine

"About the dinner certainly, mother," said Mr. Farebrother.

"It is the same thing, the dinner or the man. I am nearly seventy, Mr. Lydgate, and I go upon experience. I am not likely to follow new lights, though there are plenty of them here as elsewhere. I say, they came in with the mixed stuffs that will neither wash nor wear.

It was not so in my youth: a Churchman was a Churchman, and a clergyman, you might be pretty sure, was a gentleman, if nothing else. But now he may be no better than a Dissenter, and want to push aside my son on pretence of doctrine. But whoever may wish to push him aside, I am proud to say, Mr.

Dissenter - dissident, dissidente

Whoever - quiconque, qui que ce soit qui

Lydgate, that he will compare with any preacher in this kingdom, not to speak of this town, which is but a low standard to go by; at least, to my thinking, for I was born and bred at Exeter."

"A mother is never partial," said Mr. Farebrother, smiling. "What do you think Tyke's mother says about him?"

partial - partiel, partial

"Ah, poor creature! what indeed?" said Mrs. Farebrother, her sharpness blunted for the moment by her confidence in maternal judgments. "She says the truth to herself, depend upon it."

sharpness - la netteté, tranchant, fil, finesse, acuité, acidité, netteté

blunted - émoussé

"And what is the truth?" said Lydgate. "I am curious to know."

"Oh, nothing bad at all," said Mr. Farebrother. "He is a zealous fellow: not very learned, and not very wise, I think"because I don't agree with him."

zealous - zélé

I don't agree - Je ne suis pas d'accord

"Why, Camden!" said Miss Winifred, "Griffin and his wife told me only to-day, that Mr. Tyke said they should have no more coals if they came to hear you preach."

griffin - griffon

preach - precher, precher, proclamer

Mrs. Farebrother laid down her knitting, which she had resumed after her small allowance of tea and toast, and looked at her son as if to say "You hear that?" Miss Noble said, "Oh poor things! poor things!" in reference, probably, to the double loss of preaching and coal. But the Vicar answered quietly"

knitting - tricotage, tricot, (knit), tricoter, souder, unir, se souder

"That is because they are not my parishioners. And I don't think my sermons are worth a load of coals to them."

load - charge, chargement, fardeau

"Mr. Lydgate," said Mrs. Farebrother, who could not let this pass, "you don't know my son: he always undervalues himself. I tell him he is undervaluing the God who made him, and made him a most excellent preacher."

"That must be a hint for me to take Mr. Lydgate away to my study, mother," said the Vicar, laughing. "I promised to show you my collection," he added, turning to Lydgate; "shall we go?"

All three ladies remonstrated. Mr. Lydgate ought not to be hurried away without being allowed to accept another cup of tea: Miss Winifred had abundance of good tea in the pot. Why was Camden in such haste to take a visitor to his den? There was nothing but pickled vermin, and drawers full of blue-bottles and moths, with no carpet on the floor. Mr. Lydgate must excuse it.

abundance - l'abondance, abondance

den - den, nid

pickled - mariné, marinade(s)

drawers - tiroirs, tiroir

moths - mites, papillon de nuit

A game at cribbage would be far better. In short, it was plain that a vicar might be adored by his womankind as the king of men and preachers, and yet be held by them to stand in much need of their direction. Lydgate, with the usual shallowness of a young bachelor, wondered that Mr. Farebrother had not taught them better.

cribbage - le cribbage, crib

womankind - l'humanité, femmes

preachers - precheurs, prédicateur, precheur

shallowness - insipidité

"My mother is not used to my having visitors who can take any interest in my hobbies," said the Vicar, as he opened the door of his study, which was indeed as bare of luxuries for the body as the ladies had implied, unless a short porcelain pipe and a tobacco-box were to be excepted.

porcelain - porcelaine

tobacco-box - (tobacco-box) une tabatiere

"Men of your profession don't generally smoke," he said. Lydgate smiled and shook his head. "Nor of mine either, properly, I suppose. You will hear that pipe alleged against me by Bulstrode and Company. They don't know how pleased the devil would be if I gave it up."

"I understand. You are of an excitable temper and want a sedative. I am heavier, and should get idle with it. I should rush into idleness, and stagnate there with all my might."

excitable - excitable

sedative - sédatif

stagnate - stagner

"And you mean to give it all to your work. I am some ten or twelve years older than you, and have come to a compromise. I feed a weakness or two lest they should get clamorous. See," continued the Vicar, opening several small drawers, "I fancy I have made an exhaustive study of the entomology of this district. I am going on both with the fauna and flora; but I have at least done my insects well.

clamorous - clameur

exhaustive - exhaustive

Entomology - entomologie, insectologie

district - district, checkrégion

fauna - faune

We are singularly rich in orthoptera: I don't know whether"Ah! you have got hold of that glass jar"you are looking into that instead of my drawers. You don't really care about these things?"

singularly - singulierement

orthoptera - Orthopteres

jar - bocal, jarre

"Not by the side of this lovely anencephalous monster. I have never had time to give myself much to natural history. I was early bitten with an interest in structure, and it is what lies most directly in my profession. I have no hobby besides. I have the sea to swim in there."

monster - monstre, bete, monstrueux

"Ah! you are a happy fellow," said Mr. Farebrother, turning on his heel and beginning to fill his pipe.

heel - talon, alinéa

"You don't know what it is to wAnt spiritual tobacco"bad emendations of old texts, or small items about a variety of Aphis Brassicae, with the well-known signature of Philomicron, for the ˜Twaddler's Magazine;'or a learned treatise on the entomology of the Pentateuch, including all the insects not mentioned, but probably met with by the Israelites in their passage through the desert; with a monograph on the Ant, as treated by Solomon, showing the harmony of the Book of Proverbs with the results of modern research. You don't mind my fumigating you?"

ant - fourmi

tobacco - le tabac, tabac

Aphis - Aphis

signature - signature

Twaddler - twaddler

Pentateuch - le pentateuque, Pentateuque

Israelites - les israélites, Israélite, fils d'Israël

monograph - monographie

harmony - l'harmonie, harmonie

proverbs - proverbes, proverbe

fumigating - fumigation, désinfecter (par fumigation)

Lydgate was more surprised at the openness of this talk than at its implied meaning"that the Vicar felt himself not altogether in the right vocation. The neat fitting-up of drawers and shelves, and the bookcase filled with expensive illustrated books on Natural History, made him think again of the winnings at cards and their destination.

neat - soigné, parure

Illustrated - illustré, illustra, illustrée

But he was beginning to wish that the very best construction of everything that Mr. Farebrother did should be the true one. The Vicar's frankness seemed not of the repulsive sort that comes from an uneasy consciousness seeking to forestall the judgment of others, but simply the relief of a desire to do with as little pretence as possible.

repulsive - répugnant

forestall - prévenir

Apparently he was not without a sense that his freedom of speech might seem premature, for he presently said"

"I have not yet told you that I have the advantage of you, Mr. Lydgate, and know you better than you know me. You remember Trawley who shared your apartment at Paris for some time? I was a correspondent of his, and he told me a good deal about you. I was not quite sure when you first came that you were the same man. I was very glad when I found that you were.

Trawley - trawley

correspondent - correspondant, correspondante

Only I don't forget that you have not had the like prologue about me."

prologue - prologue

Lydgate divined some delicacy of feeling here, but did not half understand it. "By the way," he said, "what has become of Trawley? I have quite lost sight of him. He was hot on the French social systems, and talked of going to the Backwoods to found a sort of Pythagorean community. Is he gone?"

divined - diviné, divin

delicacy of feeling - la délicatesse des sentiments

Pythagorean - pythagore, pythagoricien, pythagoricienne

"Not at all. He is practising at a German bath, and has married a rich patient."

German - Allemand, Allemande, Germain, Germaine

"Then my notions wear the best, so far," said Lydgate, with a short scornful laugh. "He would have it, the medical profession was an inevitable system of humbug. I said, the fault was in the men"men who truckle to lies and folly. Instead of preaching against humbug outside the walls, it might be better to set up a disinfecting apparatus within.

scornful - méprisante, méprisant}, dédaigneux

truckle - truckle

disinfecting - la désinfection, désinfecter

In short"I am reporting my own conversation"you may be sure I had all the good sense on my side."

"Your scheme is a good deal more difficult to carry out than the Pythagorean community, though. You have not only got the old Adam in yourself against you, but you have got all those descendants of the original Adam who form the society around you. You see, I have paid twelve or thirteen years more than you for my knowledge of difficulties. But""Mr.

descendants - descendants, descendant, descendante

Farebrother broke off a moment, and then added, "you are eying that glass vase again. Do you want to make an exchange? You shall not have it without a fair barter."

barter - le troc, troc, troquer

"I have some sea-mice"fine specimens"in spirits. And I will throw in Robert Brown's new thing"˜Microscopic Observations on the Pollen of Plants'"if you don't happen to have it already."

specimens - spécimens, spécimen, exemple

Robert - robert

microscopic - microscopique

pollen - pollen

"Why, seeing how you long for the monster, I might ask a higher price. Suppose I ask you to look through my drawers and agree with me about all my new species?" The Vicar, while he talked in this way, alternately moved about with his pipe in his mouth, and returned to hang rather fondly over his drawers.

fondly - affectieux

"That would be good discipline, you know, for a young doctor who has to please his patients in Middlemarch. You must learn to be bored, remember. However, you shall have the monster on your own terms."

discipline - discipline, pénalité, branche

be bored - etre ennuyé

"Don't you think men overrate the necessity for humoring everybody's nonsense, till they get despised by the very fools they humor?" said Lydgate, moving to Mr. Farebrother's side, and looking rather absently at the insects ranged in fine gradation, with names subscribed in exquisite writing.

overrate - surévaluer, surestimer, surfaire, surcoter

humoring - l'humour, humour

despised - méprisé, mépriser, dédaigner

ranged in - rangé

subscribed - abonné(e), abonner, s'abonner, souscrire

"The shortest way is to make your value felt, so that people must put up with you whether you flatter them or not."

"With all my heart. But then you must be sure of having the value, and you must keep yourself independent. Very few men can do that. Either you slip out of service altogether, and become good for nothing, or you wear the harness and draw a good deal where your yoke-fellows pull you. But do look at these delicate orthoptera!"

Lydgate had after all to give some scrutiny to each drawer, the Vicar laughing at himself, and yet persisting in the exhibition.

persisting - persister

"Apropos of what you said about wearing harness," Lydgate began, after they had sat down, "I made up my mind some time ago to do with as little of it as possible. That was why I determined not to try anything in London, for a good many years at least. I didn't like what I saw when I was studying there"so much empty bigwiggism, and obstructive trickery.

bigwiggism - le bigwiggisme

obstructive - obstructive, obstructif

trickery - la tromperie, tricherie, magouillage

In the country, people have less pretension to knowledge, and are less of companions, but for that reason they affect one's amour-propre less: one makes less bad blood, and can follow one's own course more quietly."

pretension - prétention

amour - béguin

"Yes"well"you have got a good start; you are in the right profession, the work you feel yourself most fit for. Some people miss that, and repent too late. But you must not be too sure of keeping your independence."

repent - se repentir, repentir, repentez, repentons, repentent

Independence - l'indépendance, indépendance

"You mean of family ties?" said Lydgate, conceiving that these might press rather tightly on Mr. Farebrother.

tightly - étanche, fermement

"Not altogether. Of course they make many things more difficult. But a good wife"a good unworldly woman"may really help a man, and keep him more independent. There's a parishioner of mine"a fine fellow, but who would hardly have pulled through as he has done without his wife. Do you know the Garths? I think they were not Peacock's patients."

more independent - plus indépendant

parishioner - paroissien, paroissienne

pulled through - s'en sortir

"No; but there is a Miss Garth at old Featherstone's, at Lowick."

"Their daughter: an excellent girl."

"She is very quiet"I have hardly noticed her."

"She has taken notice of you, though, depend upon it."

"I don't understand," said Lydgate; he could hardly say "Of course."

I don't understand - Je ne comprends pas

"Oh, she gauges everybody. I prepared her for confirmation"she is a favorite of mine."

gauges - jauges, gabarit, étalon, mesurer, estimer, jauger

confirmation - confirmation, vérification

Mr. Farebrother puffed a few moments in silence, Lydgate not caring to know more about the Garths. At last the Vicar laid down his pipe, stretched out his legs, and turned his bright eyes with a smile towards Lydgate, saying"

"But we Middlemarchers are not so tame as you take us to be. We have our intrigues and our parties. I am a party man, for example, and Bulstrode is another. If you vote for me you will offend Bulstrode."

tame - apprivoisé, dresser

"What is there against Bulstrode?" said Lydgate, emphatically.

"I did not say there was anything against him except that. If you vote against him you will make him your enemy."

"I don't know that I need mind about that," said Lydgate, rather proudly; "but he seems to have good ideas about hospitals, and he spends large sums on useful public objects. He might help me a good deal in carrying out my ideas. As to his religious notions"why, as Voltaire said, incantations will destroy a flock of sheep if administered with a certain quantity of arsenic.

proudly - fierement, fierement

sums - sommes, somme

incantations - incantations, incantation

flock - troupeau

administered - administré, administrer, gérer

arsenic - l'arsenic, arsenic

I look for the man who will bring the arsenic, and don't mind about his incantations."

"Very good. But then you must not offend your arsenic-man. You will not offend me, you know," said Mr. Farebrother, quite unaffectedly. "I don't translate my own convenience into other people's duties. I am opposed to Bulstrode in many ways. I don't like the set he belongs to: they are a narrow ignorant set, and do more to make their neighbors uncomfortable than to make them better.

unaffectedly - sans affectation

convenience - la commodité, convenance, commodité, avantage, commodités

Their system is a sort of worldly-spiritual cliqueism: they really look on the rest of mankind as a doomed carcass which is to nourish them for heaven. But," he added, smilingly, "I don't say that Bulstrode's new hospital is a bad thing; and as to his wanting to oust me from the old one"why, if he thinks me a mischievous fellow, he is only returning a compliment.

cliqueism - le cliquetisme

doomed - condamnée, mort, ruine, perte, condamner

carcass - carcasse, cadavre

nourish - nourrir

smilingly - en souriant

oust - oust, expulser

mischievous - espiegle

And I am not a model clergyman"only a decent makeshift."

Lydgate was not at all sure that the Vicar maligned himself. A model clergyman, like a model doctor, ought to think his own profession the finest in the world, and take all knowledge as mere nourishment to his moral pathology and therapeutics. He only said, "What reason does Bulstrode give for superseding you?"

maligned - malmené, vilipender, injurier

nourishment - l'alimentation, nourriture

therapeutics - thérapeutique

superseding - remplacer, supplanter

"That I don't teach his opinions"which he calls spiritual religion; and that I have no time to spare. Both statements are true. But then I could make time, and I should be glad of the forty pounds. That is the plain fact of the case. But let us dismiss it. I only wanted to tell you that if you vote for your arsenic-man, you are not to cut me in consequence. I can't spare you.

dismiss - renvoyer, limoger, licencier, démettre

You are a sort of circumnavigator come to settle among us, and will keep up my belief in the antipodes. Now tell me all about them in Paris."

circumnavigator - circumnavigateur, circumnavigatrice


"Oh, sir, the loftiest hopes on earth

loftiest - le plus élevé, haut

Draw lots with meaner hopes: heroic breasts,

breasts - seins, sein, poitrine, cour

Breathing bad air, run risk of pestilence;

pestilence - la peste, peste

Or, lacking lime-juice when they cross the Line,

lime - chaux, calcaire

May languish with the scurvy."

scurvy - le scorbut, scorbut

Some weeks passed after this conversation before the question of the chaplaincy gathered any practical import for Lydgate, and without telling himself the reason, he deferred the predetermination on which side he should give his vote.

predetermination - prédetermination

It would really have been a matter of total indifference to him"that is to say, he would have taken the more convenient side, and given his vote for the appointment of Tyke without any hesitation"if he had not cared personally for Mr. Farebrother.

hesitation - hésitation

But his liking for the Vicar of St. Botolph's grew with growing acquaintanceship. That, entering into Lydgate's position as a new-comer who had his own professional objects to secure, Mr. Farebrother should have taken pains rather to warn off than to obtain his interest, showed an unusual delicacy and generosity, which Lydgate's nature was keenly alive to.

obtain - obtenir, se procurer, réussir, avoir succes, s'établir

generosity - la générosité, générosité, bonté

It went along with other points of conduct in Mr. Farebrother which were exceptionally fine, and made his character resemble those southern landscapes which seem divided between natural grandeur and social slovenliness.

exceptionally - exceptionnellement

Very few men could have been as filial and chivalrous as he was to the mother, aunt, and sister, whose dependence on him had in many ways shaped his life rather uneasily for himself; few men who feel the pressure of small needs are so nobly resolute not to dress up their inevitably self-interested desires in a pretext of better motives.

dependence - dépendance

inevitably - inévitablement

pretext - prétexte

In these matters he was conscious that his life would bear the closest scrutiny; and perhaps the consciousness encouraged a little defiance towards the critical strictness of persons whose celestial intimacies seemed not to improve their domestic manners, and whose lofty aims were not needed to account for their actions.

defiance - défiance, défi

strictness - la rigueur

intimacies - intimités, intimité

Then, his preaching was ingenious and pithy, like the preaching of the English Church in its robust age, and his sermons were delivered without book. People outside his parish went to hear him; and, since to fill the church was always the most difficult part of a clergyman's function, here was another ground for a careless sense of superiority.

pithy - pithyrambique, succinct, bref, sommaire, laconique, moelleux

robust - robuste

Besides, he was a likable man: sweet-tempered, ready-witted, frank, without grins of suppressed bitterness or other conversational flavors which make half of us an affliction to our friends. Lydgate liked him heartily, and wished for his friendship.

likable - aimable, sympathique

witted - d'esprit

grins - grins, avoir un grand sourire

flavors - saveurs, gout, saveur, style

heartily - chaleureusement

With this feeling uppermost, he continued to waive the question of the chaplaincy, and to persuade himself that it was not only no proper business of his, but likely enough never to vex him with a demand for his vote. Lydgate, at Mr. Bulstrode's request, was laying down plans for the internal arrangements of the new hospital, and the two were often in consultation.

uppermost - le plus haut

The banker was always presupposing that he could count in general on Lydgate as a coadjutor, but made no special recurrence to the coming decision between Tyke and Farebrother.

recurrence - récidive, récurrence

When the General Board of the Infirmary had met, however, and Lydgate had notice that the question of the chaplaincy was thrown on a council of the directors and medical men, to meet on the following Friday, he had a vexed sense that he must make up his mind on this trivial Middlemarch business.

Council - le conseil, conseil

He could not help hearing within him the distinct declaration that Bulstrode was prime minister, and that the Tyke affair was a question of office or no office; and he could not help an equally pronounced dislike to giving up the prospect of office. For his observation was constantly confirming Mr. Farebrother's assurance that the banker would not overlook opposition.

distinct - distinct, intelligible, reconnaissable

declaration - déclaration

prime - premier

overlook - vue, panorama, surplomber, négliger, louper, passer outre

"Confound their petty politics!" was one of his thoughts for three mornings in the meditative process of shaving, when he had begun to feel that he must really hold a court of conscience on this matter. Certainly there were valid things to be said against the election of Mr.

Farebrother: he had too much on his hands already, especially considering how much time he spent on non-clerical occupations. Then again it was a continually repeated shock, disturbing Lydgate's esteem, that the Vicar should obviously play for the sake of money, liking the play indeed, but evidently liking some end which it served. Mr.

occupations - professions, occupation

esteem - estime, respect, respecter

Farebrother contended on theory for the desirability of all games, and said that Englishmen's wit was stagnant for want of them; but Lydgate felt certain that he would have played very much less but for the money. There was a billiard-room at the Green Dragon, which some anxious mothers and wives regarded as the chief temptation in Middlemarch.

wit - wit, esprit

billiard - billard

temptation - la tentation, tentation

The Vicar was a first-rate billiard-player, and though he did not frequent the Green Dragon, there were reports that he had sometimes been there in the daytime and had won money. And as to the chaplaincy, he did not pretend that he cared for it, except for the sake of the forty pounds.

daytime - journée, jour

Lydgate was no Puritan, but he did not care for play, and winning money at it had always seemed a meanness to him; besides, he had an ideal of life which made this subservience of conduct to the gaining of small sums thoroughly hateful to him.

subservience - la soumission, soumission, servilité, asservissement

gaining - l'acquisition, (gain) l'acquisition

hateful - haineux

Hitherto in his own life his wants had been supplied without any trouble to himself, and his first impulse was always to be liberal with half-crowns as matters of no importance to a gentleman; it had never occurred to him to devise a plan for getting half-crowns.

crowns - couronnes, couronne

devise - concevoir, élaborer

He had always known in a general way that he was not rich, but he had never felt poor, and he had no power of imagining the part which the want of money plays in determining the actions of men. Money had never been a motive to him. Hence he was not ready to frame excuses for this deliberate pursuit of small gains.

excuses - des excuses, excuser, pardonner, justifier

deliberate - délibérée, délibéré, concerté, délibérer

gains - gains, gagner

It was altogether repulsive to him, and he never entered into any calculation of the ratio between the Vicar's income and his more or less necessary expenditure. It was possible that he would not have made such a calculation in his own case.

ratio - rapport (1), ratio

expenditure - des dépenses, dépense

And now, when the question of voting had come, this repulsive fact told more strongly against Mr. Farebrother than it had done before. One would know much better what to do if men's characters were more consistent, and especially if one's friends were invariably fit for any function they desired to undertake! Lydgate was convinced that if there had been no valid objection to Mr.

invariably - invariablement

Farebrother, he would have voted for him, whatever Bulstrode might have felt on the subject: he did not intend to be a vassal of Bulstrode's. On the other hand, there was Tyke, a man entirely given to his clerical office, who was simply curate at a chapel of ease in St. Peter's parish, and had time for extra duty. Nobody had anything to say against Mr.

vassal - vassal, vassaliser

Tyke, except that they could not bear him, and suspected him of cant. Really, from his point of view, Bulstrode was thoroughly justified.

cant - cant, langage hypocrite

But whichever way Lydgate began to incline, there was something to make him wince; and being a proud man, he was a little exasperated at being obliged to wince.

whichever - quel qu'il soit, n'importe quel, n'importe lequel

wince - grimacer

exasperated - exaspéré, exaspérer

He did not like frustrating his own best purposes by getting on bad terms with Bulstrode; he did not like voting against Farebrother, and helping to deprive him of function and salary; and the question occurred whether the additional forty pounds might not leave the Vicar free from that ignoble care about winning at cards.

deprive - priver

ignoble - indigne, ignoble

Moreover, Lydgate did not like the consciousness that in voting for Tyke he should be voting on the side obviously convenient for himself. But would the end really be his own convenience? Other people would say so, and would allege that he was currying favor with Bulstrode for the sake of making himself important and getting on in the world. What then?

allege - alléguer, alléguez, alléguons, alléguent

currying - le curry, (currie) le curry

He for his own part knew that if his personal prospects simply had been concerned, he would not have cared a rotten nut for the banker's friendship or enmity.

rotten - pourri, mauvais

enmity - inimitié

What he really cared for was a medium for his work, a vehicle for his ideas; and after all, was he not bound to prefer the object of getting a good hospital, where he could demonstrate the specific distinctions of fever and test therapeutic results, before anything else connected with this chaplaincy?

distinctions - distinctions, distinction, différence

therapeutic - thérapeutique

For the first time Lydgate was feeling the hampering threadlike pressure of small social conditions, and their frustrating complexity. At the end of his inward debate, when he set out for the hospital, his hope was really in the chance that discussion might somehow give a new aspect to the question, and make the scale dip so as to exclude the necessity for voting.

hampering - entrave, entraver

threadlike - comme un fil

complexity - complexité

I think he trusted a little also to the energy which is begotten by circumstances"some feeling rushing warmly and making resolve easy, while debate in cool blood had only made it more difficult. However it was, he did not distinctly say to himself on which side he would vote; and all the while he was inwardly resenting the subjection which had been forced upon him.

trusted - de confiance, confiance, trust, faire confiance

begotten - engendré, engendrer, procréer

rushing - se précipiter, (rush) se précipiter

warmly - chaleureusement, chaudement

resenting - de la rancune, s'offenser de qqch

It would have seemed beforehand like a ridiculous piece of bad logic that he, with his unmixed resolutions of independence and his select purposes, would find himself at the very outset in the grasp of petty alternatives, each of which was repugnant to him. In his student's chambers, he had prearranged his social action quite differently.

logic - logique

select - sélect, choisir, sélectionner

outset - départ, début

grasp - saisir, agripper, comprendre

repugnant - répugnant

Lydgate was late in setting out, but Dr. Sprague, the two other surgeons, and several of the directors had arrived early; Mr. Bulstrode, treasurer and chairman, being among those who were still absent. The conversation seemed to imply that the issue was problematical, and that a majority for Tyke was not so certain as had been generally supposed.

treasurer - ministre du budget, trésorier, trésoriere

chairman - secrétaire général (for a political party), président

majority - majorité

The two physicians, for a wonder, turned out to be unanimous, or rather, though of different minds, they concurred in action. Dr. Sprague, the rugged and weighty, was, as every one had foreseen, an adherent of Mr. Farebrother.

unanimous - a l'unanimité

concurred - a accepté, etre d'accord, convenir

weighty - lourd, important

adherent - adhérent

The Doctor was more than suspected of having no religion, but somehow Middlemarch tolerated this deficiency in him as if he had been a Lord Chancellor; indeed it is probable that his professional weight was the more believed in, the world-old association of cleverness with the evil principle being still potent in the minds even of lady-patients who had the strictest ideas of frilling and sentiment. It was perhaps this negation in the Doctor which made his neighbors call him hard-headed and dry-witted; conditions of texture which were also held favorable to the storing of judgments connected with drugs. At all events, it is certain that if any medical man had come to Middlemarch with the reputation of having very definite religious views, of being given to prayer, and of otherwise showing an active piety, there would have been a general presumption against his medical skill.

tolerated - toléré, tolérer, supporter, souffrir

Lord Chancellor - Lord Chancelier

Association - association

potent - puissant

strictest - la plus stricte, strict

frilling - frilling, (frill) frilling

negation - la négation, négation

texture - texture

On this ground it was (professionally speaking) fortunate for Dr. Minchin that his religious sympathies were of a general kind, and such as gave a distant medical sanction to all serious sentiment, whether of Church or Dissent, rather than any adhesion to particular tenets. If Mr.

professionally - sur le plan professionnel

sympathies - sympathies, compassion, sympathie, condoléance

adhesion - l'adhésion, adhésion

tenets - principes, principe, croyance, dogme

Bulstrode insisted, as he was apt to do, on the Lutheran doctrine of justification, as that by which a Church must stand or fall, Dr. Minchin in return was quite sure that man was not a mere machine or a fortuitous conjunction of atoms; if Mrs. Wimple insisted on a particular providence in relation to her stomach complaint, Dr.

Lutheran - luthérien, luthérienne

justification - justification

fortuitous - fortuite

conjunction - conjonction

Wimple - wimple

Minchin for his part liked to keep the mental windows open and objected to fixed limits; if the Unitarian brewer jested about the Athanasian Creed, Dr. Minchin quoted Pope's "Essay on Man." He objected to the rather free style of anecdote in which Dr.

Unitarian - unitarien, unitarien-universaliste

brewer - brasseur, brasseuse

jested - jested, plaisanterie

anecdote - anecdote

Sprague indulged, preferring well-sanctioned quotations, and liking refinement of all kinds: it was generally known that he had some kinship to a bishop, and sometimes spent his holidays at "the palace."

indulged - se sont-ils laissés aller, céder, succomber, dorloter, gâter

sanctioned - sanctionné, approbation, validation, sanction, décret

kinship - la parenté, parenté

Dr. Minchin was soft-handed, pale-complexioned, and of rounded outline, not to be distinguished from a mild clergyman in appearance: whereas Dr. Sprague was superfluously tall; his trousers got creased at the knees, and showed an excess of boot at a time when straps seemed necessary to any dignity of bearing; you heard him go in and out, and up and down, as if he had come to see after the roofing.

complexioned - teint, complexion

superfluously - de maniere superflue

creased - froissé, pli

straps - sangles, sangle, courroie, laniere, bandouliere

In short, he had weight, and might be expected to grapple with a disease and throw it; while Dr. Minchin might be better able to detect it lurking and to circumvent it. They enjoyed about equally the mysterious privilege of medical reputation, and concealed with much etiquette their contempt for each other's skill.

grapple - grappin, attraper, capturer

detect - détecter, détectez, détectent, dénicher, détectons

circumvent - contourner, circonvenir, cerner

concealed - dissimulée, dissimuler, cacher

etiquette - l'étiquette, étiquette

Regarding themselves as Middlemarch institutions, they were ready to combine against all innovators, and against non-professionals given to interference. On this ground they were both in their hearts equally averse to Mr. Bulstrode, though Dr. Minchin had never been in open hostility with him, and never differed from him without elaborate explanation to Mrs. Bulstrode, who had found that Dr.

innovators - innovateurs, innovateur

hostility - l'hostilité, hostilité

elaborate - élaborer, approfondir

Minchin alone understood her constitution. A layman who pried into the professional conduct of medical men, and was always obtruding his reforms,"though he was less directly embarrassing to the two physicians than to the surgeon-apothecaries who attended paupers by contract, was nevertheless offensive to the professional nostril as such; and Dr.

pried - prié, fouiner

obtruding - genante, (obtrude), empiéter, transparaître

paupers - des indigents, pauvre, indigent

contract - contrat, contractez, contractent, contractons

nostril - narine

Minchin shared fully in the new pique against Bulstrode, excited by his apparent determination to patronize Lydgate. The long-established practitioners, Mr. Wrench and Mr. Toller; were just now standing apart and having a friendly colloquy, in which they agreed that Lydgate was a jackanapes, just made to serve Bulstrode's purpose.

pique - pique, dépit

apparent - apparente, apparent, visible, manifeste, criant, évident

patronize - patronner, fréquenter, patrociner, prendre de haut

established - établie, affermir, établir

colloquy - colloque, conversation

jackanapes - jackanapes

To non-medical friends they had already concurred in praising the other young practitioner, who had come into the town on Mr. Peacock's retirement without further recommendation than his own merits and such argument for solid professional acquirement as might be gathered from his having apparently wasted no time on other branches of knowledge.

praising - louer, (praise), louange, féliciter, prôner, vénérer

retirement - la retraite, retraite

It was clear that Lydgate, by not dispensing drugs, intended to cast imputations on his equals, and also to obscure the limit between his own rank as a general practitioner and that of the physicians, who, in the interest of the profession, felt bound to maintain its various grades,"especially against a man who had not been to either of the English universities and enjoyed the absence of anatomical and bedside study there, but came with a libellous pretension to experience in Edinburgh and Paris, where observation might be abundant indeed, but hardly sound.

imputations - imputations, imputation

bedside - au chevet du malade

libellous - diffamatoire

Thus it happened that on this occasion Bulstrode became identified with Lydgate, and Lydgate with Tyke; and owing to this variety of interchangeable names for the chaplaincy question, diverse minds were enabled to form the same judgment concerning it.

owing - owing, devoir

interchangeable - interchangeables

diverse - divers, différent, diversifié

Dr. Sprague said at once bluntly to the group assembled when he entered, "I go for Farebrother. A salary, with all my heart. But why take it from the Vicar? He has none too much"has to insure his life, besides keeping house, and doing a vicar's charities. Put forty pounds in his pocket and you'll do no harm.

insure - assurer

keeping house - garder la maison

He's a good fellow, is Farebrother, with as little of the parson about him as will serve to carry orders."

"Ho, ho! Doctor," said old Mr. Powderell, a retired iron-monger of some standing"his interjection being something between a laugh and a Parliamentary disapproval; "we must let you have your say. But what we have to consider is not anybody's income"it's the souls of the poor sick people""here Mr. Powderell's voice and face had a sincere pathos in them. "He is a real Gospel preacher, is Mr. Tyke.

monger - monger, marchand

interjection - interjection

parliamentary - parlementaire

sick people - des personnes malades

gospel - l'évangile, évangile

I should vote against my conscience if I voted against Mr. Tyke"I should indeed."

"Mr. Tyke's opponents have not asked any one to vote against his conscience, I believe," said Mr. Hackbutt, a rich tanner of fluent speech, whose glittering spectacles and erect hair were turned with some severity towards innocent Mr. Powderell.

tanner - tanneur, (tan) tanneur

glittering - scintillant, étincelant, (glitter), étincellement, paillette

erect - en érection, fonder, érigeons, érigent, érigez, arborer, ériger

severity - la sévérité, sévérité, gravité

"But in my judgment it behoves us, as Directors, to consider whether we will regard it as our whole business to carry out propositions emanating from a single quarter.

behoves - doit, incomber

propositions - propositions, proposition

emanating - émanant, émaner

Will any member of the committee aver that he would have entertained the idea of displacing the gentleman who has always discharged the function of chaplain here, if it had not been suggested to him by parties whose disposition it is to regard every institution of this town as a machinery for carrying out their own views?

committee - de la commission, comité, commission

aver - moyenne

discharged - déchargée, licenciement, débit

Institution - l'institution, institution

machinery - des machines, machines, pieces, machinerie, mécanique

I tax no man's motives: let them lie between himself and a higher Power; but I do say, that there are influences at work here which are incompatible with genuine independence, and that a crawling servility is usually dictated by circumstances which gentlemen so conducting themselves could not afford either morally or financially to avow.

crawling - a quatre pattes, (crawl) a quatre pattes

dictated - dicté, dicter

conducting - la conduite, comportement, conduite, se comporter, conduire

financially - sur le plan financier

avow - avow, avouer, confesser

I myself am a layman, but I have given no inconsiderable attention to the divisions in the Church and""

inconsiderable - insignifiante

divisions - divisions, division

"Oh, damn the divisions!" burst in Mr. Frank Hawley, lawyer and town-clerk, who rarely presented himself at the board, but now looked in hurriedly, whip in hand. "We have nothing to do with them here. Farebrother has been doing the work"what there was"without pay, and if pay is to be given, it should be given to him. I call it a confounded job to take the thing away from Farebrother."

damn - Zut

burst in - fait irruption

clerk - greffier

hurriedly - en toute hâte, a la hâte, a la sauvette, a la va-vite

"I think it would be as well for gentlemen not to give their remarks a personal bearing," said Mr. Plymdale. "I shall vote for the appointment of Mr. Tyke, but I should not have known, if Mr. Hackbutt hadn't hinted it, that I was a Servile Crawler."

servile - servile

Crawler - chenille

"I disclaim any personalities. I expressly said, if I may be allowed to repeat, or even to conclude what I was about to say""

disclaim - renoncer, désavouent, désavouez, démentir, désavouer

"Ah, here's Minchin!" said Mr. Frank Hawley; at which everybody turned away from Mr. Hackbutt, leaving him to feel the uselessness of superior gifts in Middlemarch. "Come, Doctor, I must have you on the right side, eh?"

Uselessness - inutilité

"I hope so," said Dr. Minchin, nodding and shaking hands here and there; "at whatever cost to my feelings."

"If there's any feeling here, it should be feeling for the man who is turned out, I think," said Mr. Frank Hawley.

"I confess I have feelings on the other side also. I have a divided esteem," said Dr. Minchin, rubbing his hands. "I consider Mr. Tyke an exemplary man"none more so"and I believe him to be proposed from unimpeachable motives. I, for my part, wish that I could give him my vote. But I am constrained to take a view of the case which gives the preponderance to Mr. Farebrother's claims.

exemplary - exemplaire

unimpeachable - irréprochable

preponderance - prépondérance

He is an amiable man, an able preacher, and has been longer among us."

Old Mr. Powderell looked on, sad and silent. Mr. Plymdale settled his cravat, uneasily.

cravat - cravate, foulard

"You don't set up Farebrother as a pattern of what a clergyman ought to be, I hope," said Mr. Larcher, the eminent carrier, who had just come in. "I have no ill-will towards him, but I think we owe something to the public, not to speak of anything higher, in these appointments. In my opinion Farebrother is too lax for a clergyman.

carrier - transporteur, porteuse

I don't wish to bring up particulars against him; but he will make a little attendance here go as far as he can."

"And a devilish deal better than too much," said Mr. Hawley, whose bad language was notorious in that part of the county. "Sick people can't bear so much praying and preaching. And that methodistical sort of religion is bad for the spirits"bad for the inside, eh?" he added, turning quickly round to the four medical men who were assembled.

devilish - diabolique

notorious - notoire

But any answer was dispensed with by the entrance of three gentlemen, with whom there were greetings more or less cordial. These were the Reverend Edward Thesiger, Rector of St. Peter's, Mr. Bulstrode, and our friend Mr. Brooke of Tipton, who had lately allowed himself to be put on the board of directors in his turn, but had never before attended, his attendance now being due to Mr.

dispensed - distribué, émettre, distribuer, partager, dispenser, doser

greetings - salutations, salutation, salut

Bulstrode's exertions. Lydgate was the only person still expected.

exertions - des efforts, effort, dépense

Every one now sat down, Mr. Bulstrode presiding, pale and self-restrained as usual. Mr. Thesiger, a moderate evangelical, wished for the appointment of his friend Mr. Tyke, a zealous able man, who, officiating at a chapel of ease, had not a cure of souls too extensive to leave him ample time for the new duty.

presiding - préside-t-il, présider

cure of souls - la guérison des âmes

extensive - étendu

ample - ample

It was desirable that chaplaincies of this kind should be entered on with a fervent intention: they were peculiar opportunities for spiritual influence; and while it was good that a salary should be allotted, there was the more need for scrupulous watching lest the office should be perverted into a mere question of salary. Mr.

fervent - fervent

allotted - allouée, attribuer

perverted - pervers, déviant

Thesiger's manner had so much quiet propriety that objectors could only simmer in silence.

simmer - mijoter, (faire) mijoter

Mr. Brooke believed that everybody meant well in the matter. He had not himself attended to the affairs of the Infirmary, though he had a strong interest in whatever was for the benefit of Middlemarch, and was most happy to meet the gentlemen present on any public question""any public question, you know," Mr. Brooke repeated, with his nod of perfect understanding.

"I am a good deal occupied as a magistrate, and in the collection of documentary evidence, but I regard my time as being at the disposal of the public"and, in short, my friends have convinced me that a chaplain with a salary"a salary, you know"is a very good thing, and I am happy to be able to come here and vote for the appointment of Mr.

documentary evidence - des preuves documentaires

disposal - l'élimination, disposition, élimination

Tyke, who, I understand, is an unexceptionable man, apostolic and eloquent and everything of that kind"and I am the last man to withhold my vote"under the circumstances, you know."

apostolic - apostolique

eloquent - éloquent

withhold - retenir

"It seems to me that you have been crammed with one side of the question, Mr. Brooke," said Mr. Frank Hawley, who was afraid of nobody, and was a Tory suspicious of electioneering intentions. "You don't seem to know that one of the worthiest men we have has been doing duty as chaplain here for years without pay, and that Mr. Tyke is proposed to supersede him."

crammed - entassés, bourrer, ficher, foutre, emmancher, fourrer, gaver

Tory - Tory

supersede - remplacer, supplanter

"Excuse me, Mr. Hawley," said Mr. Bulstrode. "Mr. Brooke has been fully informed of Mr. Farebrother's character and position."

"By his enemies," flashed out Mr. Hawley.

flashed - flashé, éclair, lueur

"I trust there is no personal hostility concerned here," said Mr. Thesiger.

"I'll swear there is, though," retorted Mr. Hawley.

swear - jurer, blasphémer, jurez, jurons, jurent

retorted - a rétorqué, rétorquer

"Gentlemen," said Mr. Bulstrode, in a subdued tone, "the merits of the question may be very briefly stated, and if any one present doubts that every gentleman who is about to give his vote has not been fully informed, I can now recapitulate the considerations that should weigh on either side."

recapitulate - récapituler

considerations - considérations, considération, fr

"I don't see the good of that," said Mr. Hawley. "I suppose we all know whom we mean to vote for. Any man who wants to do justice does not wait till the last minute to hear both sides of the question. I have no time to lose, and I propose that the matter be put to the vote at once."

A brief but still hot discussion followed before each person wrote "Tyke" or "Farebrother" on a piece of paper and slipped it into a glass tumbler; and in the mean time Mr. Bulstrode saw Lydgate enter.

tumbler - gobelet, tumbler

"I perceive that the votes are equally divided at present," said Mr. Bulstrode, in a clear biting voice. Then, looking up at Lydgate"

"There is a casting-vote still to be given. It is yours, Mr. Lydgate: will you be good enough to write?"

casting - casting, moulage, (cast), jeter, diriger, lancer, additionner

"The thing is settled now," said Mr. Wrench, rising. "We all know how Mr. Lydgate will vote."

"You seem to speak with some peculiar meaning, sir," said Lydgate, rather defiantly, and keeping his pencil suspended.

defiantly - par défi

suspended - suspendue, suspendre

"I merely mean that you are expected to vote with Mr. Bulstrode. Do you regard that meaning as offensive?"

"It may be offensive to others. But I shall not desist from voting with him on that account." Lydgate immediately wrote down "Tyke."

So the Rev. Walter Tyke became chaplain to the Infirmary, and Lydgate continued to work with Mr. Bulstrode. He was really uncertain whether Tyke were not the more suitable candidate, and yet his consciousness told him that if he had been quite free from indirect bias he should have voted for Mr. Farebrother.

more suitable - plus adaptée

The affair of the chaplaincy remained a sore point in his memory as a case in which this petty medium of Middlemarch had been too strong for him. How could a man be satisfied with a decision between such alternatives and under such circumstances?

sore - douloureux, ulcere

No more than he can be satisfied with his hat, which he has chosen from among such shapes as the resources of the age offer him, wearing it at best with a resignation which is chiefly supported by comparison.

But Mr. Farebrother met him with the same friendliness as before. The character of the publican and sinner is not always practically incompatible with that of the modern Pharisee, for the majority of us scarcely see more distinctly the faultiness of our own conduct than the faultiness of our own arguments, or the dulness of our own jokes. But the Vicar of St.

friendliness - l'amabilité, gentillesse, cordialité

publican - publicain, patron/-onne de pub

practically - pratiquement, quasiment

Botolph's had certainly escaped the slightest tincture of the Pharisee, and by dint of admitting to himself that he was too much as other men were, he had become remarkably unlike them in this"that he could excuse others for thinking slightly of him, and could judge impartially of their conduct even when it told against him.

slightest - le moins du monde, insignifiant, léger

tincture - teinture, rench: t-needed r

dint - n'a pas, bosse

impartially - de maniere impartiale

"The world has been too strong for me, I know," he said one day to Lydgate. "But then I am not a mighty man"I shall never be a man of renown. The choice of Hercules is a pretty fable; but Prodicus makes it easy work for the hero, as if the first resolves were enough. Another story says that he came to hold the distaff, and at last wore the Nessus shirt.

renown - renommée, renom

Hercules - hercule

fable - conte, fable

Resolves - résout, prendre la résolution de

distaff - la quenouille, quenouille

I suppose one good resolve might keep a man right if everybody else's resolve helped him."

The Vicar's talk was not always inspiriting: he had escaped being a Pharisee, but he had not escaped that low estimate of possibilities which we rather hastily arrive at as an inference from our own failure. Lydgate thought that there was a pitiable infirmity of will in Mr. Farebrother.

infirmity - l'infirmité, infirmité


"L'altra vedete ch'ha fatto alla guancia

ha - HA

Della sua palma, sospirando, letto."

palma - Palma

"Purgatorio, vii.

When George the Fourth was still reigning over the privacies of Windsor, when the Duke of Wellington was Prime Minister, and Mr. Vincy was mayor of the old corporation in Middlemarch, Mrs. Casaubon, born Dorothea Brooke, had taken her wedding journey to Rome. In those days the world in general was more ignorant of good and evil by forty years than it is at present.

privacies - privatisations, intimité, vie privée, confidentialité

corporation - société anonyme

Travellers did not often carry full information on Christian art either in their heads or their pockets; and even the most brilliant English critic of the day mistook the flower-flushed tomb of the ascended Virgin for an ornamental vase due to the painter's fancy.

most brilliant - le plus brillant

critic - critique, critique (1-3), checkdétracteur, checkdétractrice (4)

flushed - rincé, rougeur

tomb - tombe, tombeau

ascended - ascensionné, monter

ornamental - ornemental, ornementale

Romanticism, which has helped to fill some dull blanks with love and knowledge, had not yet penetrated the times with its leaven and entered into everybody's food; it was fermenting still as a distinguishable vigorous enthusiasm in certain long-haired German artists at Rome, and the youth of other nations who worked or idled near them were sometimes caught in the spreading movement.

romanticism - le romantisme, romantisme, romanesque

penetrated - pénétré, pénétrer

Leaven - le levain, levain, ferment, faire lever, faire fermenter

idled - au ralenti, au repos

One fine morning a young man whose hair was not immoderately long, but abundant and curly, and who was otherwise English in his equipment, had just turned his back on the Belvedere Torso in the Vatican and was looking out on the magnificent view of the mountains from the adjoining round vestibule.

immoderately - immodérément

Belvedere - belvédere, belvédere, belveder

Torso - le torse, torse, tronc, buste

vestibule - vestibule

He was sufficiently absorbed not to notice the approach of a dark-eyed, animated German who came up to him and placing a hand on his shoulder, said with a strong accent, "Come here, quick! else she will have changed her pose."

pose - poser, posez, posent, posons

Quickness was ready at the call, and the two figures passed lightly along by the Meleager, towards the hall where the reclining Ariadne, then called the Cleopatra, lies in the marble voluptuousness of her beauty, the drapery folding around her with a petal-like ease and tenderness.

Ariadne - ariane

Cleopatra - cléopâtre

marble - marbre, bille, grillot, marbrer

voluptuousness - volupté, voluptuosité

petal - pétale

They were just in time to see another figure standing against a pedestal near the reclining marble: a breathing blooming girl, whose form, not shamed by the Ariadne, was clad in Quakerish gray drapery; her long cloak, fastened at the neck, was thrown backward from her arms, and one beautiful ungloved hand pillowed her cheek, pushing somewhat backward the white beaver bonnet which made a sort of halo to her face around the simply braided dark-brown hair. She was not looking at the sculpture, probably not thinking of it: her large eyes were fixed dreamily on a streak of sunlight which fell across the floor. But she became conscious of the two strangers who suddenly paused as if to contemplate the Cleopatra, and, without looking at them, immediately turned away to join a maid-servant and courier who were loitering along the hall at a little distance off.

pedestal - piédestal

shamed - honteux, honte

pillowed - oreillé, oreiller, tetiere

beaver - castor

halo - halo, auréole, nimbe

dreamily - reveusement

sunlight - la lumiere du soleil, lumiere du soleil

courier - coursier, messager

loitering - le vagabondage, flanage, fait de rôder, (loiter), flâner

"What do you think of that for a fine bit of antithesis?" said the German, searching in his friend's face for responding admiration, but going on volubly without waiting for any other answer.

volubly - volubilement, volubilité

"There lies antique beauty, not corpse-like even in death, but arrested in the complete contentment of its sensuous perfection: and here stands beauty in its breathing life, with the consciousness of Christian centuries in its bosom. But she should be dressed as a nun; I think she looks almost what you call a Quaker; I would dress her as a nun in my picture.

antique - ancien, antique

corpse - cadavre, corps, corps sans vie

nun - nonne

Quaker - Quaker

However, she is married; I saw her wedding-ring on that wonderful left hand, otherwise I should have thought the sallow Geistlicher was her father. I saw him parting from her a good while ago, and just now I found her in that magnificent pose. Only think! he is perhaps rich, and would like to have her portrait taken. Ah! it is no use looking after her"there she goes! Let us follow her home!"

"No, no," said his companion, with a little frown.

frown - froncer les sourcils

"You are singular, Ladislaw. You look struck together. Do you know her?"

"I know that she is married to my cousin," said Will Ladislaw, sauntering down the hall with a preoccupied air, while his German friend kept at his side and watched him eagerly.

sauntering - en train de flâner, (saunter), flâner, flânerie

"What! the Geistlicher? He looks more like an uncle"a more useful sort of relation."

"He is not my uncle. I tell you he is my second cousin," said Ladislaw, with some irritation.

"Schön, schön. Don't be snappish. You are not angry with me for thinking Mrs. Second-Cousin the most perfect young Madonna I ever saw?"

"Angry? nonsense. I have only seen her once before, for a couple of minutes, when my cousin introduced her to me, just before I left England. They were not married then. I didn't know they were coming to Rome."

"But you will go to see them now"you will find out what they have for an address"since you know the name. Shall we go to the post? And you could speak about the portrait."

"Confound you, Naumann! I don't know what I shall do. I am not so brazen as you."

brazen - effronté, cuivreux, aigu, dur comme de la pierre

"Bah! that is because you are dilettantish and amateurish. If you were an artist, you would think of Mistress Second-Cousin as antique form animated by Christian sentiment"a sort of Christian Antigone"sensuous force controlled by spiritual passion."

Bah - bah

dilettantish - dilettante

amateurish - amateurisme

"Yes, and that your painting her was the chief outcome of her existence"the divinity passing into higher completeness and all but exhausted in the act of covering your bit of canvas. I am amateurish if you like: I do not think that all the universe is straining towards the obscure significance of your pictures."

divinity - la divinité, déité, divinité

completeness - l'exhaustivité, complétude

exhausted - épuisé, épuiser, échappement

straining - la tension, (strain) la tension

significance - importance (1), signification (2)

"But it is, my dear!"so far as it is straining through me, Adolf Naumann: that stands firm," said the good-natured painter, putting a hand on Ladislaw's shoulder, and not in the least disturbed by the unaccountable touch of ill-humor in his tone. "See now! My existence presupposes the existence of the whole universe"does it not?

unaccountable - sans avoir a rendre de comptes

presupposes - présuppose, présupposer

and my function is to paint"and as a painter I have a conception which is altogether genialisch, of your great-aunt or second grandmother as a subject for a picture; therefore, the universe is straining towards that picture through that particular hook or claw which it puts forth in the shape of me"not true?"

Hook - crochet, agrafe, hook, accrocher

claw - griffe

"But how if another claw in the shape of me is straining to thwart it?"the case is a little less simple then."

thwart - contrecarrer, contrarier, banc

"Not at all: the result of the struggle is the same thing"picture or no picture"logically."

logically - logiquement

Will could not resist this imperturbable temper, and the cloud in his face broke into sunshiny laughter.

sunshiny - ensoleillé

"Come now, my friend"you will help?" said Naumann, in a hopeful tone.

"No; nonsense, Naumann! English ladies are not at everybody's service as models. And you want to express too much with your painting. You would only have made a better or worse portrait with a background which every connoisseur would give a different reason for or against. And what is a portrait of a woman? Your painting and Plastik are poor stuff after all.

connoisseur - connaisseur, connaisseuse

They perturb and dull conceptions instead of raising them. Language is a finer medium."

perturb - perturber, déranger, troublent, troublons

"Yes, for those who can't paint," said Naumann. "There you have perfect right. I did not recommend you to paint, my friend."

The amiable artist carried his sting, but Ladislaw did not choose to appear stung. He went on as if he had not heard.

sting - piqure, morsure, aiguillon, piquons, piquer, piquent

"Language gives a fuller image, which is all the better for being vague. After all, the true seeing is within; and painting stares at you with an insistent imperfection. I feel that especially about representations of women. As if a woman were a mere colored superficies! You must wait for movement and tone. There is a difference in their very breathing: they change from moment to moment.

insistent - insistant

superficies - superficies

"This woman whom you have just seen, for example: how would you paint her voice, pray? But her voice is much diviner than anything you have seen of her."

"I see, I see. You are jealous. No man must presume to think that he can paint your ideal. This is serious, my friend! Your great-aunt! ˜Der Neffe als Onkel'in a tragic sense"ungeheuer!"

als - ALS, (Al) ALS

"You and I shall quarrel, Naumann, if you call that lady my aunt again."

"How is she to be called then?"

"Mrs. Casaubon."

"Good. Suppose I get acquainted with her in spite of you, and find that she very much wishes to be painted?"

"Yes, suppose!" said Will Ladislaw, in a contemptuous undertone, intended to dismiss the subject. He was conscious of being irritated by ridiculously small causes, which were half of his own creation. Why was he making any fuss about Mrs. Casaubon? And yet he felt as if something had happened to him with regard to her.

irritated by - irrité par

ridiculously - ridiculement

creation - création

fuss - l'agitation, agitation, histoires, s’agiter, s’empresser

There are characters which are continually creating collisions and nodes for themselves in dramas which nobody is prepared to act with them. Their susceptibilities will clash against objects that remain innocently quiet.

collisions - collisions, collision

nodes - nouds, noud

susceptibilities - susceptibilités, susceptibilité

clash - clash, fracas, cliquetis, échauffourée, escarmouche


"A child forsaken, waking suddenly,

Whose gaze afeard on all things round doth rove,

gaze - regard, fixer

afeard - afeard

rove - rove, érailler, (reeve) rove

And seeth only that it cannot see

seeth - voit

The meeting eyes of love."

Two hours later, Dorothea was seated in an inner room or boudoir of a handsome apartment in the Via Sistina.

via - via, au dela de

I am sorry to add that she was sobbing bitterly, with such abandonment to this relief of an oppressed heart as a woman habitually controlled by pride on her own account and thoughtfulness for others will sometimes allow herself when she feels securely alone. And Mr. Casaubon was certain to remain away for some time at the Vatican.

sobbing - sanglots, sanglotement, sanglotant, sanglotante, (sob), fdp

thoughtfulness - de la réflexion, prévenance, attention, sollicitude, réflexion

securely - en toute sécurité

Yet Dorothea had no distinctly shapen grievance that she could state even to herself; and in the midst of her confused thought and passion, the mental act that was struggling forth into clearness was a self-accusing cry that her feeling of desolation was the fault of her own spiritual poverty.

grievance - grief

clearness - clarté

accusing - accuser

She had married the man of her choice, and with the advantage over most girls that she had contemplated her marriage chiefly as the beginning of new duties: from the very first she had thought of Mr.

Casaubon as having a mind so much above her own, that he must often be claimed by studies which she could not entirely share; moreover, after the brief narrow experience of her girlhood she was beholding Rome, the city of visible history, where the past of a whole hemisphere seems moving in funeral procession with strange ancestral images and trophies gathered from afar.

beholding - l'observation, regarder, voir, observer, voici, voila

hemisphere - hémisphere, hémisphere

funeral procession - le cortege funebre

ancestral - ancestral

trophies - trophées, trophée

But this stupendous fragmentariness heightened the dreamlike strangeness of her bridal life. Dorothea had now been five weeks in Rome, and in the kindly mornings when autumn and winter seemed to go hand in hand like a happy aged couple one of whom would presently survive in chiller loneliness, she had driven about at first with Mr.

fragmentariness - fragmentation

dreamlike - onirique, reveur

strangeness - l'étrangeté, étrangeté

Casaubon, but of late chiefly with Tantripp and their experienced courier.

She had been led through the best galleries, had been taken to the chief points of view, had been shown the grandest ruins and the most glorious churches, and she had ended by oftenest choosing to drive out to the Campagna where she could feel alone with the earth and sky, away-from the oppressive masquerade of ages, in which her own life too seemed to become a masque with enigmatical costumes.

most glorious - le plus glorieux

oppressive - oppressif

masque - masque

enigmatical - énigmatique

To those who have looked at Rome with the quickening power of a knowledge which breathes a growing soul into all historic shapes, and traces out the suppressed transitions which unite all contrasts, Rome may still be the spiritual centre and interpreter of the world.

quickening - l'accélération, (quicken) l'accélération

traces out - Tracer

transitions - transitions, transition

unite - s'unir, unir

But let them conceive one more historical contrast: the gigantic broken revelations of that Imperial and Papal city thrust abruptly on the notions of a girl who had been brought up in English and Swiss Puritanism, fed on meagre Protestant histories and on art chiefly of the hand-screen sort; a girl whose ardent nature turned all her small allowance of knowledge into principles, fusing her actions into their mould, and whose quick emotions gave the most abstract things the quality of a pleasure or a pain; a girl who had lately become a wife, and from the enthusiastic acceptance of untried duty found herself plunged in tumultuous preoccupation with her personal lot. The weight of unintelligible Rome might lie easily on bright nymphs to whom it formed a background for the brilliant picnic of Anglo-foreign society; but Dorothea had no such defence against deep impressions. Ruins and basilicas, palaces and colossi, set in the midst of a sordid present, where all that was living and warm-blooded seemed sunk in the deep degeneracy of a superstition divorced from reverence; the dimmer but yet eager Titanic life gazing and struggling on walls and ceilings; the long vistas of white forms whose marble eyes seemed to hold the monotonous light of an alien world: all this vast wreck of ambitious ideals, sensuous and spiritual, mixed confusedly with the signs of breathing forgetfulness and degradation, at first jarred her as with an electric shock, and then urged themselves on her with that ache belonging to a glut of confused ideas which check the flow of emotion. Forms both pale and glowing took possession of her young sense, and fixed themselves in her memory even when she was not thinking of them, preparing strange associations which remained through her after-years. Our moods are apt to bring with them images which succeed each other like the magic-lantern pictures of a doze; and in certain states of dull forlornness Dorothea all her life continued to see the vastness of St. Peter's, the huge bronze canopy, the excited intention in the attitudes and garments of the prophets and evangelists in the mosaics above, and the red drapery which was being hung for Christmas spreading itself everywhere like a disease of the retina.

revelations - des révélations, révélation

Imperial - impérial, royal

Papal - papal

abruptly - brusquement, abruptement, tout d'un coup, précipitamment

meagre - maigre

fusing - fusion, fusionner

abstract - résumé, abstrait, abstraire, distiller, se retirer

enthusiastic - enthousiaste

acceptance - l'acceptation, acceptation, adhésion, admission, adoption

plunged - plongé, plonger

tumultuous - tumultuaire, tumultueux, tumultueuse, orageux

unintelligible - inintelligible

picnic - pique-nique, piquenique, picnic, jeu d’enfant

Anglo - Anglophones

defence - la défense, défense

basilicas - basiliques, basilique

degeneracy - dégénérescence

superstition - superstition

gazing - regarder, fixer

monotonous - monotone

wreck - épave, carcasse, accident, bousiller, ruiner

confusedly - confusément

degradation - dégradation

electric shock - un choc électrique

ache - mal, diuleur

doze - dormir, sommeiller

forlornness - la fornication

vastness - l'immensité, immensité

bronze - le bronze, bronze, airain, hâlé, bronzé, tanné (par le soleil)

canopy - d'auvent, dais, baldaquin, voute, marquise, canopée

prophets - prophetes, prophete, prophétesse, devin

mosaics - mosaiques, mosaique

Christmas - Noël

retina - rétine

Not that this inward amazement of Dorothea's was anything very exceptional: many souls in their young nudity are tumbled out among incongruities and left to "find their feet" among them, while their elders go about their business. Nor can I suppose that when Mrs. Casaubon is discovered in a fit of weeping six weeks after her wedding, the situation will be regarded as tragic.

amazement - l'étonnement, stupéfaction, stupeur

nudity - la nudité, nudité

tumbled - culbuté, culbute, dégringoler, culbuter

weeping - pleurant, (weep) pleurant

Some discouragement, some faintness of heart at the new real future which replaces the imaginary, is not unusual, and we do not expect people to be deeply moved by what is not unusual. That element of tragedy which lies in the very fact of frequency, has not yet wrought itself into the coarse emotion of mankind; and perhaps our frames could hardly bear much of it.

discouragement - découragement

be deeply moved - etre profondément ému

frequency - fréquence

If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel's heart beat, and we should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence. As it is, the quickest of us walk about well wadded with stupidity.

roar - rugir, hurler, s'esclaffer, rire aux éclats

However, Dorothea was crying, and if she had been required to state the cause, she could only have done so in some such general words as I have already used: to have been driven to be more particular would have been like trying to give a history of the lights and shadows, for that new real future which was replacing the imaginary drew its material from the endless minutiae by which her view of Mr.

Casaubon and her wifely relation, now that she was married to him, was gradually changing with the secret motion of a watch-hand from what it had been in her maiden dream.

It was too early yet for her fully to recognize or at least admit the change, still more for her to have readjusted that devotedness which was so necessary a part of her mental life that she was almost sure sooner or later to recover it.

readjusted - réajusté, (se) réadapter (a)

Permanent rebellion, the disorder of a life without some loving reverent resolve, was not possible to her; but she was now in an interval when the very force of her nature heightened its confusion. In this way, the early months of marriage often are times of critical tumult"whether that of a shrimp-pool or of deeper waters"which afterwards subsides into cheerful peace.

permanent - permanent, permanente

disorder - désordre, trouble

reverent - révérencieux

interval - intervalle

confusion - confusion, désordre, malentendu

tumult - tumultes, barouf, baroufe, bagarre

shrimp - crevettes, crevette

subsides - subventions, tomber, calmer

But was not Mr. Casaubon just as learned as before? Had his forms of expression changed, or his sentiments become less laudable? Oh waywardness of womanhood! did his chronology fail him, or his ability to state not only a theory but the names of those who held it; or his provision for giving the heads of any subject on demand?

laudable - louable

waywardness - obstination

And was not Rome the place in all the world to give free play to such accomplishments? Besides, had not Dorothea's enthusiasm especially dwelt on the prospect of relieving the weight and perhaps the sadness with which great tasks lie on him who has to achieve them?" And that such weight pressed on Mr. Casaubon was only plainer than before.

free play - jeu libre

relieving - soulageant, soulager, relayer, faire ses besoins, se soulager

All these are crushing questions; but whatever else remained the same, the light had changed, and you cannot find the pearly dawn at noonday.

crushing - l'écrasement, barricade, béguin, amourette, faible

pearly - nacré

dawn - l'aube, se lever, naître, aube, lever du soleil, aurore

noonday - midi

The fact is unalterable, that a fellow-mortal with whose nature you are acquainted solely through the brief entrances and exits of a few imaginative weeks called courtship, may, when seen in the continuity of married companionship, be disclosed as something better or worse than what you have preconceived, but will certainly not appear altogether the same.

unalterable - inaltérable

solely - uniquement, exclusivement, seulement

Exits - les sorties, sortie, issue

And it would be astonishing to find how soon the change is felt if we had no kindred changes to compare with it. To share lodgings with a brilliant dinner-companion, or to see your favorite politician in the Ministry, may bring about changes quite as rapid: in these cases too we begin by knowing little and believing much, and we sometimes end by inverting the quantities.

lodgings - logements, logement, hébergement, verse

ministry - ministere, ministere, cabinet, ministere du culte

inverting - l'inversion, inverser

Still, such comparisons might mislead, for no man was more incapable