Sutra - Sutra


preface - Vorwort, Vorrede

In the literature of all countries there will be found a certain numberof works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealtwith differently, and from various points of view. In the presentpublication it is proposed to give a complete translation of what isconsidered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and whichis called the 'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,'or Aphorisms on Love, byVatsyayana.

numberof - Nummer von

dealtwith - damit umgehen

presentpublication - Veröffentlichung präsentieren

proposed - vorgeschlagen; vorschlagen, einen Heiratsantrag machen

isconsidered - in Betracht gezogen

standard work - Standardwerk

whichis - was ist

aphorisms - Aphorismen; Aphorismus

byVatsyayana - vonVatsyayana

While the introduction will bear with the evidence concerning the dateof the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the chaptersfollowing the introduction will give a translation of the work itself.

concerning - Was bedeutet das; Sorge, Anliegen

dateof - Datum von

commentaries - Kommentaren; Kommentar

chaptersfollowing - folgenden Kapiteln

It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works ofthe same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years afterVatsya had passed away, but who still considered him as a greatauthority, and always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo eroticliterature.

advisable - ratsam

furnish - möblieren, einrichten, ausrüsten

brief - kurz; prägnant; kurze Zusammenfassung; briefen, instruieren

ofthe - der

afterVatsya - nachVatsya

chief - Häuptling, Oberhaupt, Chef

Hindoo - Hindu

eroticliterature - erotische Literatur

Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the samesubject are procurable in India:--

besides - Außerdem; neben, neben

treatise - Abhandlung, Traktat

samesubject - dasselbe Thema

procurable - beschaffbar

India - Indien

1. The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love.

2. The Panchasakya, or the five arrows.

arrows - Pfeile; Richtungspfeil, Pfeil

3. The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love.

4. The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love.

garland - Girlande

5. The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love.

sprout - sprießen; Schössling

6. The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love.

The author of the 'Secrets of Love'(No. 1) was a poet named Kukkoka. Hecomposed his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. Whenwriting his own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself "Siddhapatiya pandita," _i.e._, an ingenious man among learned men. The workwas translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's name waswritten as Koka.

ingenious - ingeniös, genial, findig

waswritten - geschrieben wurde

And as the same name crept into all the translationsinto other languages in India, the book became generally known, and thesubject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or doctrines of Koka, whichis identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of love, and the wordsKoka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used indiscriminately.

crept - gekrochen; kriechen, schleichen, schleichen, kriechen, Kriechen

translationsinto - Übersetzungen in

thesubject - das Thema

popularly - populär

doctrines - Doktrinen; Doktrin, Lehre, Doktrin

identical - identisch; eineiig

wordsKoka - WorteKoka

indiscriminately - wahllos

The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into tenchapters, which are called Pachivedas. Some of the things treated of inthis work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana, such as the fourclasses of women, viz., the Padmini, Chitrini, Shankini and Hastini, asalso the enumeration of the days and hours on which the women of thedifferent classes become subject to love. The author adds that he wrotethese things from the opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara, both ofwhom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their works are not now extant. Itis difficult to give any approximate idea as to the year in which thework was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was written afterthat of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this subject thatare still extant.

verses - Verse; Strophe

tenchapters - zehnKapitel

inthis - in diesem Fall

fourclasses - vierKlassen

asalso - wie auch

enumeration - Aufzählung

ofwhom - von wem

extant - existent, bestehend, vorhanden, überlebend

approximate - annähernd, ungefähr, zirka, circa

thework - die Arbeit

composed - komponiert; zusammenstellen, zusammensetzen, komponieren

presumed - vermutet; annehmen, mutmaßen, vermuten

afterthat - Und danach

thatare - das sind

Vatsyayana gives the names of ten authors on thesubject, all of whose works he had consulted, but none of which areextant, and does not mention this one. This would tend to show thatKukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly havementioned him as an author in this branch of literature along with theothers.

consulted - konsultiert; Rat halten, beraten, beratschlagen, beraten

thatKukkoka - dassKukkoka

otherwise - sonst

assuredly - Sicherlich

theothers - die anderen

The author of the 'Five Arrows'(No. 2 in the list) was one Jyotirisha.He is called the chief ornament of poets, the treasure of the sixty-fourarts, and the best teacher of the rules of music. He says that hecomposed the work after reflecting on the aphorisms of love as revealedby the gods, and studying the opinions of Gonikaputra, Muladeva,Babhravya, Ramtideva, Nundikeshwara and Kshemandra. It is impossible tosay whether he had perused all the works of these authors, or had onlyheard about them; anyhow, none of them appear to be in existence now.

ornament - Verzierung; musikalische Verzierung

treasure - Schatz; schätzen

revealedby - enthüllt

perused - durchgesehen; studieren, genau unter die Lupe nehmen

anyhow - irgendwie

existence - Existenz, Dasein

his work contains nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into fivechapters, called Sayakas or Arrows.

The author of the 'Light of Love'(No. 3) was the poet Gunakara, the sonof Vechapati. The work contains four hundred verses, and gives only ashort account of the doctrines of love, dealing more with othermatters.

ashort - kurz

othermatters - andere Angelegenheiten

'The Garland of Love'(No. 4) is the work of the famous poet Jayadeva,who said about himself that he is a writer on all subjects. Thistreatise is, however, very short, containing only one hundred andtwenty-five verses.

andtwenty - undzwanzig

The author of the 'Sprout of Love'(No. 5) was a poet called Bhanudatta.It appears from the last verse of the manuscript that he was a residentof the province of Tirhoot, the son of a Brahman named Ganeshwar, whowas also a poet. The work, written in Sanscrit, gives the descriptionsof different classes of men and women, their classes being made out fromtheir age, description, conduct, etc.

verse - Strophe

manuscript - Handschrift, Manuskript, Handschrift, Manuskript

residentof - wohnhaft in

province - Provinz, Land

whowas - Wer war das

descriptionsof - Beschreibungen von

fromtheir - von ihnen

conduct - Leitung, Führung, leiten, führen, sich verhalten, sich benehmen

etc - usw

It contains three chapters, andits date is not known, and cannot be ascertained.

andits - undits

ascertained - festzustellen; feststellen

'The Stage of Love'(No. 6) was composed by the poet KullianMull, forthe amusement of Ladkhan, the son of Ahmed Lodi, the same Ladkhan beingin some places spoken of as Ladana Mull, and in others as Ladanaballa.He is supposed to have been a relation or connection of the house ofLodi, which reigned in Hindostan from A.D. 1450-1526.

composed - komponiert; compos

Mull - überdenken, verpatzen; (Verbands-) Mull

forthe - für die

amusement - Belustigung; Amüsement

beingin - Sein

ofLodi - vonLodi

reigned - herrschte; Herrschaft, Regentschaft, Regentschaft, herrschen

The work would,therefore, have been written in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. Itcontains ten chapters, and has been translated into English, but onlysix copies were printed for private circulation. This is supposed to bethe latest of the Sanscrit works on the subject, and the ideas in itwere evidently taken from previous writings of the same nature.

Fifteenth - fünfzehnte

Sixteenth - sechzehnte; Sechzehntel

Circulation - Kreislauf, Zirkulation, Umlauf, Umlaufen, Zirkulieren

itwere - es waren

evidently - offensichtlich

writings - Schriftstücke; (write) verfassen

The contents of these works are in themselves a literary curiosity.There are to be found both in Sanscrit poetry and in the Sanscrit dramaa certain amount of poetical sentiment and romance, which have, in everycountry and in every language, thrown an immortal halo round thesubject. But here it is treated in a plain, simple, matter of fact sortof way. Men and women are divided into classes and divisions in the sameway that Buffon and other writers on natural history have classified anddivided the animal world.

Contents - Inhalt; (to be content with) sich mit etwas begnügen

literary - literarisch

curiosity - Neugier, Neugierde, Kuriosität, Kuriosum

poetical - poetisch

sentiment - Gefühlen; Gefühl

romance - Romantik; Liebesgeschichte; qual

everycountry - jedes Land

immortal - unsterblich; unvergesslich

halo - Halo; Heiligenschein; Nimbus

plain - unscheinbar, einfach, vollständige, ehrlich

sortof - Irgendwie

divisions - Abteilungen; Teilung, Teil, Division, Abteilung, Division

classified - geordnet, eingestuft, klassifiziert; (classify); einordnen

anddivided - und geteilt

animal world - Tierwelt

As Venus was represented by the Greeks tostand forth as the type of the beauty of woman, so the Hindoos describethe Padmini or Lotus woman as the type of most perfect feminineexcellence, as follows:

Venus - Venus, Venus

Greeks - Griechen; griechisch, Griechisch

tostand - zu stehen

forth - weiter; heraus, hervor

describethe - beschreiben

lotus - Hornklee, Lotos, Lotosblume, Lotus

most perfect - einwandfreiste

feminineexcellence - feminine Exzellenz

She in whom the following signs and symptoms appear is called a Padmini.Her face is pleasing as the full moon; her body, well clothed withflesh, is soft as the Shiras or mustard flower, her skin is fine,tender and fair as the yellow lotus, never dark coloured. Her eyes arebright and beautiful as the orbs of the fawn, well cut, and with reddishcorners. Her bosom is hard, full and high; she has a good neck; her noseis straight and lovely, and three folds or wrinkles cross hermiddle--about the umbilical region. Her yoni resembles the opening lotusbud, and her love seed (Kama salila) is perfumed like the lily that hasnewly burst. She walks with swan-like gait, and her voice is low andmusical as the note of the Kokila bird, she delights in white raiments,in fine jewels, and in rich dresses.

withflesh - mitFleisch

mustard - Senf; senffarben

tender - zärtlich; empfindlich, Ausschreibung, Angebot, zart; andienen

orbs - Kugeln; Himmelskörper, Kugel

Fawn - schmeicheln, schwänzeln, sich einschmeicheln (bei); Rehkitz

bosom - Busen, Brust, der Busenfreund (bosom buddy)

wrinkles - Falten; sich runzeln, runzlig (runzelig) werden, knittern

umbilical - Nabelschnur

yoni - Yoni

resembles - ähnelt; ähneln, gleichen

lotusbud - Lotusknospe

perfumed - parfümiert; Duft, Parfüm

Lily - Lilie

burst - geplatzt; platzen, zerplatzen, bersten, sprengen, Bersten

swan - Schwan

gait - Gang, Gangart (eines Pferdes)

andmusical - und musikalisch

delights - Köstlichkeiten; Freude, Entzückung, Wohlgefallen

raiments - Kleidung

jewels - Juwelen; Edelstein, Juwel

She eats little, sleeps lightly,and being as respectful and religious as she is clever and courteous,she is ever anxious to worship the gods, and to enjoy the conversationof Brahmans. Such, then, is the Padmini or Lotus woman.

lightly - leichtfertig; leicht

respectful - respektvoll

courteous - höflich

anxious - ängstlich, besorgt

worship - Verehrung, Anbetung, Gottesdienst

One work in the English language is somewhat similar to these works ofthe Hindoos. It is called 'Kalogynomia: or the Laws of Female Beauty,'being the elementary principles of that science, by T. Bell, M.D., withtwenty-four plates, and printed in London in 1821.

somewhat - etwas, einigermaßen

elementary - elementar

principles - Grundsätze; Grundsatz, Prinzip

withtwenty - mit zwanzig

It treats of Beauty,of Love, of Sexual Intercourse, of the Laws regulating that Intercourse,of Monogamy and Polygamy, of Prostitution, of Infidelity, ending with a_catalogue raisonnée_ of the defects of female beauty.

intercourse - Beziehungen, Umgang, Verkehr, Geschlechtsverkehr

regulating - regeln, regulieren

Monogamy - Monogamie

polygamy - Polygamie, Mehrehe, Vielehe

prostitution - Prostitution

infidelity - Untreue

catalogue - Katalog, Liste, Verzeichnis

defects - Mängel; Fehler, Defekt, überlaufen, zurückziehen

After a perusal of the Hindoo work, and of the English books abovementioned, the reader will understand the subject, at all events from amaterialistic, realistic and practical point of view. If all science isfounded more or less on a stratum of facts, there can be no harm inmaking known to mankind generally certain matters intimately connectedwith their private, domestic, and social life.

perusal - Durchsicht

abovementioned - oben genannten

amaterialistic - amaterialistisch

realistic - realistisch

stratum - schicht; Bank

harm - Schaden

inmaking - anfertigen

mankind - die Menschheit; Menschheit, Menschengeschlecht, Mann

intimately - vertraut

connectedwith - verbunden mit

domestic - häuslich, Haus

Alas! complete ignorance of them has unfortunately wrecked many a manand many a woman, while a little knowledge of a subject generallyignored by the masses would have enabled numbers of people to haveunderstood many things which they believed to be quite incomprehensible,or which were not thought worthy of their consideration.

Alas - leider [Gottes]; (ala) leider [Gottes]

ignorance - Unwissenheit, Unwissen, Nichtwissen

wrecked - ruiniert; Wrack

generallyignored - allgemein ignoriert

masses - Massen; Messe (kirchlich), Gottesdienst, Menge

enabled - aktiviert; berechtigen, befähigen, ermöglichen, anordnen

haveunderstood - Verstanden haben

incomprehensible - unverständlich

worthy - würdig

consideration - Berücksichtigung; Erwägung, Überlegung, Rücksicht, Vergütung


It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about thatVatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the Englishlanguage. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the'Anunga runga, or the stage of love,'reference was frequently found tobe made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of thatopinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions wereasked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was theauthor of the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, that noSanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was mostdifficult now to obtain in its entire state.

thatVatsyayana - dassVatsyayana

thus - also; auf diese Weise, so, demnach, folglich, dieses

pundits - Gelehrte; Experte, Kommentator; q

tobe - zu sein

sage - weise, klug, Weise

thatopinion - diese Meinung

wereasked - gefragt wurden

theauthor - der Autor

mostdifficult - am schwierigsten

obtain - erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

entire - vollständig; ganz, gesamt

The copy of the manuscriptobtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares,Calcutta and Jeypoor for copies of the manuscript from Sanscritlibraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were thencompared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called'Jayamangla'a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, andfrom this copy the English translation was made. The following is thecertificate of the chief pundit:--

manuscriptobtained - ein Manuskript erhalten

defective - fehlerhaft, defekt, mangelhaft, unvollständig

Calcutta - Kalkutta

thencompared - dannverglichen

aid - Hilfsmittel, Hilfe, Mithilfe; helfen, beispringen

commentary - Kommentar

andfrom - und von

thecertificate - die Bescheinigung

pundit - Fachmann; Experte, Kommentator; q

"The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing fourdifferent copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentarycalled 'Jayamangla'for correcting the portion in the first five parts,but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because,with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, allthe other copies I had were far too incorrect.

accompanying - begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, geleiten, beiliegen

assistance - Unterstützung; Hilfe

portion - Anteil; Teil

exception - Ausnahme, Ausnahmebedingung, Exception

thereof - davon

tolerably - erträglich

incorrect - falsch

However, I took thatportion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with eachother."

thatportion - diese Portion

majority - Mehrheit, Majorität, Erwachsenenalter

eachother - einander

"After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancientauthors, and thinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, thistreatise was composed, according to the precepts of the Holy Writ, forthe benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of areligious student at Benares, and wholly engaged in the contemplation ofthe Deity. This work is not to be used merely as an instrument forsatisfying our desires. A person acquainted with the true principles ofthis science, who preserves his Dharma (virtue or religious merit), hisArtha (worldly wealth) and his Kama (pleasure or sensual gratification),and who has regard to the customs of the people, is sure to obtain themastery over his senses.

ancientauthors - alte Autoren

precepts - Gebote; Gebot, Vorschrift, Grundsatz, Maxime

holy - heilig

areligious - areligiös

wholly - ganz

contemplation - Kontemplation; Betrachtung; Meditation; Erwarten

Deity - Gott, Gottheit

merely - bloß, lediglich, nur, schier

forsatisfying - zufriedenstellend

desires - Sehnsüchte; begehren, begehren, Begehren

acquainted - kennengelernt; vertraut machen, in Kenntnis setzen

ofthis - hiervon

preserves - Konserven; Konserve, Eingemachtes

Dharma - Dharma

virtue - Tugend; Keuschheit

merit - Verdienst

worldly - weltlich

wealth - Reichtum, Vermögen, Fülle

sensual - sinnlich, lustvoll

gratification - Befriedigung

regard - schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen, achten; Aufmerksamkeit

themastery - Kloster

In short, an intelligent and knowing person,attending to Dharma and Artha and also to Kama, without becoming theslave of his passions, will obtain success in everything that he maydo."

theslave - der Sklave

It is impossible to fix the exact date either of the life of Vatsyayanaor of his work. It is supposed that he must have lived between the firstand the sixth centuries of the Christian era, on the followinggrounds:--He mentions that Satkarni Srtvahan, a king of Kuntal, killedMalayevati his wife with an instrument called kartari by striking her inthe passion of love, and Vatsya quotes this case to warn people of thedanger arising from some old customs of striking women when under theinfluence of this passion. Now this king of Kuntal is believed to havelived and reigned during the first century A.C., and consequently Vatsyamust have lived after him.

Christian - Christ, Christin, Christian, christlich

era - Ära, Epoche, Erdzeitalter

followinggrounds - folgende Untergründe

killedMalayevati - getötetMalayevati

striking - auffällig; (strike); streichen; schlagen; prägen; streiken; scheinen; die Fahne streichen; Strike; Streik; Schlag

inthe - in der

arising - entstehen; aufkommend, erhebend, entspringend

theinfluence - denEinfluss

havelived - gelebt haben

consequently - folglich

On the other hand, Virahamihira, in theeighteenth chapter of his 'Brihatsanhita,'treats of the science oflove, and appears to have borrowed largely from Vatsyayana on thesubject. Now Virahamihira is said to have lived during the sixth centuryA.D., and as Vatsya must have written his works previously, thereforenot earlier than the first century, A.C., and not later than the sixthcentury A.D., must be considered as the approximate date of hisexistence.

theeighteenth - dem Achtzehnten

largely - groß, weitgehend, große

centuryA - JahrhundertA

thereforenot - daher nicht

sixthcentury - sechsten Jahrhundert

hisexistence - seine Existenz

On the text of the 'Aphorisms on Love,'by Vatsyayana, only twocommentaries have been found. One called 'Jayamangla'or 'Sutrabashya,'and the other 'Sutra vritti.'The date of the 'Jayamangla'is fixedbetween the tenth and thirteenth centuries A.D., because while treatingof the sixty-four arts an example is taken from the 'Kávyaprakásha,'which was written about the tenth century A.

tenth - zehnten; zehnte

thirteenth - dreizehnte

treatingof - Behandlung von

. Again, the copy of thecommentary procured was evidently a transcript of a manuscript whichonce had a place in the library of a Chaulukyan king named Vishaladeva,a fact elicited from the following sentence at the end of it:--

thecommentary - derKommentar

procured - beschafft; beschaffen, erwerben, besorgen, aufbringen

transcript - Niederschrift; Abschrift, Transkript, Protokoll, Mitschrift

whichonce - was einmal

elicited - erregt; hervorlocken, hervorrufen, auslösen, erzeugen

"Here ends the part relating to the art of love in the commentary on the'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,'a copy from the library of the king of kings,Vishaladeva, who was a powerful hero, as it were a second Arjuna, andhead jewel of the Chaulukya family."

andhead - und Kopf

jewel - Edelstein, Juwel, Schmuckstück, Kleinod

Now it is well known that this king ruled in Guzerat from 1244 to 1262A.D., and founded a city called Visalnagur. The date, therefore, of thecommentary is taken to be not earlier than the tenth and not later thanthe thirteenth century. The author of it is supposed to be oneYashodhara, the name given him by his preceptor being Indrapada.

founded - gegründet; gefunden, aufgefunden; begründen, gründen

thanthe - als die

preceptor - Präzeptor

Heseems to have written it during the time of affliction caused by hisseparation from a clever and shrewd woman, at least that is what hehimself says at the end of each chapter. It is presumed that he calledhis work after the name of his absent mistress, or the word may havesome connection with the meaning of her name.

affliction - Bedrängnis; Leiden, Behinderung

hisseparation - seineTrennung

shrewd - klug, clever, gewitzt, schlau, listig

hehimself - er selbst

calledhis - der heißt

absent - (absent-minded) abwesend, geistesabwesend, unaufmerksam

Mistress - Frau, Meisterin, Herrscherin, Mätresse, Liebhaberin, Domina

havesome - Haben Sie etwas

This commentary was most useful in explaining the true meaning ofVatsyayana, for the commentator appears to have had a considerableknowledge of the times of the older author, and gives in some placesvery minute information. This cannot be said of the other commentary,called "Sutra vritti," which was written about A.D., by Narsing Shastri,a pupil of a Sarveshwar Shastri; the latter was a descendant of Bhaskur,and so also was our author, for at the conclusion of every part he callshimself Bhaskur Narsing Shastra.

ofVatsyayana - von Vatsyayana

commentator - Kommentator, Kommentatorin

considerableknowledge - ein großes Wissen

placesvery - Platzierung

pupil - Schülerin; Schulkind, Pupille, Schüler

descendant - Nachkomme, Nachkommin, Deszendent, Deszendentin

callshimself - sich selbst nennen

He was induced to write the work byorder of the learned Raja Vrijalala, while he was residing in Benares,but as to the merits of this commentary it does not deserve muchcommendation. In many cases the writer does not appear to haveunderstood the meaning of the original author, and has changed the textin many places to fit in with his own explanations.

induced - veranlasst; dazu bringen, anstacheln, bewirken, verursachen

byorder - auf Bestellung

residing - Wohnsitz; wohnen

merits - Verdienste; Verdienst

deserve - verdienen

muchcommendation - eine Empfehlung

textin - Eine SMS

A complete translation of the original work now follows. It has beenprepared in complete accordance with the text of the manuscript, and isgiven, without further comments, as made from it.

beenprepared - vorbereitet worden

accordance - Übereinstimmung

isgiven - ist gegeben




introductory - einführend


salutation - Begrüßung; Titel

In the beginning, the Lord of Beings created men and women, and in theform of commandments in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rulesfor regulating their existence with regard to Dharma,[1] Artha,[2] andKama.

Lord - Gebieter; Herr; herrschen

beings - Wesen

theform - die Form

Commandments - Gebote; Gebot

rulesfor - Regeln für

andKama - undKama

3] Some of these commandments, namely those which treated ofDharma, were separately written by Swayambhu Manu; those that related toArtha were compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred to Kama wereexpounded by Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva, in one thousand chapters.

namely - und zwar, nämlich

ofDharma - vonDharma

separately - getrennt

compiled - zusammengestellt; zusammenstellen, kompilieren

wereexpounded - warenexponiert

follower - Mitläufer; Nachfolger, Nachfolgerin, Anhänger, Follower

1st. Sadharana (general topics).

2nd. Samprayogika (embraces, etc.).

embraces - umarmt; umarmen, annehmen, umarmen, Umarmung

3rd. Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and females).

4th. Bharyadhikarika (on one's own wife).

5th. Paradika (on the wives of other people).

6th. Vaisika (on courtesans).

courtesans - Kurtisanen; Hofdame, Kurtisane

7th. Aupamishadika (on the arts of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.).

seduction - Verführung

tonic - Stärkungsmittel, Tonika

The sixth part of this last work was separately expounded by Dattaka atthe request of the public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the sameway Charayana explained the first part of it. The remaining parts, viz.,the second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh were each separatelyexpounded by--

sixth part - Sechstel

atthe - der

separatelyexpounded - gesondert ausgewiesen

Suvarnanabha (second part).

Ghotakamukha (third part).

Gonardiya (fourth part).

Gonikaputra (fifth part).

Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.

respectively - bzw


Footnotes - FUSSNOTIZEN; Fußnote, Fußnote

[Footnote 1: Dharma is acquisition of religious merit, and is fullydescribed in Chapter 5, Volume III., of Talboys Wheeler's 'History ofIndia,'and in the edicts of Asoka.]

Footnote - Fußnote

acquisition - Erwerb, Aneignung

fullydescribed - vollständig beschrieben

volume - Volumen; Lautstärke; Jahrgang; Band; Volume

ofIndia - vonIndien

edicts - Erlasse; Edikt

[Footnote 2: Artha is acquisition of wealth and property, etc.]

[Footnote 3: Kama is love, pleasure and sensual gratification.

These three words are retained throughout in their original, astechnical terms. They may also be defined as virtue, wealth andpleasure, the three things repeatedly spoken of in the Laws of Manu.]

retained - zurückgehalten; behalten, festhalten

astechnical - atechnisch

andpleasure - undVergnügen

repeatedly - wiederholt




index - Index, Verzeichnis, indizieren

Chapter II. Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue, Wealth and Love.

observations - Beobachtungen; Beobachtung, Bemerkung

attainments - Errungenschaften; Erlangen

" III. On the study of the Sixty-four Arts.

" IV. On the Arrangements of a House, and Household Furniture; and about the Daily Life of a Citizen, his Companions, Amusements, &c.

household - Haushalt

citizen - Staatsbürger, Staatsbürgerin, Einwohner

Companions - Gefährten; Begleiter, Freund, Liebhaber, Kamerad, Gefährte

amusements - Vergnügungen; Amüsement

" V. About classes of Women fit and unfit for Congress with the Citizen, and of Friends, and Messengers.

unfit - ungeeignet; untauglich; schlapp

Congress - Kongress, Tagung

Messengers - Boten; Kurier, Bote, Botschafter



Chapter I. Kinds of Union according to Dimensions, Force of Desire, and Time; and on the different kinds of Love.

dimensions - Abmessungen; Dimension, Dimension, Dimension, Dimension

desire - begehren; Begehren, Wunsch

" II. Of the Embrace.

Embrace - umarmen; annehmen, Umarmung

" III. On Kissing.

" IV. On Pressing or Marking with the Nails.

" V. On Biting, and the ways of Love to be employed with regard to Women of different countries.

" VI. On the various ways of Lying Down, and the different kinds of Congress.

" VII. On the various ways of Striking, and of the Sounds appropriate to them.

appropriate - angebracht, angemessen, passend, zugewiesen, anpassen, aneignen

" VIII. About females acting the part of Males.

" IX. On holding the Lingam in the Mouth.

lingam - Lingam

" X. How to begin and how to end the Congress. Different kinds of Congress, and Love Quarrels.

quarrels - Streitigkeiten; sich streiten, zanken



Chapter I. Observations on Betrothal and Marriage.

betrothal - Verlobung, Verlöbnis

" II. About creating Confidence in the Girl.

confidence - Selbstgewissheit; Zuversicht; Vertrauen, Zutrauen

" III. Courtship, and the manifestations of the feelings by outward signs and deeds.

courtship - Umwerbung; Brautwerbung, Freien, Liebeswerben

manifestations - Manifestationen; Manifestation, Erscheinung

feelings - Gefühle; Gefühl, Eindruck

outward - nach außen; äußerlich, auswärts

deeds - Taten; Tat, Akt, Werk

" IV. On things to be done only by the Man, and the acquisition of the Girl thereby. Also what to be done by a Girl to gain over a Man and subject him to her.

thereby - dabei; dadurch, damit, deswegen, darum

gain - Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen, erlangen

" V. On the different Forms of Marriage.



Chapter I. On the manner of living of a virtuous Woman, and of her behaviour during the absence of her Husband.

virtuous - züchtig, tugendhaft, tugendsam

absence - Abwesenheit, Absenz, Fehlen, Absence

" II. On the conduct of the eldest Wife towards the other Wives of her husband, and of the younger Wife towards the elder ones. Also on the conduct of a Virgin Widow re-married; of a Wife disliked by her Husband; of the Women in the King's Harem; and of a Husband who has more than one Wife.

Virgin - Jungfrau; jungfräulich; nativ

widow - Witwe; Hurenkind

harem - Harem



Chapter I. On the Characteristics of Men and Women, and the reason why Women reject the Addresses of Men. About Men who have Success with Women, and about Women who are easily gained over.

characteristics - Eigenschaften; charakteristisch, bezeichnend, kennzeichnend

Gained - Gewonnen; Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen

" II. About making Acquaintance with the Woman, and of the efforts to gain her over.

acquaintance - Bekanntschaft, Umgang, Bekannter, Bekannte

" III. Examination of the State of a Woman's mind.

examination - Prüfung, Untersuchung, Test, Überprüfung

" IV. The business of a Go-between.

" V. On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other People.

" VI. About the Women of the Royal Harem, and of the keeping of one's own Wife.



Chapter I. Of the Causes of a Courtesan resorting to Men; of the means of Attaching to herself the Man desired, and the kind of Man that it is desirable to be acquainted with.

courtesan - Hofdame; Kurtisane

resorting - Zuflucht nehmen; umsortieren; Badeort (Seebad)

desired - gewünscht; begehren, begehren, Begehren

desirable - erwünscht; wünschenswert

" II. Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife.

" III. Of the means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is beginning to be weary, and of the way to get rid of him.

lover - Geliebte, Liebhaber, Liebhaberin

weary - müde

rid - loswerden; befreien

" IV. About a Re-union with a former Lover.

former - erstgenannt, ehem. ehemalig, frühere, früher

" V. Of different kinds of Gain.

" VI. Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts; and lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans.

gains - Gewinn, Zunahme, Verstärkung; erwerben, gewinnen, erlangen

attendant - Betreuer; Begleiter, Wächter, Aufpasser, Aufseher

Lastly - Und schließlich; schließlich, zuletzt



self - Selbst

Chapter I. On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of tonic medicines.

adornment - Verzierung

subjugating - Unterwerfung; unterjochen, unterwerfen

" II. Of the Means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging the Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts.

enlarging - vergrößert; vergrößern

miscellaneous - Verschiedenes




Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practiseDharma, Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner thatthey may harmonize together and not clash in any way. He should acquirelearning in his childhood, in his youth and middle age he should attendto Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thusseek to gain Moksha, _i.e._, release from further transmigration.

practiseDharma - Dharma praktizieren

thatthey - dass sie

harmonize - harmonieren; harmonisieren

clash - zusammenstoßen; Scheppern, Geschepper, Zusammenstoß

acquirelearning - erwerbenLernen

thusseek - also suchen

Moksha - Mokscha

transmigration - Seelenwanderung; Auswanderung

Or, onaccount of the uncertainty of life, he may practise them at times whenthey are enjoined to be practised. But one thing is to be noted, heshould lead the life of a religious student until he finishes hiseducation.

uncertainty - Unsicherheit, Ungewissheit

whenthey - oder nicht

enjoined - auferlegt; auferlegen, vorschreiben, anordnen, ermahnen, mahnen

heshould - sollte

hiseducation - seine Ausbildung

_Dharma_ is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of theHindoos to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices,which are not generally done because they do not belong to this world,and produce no visible effect; and not to do other things, such aseating meat, which is often done because it belongs to this world, andhas visible effects.

obedience - Gehorsam, Folgsamkeit, Gehorsamkeit

Command - Befehl, Kommando, befehlen, kommandieren, gebieten, beherrschen

sacrifices - opfern, opfern, Opfer

visible - sichtbar

andhas - und hat

Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from thoseconversant with it.

learnt from - entnahm

thoseconversant - Diejenigen, die sich auskennen

_Artha_ is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth,equipages and friends. It is, further, the protection of what isacquired, and the increase of what is protected.

cattle - Kühe, Rinder, Rindvieh

equipages - Ausrüstung, Equipage

protection - Schutz

isacquired - erworben wird

Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants whomay be versed in the ways of commerce.

merchants - Kaufleute; Kaufmann, Kauffrau

whomay - wen

versed - versiert; Strophe

commerce - Handel, Kommerz

_Kama_ is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses ofhearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, and smelling, assisted by the mindtogether with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contactbetween the organ of sense and its object, and the consciousness ofpleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama.

enjoyment - Genuss, Vergnügen

ofhearing - des Gehörs

soul - Inbrunst, Seele, Gefühl, Herz

peculiar - eigentümlich; merkwürdig, seltsam

organ - Organ; Orgel

consciousness - Bewusstsein, Gewahrsein, Erkenntnis, Bewusstheit

ofpleasure - der Freude

arises - entsteht; sich erheben, aufstehen, entstehen, auftreten

Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and fromthe practice of citizens.

fromthe - von der

citizens - Staatsbürger, Staatsbürgerin, Bürger, Bürgerin, Einwohner

When all the three, viz., Dharma, Artha, and Kama come together, theformer is better than the one which follows it, _i.e._, Dharma is betterthan Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should be alwaysfirst practised by the king, for the livelihood of men is to be obtainedfrom it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, theyshould prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to thegeneral rule.

betterthan - besser als

alwaysfirst - immer zuerst

livelihood - Lebensunterhalt, Lebensgrundlage, Auskommen, Existenzgrundlage

obtainedfrom - erhalten

occupation - Beschäftigung, Beruf, Besatzung; Besetzung; q

theyshould - Sie sollten

exceptions - Ausnahmen; Ausnahme, Ausnahme, Ausnahme, Ausnahmebedingung

_Objection 1._

objection - Beanstandung; Einwand, Widerspruch, Einspruch

Some learned men say that as Dharma is connected with things notbelonging to this world, it is appropriately treated of in a book; andso also is Artha, because it is practised only by the application ofproper means, and a knowledge of those means can only be obtained bystudy and from books. But Kama being a thing which is practised even bythe brute creation, and which is to be found everywhere, does not wantany work on the subject.

notbelonging - Nichtzugehörigkeit

andso - und so

ofproper - der ordnungsgemäßen

obtained - erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

bystudy - durch Studium

bythe - von der

brute - Tier, brutaler Kerl, brutal, Vieh

creation - Erfindung, Werk, Kreation, Schöpfung

wantany - Willst du


_Objection 2._

The Lokayatikas[4] say:--Religious ordinances should not be observed,for they bear a future fruit, and at the same time it is also doubtfulwhether they will bear any fruit at all. What foolish person will giveaway that which is in his own hands into the hands of another?

ordinances - Verordnungen; Verfügung, Verordnung, Anordnung, Dekret

observed - beobachtet; beobachten, beachten, halten, bemerken

doubtfulwhether - Zweifelhaft, ob

foolish - dumm, närrisch, töricht

oreover, it is better to have a pigeon to-day than a peacock to-morrow;and a copper coin which we have the certainty of obtaining, is betterthan a gold coin, the possession of which is doubtful.

pigeon - Taube

peacock - Pfau

morrow - morgen; Morgen

copper - Kupfer

certainty - Gewissheit

obtaining - zu erhalten; erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

gold coin - Goldmünze

doubtful - zweifelhaft; zweifelnd


It is not so. 1st. Holy Writ, which ordains the practice of Dharma, doesnot admit of a doubt.

ordains - ordiniert; festlegen, weihen

doesnot - oder nicht

admit of - zulassen

2nd. Sacrifices such as those made for the destruction of enemies, orfor the fall of rain, are seen to bear fruit.

destruction - Zerstörung, Vernichtung

orfor - oder für

bear fruit - Früchte tragen

3rd. The sun, moon, stars, planets and other heavenly bodies appear towork intentionally for the good of the world.

heavenly bodies - Weltkörper

towork - zu arbeiten

intentionally - absichtlich

4th. The existence of this world is effected by the observance of therules respecting the four classes[5] of men and their four stages oflife.

observance - Beobachtung; Beachtung

therules - die Regeln

oflife - des Lebens

5th. We see that seed is thrown into the ground with the hope of futurecrops.

Vatsyayana is therefore of opinion that the ordinances of religion mustbe obeyed.

mustbe - muss sein

obeyed - gehorcht; gehorchen, befolgen

_Objection 3._

Those who believe that destiny is the prime mover of all things say:--Weshould not exert ourselves to acquire wealth, for sometimes it is notacquired although we strive to get it, while at other times it comes tous of itself without any exertion on our part. Everything is thereforein the power of destiny, who is the lord of gain and loss, of successand defeat, of pleasure and pain.

destiny - das Schicksal; Los, Geschick, Schicksal

prime mover - Antriebsmaschine , Sattelzugmaschine

notacquired - nicht erworben

strive - erstreben, bestreben

exertion - Anstrengung, Kraftanstrengung, Anspannung, Ausübung

thereforein - daher

successand - Erfolg und

defeat - vernichten, ablehnen, vereiteln, besiegen; Niederlage

Thus we see the Bali[6] was raised tothe throne of Indra by destiny, and was also put down by the same power,and it is destiny only that can re-instate him.

tothe - den

throne - Thron

instate - einsetzen


It is not right to say so. As the acquisition of every objectpre-supposes at all events some exertion on the part of man, theapplication of proper means may be said to be the cause of gaining allour ends, and this application of proper means being thus necessary(even where a thing is destined to happen), it follows that a person whodoes nothing will enjoy no happiness.

theapplication - die Anwendung

gaining - zu gewinnen; gewinnend

destined - bestimmt; bestimmen, vorbestimmen

whodoes - Wer tut das

_Objection 4._

Those who are inclined to think that Artha is the chief object to beobtained argue thus. Pleasures should not be sought for, because theyare obstacles to the practice of Dharma and Artha, which are bothsuperior to them, and are also disliked by meritorious persons.Pleasures also bring a man into distress, and into contact with lowpersons; they cause him to commit unrighteous deeds, and produceimpurity in him; they make him regardless of the future, and encouragecarelessness and levity. And lastly, they cause him to be disbelieved byall, received by none, and despised by everybody, including himself.

inclined - geneigt; neigen, neigen, neigen, Neigung, Anstieg, Gefälle

beobtained - erhalten werden

sought - gesucht; suchen

theyare - sie sind

obstacles - Hindernisse; Hindernis

bothsuperior - beide überlegen

meritorious - verdienstvoll

distress - Kummer, Bedrängnis, Drangsal, Bekümmerung, Not

unrighteous - ungerecht

produceimpurity - Unreinheit produzieren

regardless - egal; rücksichtslos; trotzdem, dennoch

encouragecarelessness - Sorglosigkeit fördern

levity - Lockerheit, Unbeschwertheit, Ungezwungenheit, Leichtfertigkeit

disbelieved - nicht geglaubt; ungläubig

byall - von allen

despised - verachtet; verachten

Itis notorious, moreover, that many men who have given themselves up topleasure alone, have been ruined along with their families andrelations. Thus, King Dandakya,[7] of the Bhoja dynasty, carried off aBrahman's daughter with evil intent, and was eventually ruined and losthis kingdom. Indra, too, having violated the chastity of Ahalya,[8] wasmade to suffer for it. In a like manner the mighty Kichaka,[9] who triedto seduce Draupadi, and Ravana,[10] who attempted to gain over Sita, werepunished for their crimes. These and many others fell by reason of theirpleasures.

notorious - notorisch

Moreover - außerdem, überdies, des Weiteren, obendrein

ruined - ruiniert; Ruine, Ruin, Ruin, ruinieren, auf die Knie zwingen

andrelations - und Beziehungen

dynasty - Dynastie, Herrschergeschlecht, Herrscherhaus, Herrscherhaus

carried off - weggerafft

evil - böse; Sünde, übel, üblen, Ăśbel

intent - Absicht

losthis - verloren

Kingdom - Königreich, Königtum

violated - verstoßen; verletzen, brechen, überschreiten, mißachten

chastity - Keuschheit

wasmade - gemacht wurde

mighty - gewaltig, mächtig

triedto - versucht

seduce - verführen, verleiten

attempted - Versucht; versuchen, Versuch, Bestreben

werepunished - bestraft wurden

theirpleasures - ihre Vergnügungen


This objection cannot be sustained, for pleasures, being as necessaryfor the existence and well being of the body as food, are consequentlyequally required. They are, moreover, the results of Dharma and Artha.Pleasures are, therefore, to be followed with moderation and caution. Noone refrains from cooking food because there are beggars to ask for it,or from sowing seed because there are deer to destroy the corn when itis grown up.

sustained - unterhalten, aufrechterhalten, versorgen, unterhalten

necessaryfor - notwendig für

consequentlyequally - konsequenterweise auch

moderation - Maßhalten; Mäßigung; Diskussionsleitung

caution - Warnung, Vorsicht, Achtsamkeit, Behutsamkeit, Kaution, warnen

refrains - zurückhalten; Refrain, Kehrreim

beggars - Bettler, Bettlerin

sowing - Aussaat, Saat, säend, Säen; (sow) Aussaat, Saat, säend, Säen

deer - Rehe; Hirsch

corn - Mais; Korn, Getreide, Hühnerauge


[Footnote 4: These were certainly materialists who seemed to think thata bird in the hand was worth two in the bush.]

materialists - Materialisten; Materialist, Materialistin, Materialist

thata - dassa

bush - Buchse, Strauch, Busch

[Footnote 5: Among the Hindoos the four classes of men are the Brahmansor priestly class, the Kshutrya or warlike class, the Vaishya oragricultural and mercantile class, and the Shoodra or menial class. Thefour stages of life are, the life of a religious student, the life of ahouseholder, the life of a hermit, and the life of a Sunyasi ordevotee.]

priestly - priesterlich

warlike - streitlustig, angriffslustig, kampfeslustig, kriegerisch

oragricultural - oder landwirtschaftlich

mercantile - kaufmännisch

menial - unbedeutend; untergeordnet; nieder, niedrig

ahouseholder - ein Hausbesitzer

Hermit - Einsiedler, Eremit, Klausner

ordevotee - oderdevotee

[Footnote 6: Bali was a demon who had conquered Indra and gained histhrone, but was afterwards overcome by Vishnu at the time of his fifthincarnation.]

demon - Dämon, Teufel

conquered - erobert; erobern

histhrone - Histhron

overcome - überwunden; überwinden

Vishnu - Wischnu, Vishnu

fifthincarnation - Fünfte Inkarnation

[Footnote 7: Dandakya is said to have abducted from the forest thedaughter of a Brahman, named Bhargava, and being cursed by the Brahman,was buried with his kingdom under a shower of dust. The place was calledafter his name the Dandaka forest, celebrated in the Ramayana, but nowunknown.]

abducted - entführt; entführen, abspreizen, wegziehen

thedaughter - dieTochter

cursed - verflucht, verfluchte; (curs) verflucht, verfluchte

calledafter - danach angerufen

nowunknown - jetzt unbekannt

[Footnote 8: Ahalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. Indra caused herto believe that he was Gautama, and thus enjoyed her. He was cursed byGautama and subsequently afflicted with a thousand ulcers on his body.]

afflicted with - geplagt

ulcers - Geschwüre; Geschwür

[Footnote 9: Kichaka was the brother-in-law of King Virata, with whomthe Pandavas had taken refuge for one year. Kichaka was killed by Bhima,who assumed the disguise of Draupadi. For this story the Mahabaratashould be referred to.]

whomthe - wen

refuge - Zuflucht; Herberge

assumed - angenommen; annehmen, voraussetzen, vermuten, unterstellen

disguise - Verkleidung; Tarnung; verstellen

[Footnote 10: The story of Ravana is told in the Ramayana, which with theMahabarata form the two great epic poems of the Hindoos; the latter waswritten by Vyasa, and the former by Valmiki.]

theMahabarata - dasMahabarata

epic poems - Heldengedichte



Man should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinatethereto, in addition to the study of the arts and sciences contained inDharma and Artha. Even young maids should study this Kama Sutra alongwith its arts and sciences before marriage, and after it they shouldcontinue to do so with the consent of their husbands.

subordinatethereto - unterzuordnen

maids - Dienstmädchen; Mädchen

alongwith - mit

shouldcontinue - fortgesetzt werden sollte

consent - zustimmen, einwilligen, Zustimmung, Konsens, Einverständnis

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed tostudy any science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

tostudy - zu studieren

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good, forwomen already know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice isderived from the Kama Shastra, or the science of Kama itself. Moreover,it is not only in this but in many other cases that though the practiceof a science is known to all, only a few persons are acquainted with therules and laws on which the science is based. Thus the Yadnikas orsacrificers, though ignorant of grammar, make use of appropriate wordswhen addressing the different Deities, and do not know how these wordsare framed. Again, persons do the duties required of them on auspiciousdays, which are fixed by astrology, though they are not acquainted withthe science of astrology.

forwomen - für Frauen

isderived - abgeleitet ist

practiceof - Praxis der

orsacrificers - oropfer

ignorant - unwissend; ignorant

Grammar - Grammatik, Sprachlehre, Grammatiktheorie

wordswhen - wortwenn

deities - Götter; Gott, Gottheit

wordsare - Worte sind

auspiciousdays - Verheißungsvolle Tage

astrology - Astrologie

withthe - mit dem

In a like manner riders of horses andelephants train these animals without knowing the science of traininganimals, but from practice only. And similarly the people of the mostdistant provinces obey the laws of the kingdom from practice, andbecause there is a king over them, and without further reason.[11] Andfrom experience we find that some women, such as daughters of princesand their ministers, and public women, are actually versed in the KamaShastra.

riders - Reitern; Reiter, Reiterin, Mitfahrer, Mitfahrerin

andelephants - und Elefanten

traininganimals - Trainingstiere

mostdistant - am weitesten entfernt

provinces - Provinzen; Provinz, Land

obey - gehorchen; befolgen

andbecause - undweil

princesand - Fürstensand

ministers - Ministerinnen und Minister; Gesandter, Pastor, Minister

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a partof it, by studying its practice from some confidential friend. Sheshould study alone in private the sixty-four practices that form a partof the Kama Shastra. Her teacher should be one of the following persons,viz., the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and alreadymarried,[12] or a female friend who can be trusted in everything, or thesister of her mother (_i.

partof - Teil davon

confidential - vertraulich

alreadymarried - bereits verheiratet

trusted - vertrauenswürdig; Vertrauen

thesister - Ihre Schwester

._, her aunt), or an old female servant, or afemale beggar who may have formerly lived in the family, or her ownsister, who can always be trusted.

afemale - eine Frau

beggar - Bettler, Bettlerin

Formerly - früher, ehemals

ownsister - eigene Schwester

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the KamaSutra:--

1. Singing.

2. Playing on musical instruments.

3. Dancing.

4. Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music.

instrumental music - Instrumentalmusik

5. Writing and drawing.

6. Tattooing.

tattooing - Tätowierung; tätowieren

7. Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers.

arraying - Arrangieren; Bekleidung, Tracht, Arrangement

adorning - schmücken, zieren, verzieren

idol - Idol, Götze

8. Spreading and arraying beds or couches of flowers, or flowers uponthe ground.

couches - Liege

uponthe - auf die

9. Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails, and bodies, _i.e._,staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same.

garments - Kleidungsstücke; Kleidungsstück

staining - Färbung; Beizen (Holz)

Dyeing - färbend, Einfärbung; (dye) färbend, Einfärbung

10. Fixing stained glass into a floor.

stained - gefärbt; Fleck, Schandfleck, Fleck, beflecken, beizen

11. The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions forreclining.

cushions - Kissen

forreclining - zum Zurücklehnen

12. Playing on musical glasses filled with water.

13. Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns andreservoirs.

accumulating - anhäufen; aufstauen, sich vermehren

aqueducts - Aquädukte; Aquädukt, Aquädukt

cisterns - Zisternen; Zisterne, Spülkasten

andreservoirs - und Stauseen

14. Picture making, trimming and decorating.

trimming - Trimmen; Beschneiden, Entgraten, Trimmung; (trim); kürzen

15. Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths.

rosaries - Rosenkränze; Rosenkranz, Rosenkranz

necklaces - Halsketten; Halskette, Collier

garlands - Girlanden; Girlande, Girlande

wreaths - Kränze; Kranz, Gebinde

16. Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots offlowers.

binding - verbindlich; Bindung; (bind); binden; verbinden, konnektieren

turbans - Turbane; Turban, Turban

chaplets - Kränze; Kranz

crests - Kämme; Gipfel, Kamm, Haube, Krone, Helmzier, Zimir, Helmkleinod

knots - Knoten, Knäuel

offlowers - von Blumen

17. Scenic representations. Stage playing.

Scenic - Landschaftlich; malerisch

Representations - DARSTELLUNGEN; Repräsentation, Abzeichen, Darstellung

18. Art of making ear ornaments.

ornaments - Ornamente; Verzierung, musikalische Verzierung

19. Art of preparing perfumes and odours.

perfumes - Parfums; Duft, Parfüm

odours - Gerüche; Geruch

20. Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment indress.

disposition - Neigung, Gesinnung, Hang, Veranlagung, Einteilung

decorations - Dekorationen; Dekorieren

indress - unterdrücken

21. Magic or sorcery.

sorcery - Zauberei, Hexerei

22. Quickness of hand or manual skill.

quickness - Schnelligkeit

manual - Leitfaden, manuell, Manual, Handbuch

23. Culinary art, _i.e._, cooking and cookery.

culinary - kulinarisch

cookery - kochen; Kochkunst

24. Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituousextracts with proper flavour and colour.

lemonades - Limonaden; Limonade, Zitrone, Brause, Limonade, Limo

sherbets - Brausebonbons; Sorbet

spirituousextracts - Spirituosenextrakte

flavour - Geschmack, Aroma, Sorte

25. Tailor's work and sewing.

tailor - Schneider, Schneiderin, schneidern, zuschneiden, anpassen

sewing - (to sew) nähen; (sew) (to sew) nähen

26. Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs,&c., out of yarn or thread.

parrots - Papageien; Papagei, nachplappern

tufts - Büschel

tassels - Quasten; Quaste

bunches - Trauben; Bund, qualifierlowers, Traube, bündeln, anordnen

knobs - Knöpfe; Knopf, Knauf

yarn - Garn; Tau

thread - Thema; Faden, Garn, Zwirn, Nähgarn

27. Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles andenigmatical questions.

riddles - Rätsel

enigmas - Rätseln; Rätsel

covert - verdeckt; Versteck; Unterholz; Deckfeder

verbal - wörtlich, verbal, mündlich, zeitwörtlich

puzzles - Rätsel

andenigmatical - andenigmatisch

28. A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one personfinished, another person had to commence at once, repeating anotherverse, beginning with the same letter with which the last speaker'sverse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to have lost, andto be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind.

commence - anfangen, beginnen

anotherverse - ein anderes Universum

Whoever - wer immer, wer auch immer

andto - und zu

forfeit - verwirkt; Strafe; Pfand; verwirken, einbüßen, aufgeben

stake - Pfahl, Pflock, Marterpfahl, Scheiterhaufen, Anteil, Einsatz

29. The art of mimicry or imitation.

mimicry - Mimikry, Nachahmung

imitation - Imitation, Nachahmung, Kopie, Imitat

30. Reading, including chanting and intoning.

chanting - skandieren; Kirchenlied, Gesang

intoning - intonieren; anstimmend; (intone) intonieren; anstimmend

31. Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a gamechiefly by women and children, and consists of a difficult sentencebeing given, and when repeated quickly, the words are often transposedor badly pronounced.

gamechiefly - spielend leicht

sentencebeing - Satz-Wesen

transposedor - transponiert oder

32. Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff, and bow and arrow.

sword - Schwert; Schwertkämpfer, Schwertkämpferin

bow - verbeugen; Verneigung (vor), Verbeugung; Bogen, Bug (Schiff)

arrow - Richtungspfeil, Pfeil

33. Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring.

inferences - Schlussfolgerungen; Schlussfolgern

inferring - schlussfolgern, folgern, schließen, Schlüsse ziehen

34. Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter.

carpentry - Schreinerei, Tischlerei, Zimmerei

Carpenter - Schreiner; Zimmermann, Zimmerfrau

35. Architecture, or the art of building.

36. Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems.

silver coins - Silbergeld

gems - Edelsteine; Edelstein, Juwel

37. Chemistry and mineralogy.

mineralogy - Mineralogie

38. Colouring jewels, gems and beads.

beads - Perlen; Perle, Tropfen

39. Knowledge of mines and quarries.

quarries - Steinbrüche; stöbern; Beute, Jagdbeute, verfolgtes Wild

40. Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants,of nourishing them, and determining their ages.

nourishing - nahrhaft; ernähren, nähren, aufziehen, erziehen, großziehen

41. Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting.

cock - Vogelmännchen; Gockel, Hahn; erigierter Penis (vulg.), Pimmel

quail - Wachtel

ram - RAM

42. Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak.

starlings - Stare

43. Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing thehair with unguents and perfumes and braiding it.

ointments - Salben; Salbe, Balsam

thehair - die Haare

unguents - Salben; Salbe

braiding - Geflecht; flechtend; (braid) Geflecht; flechtend

44. The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of wordsin a peculiar way.

cypher - Chiffre

45. The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of variouskinds. Some speak by changing the beginning and end of words, others byadding unnecessary letters between every syllable of a word, and so on.

variouskinds - verschiedene Arten von Kindern

byadding - durch Hinzufügen

syllable - Silbe

46. Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects.

vernacular - Nationalsprache; Umgangssprache, Vernakularsprache

dialects - Dialekte; Dialekt, Mundart

47. Art of making flower carriages.

carriages - Kutschen; Kutsche, Gang, Haltung, Wagen, Frachtgeld

48. Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms,and binding armlets.

mystical - mystisch

charms - Reize; Talisman; Charme, Zauberformel, Lieblichkeit; bezaubern

armlets - Armbänder; Armreif, Armbinde

50. Composing poems.

composing - zusammenstellen, zusammensetzen, komponieren, enthalten

51. Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies.

vocabularies - Vokabularien; Vokabeln-p, Wortschatz, Wortliste, Vokabular

52. Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance ofpersons.

disguising - verkleidend; (disguise); Verkleidung; Tarnung; verstellen

ofpersons - vonPersonen

53. Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such asmaking cotton to appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear asfine and good.

asmaking - machen

silk - Seide

coarse - grob, grobkörnig, derb, primitiv

54. Various ways of gambling.

gambling - Glücksspiel; (gamble); Glücksspiel, Hazardspiel, riskant

55. Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means ofmuntras or incantations.

incantations - Beschwörungen; Beschwörung

56. Skill in youthful sports.

youthful - jugendlich, jung

57. Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respects andcompliments to others.

andcompliments - und Komplimente

58. Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, &c.

59. Knowledge of gymnastics.

60. Art of knowing the character of a man from his features.

61. Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses.

constructing - bauen, konstruieren

62. Arithmetical recreations.

arithmetical - arithmetisch

recreations - Wiederherstellung, Erholung

63. Making artificial flowers.

artificial - künstlich

64. Making figures and images in clay.

clay - Lehm, Ton, Asche

A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and otherwinning qualities, and also versed in the above arts, obtains the nameof a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives a seat ofhonour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always respected bythe king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for byall, she becomes an object of universal regard. The daughter of a kingtoo, as well as the daughter of a minister, being learned in the abovearts, can make their husbands favourable to them, even though these mayhave thousands of other wives besides themselves.

endowed - dotiert; ausstatten

otherwinning - anderes Gewinnen

obtains - erhält; erlangen, erhalten, bestehen

nameof - Name von

ofhonour - der Ehre

assemblage - Sammlung, Menge, Versammlung

Praised - Gelobt; Lob

universal - allgemein, Allgemein-, universell, weltweit, Welt-

minister - Gesandter, Pastor, Minister

favourable - günstig

mayhave - Haben Sie vielleicht

And in the samemanner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and falls intodistress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign country, bymeans of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare knowledge of themgives attractiveness to a woman, though the practice of them may be onlypossible or otherwise according to the circumstances of each case. A manwho is versed in these arts, who is loquacious and acquainted with thearts of gallantry, gains very soon the hearts of women, even though heis only acquainted with them for a short time.

samemanner - gleiches Verfahren

bymeans - durch Mittel

bare - knapp, kahl, nackt, bloß; entblößen, abnehmen, freimachen

themgives - gibt

attractiveness - Attraktivität

onlypossible - nur möglich

circumstances - Umstände; Umstand, Umstand

loquacious - wortgewandt; gesprächig, redselig, geschwätzig, schwatzhaft

gallantry - Galanterie; Tapferkeit


[Footnote 11: The author wishes to prove that a great many things aredone by people from practice and custom, without their being acquaintedwith the reason of things, or the laws on which they are based, and thisis perfectly true.]

aredone - Sind Sie fertig

acquaintedwith - kennengelernt

thisis - das ist

[Footnote 12: The proviso of being married applies to all the teachers.]

proviso - Bedingung, Maßgabe, Vorbehalt, Vorbehaltsklausel



Having thus acquired learning, a man, with the wealth that he may havegained by gift, conquest, purchase, deposit,[14] or inheritance from hisancestors, should become a householder, and pass the life of a citizen.He should take a house in a city, or large village, or in the vicinityof good men, or in a place which is the resort of many persons. Thisabode should be situated near some water, and divided into differentcompartments for different purposes. It should be surrounded by agarden, and also contain two rooms, an outer and an inner one. The innerroom should be occupied by the females, while the outer room, balmy withrich perfumes, should contain a bed, soft, agreeable to the sightcovered with a clean white cloth, low in the middle part, havinggarlands and bunches of flowers[15] upon it, and a canopy above it, andtwo pillows, one at the top, another at the bottom. There should be alsoa sort of couch besides, and at the head of this a sort of stool, onwhich should be placed the fragrant ointments for the night, as well asflowers, pots containing collyrium and other fragrant substances, thingsused for perfuming the mouth, and the bark of the common citron tree.

acquired - erworben; erwerben, erwerben, akquirieren

havegained - erlangt haben

conquest - Eroberung; Conquest-Modus, Conquestmodus

purchase - Einkauf, Anschaffung, kaufen, anschaffen

deposit - Ablagerung, Vorkommen, Depot, Einzahlung, Anzahlung, Pfand

inheritance - Vererbung; Erbschaft; Erbe, Erbteil

hisancestors - seine Vorfahren

householder - Hauseigentümer; Haushaltsvorstand

vicinityof - der Umgebung

resort - Ferienort; umsortieren; Badeort (Seebad)

situated - gelegen; aufstellen, unterbringen

differentcompartments - verschiedene Abteilungen

surrounded - umgeben, umringen, umzingeln, umringen

innerroom - Innenraum

be occupied - beschäftigt sein

balmy - lauwarm; lindernd, mildernd, sanft

agreeable - angenehm; verträglich, liebenswürdig, gefällig

sightcovered - gesichtet

havinggarlands - Gärten haben

canopy - Baldachin, Himmel, Vordach, Überdach, Überhang, Kronendach

andtwo - und zwei

pillows - Kopfkissen

alsoa - aucha

couch - Liege

stool - Stuhl, Kot, Hocker

onwhich - auf was

fragrant - duftend, wohlriechend

thingsused - Dinge verwendet

perfuming - Parfümierung; Duft, Parfüm

bark - Bellen

citron - Zitrone

ear the couch, on the ground, there should be a pot for spitting, a boxcontaining ornaments, and also a lute hanging from a peg made of thetooth of an elephant, a board for drawing, a pot containing perfume,some books, and some garlands of the yellow amaranth flowers. Not farfrom the couch, and on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toycart, and a board for playing with dice; outside the outer roomthere should be cages of birds,[16] and a separate place for spinning,carving, and such like diversions. In the garden there should be awhirling swing and a common swing, as also a bower of creepers coveredwith flowers, in which a raised parterre should be made for sitting.

spitting - Spucken; (spit) Bratspieß, Spieß (zum Braten)

lute - Kitt, Laute

peg - Wirbel; Holzdübel, Pflock, Stift, Haltestift

perfume - Duft; Parfüm, Duftstoff, Parfum, parfümieren

amaranth - Amarant

farfrom - weit entfernt

toycart - Spielzeugauto

dice - würfeln, in Würfel schneiden

roomthere - Zimmer dort

cages - Käfige; Käfig

spinning - Spinnen; (spinning-wheel) Spinnrad; (spin) Spinnen; (spinning-wheel) Spinnrad

carving - Schnitzen; Schnitzerei; (carve); schneiden; tranchieren

diversions - Ablenkungen; Ablenkung, Ablenkungsmanöver

swing - schwingen, schaukeln, schwanken, baumeln, Schaukel, Hutsche

bower - Laube; (bow) Laube

creepers - Kriechtiere; Kriecher, Strampler, Strampelanzug, Kriechpflanze

coveredwith - bedeckt mit

Now the householder having got up in the morning and performed hisnecessary duties,[17] should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity ofointments and perfumes to his body, put some ornaments on his person andcollyrium on his eyelids and below his eyes, colour his lips withalacktaka,[18] and look at himself in the glass. Having then eaten betelleaves, with other things that give fragrance to the mouth, he shouldperform his usual business. He should bathe daily, anoint his body withoil every other day, apply a lathering[19] substance to his body everythree days, get his head (including face) shaved every four days, andthe other parts of his body every five or ten days.[20] All these thingsshould be done without fail, and the sweat of the armpits should also beremoved. Meals should be taken in the forenoon, in the afternoon, andagain at night, according to Charayana.

hisnecessary - seins notwendig

ofointments - von Salben

andcollyrium - undollyrium

eyelids - Augenlider; Augenlid

fragrance - Parfüm; Duft, Duftnote

shouldperform - leisten sollte

bathe - baden

anoint - ölen, schmieren, einreiben, salben

withoil - mit Öl

everythree - alle drei

andthe - und die

thingsshould - Dinge sollten

sweat - schwitzen; Schweiß

armpits - Achselhöhlen; Achselhöhle, Dreckloch

beremoved - entfernt werden

forenoon - am Vormittag; Vormittag

andagain - und wieder

After breakfast, parrots andother birds should be taught to speak, and the fighting of cocks,quails, and rams should follow. A limited time should be devoted todiversions with Pithamardas, Vitas, and Vidushakas,[21] and then shouldbe taken the midday sleep.[22] After this the householder, having put onhis clothes and ornaments, should, during the afternoon, converse withhis friends. In the evening there should be singing, and after that thehouseholder, along with his friend, should await in his room, previouslydecorated and perfumed, the arrival of the woman that may be attached tohim, or he may send a female messenger for her, or go for her himself.After her arrival at his house, he and his friend should welcome her,and entertain her with a loving and agreeable conversation. Thus end theduties of the day.

andother - und andere

cocks - Hähne; Vogelmännchen; Gockel, Hahn; erigierter Penis (vulg.)

quails - Wachteln; Wachtel

rams - Widder; RAM

devoted - hingebungsvoll; widmen

todiversions - zu Ablenkungen

shouldbe - sein sollte

midday sleep - Mittagsschlaf

converse - Umkehrung, umgekehrt, Gegenteil

thehouseholder - der Hausherr

await - abwarten; erwarten, harren, warten

previouslydecorated - vorher dekoriert

tohim - zu ihm

messenger - Kurier, Bote, Botschafter

theduties - dieAufgaben

The following are the things to be done occasionally as diversions oramusements.

Occasionally - gelegentlich

oramusements - oderamusements

1. Holding festivals[23] in honour of different Deities.

honour - Ehrung, Ehre; ehren; beehren, akzeptieren, annehmen, honorieren

2. Social gatherings of both sexes.

gatherings - Versammlungen; Erfassung, Sammeln, Lese

3. Drinking parties.

4. Picnics.

picnics - Picknicks; Picknick

5. Other social diversions.


On some particular auspicious day, an assembly of citizens should beconvened in the temple of Saraswati.[24] There the skill of singers, andof others who may have come recently to the town, should be tested, andon the following day they should always be given some rewards. Afterthat they may either be retained or dismissed, according as theirperformances are liked or not by the assembly.

auspicious - verheißungsvoll

assembly - Montage; Baugruppe; Versammlung

beconvened - einberufen werden

Temple - Tempel, Schläfe, Bethaus, Synagoge

andof - und von

rewards - Belohnungen; Belohnung, Lohn

dismissed - entlassen, entlassen, abweisen, einstellen, zurückweisen

theirperformances - ihre Leistungen

The members of theassembly should act in concert, both in times of distress as well as intimes of prosperity, and it is also the duty of these citizens to showhospitality to strangers who may have come to the assembly. What is saidabove should be understood to apply to all the other festivals which maybe held in honour of the different Deities, according to the presentrules.

theassembly - die Versammlung

prosperity - Prosperität, Wohlstand

showhospitality - Gastfreundschaft zeigen

strangers - Fremde, Fremdling, Unbekannte

saidabove - oben gesagt

_Social Gatherings._

When men of the same age, disposition and talents, fond of the samediversions and with the same degree of education, sit together incompany with public women,[25] or in an assembly of citizens, or at theabode of one among themselves, and engage in agreeable discourse witheach other, such is called a sitting in company or a social gathering.

fond - (to be fond of sb/sth) jemanden/etwas gerne mögen

incompany - Unternehmen

engage - engagieren; beschäftigen; anstellen; angreifen, anlegen

discourse - Diskurs, Abhandlung, Gespräch, reden, Rede halten

witheach - mit jedem

he subjects of discourse are to be the completion of verses halfcomposed by others, and the testing the knowledge of one another in thevarious arts. The women who may be the most beautiful, who may like thesame things that the men like, and who may have power to attract theminds of others, are here done homage to.

completion - Fertigstellung, Vervollständigung, Vollendung

halfcomposed - halb komponiert

thesame - dasselbe

homage - Vasalleneid, Gefolgschaftsschwur, Vasallentreueschwur

_Drinking Parties._

Men and women should drink in one another's houses. And here the menshould cause the public women to drink, and should then drinkthemselves, liquors such as the Madhu, Aireya, Sara, and Asawa, whichare of bitter and sour taste; also drinks concocted from the barks ofvarious trees, wild fruits and leaves.

menshould - sollten

drinkthemselves - selbst zu trinken

liquors - Spirituosen; Spirituose

whichare - Was

Bitter - herb, rau, bitter

sour - sauer, herb, säuerlich, sauer vergoren

concocted - ausgeheckt; zusammenbrauen, zusammenmischen, zusammenrühren

barks - bellt; Bellen

ofvarious - von verschiedenen

_Going to Gardens or Picnics._

In the forenoon, men, having dressed themselves should go to gardens onhorseback, accompanied by public women and followed by servants. Andhaving done there all the duties of the day, and passed the time invarious agreeable diversions, such as the fighting of quails, cocks andrams, and other spectacles, they should return home in the afternoon inthe same manner, bringing with them bunches of flowers, &c.

onhorseback - auf dem Rücken eines Pferdes

accompanied - begleitet; begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, begleiten, geleiten

invarious - invariant

andrams - undrams

spectacles - Brillen; Spektakel

The same also applies to bathing in summer in water from which wicked ordangerous animals have previously been taken out, and which has beenbuilt in on all sides.

wicked - verrucht; böse; (wick) verrucht; böse

ordangerous - gefährlich

beenbuilt - gebaut worden

_Other Social Diversions._

Spending nights playing with dice. Going out on moonlight nights.Keeping the festive day in honour of spring. Plucking the sprouts andfruits of the mangoe trees. Eating the fibres of lotuses. Eating thetender ears of corn. Picnicing in the forests when the trees get theirnew foliage. The Udakakashvedika or sporting in the water.

moonlight - Mondlicht, Mondschein, Mondenschein

festive day - Festtag

plucking - pflücken, abrupfen, zupfen, schlagen, rupfen, ausrupfen

sprouts - Sprossen; sprießen; Schössling

andfruits - undFrüchte

mangoe - Mango

fibres - Fasern; Faser, Faser

lotuses - Lotosblumen; Hornklee, Lotos, Lotosblume, Lotus

theirnew - ihre neue

foliage - Blätter, Laub, Laubwerk, Blätterwerk

Decoratingeach other with the flowers of some trees. Pelting each other with theflowers of the Kadamba tree, and many other sports which may either beknown to the whole country, or may be peculiar to particular parts ofit. These and similar other amusements should always be carried on bycitizens.

pelting - prasselt; niederprasselnd; (pelt) prasselt; niederprasselnd

theflowers - dieBlumen

beknown - bekannt

ofit - davon

bycitizens - durch die Bürgerinnen und Bürger

The above amusements should be followed by a person who diverts himselfalone in company with a courtesan, as well as by a courtesan who can dothe same in company with her maid servants or with citizens.

diverts - ablenkt; umlenken, umleiten, ablenken, unterhalten

himselfalone - selbständig

maid - Dienstmädchen; Mädchen; Stubenmädchen

A Pithamarda[26] is a man without wealth, alone in the world, whose onlyproperty consists of his Mallika,[27] some lathering, substance and ared cloth, who comes from a good country, and who is skilled in all thearts; and by teaching these arts is received in the company of citizens,and in the abode of public women.

lathering - Einschäumen; Schaum, Seifenschaum

abode - Aufenthalt, bleiben, Wohnsitz

A Vita[28] is a man who has enjoyed the pleasures of fortune, who is acompatriot of the citizens with whom he associates, who is possessed ofthe qualities of a householder, who has his wife with him, and who ishonoured in the assembly of citizens, and in the abodes of public women,and lives on their means and on them.

Fortune - Fortuna; Schicksal, Glück, Vermögen

acompatriot - ein Landsmann

associates - Mitarbeiter; Weggefährte, vereinigen

possessed - besessen; besitzen, besitzen

ishonoured - ishonoriert

abodes - Wohnorte; Aufenthalt, bleiben, Wohnsitz, ertragen

A Vidushaka[29] (also called a Vaihasaka, _i.e._, one who provokeslaughter) is a person only acquainted with some of the arts who is ajester, and who is trusted by all.

provokeslaughter - provoziert Gelächter

ajester - Scherzbold

These persons are employed in matters of quarrels and reconciliationsbetween citizens and public women.

reconciliationsbetween - Versöhnung dazwischen

This remark applies also to female beggars, to women with their headsshaved, to adulterous women, and to old public women skilled in all thevarious arts.

remark - bemerken; Anmerkung, Bemerkung

headsshaved - Kopf rasiert

adulterous - ehebrecherisch

Thus a citizen living in his town or village, respected by all, shouldcall on the persons of his own caste who may be worth knowing. He shouldconverse in company and gratify his friends by his society, and obligingothers by his assistance in various matters, he should cause them toassist one another in the same way.

shouldcall - anrufen sollte

caste - Kaste

shouldconverse - umkehren sollte

gratify - befriedigen, erfreuen

obligingothers - andere verpflichten

toassist - zu helfen

There are some verses on this subject as follows:--

A citizen discoursing, not entirely in the Sanscrit language,[30] norwholly in the dialects of the country, on various topics in society,obtains great respect. The wise should not resort to a society dislikedby the public, governed by no rules, and intent on the destruction ofothers.

discoursing - eine Rede halten; Diskurs, Diskurs, Abhandlung, Diskurs

entirely - vollständig; ganz, total, entirely

norwholly - ganz und gar nicht

wise - weise; klug, vernünftig

dislikedby - Abgelehnt von

governed - regiert; regieren, steuern, regulieren, lenken, regeln

ofothers - von anderen

But a learned man living in a society which acts according tothe wishes of the people, and which has pleasure for its only object ishighly respected in this world.


[Footnote 13: This term would appear to apply generally to an inhabitantof Hindoostan. It is not meant only for a dweller in a city, like theLatin Urbanus as opposed to Rusticus.]

inhabitantof - Einwohner von

dweller - Bewohnerin; Bewohner

opposed - gegen; ablehnen, widersprechen

[Footnote 14: Gift is peculiar to a Brahman, conquest to a Kshatrya,while purchase, deposit, and other means of acquiring wealth belongs tothe Vaishya.]

acquiring - Anwerben; erwerben, erwerben, akquirieren

[Footnote 15: Natural garden flowers.]

[Footnote 16: Such as quails, partridges, parrots, starlings, &c.]

Partridges - Rebhühner; Rebhuhn

[Footnote 17: The calls of nature always performed by the Hindoos thefirst thing in the morning.]

[Footnote 18: A colour made from lac.]

lac - Gummilack

[Footnote 19: This would act instead of soap, which was not introduceduntil the rule of the Mahomedans.]

introduceduntil - eingeführt werden, bis

[Footnote 20: Ten days are allowed when the hair is taken out with a pairof pincers.]

[Footnote 21: These are characters generally introduced in the Hindoodrama; their characteristics will be explained further on.]

further on - weiterhin

[Footnote 22: Noonday sleep is only allowed in summer, when the nightsare short.]

noonday - Mittag, Mittagszeit

[Footnote 23: These are very common in all parts of India.]

[Footnote 24: In the 'Asiatic Miscellany,'and in Sir W. Jones's works,will be found a spirited hymn addressed to this goddess, who is adoredas the patroness of the fine arts, especially of music and rhetoric, asthe inventress of the Sanscrit language, &c., &c. She is the goddess ofharmony, eloquence, and language, and is somewhat analogous to Minerva.For further information about her, see Edward Moor's 'Hindoo Pantheon.']

Asiatic - asiatisch

miscellany - Gemischtes; Gemisch; Sammlung

hymn - Hymne (''now rare in this sense''); Hymnus, Kirchenlied, Loblied

goddess - Göttin, weibliche Gottheit, weiblicher Gott

adoredas - verehrt werden

patroness - Schirmherrin; Gönnerin

rhetoric - Redekunst, Rhetorik

inventress - Erfinderin

ofharmony - der Harmonie

eloquence - Redegewandtheit, Eloquenz, Sprachfertigkeit, Beredsamkeit

analogous - vergleichbar

Edward - Eduard

moor - verankern; Moor

Pantheon - Pantheon

[Footnote 25: The public women, or courtesans (Vesya), of the earlyHindoos have often been Compared with the Hetera of the Greeks. Thesubject is dealt with at some length in H. H. Wilson's 'Select Specimensof the Theatre of the Hindoos,'in two volumes, Trubner & Co.

Co - US-Bundesstaat

select - auswählen

volumes - Volumen

1871. Itmay be fairly considered that the courtesan was one of the elements, andan important element too, of early Hindoo society, and that hereducation and intellect were both superior to that of the women of thehousehold. Wilson says, "By the Vesya or courtesan, however, we are notto understand a female who has disregarded the obligation of law or theprecepts of virtue, but a character reared by a state of mannersunfriendly to the admission of wedded females into society, and openingit only at the expense of reputation to women who were trained forassociation with men by personal and mental acquirements to which thematron was a stranger."]

intellect - Intellekt

superior - überlegen, höher, höherstehend, übergeordnet, Vorgesetzter

thehousehold - denHaushalt

notto - nicht zu

disregarded - nicht beachtet; Gleichgültigkeit, Nichtbeachten

obligation - Verpflichtung, Pflicht

theprecepts - dieRegeln

reared - aufgezogen; Hinter.., hinterster, Heck, Rück..

mannersunfriendly - unfreundliche Umgangsformen

admission - Zulassung, Aufnahme, Einlass, Anerkennung

wedded - verheiratet; trauen, verheiraten, vermählen, heiraten

openingit - Es öffnen

expense - Kosten; Ausgabe, Aufwand, Verlust

reputation - Ansehen, Ruf, Klang, Bekanntheit

forassociation - für die Assoziation

acquirements - Errungenschaften; Erwerbung, Erlangung

[Footnote 26: According to this description a Pithamarda would be a sortof professor of all the arts, and as such received as the friend andconfidant of the citizens.]

andconfidant - und verunsichert

[Footnote 27: A seat in the form of the letter T.]

[Footnote 28: The Vita is supposed to represent somewhat the characterof the Parasite of the Greek comedy. It is possible that he was retainedabout the person of the wealthy and dissipated as a kind of privateinstructor, as well as an entertaining companion.]

characterof - Charakter von

parasite - Parasit; Schmarotzer

Greek - griechisch; Griechisch, griechische Sprache, Grieche, Griechin

retainedabout - zurückbehalten

wealthy - wohlhabend, reich

dissipated - verpufft; zerstreuen, zerteilen, verscheuchen, lösen, abbauen

privateinstructor - Privatlehrer

companion - Begleiter, Freund, Liebhaber, Kamerad

[Footnote 29: Vidushaka is evidently the buffoon and jester. Wilson saysof him that he is the humble companion, not the servant, of a prince orman of rank, and it is a curious peculiarity that he is always aBrahman. He bears more affinity to Sancho Panza, perhaps, than any othercharacter in western fiction, imitating him in his combination ofshrewdness and simplicity, his fondness of good living and his love ofease.

buffoon - Possenreißer; Hanswurst, Kasper, Narr, Närrin, kaspern

jester - Narr; Spaßmacher, Spaßmacherin, Clown, Clownin

saysof - sagt der

humble - bescheiden; demütig, ergeben

rank - (sozialer) Stand, Rang, Dienstgrad

Curious - neugierig, sonderbar, merkwürdig

peculiarity - Singularität, Einzigartigkeit, Besonderheit

affinity - Affinität; Verwandtschaft, Schwägerschaft

othercharacter - anderesZeichen

imitating - Nachahmung; imitieren

combination - Kombinieren; Kombination, Kombinierte, Kombinat, Vereinigung

ofshrewdness - der Schlauheit

simplicity - Einfachheit

fondness - Zärtlichkeit, Vorliebe

good living - Wohlleben

In the dramas of intrigue he exhibits some of the talents ofMercury, but with less activity and ingenuity, and occasionally suffersby his interference. According to the technical definition of hisattributes he is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person, age, andattire.]

intrigue - Intrige; intrigieren; faszinieren

exhibits - Exponate; zeigen, zur Schau stellen, ausstellen, vorzeigen

ofMercury - vonQuecksilber

ingenuity - Erfindungsreichtum; Einfallsreichtum, Findigkeit, Raffinesse

suffersby - leidet

interference - Einmischung; Interferenz, Störung, Eingriff

hisattributes - seineAttribute

mirth - Fröhlichkeit, Belustigung, Freude

ridiculous - lächerlich

[Footnote 30: This means, it is presumed, that the citizen should beacquainted with several languages. The middle part of this paragraphmight apply to the Nihilists and Fenians of the day, or to secretsocieties. It was perhaps a reference to the Thugs.]

beacquainted - kennengelernt

nihilists - Nihilisten; Nihilist, Nihilistin

secretsocieties - Geheimgesellschaften

Thugs - Verbrecher; Rowdy, Schläger, Randalierer



resorted - gegriffen; umsortieren; Badeort (Seebad)

When Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the rulesof the Holy Writ (_i.e._, by lawful marriage) with virgins of their owncaste, it then becomes a means of acquiring lawful progeny and goodfame, and it is not also opposed to the customs of the world. On thecontrary the practice of Kama with women of the higher castes, and withthose previously enjoyed by others, even though they be of the samecaste, is prohibited.

castes - Kasten; Kaste

rulesof - Regeln von

lawful - rechtmäßig; gesetzlich, legal, rechtsmäßig

virgins - Jungfrauen; Jungfrau, jungfräulich, jungfräulich, nativ

owncaste - eigene Kaste

progeny - Nachkommen, Nachfahren, Nachkommenschaft, Werk, Schaffen

goodfame - guten Ruf

thecontrary - das Gegenteil

withthose - mit denen

prohibited - verboten; verbieten

But the practice of Kama with women of the lowercastes, with women excommunicated from their own caste, with publicwomen, and with women twice married,[31] is neither enjoined norprohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasureonly.

excommunicated - exkommuniziert; exkommunizieren, bannen, verbannen

publicwomen - öffentliche Frauen

norprohibited - nochverboten

pleasureonly - nur zum Vergnügen

Nayikas,[32] therefore, are of three kinds, viz., maids, women twicemarried, and public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion thatthere is a fourth kind of Nayika, viz., a woman who is resorted to onsome special occasion even though she be previously married to another.These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:--

twicemarried - doppelt verheiratet

thatthere - das dort

(_a_). This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and in so doing I shall not be violating the ordinances of Dharma.

safely - sicher

violating - verletzen, brechen, überschreiten, mißachten, übertreten

Or thus:--

(_b_). This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me, there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.

Or thus:--

(_c_). This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she becomes united with me, she will cause her husband to abandon my enemy.

mastery - Beherrschung; Meisterschaft

abandon - aufgeben; im Stich lassen, preisgeben, verlassen, abbrechen

Or thus:--

(_d_). This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me some harm.

disaffected - entfremdet; unzufrieden machen

Or thus:--

(_e_). By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine, or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some other difficult purpose.

ruin - Ruine, Ruin, Ruin, ruinieren, auf die Knie zwingen, vernichten

accomplish - zu erreichen; vollenden

Or thus:--

(_f_). By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast riches which I covet.

vast - riesig; beträchtlich, weit, ausgedehnt, enorm

covet - begehren; sehnen, checkersehnen

Or thus:--

(_g_). The union of this woman with me is not attended with any danger, and will bring me wealth, of which, on account of my poverty and inability to support myself, I am very much in need. I shall, therefore, obtain her vast riches in this way without any difficulty.

inability - Unfähigkeit, Unvermögen

Or thus:--

(_h_). This woman loves me ardently, and knows all my weak points, if therefore, I am unwilling to be united with her, she will make my faults public, and thus tarnish my character and reputation. Or she will bring some gross accusation against me, of which it may be hard to clear myself, and I shall be ruined.

ardently - inbrünstig; feurige, heiß

faults - Fehlern; Fehler, Schuld, Fehler, Charakterschwäche, Verfehlung

tarnish - trüben; Anlaufen, Mattieren, Beschlagen, matt werden

Gross - grob; brutto; brutto

accusation - Anschuldigung; Anklage, Beschuldigung

Or perhaps she will detach from me her husband, who is powerful, and yet under her control, and will unite him to my enemy, or will herself join the latter.

detach - abtrennen; entfernen, ablösen, loslösen

unite - vereinen

Or thus:--

(_i_). The husband of this woman has violated the chastity of my wives, I shall therefore return that injury by seducing his wives.

seducing - verführend; (seduce); verführen, verleiten

Or thus:--

(_j_). By the help of this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king, who has taken shelter with her, and whom I am ordered by the king to destroy.

shelter - Unterkunft; Zuflucht, Obdach, Zufluchtsort, Schutzraum

Or thus:

(_k_). The woman whom I love is under the control of this woman. I shall, through the influence of the latter, be able to get at the former.

Or thus:--

(_l_). This woman will bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and beauty, but who is hard to get at, and under the control of another.

possesses - besitzt; besitzen, besitzen

Or, lastly, thus:--

(_m_). My enemy is a friend of this woman's husband, I shall therefore cause her to join him, and will thus create an enmity between her husband and him.

enmity - Feindschaft

For these and similar other reasons the wives of other men may beresorted to, but it must be distinctly understood that is only allowedfor special reasons, and not for mere carnal desire.

beresorted - beresortiert

distinctly - deutlich

allowedfor - erlaubt

mere - einfach; nur, schier, bloß

carnal desire - Fleischeslust

Charayana thinks that under these circumstances there is also a fifthkind of Nayika, viz., a woman who is kept by a minister, and who repairsto him occasionally; or a widow who accomplishes the purpose of a manwith the person to whom she resorts.

fifthkind - Fünftes Kind

repairsto - reparieren

accomplishes - erreicht; vollenden, vollenden, vollenden, vollenden

resorts - Ferienorte; umsortieren; Badeort (Seebad)

Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who passes the life of an ascetic and inthe condition of a widow may be considered as a sixth kind of Nayika.

ascetic - asketisch; Asket, Asketin

Ghotakamukha says that the daughter of a public woman, and a femaleservant, who are still virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika.

femaleservant - weibliche Dienerin

Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine that any woman born of good family,after she has come of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika.

doctrine - Doktrin; Lehre

Eighth - achte; Achtel

But these four latter kinds of Nayikas do not differ much from the firstfour kinds of them, as there is no separate object in resorting tothem. Therefore Vatsyayana is of opinion that there are only four kindsof Nayikas, _i.e._, the maid, the twice married woman, the public woman,and the woman resorted to for a special purpose.

differ - sich unterscheiden

tothem - zu ihnen

kindsof - Arten von

The following women are not to be enjoyed:--

A leper.

leper - Leprakranke; Aussätziger; q edicine now usually

A lunatic.

lunatic - Verrückte; Irre

A woman turned out of caste.

A woman who reveals secrets.

reveals - enthüllt; enthüllen, offenbaren

A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse.

publicly - öffentlich

A woman who is extremely white.

A woman who is extremely black.

A bad-smelling woman.

A woman who is a near relation.

A woman who is a female friend.

A woman who leads the life of an ascetic.

And, lastly, the wife of a relation, of a friend, of a learned Brahman,and of the king.

The followers of Babhravya say that any woman who has been enjoyed byfive men is a fit and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra is ofopinion that even when this is the case, the wives of a relation, of alearned Brahman and of a king should be excepted.

followers - Mitläufer; Nachfolger, Nachfolgerin, Anhänger, Follower

alearned - erlernt

The following are the kind of friends:--

One who has played with you in the dust, _i.e._, in childhood.

One who is bound by an obligation.

bound - gebunden; Sprung; (bind); binden; verbinden, konnektieren

One who is of the same disposition and fond of the same things.

One who is a fellow student.

fellow student - Kommilitonin , Kommilitone

One who is acquainted with your secrets and faults, and whose faults andsecrets are also known to you.

andsecrets - undGeheimnisse

One who is a child of your nurse.

One who is brought up with you.

One who is an hereditary friend.

hereditary - vererbt

These friends should possess the following qualities:--

possess - besitzen

They should tell the truth.

They should not be changed by time.

They should be favourable to your designs.

They should be firm.

firm - fest, straff (Busen), Fa. Firma, gesetzt, hart

They should be free from covetousness.

covetousness - Begehrlichkeit; Habsucht, Gier

They should not be capable of being gained over by others.

capable - fähig

They should not reveal your secrets.

reveal - enthüllen; offenbaren

Charayana says that citizens form friendship with washermen, barbers,cowherds, florists, druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers,beggars, Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas, as also with the wives ofall these people.

washermen - Waschfrauen; der Wäscher / die Wäscherin

barbers - Friseure; Barbier, Bartschneider, Bartscherer, frisieren

cowherds - Kuhhirten; Kuhhirte, Kuhhirt, Kuhhirtin, Viehhirte, Viehhirt

florists - Blumenläden; Blumenhändler, Florist, Floristin

druggists - Drogisten; Apotheker

betel - Betelpfeffer; Betel

sellers - Verkäufern; Verkäufer; Anbieter

tavern - Gasthaus, Schankwirtschaft, Taverne

keepers - Hüter, Wächter, Hüter, Torwart, Tormann

ofall - von allem

A messenger should possess the following qualities:--



boldness - Kühnheit; Verwegenheit, Dreistigkeit, Mut

Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward signs.

Absence of confusion, _i.e._, no shyness.

confusion - Verwirrung, Durcheinander, Konfusion, Verwechslung

shyness - Schüchternheit, Scheu, Scheuheit

Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or say.

Good manners.

Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing different things.

Ingenuity in business.

Quick comprehension.

comprehension - Verständnis, Verstehen

Quick application of remedies, _i.e._, quick and ready resources.

remedies - Gegenmittel

And this part ends with a verse:--

The man who is ingenious and wise, who is accompanied by a friend, andwho knows the intentions of others, as also the proper time and placefor doing everything, can gain over, very easily, even a woman who isvery hard to be obtained.

andwho - und wer

placefor - Platz für


[Footnote 31: This term does not apply to a widow, but to a woman whohad probably left her husband, and is living with some other person as amarried woman, maritalement, as they say in France.]

whohad - Wer hatte

amarried - verheiratet sind

maritalement - Eheschließung

[Footnote 32: Any woman fit to be enjoyed without sin. The object of theenjoyment of women is twofold, viz., pleasure and progeny. Any woman whocan be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of accomplishing either theone or the other of these two objects is a Nayika.

sin - Sünde, sündigen; eine Sünde begehen

theenjoyment - das Vergnügen

twofold - zweifach, doppelt

whocan - Wer kann das

accomplishing - zu erreichen; vollenden, vollenden, vollenden, vollenden

The fourth kind ofNayika which Vatsya admits further on is neither enjoyed for pleasure orfor progeny, but merely for accomplishing some special purpose in hand.The word Nayika is retained as a technical term throughout.]

ofNayika - vonNayika

technical term - Fachbegriff , Fachausdruck







_Kinds of Union._

Man is divided into three classes, viz., the hare man, the bull man, andthe horse man, according to the size of his lingam.

Hare - Hase

Bull - Bulle, Stier

Woman also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer,a mare, or a female elephant.

depth - Tiefe

mare - Stute

There are thus three equal unions between persons of correspondingdimensions, and there are six unequal unions, when the dimensions do notcorrespond, or nine in all, as the following table shows:

correspondingdimensions - entsprechende Abmessungen

unequal - ungleich

notcorrespond - nicht korrespondieren

+--------------------+--------------------+ | EQUAL. | UNEQUAL. | +--------------------+--------------------+ | MEN. | WOMEN. | MEN. | WOMEN. | +--------+-----------+--------|-----------+ | | | | | | Hare. | Deer. | Hare.

| Mare. | | Bull. | Mare. | Hare. | Elephant. | | Horse. | Elephant. | Bull. | Deer. | | | | Bull. | Elephant. | | | | Horse. | Deer. | | | | Horse. | Mare. | +--------+-----------+--------+-----------+

In these unequal unions, when the male exceeds the female in point ofsize, his union with a woman who is immediately next to him in size iscalled high union, and is of two kinds; while his union with the womanmost remote from him in size is called the highest union, and is of onekind only.

exceeds - übersteigt; überschreiten, hinausgehen über, übertreffen

iscalled - wird angerufen

On the other hand when the female exceeds the male in pointof size, her union with a man immediately next to her in size is calledlow union, and is of two kinds; while her union with a man most remotefrom her in size is called the lowest union, and is of one kind only.

pointof - Punkt

remotefrom - aus der Ferne

In other words, the horse and mare, the bull and deer, form the highunion, while the horse and deer form the highest union. On the femaleside, the elephant and bull, the mare and hare, form low unions, whilethe elephant and the hare make the lowest unions.

femaleside - weibliche Seite

whilethe - während die

There are then, nine kinds of union according to dimensions. Amongst allthese, equal unions are the best, those of a superlative degree, _i.e._,the highest and the lowest, are the worst, and the rest are middling,and with them the high[33] are better than the low.

amongst - zwischen, unter

allthese - alle diese

superlative - Superlativ, Höchststufe, Meiststufe, hervorragend

There are also nine kinds of union according to the force of passion orcarnal desire, as follows:

+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+ | MEN. | WOMEN. | MEN. | WOMEN. | +-----------+-----------+-----------|-----------+ | | | | | | Small. | Small. | Small. | Middling. | | Middling. | Middling. | Small.

| Intense. | | Intense. | Intense. | Middling. | Small. | | | | Middling. | Intense. | | | | Intense. | Small. | | | | Intense. | Middling. | +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

intense - intensiv; hochgradig

A man is called a man of small passion whose desire at the time ofsexual union is not great, whose semen is scanty, and who cannot bearthe warm embraces of the female.

ofsexual - vonsexuell

semen - Sperma; Samen

scanty - spärlich; dürftig, kärglich, knapp

Those who differ from this temperament are called men of middlingpassion, while those of intense passion are full of desire.

temperament - Temperament, Charakter, Veranlagung, Stimmung

In the same way, women are supposed to have the three degrees of feelingas specified above.

specified - spezifiziert; spezifizieren

Lastly, according to time there are three kinds of men and women, viz.,the short-timed, the moderate-timed, and the long-timed, and of these asin the previous statements, there are nine kinds of union.

moderate - moderat, mäßig, gemäßigt, mittelmäßig, moderieren

But on this last head there is a difference of opinion about the female,which should be stated.

Auddalika says, "Females do not emit as males do. The males simplyremove their desire, while the females, from their consciousness ofdesire, feel a certain kind of pleasure, which gives them satisfaction,but it is impossible for them to tell you what kind of pleasure theyfeel.

emit - emittieren, aussenden

simplyremove - einfachentfernen

ofdesire - der Sehnsucht

satisfaction - Befriedigung; Zufriedenheit; Satisfaktion, Genugtuung

theyfeel - fühlen sie sich

The fact from which this becomes evident is, that males, whenengaged in coition, cease of themselves after emission, and aresatisfied, but it is not so with females."

evident - offensichtlich; offenkundig

whenengaged - wenn sie sich engagieren

coition - Geschlechtsverkehr, Koitus

cease - aufhören, einstellen

emission - Aussendung, Absonderung, Auswurf

aresatisfied - Sind Sie zufrieden

This opinion is, however, objected to on the grounds that if a male be along-timed, the female loves him the more, but if he be short-timed, sheis dissatisfied with him. And this circumstance, some say, would provethat the female emits also.

dissatisfied - unzufrieden; nicht befriedigen, missfallen

circumstance - Umstand

provethat - das beweisen

emits - ausstrahlt; emittieren, aussenden

But this opinion does not hold good, for if it takes a long time toallay a woman's desire, and during this time she is enjoying greatpleasure, it is quite natural then that she should wish for itscontinuation. And on this subject there is a verse as follows:

toallay - zuhören

greatpleasure - großes Vergnügen

itscontinuation - seine Fortführung

"By union with men the lust, desire, or passion of women is satisfied,and the pleasure derived from the consciousness of it is called theirsatisfaction."

lust - Wollust, Begehren, Verlangen, Freude

satisfied - befriedigen, zufriedenstellen

derived - abgeleitet; erlangen, herleiten, ableiten, herleiten, ableiten

theirsatisfaction - ihre Zufriedenheit

The followers of Babhravya, however, say that the semen of womencontinues to fall from the beginning of the sexual union to its end, andit is right that it should be so, for if they had no semen there wouldbe no embryo.

andit - und es

wouldbe - wäre

embryo - Embryo

To this there is an objection. In the beginning of coition the passionof the woman is middling, and she cannot bear the vigorous thrusts ofher lover, but by degrees her passion increases until she ceases tothink about her body, and then finally she wishes to stop from furthercoition.

vigorous - kräftig, stark, energisch, lebhaft

thrusts - Schübe; Stoß, Stoß, Stich, Vorstoß, Schub, Schubkraft, Druck

ofher - von ihr

by degrees - nach und nach

ceases - aufhört; aufhören, aufhören, einstellen

tothink - zu denken

furthercoition - weiter

This objection, however, does not hold good, for even in ordinary thingsthat revolve with great force, such as a potter's wheel, or a top, wefind that the motion at first is slow, but by degrees it becomes veryrapid. In the same way the passion of the woman having graduallyincreased, she has a desire to discontinue coition, when all the semenhas fallen away. And there is a verse with regard to this as follows:

thingsthat - was

revolve - drehen

potter's wheel - Töpferscheibe

wefind - Wir finden

motion - Bewegung

veryrapid - sehrschnell

graduallyincreased - allmählich zugenommen

discontinue - aufgeben; einstellen, auslaufen lassen

"The fall of the semen of the man takes place only at the end ofcoition, while the semen of the woman falls continually, and after thesemen of both has all fallen away then they wish for the discontinuanceof coition."[34]

ofcoition - der Koalition

continually - ständig, andauernd, immer wieder, immerzu

discontinuanceof - Unterbrechung

Lastly, Vatsyayana is of opinion that the semen of the female falls inthe same way as that of the male.

Now some may ask here: If men and women are beings of the same kind, andare engaged in bringing about the same result, why should they havedifferent works to do.

havedifferent - etwas anderes

Vatsya says that this is so, because the ways of working as well as theconsciousness of pleasure in men and women are different. The differencein the ways of working, by which men are the actors, and women are thepersons acted upon, is owing to the nature of the male and the female,otherwise the actor would be sometimes the person acted upon, and viceversâ.

theconsciousness - dasBewusstsein

differencein - Unterschied in

thepersons - diePersonen

owing - geschuldet; schulden, schuldig sein, schulden, schuldig sein

And from this difference in the ways of working follows thedifference in the consciousness of pleasure, for a man thinks, "thiswoman is united with me," and a woman thinks, "I am united with thisman."

thedifference - derUnterschied

thiswoman - diese Frau

thisman - dieser Mann

It may be said that if the ways of working in men and women aredifferent, why should not there be a difference, even in the pleasurethey feel, and which is the result of those ways.

aredifferent - unterschiedlich sind

pleasurethey - Vergnügen sie

But this objection is groundless, for the person acting and the personacted upon being of different kinds, there is a reason for thedifference in their ways of working; but there is no reason for anydifference in the pleasure they feel, because they both naturally derivepleasure from the act they perform.[35]

groundless - grundlos, unbegründet

anydifference - einen Unterschied

On this again some may say that when different persons are engaged indoing the same work, we find that they accomplish the same end orpurpose: while, on the contrary, in the case of men and women we findthat each of them accomplishes his or her own end separately, and thisis inconsistent. But this is a mistake, for we find that sometimes twothings are done at the same time, as for instance in the fighting oframs, both the rams receive the shock at the same time on their heads.Again, in throwing one wood apple against another, and also in a fightor struggle of wrestlers.

indoing - tun

orpurpose - oder Zweck

contrary - entgegengesetzt, gegenläufig, entgegenstehend, ungünstig

findthat - Finden Sie das

inconsistent - inkonsistent

instance - Beispiel, Fall, Instanz

shock - Schock, Betroffenheit, Empörung, Schlag, Stoß

fightor - Fighter

Struggle - Kämpfen; Kampf, Gefecht, sich durchbeißen, sich schwer tun

wrestlers - Wrestler; Ringer

If it be said that in these cases the thingsemployed are of the same kind, it is answered that even in the case ofmen and women, the nature of the two persons is the same. And as thedifference in their ways of working arises from the difference of theirconformation only, it follows that men experience the same kind ofpleasure as women do.

thingsemployed - Beschäftigt

ofmen - von Menschen

theirconformation - ihre Konformation

There is also a verse on this subject as follows: "Men and women beingof the same nature, feel the same kind of pleasure, and therefore a manshould marry such a woman as will love him ever afterwards."

beingof - sein

manshould - sollte man

The pleasure of men and women being thus proved to be of the same kind,it follows that in regard to time, there are nine kinds of sexualintercourse, in the same way as there are nine kinds, according to theforce of passion.

sexualintercourse - Geschlechtsverkehr

There being thus nine kinds of union with regard to dimensions, force ofpassion, and time, respectively, by making combinations of them,innumerable kinds of union would be produced. Therefore in eachparticular kind of sexual union, men should use such means as they maythink suitable for the occasion.[36]

ofpassion - der Leidenschaft

combinations - Kombinationen; Kombinieren

innumerable - Unzählige

eachparticular - jedes einzelne

At the first time of sexual union the passion of the male is intense,and his time is short, but in subsequent unions on the same day thereverse of this is the case. With the female, however, it is thecontrary, for at the first time her passion is weak, and then her timelong, but on subsequent occasions on the same day, her passion isintense and her time short, until her passion is satisfied.

subsequent - anschließend, später, darauffolgend

timelong - lange Zeit

_On the different kinds of Love._

Men learned in the humanities are of opinion that love is of four kinds,viz.:

humanities - Geisteswissenschaften; Menschheit, Humanität, Menschlichkeit

1. Love acquired by continual habit.

continual - fortlaufend

2. Love resulting from the imagination.

imagination - Phantasie; Vorstellungskraft, Imagination, Einbildungskraft

3. Love resulting from belief.

4. Love resulting from the perception of external objects.

perception - Wahrnehmung

external - außen-, extern, äußerlich

(1). Love resulting from the constant and continual performance andhabit, as for instance the love of sexual intercourse, the love ofhunting, the love of drinking, the love of gambling, etc., etc.

constant - beständig, konstant, regelmäßig, stetig

andhabit - und Lebensweise

ofhunting - der Jagd

(2). Love which is felt for things to which we are not habituated, andwhich proceeds entirely from ideas, is called love resulting fromimagination, as for instance, that love which some men and women andeunuchs feel for the Auparishtaka or mouth congress, and that which isfelt by all for such things as embracing, kissing, etc., etc.

habituated - Gewöhnt; gewöhnen an

andwhich - und welche

proceeds - Erlöse; vorgehen

fromimagination - aus der Phantasie

andeunuchs - Andeunuchen

embracing - umarmen, annehmen, umarmen, Umarmung

(3). The love which is mutual on both sides, and proved to be true, wheneach looks upon the other as his or her very own, such is called loveresulting from belief by the learned.

mutual - wechselseitig, gegenseitig, beiderseitig, gemeinsam

wheneach - wann jeweils

loveresulting - Liebesresultate

(4). The love resulting from the perception of eternal objects is quiteevident and well-known to the world, because the pleasure which itaffords is superior to the pleasure of the other kinds of love, whichexists only for its sake.

eternal - ewig

quiteevident - ganz offensichtlich

whichexists - Wer existiert

sake - (for your sake) deinetwegen, euretwegen, Ihretwegen, dir zuliebe

What has been said in this chapter upon the subject of sexual union issufficient for the learned; but for the edification of the ignorant, thesame will now be treated of at length and in detail.

issufficient - Ausreichend

edification - Erbauung; Gebäude, Bauwerk


[Footnote 33: High unions are said to be better than low ones, for inthe former it is possible for the male to satisfy his own passionwithout injuring the female, while in the latter it is difficult for thefemale to be satisfied by any means.]

satisfy - befriedigen, zufriedenstellen

passionwithout - Leidenschaft ohne

[Footnote 34: The strength of passion with women varies a great deal,some being easily satisfied, and others eager and willing to go on for along time. To satisfy these last thoroughly a man must have recourse toart. It is certain that a fluid flows from the woman in larger orsmaller quantities, but her satisfaction is not complete until she hasexperienced the "spasme génêsique," as described in a French workrecently published and called "Breviare de l'Amour Experimental par leDr.

varies - variiert; variieren, verändern, sich ändern, de

eager - eifrig, erwartungsvoll, begierig

thoroughly - gründlich, vollkommen, total, durch und durch

recourse - Regress, Rückgriff

fluid - Fluid, Flüssigkeit, fließend

orsmaller - oder kleiner

hasexperienced - erlebt hat

workrecently - in letzter Zeit gearbeitet

experimental - experimentell

par - Pari

Jules Guyot."]

[Footnote 35: This is a long dissertation very common among Sanscritauthors, both when writing and talking socially. They start certainpropositions, and then argue for and against them. What it is presumedthe author means, is, that though both men and women derive pleasurefrom the act of coition, the way it is produced is brought about bydifferent means, each individual performing his own work in the matter,irrespective of the other, and each deriving individually their ownconsciousness of pleasure from the act they perform.

dissertation - Doktorarbeit, Dissertation

socially - gesellschaftliche

certainpropositions - bestimmten Vorschlägen

presumedthe - vermutet, dass die

derive - erlangen; herleiten, ableiten, abstammen, kommen von

pleasurefrom - Vergnügen aus

bydifferent - durchdifferent

irrespective - ohne Rücksicht

deriving - erlangen, herleiten, ableiten, herleiten, ableiten, ableiten

individually - individuell

ownconsciousness - eigenes Bewusstsein

There is adifference in the work that each does, and a difference in theconsciousness of pleasure that each has, but no difference in thepleasure they feel, for each feels that pleasure to a greater or lesserdegree.]

adifference - Unterschied

thepleasure - das Vergnügen

lesserdegree - geringeren Grades

[Footnote 36: This paragraph should be particularly noted, for itspecially applies to married men and their wives. So many men utterlyignore the feelings of the women, and never pay the slightest attentionto the passion of the latter. To understand the subject thoroughly, itis absolutely necessary to study it, and then a person will know that,as dough is prepared for baking, so must a woman be prepared for sexualintercourse, if she is to derive satisfaction from it.

itspecially - es besonders

utterlyignore - gänzlich ignorieren

slightest - das Geringste; geringfügig, leicht, gering, unbedeutend, wenig

attentionto - zu beachten

dough - Teig; Knete



This part of the Kama Shastra, which treats of sexual union, is alsocalled "Sixty-four" (Chatushshashti). Some old authors say that it iscalled so, because it contains sixty-four chapters. Others are ofopinion that the author of this part being a person named Panchala, andthe person who recited the part of the Rig Veda called Dashatapa, whichcontains sixty-four verses, being also called Panchala, the name"sixty-four" has been given to the part of the work in honour of the RigVedas. The followers of Babhravya say on the other hand that this partcontains eight subjects, viz., the embrace, kissing, scratching with thenails or fingers, biting, lying down, making various sounds, playing thepart of a man, and the Auparishtaka, or mouth congress.

alsocalled - auch genannt

recited - rezitiert; vortragen; rezitieren; zu Gehör bringen; qoem also:

Rig - Rigg; ausrüsten

Veda - Veda, Veden-p

whichcontains - was enthält

scratching - sich kratzen, zerkratzen; (scratch); kratzen; zerkratzen

thenails - dann Nägel

thepart - der Teil

Each of thesesubjects being of eight kinds, and eight multiplied by eight beingsixty-four, this part is therefore named "sixty-four." But Vatsyayanaaffirms that as this part contains also the following subjects, viz.,striking, crying, the acts of a man during congress, the various kindsof congress, and other subjects, the name "sixty-four" is given to itonly accidentally. As, for instance, we say this tree is "Saptaparna,"or seven-leaved, this offering of rice is "Panchavarna," orfive-coloured, but the tree has not seven leaves, neither has the ricefive colours.

thesesubjects - Thesenfächer

multiplied - multipliziert; multiplizieren

beingsixty - sechzig sein

accidentally - zufällig, durch Zufall, aus Versehen, versehentlich

leaved - blättert; (leave) Abschied, Urlaub

offering - Angebot, Anerbieten, Opfer, Opfergabe; (offer); Angebot

orfive - oderfünf

However the part sixty-four is now treated of, and the embrace, beingthe first subject, will now be considered.

beingthe - sein

Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and woman whohave come together is of four kinds, viz.:

whohave - Wer hat

Touching. Piercing. Rubbing. Pressing.

piercing - Piercing; durchdringend, stechend, beißend

rubbing - Reiben, Polieren; (rub); reiben, abreiben, sich abreiben

The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word whichstands for it.

denoted - bezeichnet; markieren, kennzeichnen, bezeichnen, anzeigen

whichstands - was steht

(1). When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongsideof a woman and touches her body with his own, it is called the "touchingembrace."

pretext - Vorwand, Deckmantel, fadenscheinige Begründung, Ausrede

alongsideof - neben

(2). When a woman in a lonely place bends down, as if to pick upsomething, and pierces, as it were, a man sitting or standing, with herbreasts, and the man in return takes hold of them, it is called a"piercing embrace."

bends down - (bend down) sich bücken

pierces - durchbohrt; lochen, durchbohren

herbreasts - Kräuterbrüste

The above two kinds of embrace takes place only between persons who donot, as yet, speak freely with each other.

donot - oder nicht

freely - frei

(3). When two lovers are walking slowly together, either in the dark, orin a place of public resort, or in a lonely place, and rub their bodiesagainst each other, it is called a "rubbing embrace."

lovers - Geliebte, Liebhaber, Liebhaberin

Rub - reiben, abreiben, sich abreiben, sich abscheuern, sich ablaufen

bodiesagainst - Körper gegen

(4). When on the above occasion one of them presses the other's bodyforcibly against a wall or pillar, it is called a "pressing embrace."

bodyforcibly - Körper mit Gewalt

pillar - Pfeiler, Säule

These two last embraces are peculiar to those who know the intentions ofeach other.

ofeach - von jedem

At the time of the meeting the four following kinds of embrace are used,viz.:

_Jataveshtitaka_, or the twining of a creeper.

creeper - Kriechgang; Kriecher; Strampler, Strampelanzug, Kriechpflanze

_Vrikshadhirudhaka_, or climbing a tree.

_Tila-Tandulaka_, or the mixture of sesamum seed with rice.

sesamum - Sesam

_Kshiraniraka_, or milk and water embrace.

(1). When a woman, clinging to a man as a creeper twines round a tree,bends his head down to hers with the desire of kissing him and slightlymakes the sound of sut sut, embraces him, and looks lovingly towardshim, it is called an embrace like the "twining of a creeper."

clinging - anhaftend; anschmiegen

twines - Bindfäden; zwirnen; Faden

slightlymakes - etwas macht

lovingly - liebevoll, lieb, liebende

towardshim - Ihm gegenüber

(2). When a woman, having placed one of her feet on the foot of herlover, and the other on one of his thighs, passes one of her arms roundhis back, and the other on his shoulders, makes slightly the sounds ofsinging and cooing, and wishes, as it were, to climb up him in order tohave a kiss, it is called an embrace like the "climbing of a tree."

thighs - Oberschenkel

ofsinging - des Gesangs

cooing - gurrend; (coo) gurrend

tohave - zu haben

These two kinds of embrace take place when the lover is standing.

(3). When lovers lie on a bed, and embrace each other so closely thatthe arms and thighs of the one are encircled by the arms and thighs ofthe other, and are, as it were, rubbing up against them, this is calledan embrace like "the mixture of sesamum seed with rice."

closely - dicht, eng, nah, nahe

thatthe - dass die

encircled - eingekreist; umzingeln, einfassen

calledan - genannt

(4). When a man and a woman are very much in love with each other, andnot thinking of any pain or hurt, embrace each other as if they wereentering into each other's bodies, either while the woman is sitting onthe lap of the man or in front of him, or on a bed, then it is called anembrace like a "mixture of milk and water."

andnot - und nicht

wereentering - eintraten

onthe - auf die

lap - Schoß

anembrace - umarmen

These two kinds of embrace take place at the time of sexual union.

Babhravya has thus related to us the above eight kinds of embraces.

Suvarnanabha, moreover, gives us four ways of embracing simple membersof the body, which are:

membersof - Mitglieder von

The embrace of the thighs.

The embrace of the jaghana, _i.e._, the part of the body from the naveldownwards to the thighs.

naveldownwards - nach unten

The embrace of the breasts.

breasts - Brüste; Brust, Brust, Brust, -brust, Entenbrust

The embrace of the forehead.

forehead - Stirn

(1). When one of two lovers presses forcibly one or both of the thighsof the other between his or her own, it is called the "embrace ofthighs."

forcibly - gewaltsame, gewaltsam

thighsof - Schenkel von

ofthighs - der Oberschenkel

(2). When a man presses the jaghana or middle part of the woman's bodyagainst his own, and mounts upon her to practise, either scratching withthe nail or finger, or biting, or striking, or kissing, the hair of thewoman being loose and flowing, it is called the "embrace of thejaghana."

mounts - Reittiere; Reittier, Berg, Lafette (Waffe); einbauen

thewoman - die Frau

loose - verlassen, lose, locker

(3). When a man places his breast between the breasts of a woman, andpresses her with it, it is called the "embrace of the breasts."

breast - Brust; -brust, Entenbrust

andpresses - und Pressen

(4). When either of the lovers touches the mouth, the eyes and theforehead of the other with his or her own, it is called the "embrace ofthe forehead."

Some say that even shampooing is a kind of embrace, because there is atouching of bodies in it. But Vatsyayana thinks that shampooing isperformed at a different time, and for a different purpose, and it isalso of a different character, it cannot be said to be included in theembrace.

shampooing - Shampoo

atouching - berühren

isperformed - durchgeführt wird

isalso - ist auch

There are also some verses on the subject as follows: "The whole subjectof embracing is of such a nature that men who ask questions about it, orwho hear about it, or who talk about it, acquire thereby a desire forenjoyment. Even those embraces that are not mentioned in the KamaShastra should be practised at the time of sexual enjoyment, if they arein any way conducive to the increase of love or passion.

subjectof - Thema von

orwho - oder wer

acquire - erwerben, akquirieren

forenjoyment - vorfreudig

conducive - förderlich

The rules ofthe Shastra apply so long as the passion of man is middling, but whenthe wheel of love is once set in motion, there is then no Shastra and noorder."

whenthe - wann die



It is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between theembrace, the kiss, and the pressing or scratching with the nails orfingers, but that all these things should be done generally beforesexual union takes place, while striking and making the various soundsgenerally takes place at the time of the union. Vatsyayana, however,thinks that anything may take place at any time, for love does not carefor time or order.

orfingers - oderFinger

beforesexual - vor dem Sexualleben

soundsgenerally - klingt im Allgemeinen

carefor - Fürsorge

On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other thingsmentioned above should be done moderately, they should not be continuedfor a long time, and should be done alternately. On subsequentoccasions, however, the reverse of all this may take place, andmoderation will not be necessary, they may continue for a long time, andfor the purpose of kindling love, they may be all done at the same time.

thingsmentioned - Dinge, die erwähnt werden

moderately - mäßig

continuedfor - weiter für

alternately - abwechselnd

subsequentoccasions - Folgeereignisse

reverse - umkehren; invers, umgedreht, Kehrseite

andmoderation - undModeration

andfor - undfür

kindling - Anzünden; Anmachholz, Anzündholz

The following are the places for kissing, viz., the forehead, the eyes,the cheeks, the throat, the bosom, the breasts, the lips, and theinterior of the mouth. Moreover, the people of the Lat country kiss alsoon the following places, viz., the joints of the thighs, the arms, andthe navel.

cheeks - Wangen; Backe, qualifierormal, Backe, Stirn, Mick, Pumpenmick

theinterior - das Interieur

alsoon - auch auf

joints - Gelenke; gemeinschaftlich, gemeinsam, gemeinsame, gemeinsamer

navel - Bauchnabel

But Vatsyayana thinks that though kissing is practised bythese people in the above places on account of the intensity of theirlove, and the customs of their country, it is not fit to be practised byall.

bythese - durch diese

intensity - Intensität

theirlove - ihreLiebe

Now in a case of a young girl there are three sort of kisses, viz.:

The nominal kiss. The throbbing kiss. The touching kiss.

nominal - nominal, substantivisch

throbbing - Pochen; klopfend; (throb); klopfen, schlagen, pochen, pulsieren

(1). When a girl only touches the mouth of her lover with her own, butdoes not herself do anything, it is called the "nominal kiss."

butdoes - aber tut

(2). When a girl, setting aside her bashfulness a little, wishes totouch the lip that is pressed into her mouth, and with that objectmoves her lower lip, but not the upper one, it is called the "throbbingkiss."

aside - beiseite, zur Seite

bashfulness - Schüchternheit; Scham

(3). When a girl touches her lover's lip with her tongue, and havingshut her eyes, places her hands on those of her lover, it is called the"touching kiss."

Other authors describe four other kinds of kisses, viz.:

The straight kiss. The bent kiss. The turned kiss. The pressed kiss.

(1). When the lips of two lovers are brought into direct contact witheach other, it is called a "straight kiss."

(2). When the heads of two lovers are bent towards each other, and whenso bent kissing takes place, it is called a "bent kiss."

whenso - Und wann

(3). When one of them turns up the face of the other by holding the headand chin, and then kissing, it is called a "turned kiss."

chin - Kinn

(4). Lastly, when the lower lip is pressed with much force, it is calleda "pressed kiss."

calleda - genannta

There is also a fifth kind of kiss called the "greatly pressed kiss,"which is effected by taking hold of the lower lip between two fingers,and then after touching it with the tongue, pressing it with great forcewith the lip.

greatly - sehr; außerordentlich, großartig

taking hold - zugreifend

forcewith - mit Kraft

As regards kissing, a wager may be laid as to which will get hold of thelips of the other first. If the woman loses, she should pretend to cry,should keep her lover off by shaking her hands, and turn away from himand dispute with him, saying "let another wager be laid." If she losesthis a second time, she should appear doubly distressed, and when herlover is off his guard or asleep, she should get hold of his lower lip,and hold it in her teeth, so that it should not slip away, and then sheshould laugh, make a loud noise, deride him, dance about, and saywhatever she likes in a joking way, moving her eyebrows, and rolling hereyes.

regards - Grüße; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

wager - Wetteinsatz; die Wette

thelips - die Lippen

dispute - Streit, Disput, Debatte, erörtern, bestreiten

losesthis - verlieren

doubly - zweifach; doppelt

distressed - verzweifelt; Kummer, Bedrängnis, Drangsal, Bekümmerung, Not

slip - Ausrutscher; Versprecher; Rutschen (geradeaus); Lapsus

deride - verhöhnen, verlachen, verspotten, lustig machen über

saywhatever - wie auch immer

eyebrows - Augenbrauen; Braue, Augenbraue

hereyes - ja

Such are the wagers and quarrels as far as kissing is concerned,but the same may be applied with regard to the pressing or scratchingwith the nails and fingers, biting and striking. All these, however, areonly peculiar to men and women of intense passion.

wagers - Wetten; die Wette

concerned - besorgt; Sorge, Anliegen

scratchingwith - Kratzen mit

areonly - sind nur

When a man kisses the upper lip of a woman, while she in return kisseshis lower lip, it is called the "kiss of the upper lip."

When one of them takes both the lips of the other between his or herown, it is called "a clasping kiss." A woman, however, only takes thiskind of kiss from a man who has no moustache. And on the occasion ofthis kiss, if one of them touches the teeth, the tongue, and the palateof the other, with his or her tongue, it is called the "fighting of thetongue.

herown - Sie selbst

clasping - Umklammerung; klammernd, umklammernd; (clasp); Spange, Klammer

thiskind - diese Art

moustache - Schnurrbart, Oberlippenbart, Schnauzbart, Schnauzer

palateof - Gaumen von

thetongue - dieZunge

In the same way, the pressing of the teeth of the one againstthe mouth of the other is to be practised.

againstthe - gegen die

Kissing is of four kinds, viz., moderate, contracted, pressed, and soft,according to the different parts of the body which are kissed, fordifferent kinds of kisses are appropriate for different parts of thebody.

contracted - unter Vertrag genommen; Vertrag

fordifferent - fürdunterschiedlich

thebody - den Körper

When a woman looks at the face of her lover while he is asleep, andkisses it to show her intention or desire, it is called a "kiss thatkindles love."

andkisses - und Küsse

thatkindles - das zündet

When a woman kisses her lover while he is engaged in business, or whilehe is quarrelling with her, or while he is looking at something else, sothat his mind may be turned away, it is called a "kiss that turns away."

whilehe - während er

quarrelling - (quarell) sich streiten

sothat - Und das

When a lover coming home late at night kisses his beloved, who is asleepor in bed, in order to show her his desire, it is called a "kiss thatawakens." On such an occasion the woman may pretend to be asleep at thetime of her lover's arrival, so that she may know his intention andobtain respect from him.

beloved - beliebt, geliebt, Liebe, Liebchen, Liebling; (belove); beliebt

asleepor - aslepor

thatawakens - das erwacht

thetime - die Zeit

andobtain - und erhalten

When a person kisses the reflection of the person he loves in a mirror,in water, or on a wall, it is called a "kiss showing the intention."

reflection - Reflexion, Abbild, Reflektion, Abwägung

When a person kisses a child sitting on his lap, or a picture, or animage, or figure, in the presence of the person beloved by him, it iscalled a "transferred kiss."

presence - Anwesenheit

transferred - übertragen, versetzen, bringen, Übertragung, Versetzung

When at night at a theatre, or in an assembly of caste men, a man comingup to a woman kisses a finger of her hand if she be standing, or a toeof her foot if she be sitting, or when a woman is shampooing her lover'sbody, places her face on his thigh (as if she was sleepy) so as toinflame his passion, and kisses his thigh or great toe, it is called a"demonstrative kiss."

comingup - kommen

toeof - von

sbody - s Körper

thigh - Oberschenkel

sleepy - schläfrig; verschlafen

toinflame - zu entflammen

demonstrative - demonstrativ

There is also a verse on the subject as follows:--

"Whatever things may be done by one of the lovers to the other, the sameshould be returned by the other, _i.e._, if the woman kisses him he shouldkiss her in return, if she strikes him he should also strike her inreturn."

sameshould - selbiges sollte

shouldkiss - soll ich küssen

strikes - Streiks; streichen, schlagen, prägen, streiken, scheinen



When love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching thebody with them is practised, and it is done on the following occasions:On the first visit; at the time of setting out on a journey; on thereturn from a journey; at the time when an angry lover is reconciled;and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

reconciled - versöhnt; versöhnen

intoxicated - berauscht; berauschen, vergiften, berauschen

But pressing with the nails is not an usual thing except with those whoare intensely passionate, _i.e._, full of passion. It is employed togetherwith biting, by those to whom the practice is agreeable.

whoare - wer sind

intensely - intensiv

passionate - leidenschaftlich

togetherwith - gemeinsam mit

Pressing with the nails is of the eight following kinds, according tothe forms of the marks which are produced, viz.:

1. Sounding.

2. half moon.

half moon - Halbmond

3. A circle.

4. A line.

5. A tiger's nail or claw.

tiger - Tiger

claw - zerkratzen; Kralle, Fang (Vogelkralle), Klaue

6. A peacock's foot.

7. The jump of a hare.

8. The leaf of a blue lotus.

The places that are to be pressed with the nails are as follows: the armpit, the throat, the breasts, the lips, the jaghana, or middle parts ofthe body, and the thighs. But Suvarnanabha is of opinion that when theimpetuosity of passion is excessive, then the places need not beconsidered.

armpit - Achselhöhle; Dreckloch

theimpetuosity - die Unnachgiebigkeit

excessive - übertrieben; übermäßig, exzessiv

beconsidered - in Betracht gezogen werden

The qualities of good nails are that they should be bright, well set,clean, entire, convex, soft, and glossy in appearance. Nails are ofthree kinds according to their size, viz.:

convex - konvex

glossy - glänzend

ofthree - von drei

Small. Middling. Large.

Large nails, which give grace to the hands, and attract the hearts ofwomen from their appearance, are possessed by the Bengalees.

grace - Tischgebet; Anmut, Grazie, Aufschub, Fristverlängerung

ofwomen - von Frauen

possessed - besessen; Schutzpolizeiaufgebote

Small nails, which can be used in various ways, and are to be appliedonly with the object of giving pleasure, are possessed by the people ofthe southern districts.

appliedonly - nur angewandt

districts - Bezirke; Bezirk, Kreis, Landkreis, Stadtteil

Middling nails, which contain the properties of both the above kinds,belong to the people of the Maharashtra.

Maharashtra - Maharashtra

(1). When a person presses the chin, the breasts, the lower lip, or thejaghana of another so softly that no scratch or mark is left, but onlythe hair on the body becomes erect from the touch of the nails, and thenails themselves make a sound, it is called a "sounding or pressing withthe nails."

softly - sachte; leise

scratch - kratzen; zerkratzen, verkratzen, Kratzer

onlythe - nur die

erect - aufrecht; stramm (Haltung), steif; errichten

This pressing is used in the case of a young girl when her lovershampoos her, scratches her head, and wants to trouble or frighten her.

lovershampoos - Liebesshampoos

scratches - kratzen, kratzen, zerkratzen, verkratzen, Kratzer

(2). The curved mark with the nails, which is impressed on the neck andthe breasts, is called the "half moon."

curved - gekrümmt; Kurve, Kurve, Linie, Kurven, biegen, verbiegen

impressed - beeindruckt; beeindrucken, prägen

(3). When the half moons are impressed opposite to each other, it iscalled a "circle." This mark with the nails is generally made on thenavel, the small cavities about the buttocks, and on the joints of thethigh.

opposite to - gegenüber

cavities - Hohlräume; Hohlraum, Gravur, Aushöhlung, Loch, Höhle, Hohlraum

buttocks - Pobacken; Hinterbacke, qualifier

thethigh - der Schenkel

(4). A mark in the form of a small line, and which can be made on anypart of the body, is called a "line."

anypart - ein Teil

(5). This same line, when it is curved, and made on the breast, iscalled a "tiger's nail."

(6). When a curved mark is made on the breast by means of the fivenails, it is called a "peacock's foot." This mark is made with theobject of being praised, for it requires a great deal of skill to makeit properly.

theobject - dasGegenstand

makeit - machen

(7). When five marks with the nails are made close to one another nearthe nipple of the breast, it is called "the jump of a hare."

nearthe - in der Nähe der

nipple - Nippel, Brustwarze, Stutzen, Verbindungsstück, Speichennippel

(8). A mark made on the breast or on the hips in the form of a leaf ofthe blue lotus, is called the "leaf of a blue lotus."

hips - Hüften; Hüfte

When a person is going on a journey, and makes a mark on the thighs, oron the breast, it is called a "token of remembrance." On such anoccasion three or four lines are impressed close to one another with thenails.

token - Zeichen, Symbol, Andenken, Souvenir, Erinnerung, Jeton

remembrance - Erinnern; Erinnerung

anoccasion - ein Anlass

Here ends the marking with the nails. Marks of other kinds than theabove may also be made with the nails, for the ancient authors say,that as there are innumerable degrees of skill among men (the practiceof this art being known to all), so there are innumerable ways of makingthese marks. And as pressing or marking with the nails is independent oflove, no one can say with certainty how many different kinds of markswith the nails do actually exist.

theabove - die oben genannten

makingthese - diese zu machen

The reason of this is, Vatsyayanasays, that as variety is necessary in love, so love is to be produced bymeans of variety. It is on this account that courtezans, who are wellacquainted with various ways and means, become so desirable, for ifvariety is sought in all the arts and amusements, such as archery andothers, how much more should it be sought after in the present case.

wellacquainted - gut kennengelernt

Archery - Bogenschießen

andothers - und andere

The marks of the nails should not be made on married women, butparticular kinds of marks may be made on their private parts for theremembrance and increase of love.

butparticular - aber speziell

private parts - Genitalien

There are also some verses on the subject, as follows:

"The love of a woman who sees the marks of nails on the private parts ofher body, even though they are old and almost worn out, becomes againfresh and new. If there be no marks of nails to remind a person of thepassages of love, then love is lessened in the same way as when no uniontakes place for a long time."

thepassages - die Passagen

lessened - vermindert; verringern, vermindern, nachlassen, herabsetzen

Even when a stranger sees at a distance a young woman with the marks ofnails on her breast,[37] he is filled with love and respect for her.

A man, also, who carries the marks of nails and teeth on some parts ofhis body, influences the mind of a woman, even though it be ever sofirm. In short, nothing tends to increase love so much as the effects ofmarking with the nails, and biting.

ofhis - von ihm

ofmarking - der Kennzeichnung


[Footnote 37: From this it would appear that in ancient times thebreasts of women were not covered, and this is seen in the painting ofthe Ajunta and other caves, where we find that the breasts of even royalladies and others are exposed.]

thebreasts - dieBrüste

caves - Höhlen; nachgeben, aufgeben; Höhle

exposed - ausgesetzt; aufdecken, offenbaren, entblößen, bloßlegen



All the places that can be kissed, are also the places that can bebitten, except the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes.

interior - inner; Interieur, Inneres, Innenraum, offener Kern

The qualities of good teeth are as follows: They should be equal,possessed of a pleasing brightness, capable of being coloured, of properproportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.

brightness - Funkeln, Glanz, Helligkeit, Aufgewecktheit

properproportions - das richtige Maß

unbroken - ungebrochen

The defects of teeth on the other hand are, that they are blunt,protruding from the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

blunt - schonungslos, offen, ungehobelt, sehr deutlich; abstumpfen

protruding - herausragen, hervorragen, herausstehen, vorstehen, vorkragen

gums - Zahnfleisch; Gummi, Klebgummi, Harz

loosely - locker

The following are the different kinds of biting, viz.:

The hidden bite. The swollen bite. The point. The line of points. The coral and the jewel. The line of jewels. The broken cloud. The biting of the boar.

swollen - geschwollen; Schwellen

coral - Korallen; Koralle

boar - Wildschwein; Eber

(1). The biting which is shown only by the excessive redness of the skinthat is bitten, is called the "hidden bite."

redness - Röte; Rötung

(2). When the skin is pressed down on both sides, it is called the"swollen bite."

pressed down - herabgedrückt

(3). When a small portion of the skin is bitten with two teeth only, itis called the "point."

(4). When such small portions of the skin are bitten with all the teeth,it is called the "line of points."

portions - Portionen; Teil

(5). The biting which is done by bringing together the teeth and thelips, is called the "coral and the jewel." The lip is the coral, and theteeth the jewel.

bringing together - zusammenbringend [alt], zusammen bringend

(6). When biting is done with all the teeth, it is called the "line ofjewels."

ofjewels - von Juwelen

(7). The biting which consists of unequal risings in a circle, and whichcomes from the space between the teeth, is called the "broken cloud."This is impressed on the breasts.

risings - Erhöhungen; steigend, aufgehend

whichcomes - was kommt

(8). The biting which consists of many broad rows of marks near to oneanother, and with red intervals, is called the "biting of a boar." Thisis impressed on the breasts and the shoulders; and these two last modesof biting are peculiar to persons of intense passion.

broad - breit, deutliche, großräumig

rows - Reihen; Reihe, Zeile

oneanother - Einander

intervals - Intervalle; Abstand, Zwischenraum, Intervall

The lower lip is the place on which the "hidden bite," the "swollenbite," and the "point" are made; again the "swollen bite," and the"coral and the jewel" bite are done on the cheek. Kissing, pressing withthe nails, and biting are the ornaments of the left cheek, and when theword cheek is used it is to be understood as the left cheek.

swollenbite - geschwollener Biss

cheek - Frechheit; Backe, ormal, Stirn, Mick, Pumpenmick

theword - das Wort

Both the "line of points" and the "line of jewels" are to be impressedon the throat, the arm pit, and the joints of the thighs; but the "lineof points" alone is to be impressed on the forehead and the thighs.

impressedon - Beeindruckt

pit - Fallgrube, Schachtgrube, Box (Sport)

lineof - Linie von

The marking with the nails, and the biting of the following things,viz., an ornament of the forehead, an ear ornament, a bunch of flowers,a betel leaf, or a tamala leaf, which are worn by, or belong to thewoman that is beloved, are signs of the desire of enjoyment.

bunch - Bund, lowers, Traube, bündeln, anordnen

Here end the different kinds of biting.

* * * * *

In the affairs of love a man should do such things as are agreeable tothe women of different countries.

affairs - Angelegenheiten; Angelegenheit, Angelegenheit, Scharmützel

The women of the central countries (_i.e._, between the Ganges and theJumna) are noble in their character, not accustomed to disgracefulpractices, and dislike pressing the nails and biting.

Ganges - Ganges

theJumna - dieJumna

noble - edel; Adeliger, Adliger, Adelige, Adlige

accustomed - Gewöhnt; gewöhnen, gewöhnen

disgracefulpractices - schändliche Praktiken

The women of the Balhika country are gained over by striking.

The women of Avantika are fond of foul pleasures, and have not goodmanners.

foul - schmutzig

goodmanners - Gutmenschen

The women of the Maharashtra are fond of practising the sixty-four arts,they utter low and harsh words, and like to be spoken to in the sameway, and have an impetuous desire of enjoyment.

utter - Äußerlich; äußerst

harsh - rau, harsch, unwirsch, scharf

impetuous - ungestüm

The women of Pataliputra (_i.e._, the modern Patna) are of the same natureas the women of the Maharashtra, but show their likings only in secret.

likings - Vorlieben; mögend

The women of the Dravida country, though they are rubbed and pressedabout at the time of sexual enjoyment, have a slow fall of semen, thatis they are very slow in the act of coition.

rubbed - gerieben; reiben, reiben, abreiben, sich abreiben

thatis - Das ist

The women of Vanavasi are moderately passionate, they go through everykind of enjoyment, cover their bodies, and abuse those who utter low,mean and harsh words.

everykind - jede Art

abuse - missbrauchen, beschimpfen; Missbrauch, Schmähung

The women of Avanti hate kissing, marking with the nails, and biting,but they have a fondness for various kinds of sexual union.

The women of Malwa like embracing and kissing, but not wounding, andthey are gained over by striking.

wounding - Verwundung; (wound) Verwundung

andthey - und sie

The women of Abhira, and those of the country about the Indus and fiverivers (_i.e._, the Punjab), are gained over by the Auparishtaka or mouthcongress.

fiverivers - Fünfer

Punjab - Pandjab

mouthcongress - Mundkongress

The women of Aparatika are full of passion, and make slowly the sound"Sit."

The women of the Lat country have even more impetuous desire, and alsomake the sound "Sit."

alsomake - alsMake

The women of the Stri Rajya, and of Koshola (Oude), are full ofimpetuous desire, their semen falls in large quantities, and they arefond of taking medicine to make it do so.

ofimpetuous - der Unaufrichtigkeit

The women of the Audhra country have tender bodies, they are fond ofenjoyment, and have a liking for voluptuous pleasures.

ofenjoyment - des Vergnügens

voluptuous - üppig

The women of Ganda have tender bodies, and speak sweetly.

sweetly - süß

Among the things mentioned above, viz., embracing, kissing, etc., thosewhich increase passion should be done first, and those which are onlyfor amusement or variety should be done afterwards.

thosewhich - die

onlyfor - nur für

There are also some verses on this subject as follows:

"When a man bites a woman forcibly, she should angrily do the same tohim with double force. Thus a 'point'should be returned with a 'line ofpoints,'and a 'line of points'with a 'broken cloud,'and if she beexcessively chafed, she should at once begin a love quarrel with him. Atsuch a time she should take hold of her lover by the hair, and bend hishead down, and kiss his lower lip, and then, being intoxicated withlove, she should shut her eyes and bite him in various places.

angrily - verärgert, wütend

ofpoints - von Punkten

beexcessively - übermäßig

chafed - aufgescheuert; Reibungswärme, Schürfwunde, Verschleiß

quarrel - sich streiten, zanken

hishead - seinen Kopf

Even byday, and in a place of public resort, when her lover shows her any markthat she may have inflicted on his body, she should smile at the sightof it, and turning her face as if she were going to chide him, sheshould show him with an angry look the marks on her own body that havebeen made by him. Thus if men and women act according to each other'sliking, their love for each other will not be lessened even in onehundred years."

inflicted - auferlegt; zufügen, de

sightof - sehen

chide - schimpfen; schelten

havebeen - gewesen sein

sliking - Rutschen

onehundred - einhundert



On the occasion of a "high congress" the Mrigi (Deer) woman should liedown in such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a "low congress" theHastini (Elephant) woman should lie down so as to contract hers. But inan "equal congress" they should lie down in the natural position.

liedown - gelogen

widen - verbreitern; erman: sich weiten; erweitern

contract - Vertrag, Kontrakt; ich/er/sie zog zusammen, Vertrag abschließen

Whatis said above concerning the Mrigi and the Hastini applies also to theVadawa (Mare) woman. In a "low congress" the women should particularlymake use of medicine, to cause her desires to be satisfied quickly.

particularlymake - besonders machen

The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down.

The widely opened position. The yawning position. The position of the wife of Indra.

widely - weit verbreitet; breit; entfernt

yawning - gähnt; (yawn) gähnen; (yawn); gähnen; Gähnen

(1). When she lowers her head and raises her middle parts, it is calledthe "widely opened position." At such a time the man should apply someunguent, so as to make the entrance easy.

lowers - unterlegen; niedriger, niedrigerer

calledthe - genannt

(2). When she raises her thighs and keeps them wide apart and engages incongress, it is called the "yawning position."

Engages - Engagiert; beschäftigen, anstellen, angreifen, anlegen

(3). When she places her thighs with her legs doubled on them upon hersides, and thus engages in congress, it is called the position ofIndrani, and this is learnt only by practice. The position is alsouseful in the case of the "highest congress."

hersides - ihre Seiten

ofIndrani - vonIndrani

The "clasping position" is used in "low congress," and in the "lowestcongress," together with the "pressing position," the "twiningposition", and the "mare's position."

lowestcongress - niedrigsten Kongresses

twiningposition - Zwillingsposition

When the legs of both the male and the female are stretched straightout over each other, it is called the "clasping position." It is of twokinds, the side position and the supine position, according to the wayin which they lie down. In the side position the male should invariablylie on his left side, and cause the woman to lie on her right side, andthis rule is to be observed in lying down with all kinds of women.

stretched - gestreckt; strecken, dehnen, langziehen, dehnen

straightout - ohne Umschweife

twokinds - zwei Arten

supine - in Rückenlage; Lagewort, Supinum

invariablylie - ausnahmslos liegen

andthis - Und das

When, after congress has begun in the clasping position, the womanpresses her lover with her thighs, it is called the "pressing position."

womanpresses - Frauenpressen

When the woman places one of her thighs across the thigh of her lover,it is called the "twining position."

When a woman forcibly holds in her yoni the lingam after it is in, it iscalled the "mare's position." This is learnt by practice only, and ischiefly found among the women of the Andra country.

ischiefly - ischieflich

The above are the different ways of lying down, mentioned by Babhravya;Suvarnanabha, however, gives the following in addition.

When the female raises both of her thighs straight up, it is called the"rising position."

When she raises both of her legs, and places them on her lover'sshoulders, it is called the "yawning position."

sshoulders - sSchultern

When the legs are contracted, and thus held by the lover before hisbosom, it is called the "pressed position."

When only one of her legs is stretched out, it is called the "halfpressed position."

halfpressed - halb gedrückt

When the woman places one of her legs on her lover's shoulder, andstretches the other out, and then places the latter on his shoulder, andstretches out the other, and continues to do so alternately, it iscalled the "splitting of a bamboo."

andstretches - und streckt sich

splitting - (split) geteilt, Spalt, Spaltung

bamboo - Bambus, Bambusrohr

When one of her legs is placed on the head, and the other is stretchedout, it is called the "fixing of a nail." This is learnt by practiceonly.

stretchedout - gestreckt

practiceonly - nur für die Praxis

When both the legs of the woman are contracted, and placed on herstomach, it is called the "crab's position."

Crab - Krebs, Krabbe, Winde, Nörgler

When the thighs are raised and placed one upon the other, it is calledthe "packed position."

When the shanks are placed one upon the other, it is called the"lotus-like position."

shanks - Schäfte; Unterschenkel, Beinstück, Hachse

When a man, during congress, turns round, and enjoys the woman withoutleaving her, while she embraces him round the back all the time, it iscalled the "turning position," and is learnt only by practice.

withoutleaving - ohne zu gehen

Thus says Suvarnanabha, these different ways of lying down, sitting, andstanding should be practised in water, because it is easy to do sotherein. But Vatsyayana is of opinion that congress in water isimproper, because it is prohibited by the religious law.

andstanding - und stehen

isimproper - Ist das richtig

When a man and a woman support themselves on each other's bodies, or ona wall, or pillar, and thus while standing engage in congress, it iscalled the "supported congress."

When a man supports himself against a wall, and the woman, sitting onhis hands joined together and held underneath her, throws her arms roundhis neck, and putting her thighs alongside his waist, moves herself byher feet, which are touching the wall against which the man is leaning,it is called the "suspended congress."

underneath - darunter; unten; unterhalb

alongside - nebenher, entlang, an der Seite

waist - Taille; Rumpf

leaning - (to lean) sich an etwas lehnen

suspended - ausgesetzt; suspendieren, aufhängen, suspendieren, aufheben

When a woman stands on her hands and feet like a quadruped, and herlover mounts her like a bull, it is called the "congress of a cow." Atthis time everything that is ordinarily done on the bosom should be doneon the back.

quadruped - vierfüßig; Vierfüßer, Vierfüßerin, Vierfüßler, Vierfüßlerin

doneon - erledigt

In the same way can be carried on the congress of a dog, the congress ofa goat, the congress of a deer, the forcible mounting of an ass, thecongress of a cat, the jump of a tiger, the pressing of an elephant, therubbing of a boar, and the mounting of a horse. And in all these casesthe characteristics of these different animals should be manifested byacting like them.

goat - Ziege, Geiß, Bock

forcible - gewaltsam

mounting - Befestigung; ersteigend, Halterung

ass - Arsch, Esel, Dummkopf

thecongress - derKongress

therubbing - Reiben

manifested - manifestiert; manifest, Ladungsliste, Manifest, manifestieren

byacting - durch Schauspielerei

When a man enjoys two women at the same time, both of whom love himequally, it is called the "united congress."

When a man enjoys many women altogether, it is called the "congress of aherd of cows."

altogether - ganz und gar, ohne Ausnahme, ausnahmslos, insgesamt

The following kinds of congress, viz., sporting in water, or thecongress of an elephant with many female elephants, which is said totake place only in the water, the congress of a collection of goats, thecongress of a collection of deer, take place in imitation of theseanimals.

totake - zu nehmen

goats - Ziegen; Ziege, Geiß, Bock

theseanimals - diese Tiere

In Gramaneri many young men enjoy a woman that may be married to one ofthem, either one after the other, or at the same time. Thus one of themholds her, another enjoys her, a third uses her mouth, a fourth holdsher middle part, and in this way they go on enjoying her several partsalternately.

ofthem - von ihnen

themholds - Sieholds

holdsher - hält sie

partsalternately - Teile alternativ

The same things can be done when several men are sitting in company withone courtesan, or when one courtesan is alone with many men. In the sameway this can be done by the women of the King's harem when theyaccidentally get hold of a man.

withone - miteinem

theyaccidentally - sie versehentlich

The people in the Southern countries have also a congress in the anus,that is called the "lower congress."

anus - Anus, After; (Anu); Anus, After

Thus ends the various kinds of congress. There are also two verses onthe subject as follows.

"An ingenious person should multiply the kinds of congress after thefashion of the different kinds of beasts and of birds. For thesedifferent kinds of congress, performed according to the usage of eachcountry, and the liking of each individual, generate love, friendship,and respect in the hearts of women."

multiply - multiplizieren

beasts - Biester; Tier

thesedifferent - anders

usage - Verwendung, Benutzung, Anwendung, Brauch, Gebrauch

eachcountry - jedes Land

generate - generieren; erzeugen



modes - Modi; Betriebsart, Betrieb, Modus, Art

Sexual intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of thecontrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The place of strikingwith passion is the body, and on the body the special places are:

tendency - Tendenz (''not often used in this sense; one would rather use a verb such as " zu (...) neigen" or tendieren'')

strikingwith - auffällig

The shoulders. The head. The space between the breasts. The back. The jaghana, or middle part of the body. The sides.

Striking is of four kinds, viz.:

Striking with the back of the hand. Striking with the fingers a little contracted. Striking with the fist. Striking with the open palm of the hand.

fist - fausten; Faust

palm - Handfläche; Palme, Schaufel (am Geweih)

On account of its causing pain, striking gives rise to the hissingsound, which is of various kinds, and to the eight kinds of crying,viz.:

hissingsound - Zischgeräusch

The sound Hin. The thundering sound. The cooing sound. The weeping sound. The sound Phut. The sound Phât. The sound Sût. The sound Plât.

Hin - Hin

thundering - donnernd; (thunder); Donner; Donnern

weeping - weinen; .; (weep) weinen

Besides these, there are also words having a meaning, such as "mother,"and those that are expressive of prohibition, sufficiency, desire ofliberation, pain or praise, and to which may be added sounds like thoseof the dove, the cuckoo, the green pigeon, the parrot, the bee, thesparrow, the flamingo, the duck, and the quail, which are alloccasionally made use of.

expressive - ausdrucksvoll, ausdrucksstark

prohibition - Verbot

sufficiency - Ausreichend; Zulänglichkeiten, Zulänglichkeit

ofliberation - der Befreiung

Praise - Gelobt; Lob; loben, preisen

thoseof - die von

dove - Taube; (dive) Taube

cuckoo - Kuckuck

parrot - Papagei; nachplappern

flamingo - Flamingo

Duck - untertauchen (in); Schiertuch, Ente, Segeltuch; kneifen

alloccasionally - Gelegentlich

Blows with the fist should be given on the back of the woman, while sheis sitting on the lap of the man, and she should give blows in return,abusing the man as if she were angry, and making the cooing and theweeping sounds. While the woman is engaged in congress the space betweenthe breasts should be struck with the back of the hand, slowly at first,and then proportionately to the increasing excitement, until the end.

abusing - missbrauchen, beschimpfen; Missbrauch, Schmähung

theweeping - das Weinen

betweenthe - zwischen den

struck - angeschlagen; streichen, schlagen, prägen, streiken, scheinen

proportionately - verhältnismäßig

At this time the sounds Hin and others may be made, alternately oroptionally, according to habit. When the man, making the sound Phât,strikes the woman on the head, with the fingers of his hand a littlecontracted, it is called Prasritaka, which means striking with thefingers of the hand a little contracted. In this case the appropriatesounds are the cooing sound, the sound Phât, and the sound Phut in theinterior of the mouth, and at the end of congress the sighing andweeping sounds. The sound Phât is an imitation of the sound of a bamboobeing split, while the sound Phut is like the sound made by somethingfalling into water.

oroptionally - oder optional

appropriatesounds - angemessenen Klängen

sighing - Seufzen, Seufzer, Säuseln (Wind); säuseln (Wind)

andweeping - und weinen

bamboobeing - bambooing

split - gespalten; Riss, Spalt, Spaltung, Spagat

somethingfalling - Fällt etwas

At all times when kissing and such like things arebegun, the woman should give a reply with a hissing sound. During theexcitement when the woman is not accustomed to striking, she continuallyutters words expressive of prohibition, sufficiently, or desire ofliberation, as well as the words "father," "mother," intermingled withthe sighing, weeping and thundering sounds.[38] Towards the conclusionof the congress, the breasts, the jaghana, and the sides of the womanshould be pressed with the open palms of the hand, with some force,until the end of it, and then sounds like those of the quail, or thegoose should be made.

arebegun - begonnen werden

theexcitement - dieAufregung

continuallyutters - Kontinuierliche Router

sufficiently - ausreichend; hinreichend, genügend, zureichende

intermingled - vermengt; vermischen

conclusionof - Abschluss der

womanshould - sollte die Frau

palms - Palmen; Palme, Schaufel (am Geweih)

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The characteristics of manhood are said to consist of roughness andimpetuosity, while weakness, tenderness, sensibility, and an inclinationto turn away from unpleasant things are the distinguishing marks ofwomanhood. The excitement of passion, and peculiarities of habit maysometimes cause contrary results to appear, but these do not last long,and in the end the natural state is resumed."

roughness - Rauheit, Grobheit

andimpetuosity - und Unnachgiebigkeit

weakness - Schwäche, Faible

tenderness - Zärtlichkeit

sensibility - Sensibilität, Empfindlichkeit, Empfindungsvermögen

inclinationto - Neigung zu

distinguishing - zu unterscheiden; unterscheiden, erkennen, auszeichnen

ofwomanhood - der Weiblichkeit

peculiarities - Eigentümlichkeiten; Singularität, Einzigartigkeit, Besonderheit

maysometimes - vielleicht manchmal

resumed - wiederaufgenommen; weiter; Lebenslauf; fortsetzen

In the same way anything that is a local peculiarity should not alwaysbe adopted elsewhere, and even in the place where the practice isprevalent, excess of it should always be avoided. Instances of thedangerous use of them may be given as follows. The King of the Panchalaskilled the courtezan Madhavasena by means of the wedge during congress.

alwaysbe - immer sein

adopted - angenommen; adoptieren, annehmen, übernehmen

elsewhere - anderswo

isprevalent - vorherrschend ist

excess - Exzess; Überfluss; Überschuss, Übermaß, Völlerei

instances - Instanzen; Beispiel

courtezan - Höfling

wedge - verkeilen, festklemmen, mit einem Keil spalten; keilen

ing Shatakarni Shatavahana of the Kuntalas deprived his great QueenMalayavati of her life by a pair of scissors, and Naradeva, whose handwas deformed, blinded a dancing girl by directing a piercing instrumentin a wrong way.

deprived - berauben

scissors - eine Schere; Schere

deformed - deformiert; verformen, entstellen

blinded - geblendet; blind, blind, unkritisch, ignorant, blind, Jalousie

instrumentin - Instrumentarium

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"About these things there cannot be either enumeration or any definiterule. Congress having once commenced, passion alone gives birth to allthe acts of the parties."

commenced - begonnen; anfangen, beginnen


[Footnote 38: Men who are well acquainted with the art of love are wellaware how often one woman differs from another in her sighs and soundsduring the time of congress. Some women like to be talked to in the mostloving way, others in the most abusive way, and so on.

differs - unterscheidet sich; sich unterscheiden

sighs - seufzt; Seufzen, Seufzer, Säuseln (Wind); säuseln (Wind)

soundsduring - während

mostloving - am liebsten

abusive - missbräuchlich

Some women enjoythemselves with closed eyes in silence, others make a great noise overit, and some almost faint away. The great art is to ascertain what givesthem the greatest pleasure, and what specialities they like best.]

enjoythemselves - sich vergnügen

silence - Stille, Schweigen, zum Schweigen bringen, Ruhe

faint - leise, schwach, undeutlich, ohnmächtig werden

ascertain - festzustellen; feststellen

givesthem - sie geben

specialities - Spezialitäten; Spezialfach, Besonderheit, Spezialität



When a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress,without having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission,lay him down upon his back, and give him assistance by acting his part.She may also do this to satisfy the curiosity of her lover, or her owndesire of novelty.

fatigued - Ermüdet; Müdigkeit, Ermüdung, Schlappheit, Überdruss

owndesire - eigenes Verlangen

novelty - Neuheit, Neuartigkeit, neues Produkt, Krimskrams

There are two ways of doing this, the first is when during congress sheturns round, and gets on the top of her lover, in such a manner as tocontinue the congress, without obstructing the pleasure of it; and theother is when she acts the man's part from the beginning. At such atime, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and her smiles broken byhard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom with her ownbreasts, and lowering her head frequently, should do in return the sameactions which he used to do before, returning his blows and chaffinghim, should say, "I was laid down by you, and fatigued with hardcongress, I shall now therefore lay you down in return.

sheturns - sie sich umdreht

tocontinue - fortzusetzen

obstructing - behindern, versperren

byhard - hart

breathings - Atemzüge; Atmen

ownbreasts - eigene Brüste

lowering - Senken; Abbau (von Kosten)

sameactions - gleiche Aktionen

chaffinghim - ihn anfechten

She should thenagain manifest her own bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire ofstopping the congress. In this way she should do the work of a man,which we shall presently relate.

thenagain - dann wieder

manifest - manifest; Ladungsliste; Manifest; manifestieren

fatigue - Müdigkeit, Ermüdung, Schlappheit, Überdruss

ofstopping - zu stoppen

Presently - Gegenwärtig; sogleich

Whatever is done by a man for giving pleasure to a woman is called thework of a man, and is as follows:--

While the woman is lying on his bed, and is as it were abstracted by hisconversation, he should loosen the knot of her under garments, and whenshe begins to dispute with him, he should overwhelm her with kisses.Then when his lingam is erect he should touch her with his hands invarious places, and gently manipulate various parts of the body. If thewoman is bashful, and if it is the first time that they have cometogether, the man should place his hands between her thighs, which shewould probably keep close together, and if she is a very young girl, heshould first get his hands upon her breasts, which she would probablycover with her own hands, and under her armpits and on her neck.

abstracted - abstrahiert; Auszug, Zusammenfassung, abstrakt, abstrakt

hisconversation - seinGespräch

loosen - lösen, lockern

knot - Knoten, Knäuel

whenshe - wann sie

overwhelm - überwältigen, übermannen, überrumpeln, checküberwältigen (2)

gently - sanft

manipulate - manipulieren

bashful - schüchtern, verlegen, scheu

cometogether - zusammenkommen

shewould - würde sie

probablycover - wahrscheinlich decken

Ifhowever she is a seasoned woman, he should do whatever is agreeableeither to him or to her, and whatever is fitting for the occasion. Afterthis he should take hold of her hair, and hold her chin in his fingersfor the purpose of kissing her. On this, if she is a young girl, shewill become bashful and close her eyes. Any how he should gather fromthe action of the woman what things would be pleasing to her duringcongress.

agreeableeither - auch nicht angenehm

fingersfor - Finger für

shewill - Sie wird

duringcongress - während des Kongresses

Here Suvarnanabha says that while a man is doing to the woman what helikes best during congress, he should always make a point of pressingthose parts of her body on which she turns her eyes.

helikes - mag

pressingthose - Drücken Sie die

The signs of the enjoyment and satisfaction of the women are as follows:her body relaxes, she closes her eyes, she puts aside all bashfulness,and shows increased willingness to unite the two organs as closelytogether as possible. On the other hand, the signs of her want ofenjoyment and of failing to be satisfied are as follows: she shakes herhands, she does not let the man get up, feels dejected, bites the man,kicks him, and continues to go on moving after the man has finished.

willingness - Willigkeit, Bereitschaft

organs - Organe; Organ

closelytogether - eng beieinander

herhands - ihre Hände

dejected - niedergeschlagen; entmutigen

Insuch cases the man should rub the yoni of the woman with his hand andfingers (as the elephant rubs anything with his trunk) before engagingin congress, until it is softened, and after that is done he shouldproceed to put his lingam into her.

rubs - reibt; reiben, reiben, abreiben, sich abreiben, sich abscheuern

trunk - Kofferraum; Stamm, Baumstamm, Koffer, Truhe, Schrankkoffer

engagingin - engagieren

softened - erweicht; aufweichen, weichen, aufweichen, weichen

shouldproceed - fortfahren sollte

The acts to be done by the man are:

Moving forward. Friction or churning. Piercing. Rubbing. Pressing. Giving a blow. The blow of a boar. The blow of a bull. The sporting of a sparrow.

friction - Reibung, Reiberei, Friktion

churning - durchschütteln; (churn) große Milchkanne [Br.]

sparrow - Sperling, Spatz

(1). When the organs are brought together properly and directly it iscalled "moving the organ forward."

(2). When the lingam is held with the hand, and turned all round in theyoni, it is called "churning."

(3). When the yoni is lowered, and the upper part of it is struck withthe lingam, it is called "piercing."

lowered - gesenkt; niedriger, niedrigerer

(4). When the same thing is done on the lower part of the yoni, it iscalled "rubbing."

lower part - Unterteil

(5). When the yoni is pressed by the lingam for a long time, it iscalled "pressing."

(6). When the lingam is removed to some distance from the yoni, and thenforcibly strikes it, it is called "giving a blow."

thenforcibly - dann gewaltsam

(7). When only one part of the yoni is rubbed with the lingam, it iscalled the "blow of a boar."

(8). When both sides of the yoni are rubbed in this way, it is calledthe "blow of a bull."

(9). When the lingam is in the yoni, and moved up and down frequently,and without being taken out, it is called the "sporting of a sparrow."This takes place at the end of congress.

When a woman acts the part of a man, she has the following things to doin addition to the nine given above, viz.

doin - tun

The pair of tongs. The top. The swing.

tongs - Zangen; Tong

(1). When the woman holds the lingam in her yoni, draws it in, pressesit, and keeps it thus in her for a long time, it is called the "pair oftongs."

oftongs - viele Lieder

(2). When, while engaged in congress, she turns round like a wheel, itis called the "top." This is learnt by practice only.

(3). When, on such an occasion, the man lifts up the middle part of hisbody, and the woman turns round her middle part, it is called the"swing."

hisbody - seinen Körper

When the woman is tired, she should place her forehead on that of herlover, and should thus take rest without disturbing the union of theorgans, and when the woman has rested herself the man should turn roundand begin the congress again.

disturbing - beunruhigend; stören

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

"Though a woman is reserved, and keeps her feelings concealed, yet whenshe gets on the top of a man, she then shows all her love and desire. Aman should gather from the actions of the woman of what disposition sheis, and in what way she likes to be enjoyed. A woman during her monthlycourses, a woman who has been lately confined, and a fat woman shouldnot be made to act the part of a man."

reserved - Reservieren

concealed - versteckt; verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen

gather from - entnehmen, schließen aus

monthlycourses - monatlichen Kursen

lately - in letzter Zeit; neulich, kürzlich, letztlich

confined - eingesperrt; beschränken, Begrenzung

shouldnot - sollte nicht



There are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, andthose that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as femalesimitate their dress, speech, gestures, tenderness, timidity, simplicity,softness and bashfulness. The acts that are done on the jaghana ormiddle parts of women, are done in the mouths of these eunuchs, and thisis called Auparishtaka.

eunuchs - Eunuchen; Eunuch, weiblicher Eunuch, Kastrat, Eunuch

disguised - getarnt; Verkleidung, Tarnung, verstellen

andthose - und die

femalesimitate - weibliches Imitat

gestures - Gesten; Geste, Gebärde, Geste, gestikulieren

timidity - Schüchternheit; Furchtsamkeit

softness - Weichheit

ormiddle - oderMitte

These eunuchs derive their imaginable pleasure,and their livelihood from this kind of congress, and they lead the lifeof courtezans. So much concerning eunuchs disguised as females.

imaginable - vorstellbar

lifeof - Leben von

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they wishto do anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under the pretence ofshampooing, an eunuch of this kind embraces and draws towards himselfthe thighs of the man whom he is shampooing, and after this he touchesthe joints of his thighs and his jaghana, or central portions of hisbody. Then, if he finds the lingam of the man erect, he presses it withhis hands, and chaffs him for getting into that state.

wishto - wünschen

pretence - Vortäuschung; Vorwand

ofshampooing - des Shampoonierens

Eunuch - Eunuch, weiblicher Eunuch, Kastrat

himselfthe - er selbst

touchesthe - berühren die

chaffs - Häcksel; Spreu, q

If after this,and after knowing his intention, the man does not tell the eunuch toproceed, then the latter does it of his own accord and begins thecongress. If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputeswith him, and only consents at last with difficulty.

toproceed - voranzukommen

accord - Vereinbarung; Übereinstimmung, Einvernehmen, Übereinkommen

disputeswith - Streitigkeiten mit

consents - zustimmt; zustimmen, einwilligen, Zustimmung, Konsens

The following eight things are then done by the eunuch one after theother, viz.

The nominal congress. Biting the sides. Pressing outside. Pressing inside. Kissing. Rubbing. Sucking a mangoe fruit. swallowing up.

sucking - Saugen; (suck); saugen; lutschen; mies sein, zum Kotzen sein

swallowing up - verschluckend

At the end of each of these the eunuch expresses his wish to stop, butwhen one of them is finished, the man desires him to do another, andafter that is done, then the one that follows it, and so on.

butwhen - aber wann

andafter - und danach

(1). When, holding the man's lingam with his hand, and placing itbetween his lips, the eunuch moves about his mouth, it is called the"nominal congress."

(2). When, covering the end of the lingam with his fingers collectedtogether like the bud of a plant or flower, the eunuch presses the sidesof it with his lips, using his teeth also, it is called "biting thesides."

collectedtogether - gemeinsam gesammelt

bud - Knospe, Knospen treiben

sidesof - Seiten von

thesides - die Seiten

(3). When, being desired to proceed, the eunuch presses the end of thelingam with his lips closed together, and kisses it as if he weredrawing it out, it is called the "outside pressing."

proceed - fortfahren; vorgehen

weredrawing - wer zeichnet

(4). When, being asked to go on, he put the lingam further into hismouth, and presses it with his lips and then takes it out, it is calledthe "inside pressing."

hismouth - seinen Mund

(5). When, holding the lingam in his hand, the eunuch kisses it as if hewere kissing the lower lip, it is called "kissing."

hewere - wo

(6). When, after kissing it, he touches it with his tongue everywhere,and passes the tongue over the end of it, it is called "rubbing."

(7). When, in the same way, he puts the half of it into his mouth, andforcibly kisses and sucks it, this is called "sucking a mangoe fruit."

andforcibly - und gewaltsam

sucks - beschissen; saugen, saugen, lutschen, mies sein

(8). And lastly, when, with the consent of the man, the eunuch puts thewhole lingam into his mouth, and presses it to the very end, as if hewere going to swallow it up, it is called "swallowing up."

thewhole - dasGanze

swallowing - schlucken, verschlingen, anbeißen, einstecken

Striking, scratching, and other things may also be done during this kindof congress.

kindof - Irgendwie

The Auparishtaka is practised only by unchaste and wanton women, femaleattendants and serving maids, _i.e._, those who are not married toanybody, but who live by shampooing.

unchaste - unkeusch, unzüchtig, untugendhaft

wanton - mutwillig; wild, unkontrolliert, unbeherrscht, unberechenbar

femaleattendants - weibliche Teilnehmerinnen

toanybody - für irgendjemanden

The Acharyas (_i.e._, ancient and venerable authors) are of opinion thatthis Auparishtaka is the work of a dog and not of a man, because it is alow practice, and opposed to the orders of the Holy Writ, and becausethe man himself suffers by bringing his lingam into contact with themouths of eunuchs and women. But Vatsyayana says that the orders of theHoly Writ do not affect those who resort to courtezans, and the lawprohibits the practice of the Auparishtaka with married women only.

venerable - ehrwürdig, geschätzt, respektabel, verehrenswert

thatthis - das hier

alow - erlauben

becausethe - weil die

themouths - die Jugendlichen

lawprohibits - Gesetz verbietet

Asregards the injury to the male, that can be easily remedied.

remedied - behoben; Gegenmittel

The people of Eastern India do not resort to women who practise theAuparishtaka.

theAuparishtaka - dasAuparishtaka

The people of Ahichhatra resort to such women, but do nothing with them,so far as the mouth is concerned.

The people of Saketa do with these women every kind of mouth congress,while the people of Nagara do not practise this, but do every otherthing.

otherthing - etwas anderes

The people of the Shurasena country, on the southern bank of the Jumna,do everything without any hesitation, for they say that women beingnaturally unclean, no one can be certain about their character, theirpurity, their conduct, their practices, their confidences, or theirspeech. They are not however on this account to be abandoned, becausereligious law, on the authority of which they are reckoned pure, laysdown that the udder of a cow is clean at the time of milking, though themouth of a cow, and also the mouth of her calf, are considered uncleanby the Hindoos. Again a dog is clean when he seizes a deer in hunting,though food touched by a dog is otherwise considered very unclean.

hesitation - Zögern

beingnaturally - natürlich sein

unclean - unrein, gemein

theirpurity - ihre Reinheit

confidences - Vertraulichkeiten; Selbstgewissheit, Zuversicht, Vertrauen

theirspeech - ihreRede

abandoned - im Stich lassen, preisgeben, verlassen, abbrechen

becausereligious - weil sie religiös sind

reckoned - gerechnet; rechnen, damit rechnen, zählen

pure - bloß, rein

laysdown - ablegen

udder - Euter

themouth - die Jugend

calf - Wade (Bein), Kalb

seizes - ergreift; ergreifen, fassen, greifen, packen, ergreifen

Abird is clean when it causes a fruit to fall from a tree by pecking atit, though things eaten by crows and other birds are considered unclean.And the mouth of a woman is clean for kissing and such like things atthe time of sexual intercourse. Vatsyayana moreover thinks that in allthese things connected with love, everybody should act according to thecustom of his country, and his own inclination.

pecking - picken; (peck) Küsschen (flüchtig); (pec) picken; (peck) Küsschen (flüchtig)

crows - Krähen; Krähe

inclination - Neigung

There are also the following verses on the subject.

"The male servants of some men carry on the mouth congress with theirmasters. It is also practised by some citizens, who know each otherwell, among themselves. Some women of the harem, when they are amorous,do the acts of the mouth on the yonis of one another, and some men dothe same thing with women.

theirmasters - ihre Herren

otherwell - Anderswo

amorous - amourös

yonis - Yoni

The way of doing this (_i.e._, of kissing theyoni) should be known from kissing the mouth. When a man and woman liedown in an inverted order, _i.e._, with the head of the one towards thefeet of the other and carry on this congress, it is called the "congressof a crow."

inverted - invertiert; umkehren, invertieren

thefeet - den Füßen

crow - Krähe

For the sake of such things courtezans abandon men possessed of goodqualities, liberal and clever, and become attached to low persons, suchas slaves and elephant drivers. The Auparishtaka, or mouth congress,should never be done by a learned Brahman, by a minister that carries onthe business of a state, or by a man of good reputation, because thoughthe practice is allowed by the Shastras, there is no reason why itshould be carried on, and need only be practised in particular cases. Asfor instance, the taste, and the strength, and the digestive qualitiesof the flesh of dogs are mentioned in works on medicine, but it does nottherefore follow that it should be eaten by the wise. In the same waythere are some men, some places and some times, with respect to whichthese practices can be made use of. A man should therefore pay regard tothe place, to the time, and to the practice which is to be carried out,as also as to whether it is agreeable to his nature and to himself, andthen he may or may not practise these things according to circumstances.

goodqualities - gute Qualitäten

liberal - freiheitlich; liberal; Liberaler

suchas - wie zum Beispiel

slaves - Sklaven; Sklave, t+Sklavin, Sklave, t+Sklavin, Sklave

thoughthe - dachte er

itshould - es sollte

digestive - verdauungsfördernd; digestiv

qualitiesof - Eigenschaften von

flesh - Fleisch; Haut, Leib, Fruchtfleisch, Fleischfarbe, zunehmen

nottherefore - nicht

waythere - Weg dorthin

whichthese - Wer sind diese

andthen - unddann

ut after all, these things being done secretly, and the mind of the manbeing fickle, how can it be known what any person will do at anyparticular time and for any particular purpose.

ut - US-Bundesstaat

secretly - heimlich, insgeheim

manbeing - Menschsein

fickle - schwankend, wankelmütig

anyparticular - etwas Bestimmtes


[Footnote 39: This practice appears to have been prevalent in some partsof India from a very ancient time. The "Shushruta," a work on medicinesome two thousand years old, describes the wounding of the lingam withthe teeth as one of the causes of a disease treated upon in that work.Traces of the practice are found as far back as the eighth century, forvarious kinds of the Auparishtaka are represented in the sculptures ofmany Shaiva temples at Bhuvaneshwara, near Cuttack, in Orissa, and whichwere built about that period.

prevalent - vorherrschend

partsof - Teile von

medicinesome - Medizinsom

traces - Spuren; Zeichen, Spur

forvarious - fürverschiedene

ofmany - von vielen

temples - Schläfen; Tempel, Schläfe, Bethaus, Synagoge

whichwere - welche waren das

From these sculptures being found in suchplaces, it would seem that this practice was popular in that part of thecountry at that time. It does not seem to be so prevalent now inHindustan, its place perhaps is filled up by the practice of sodomy,introduced since the Mahomedan period.]

suchplaces - solche Orte

thecountry - das Land

sodomy - Sodomie; Analverkehr




In the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant withperfumes, attended by his friends and servants, the citizen shouldreceive the woman, who will come bathed and dressed, and will invite herto take refreshment and to drink freely. He should then seat her on hisleft side, and holding her hair, and touching also the end and knot ofher garment, he should gently embrace her with his right arm. Theyshould then carry on an amusing conversation on various subjects, andmay also talk suggestively of things which would be considered ascoarse, or not to be mentioned generally in society.

withperfumes - mit Parfüm

shouldreceive - erhalten sollte

refreshment - Erfrischung

hisleft - seine Linke

garment - Kleidungsstück

amusing - amüsant; amüsieren, vergnügen, belustigen, erheitern

andmay - undMai

suggestively - angedeutet

ascoarse - wie grob

They may then sing,either with or without gesticulations, and play on musical instruments,talk about the arts, and persuade each other to drink. At last when thewoman is overcome with love and desire, the citizen should dismiss thepeople that may be with him, giving them flowers, ointment, and betelleaves, and then when the two are left alone, they should proceed as hasbeen already described in the previous chapters.

gesticulations - Gestikulationen; Gestikulierung

dismiss - jdn. des Platzes verweisen;aufgeben, feuern (entlassen), vom Amt absetzen

thepeople - das Volk

ointment - Salbe, Balsam

hasbeen - gewesen sein

Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress, thelovers with modesty, and not looking at each other, should go separatelyto the washing-room. After this, sitting in their own places, theyshould eat some betel leaves, and the citizen should apply with his ownhand to the body of the woman some pure sandal wood ointment, orointment of some other kind. He should then embrace her with his leftarm, and with agreeable words should cause her to drink from a cup heldin his own hand, or he may give her water to drink. They can then eatsweetmeats, or anything else, according to their likings, and may drinkfresh juice,[40] soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the juice ofmangoe fruits, the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed withsugar, or anything that may be liked in different countries, and knownto be sweet, soft, and pure.

modesty - Bescheidenheit; Sittsamkeit

separatelyto - getrennt zu

ownhand - eigenhändig

sandal - Sandale

orointment - ernennung

leftarm - linken Arm

heldin - gehalten

gruel - Haferschleim, Mus

extracts - Auszüge; Auszug, Auszug, Extrakt

sherbet - Sorbet

withsugar - mitZucker

knownto - bekannt

The lovers may also sit on the terrace ofthe palace or house, and enjoy the moonlight, and carry on an agreeableconversation. At this time, too, while the woman lies in his lap, withher face towards the moon, the citizen should show her the differentplanets, the morning star, the polar star, and the seven Rishis, orGreat Bear.

terrace - Dachterrasse; Häuserreihe; Häuserflucht; Stehtribüne; Stehplätze

agreeableconversation - Angenehme Konversation

withher - mit ihr

differentplanets - verschiedene Planeten

morning star - Morgenstern

polar star - Polarstern

Rishis - Rishi

orGreat - oderGroßartig

This is the end of sexual union.

Congress is of the following kinds, viz.:

Loving congress. Congress of subsequent love. Congress of artificial love. Congress of transferred love. Congress like that of eunuchs. Deceitful congress. Congress of spontaneous love.

deceitful - betrügerisch

spontaneous - spontan

(1). When a man and a woman, who have been in love with each other forsome time, come together with great difficulty, or when one of the tworeturns from a journey, or is reconciled after having been separated onaccount of a quarrel, then congress is called the "loving congress." Itis carried on according to the liking of the lovers, and as long as theychoose.

forsome - für einige

theychoose - sie wählen

(2). When two persons come together, while their love for each other isstill in its infancy, their congress is called the "congress ofsubsequent love."

isstill - ist noch

infancy - im Kindesalter; Säuglingsphase, frühe Kindheit, Anfangsphase

(3). When a man carries on the congress by exciting himself by means ofthe sixty-four ways, such as kissing, etc., etc., or when a man and awoman come together, though in reality they are both attached todifferent persons, their congress is then called "congress of artificiallove." At this time all the ways and means mentioned in the Kama Shastrashould be used.

carries on - betreibt

awoman - eine Frau

todifferent - zu unterscheiden

artificiallove - Kunstliebe

(4). When a man, from the beginning to the end of the congress, thoughhaving connection with the women, thinks all the time that he isenjoying another one whom he loves, it is called the "congress oftransferred love."

thoughhaving - obwohl sie

oftransferred - oft übertragen

(5). Congress between a man and a female water carrier, or a femaleservant of a caste lower than his own, lasting only until the desire issatisfied, is called "congress like that of eunuchs." Here externaltouches, kisses, and manipulations are not to be employed.

carrier - Träger; Frachtunternehmen; Trägersignal, Überträger

issatisfied - Zufrieden

externaltouches - externe Berührungen

manipulations - Manipulationen; Manipulation, Manipulierung, Manipulieren

(6). The congress between a courtezan and a rustic, and that betweencitizens and the women of villages, and bordering countries, is called,"deceitful congress."

rustic - rustikal

betweencitizens - zwischen Bürgerinnen und Bürgern

(7). The congress that takes place between two persons who are attachedto one another, and which is done according to their own liking iscalled "spontaneous congress."

attachedto - befestigt

Thus ends the kinds of congress.

We shall now speak of love quarrels.

A woman who is very much in love with a man cannot bear to hear the nameof her rival mentioned, or to have any conversation regarding her, or tobe addressed by her name through mistake. If such takes place, a greatquarrel arises, and the woman cries, becomes angry, tosses her hairabout, strikes her lover, falls from her bed or seat, and, casting asideher garlands and ornaments, throws herself down on the ground.

rival - Rivalen; Gegner, Rivale, Konkurrent, Gegnerin

regarding - bezüglich; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

becomes angry - ergrimmt

tosses - wirft; Wurf, Münzwurf, werfen, werfen, verwerfen, wegwerfen

hairabout - Hairrabout

casting - Gießerei, Abguss, Rollenbesetzung; (cast); werfen; wegwerfen

asideher - beiseite

At this time, the lover should attempt to reconcile her withconciliatory words, and should take her up carefully and place her onher bed. But she, not replying to his questions, and with increasedanger, should bend down his head by pulling his hair, and having kickedhim once, twice, or thrice on his arms, head, bosom or back, should thenproceed to the door of the room. Dattaka says that she should then sitangrily near the door and shed tears, but should not go out, because shewould be found fault with for going away.

attempt - versuchen; Versuch, Bestreben, Bestrebung, Anschlag, Attentat

reconcile - versöhnen

withconciliatory - mit versöhnlich

increasedanger - erhöhte Gefahr

bend down - sich bücken

thrice - dreimal

thenproceed - dann weitermachen

sitangrily - wütend sitzen

shed tears - Tränen vergießen

fault - Fehler; Schuld; Fehler, Charakterschwäche, Verfehlung

After a time, when she thinksthat the conciliatory words and actions of her lover have reached theirutmost, she should then embrace him, talking to him with harsh andreproachful words, but at the same time showing a loving desire forcongress.

thinksthat - glauben Sie das

conciliatory - versöhnlich

theirutmost - ihre meisten

andreproachful - und vorwurfsvoll

forcongress - für den Kongress

When the woman is in her own house, and has quarrelled with her lover,she should go to him and show how angry she is, and leave him.Afterwards the citizen having sent the Vita,[41] the Vidushaka[41] orthe Pithamurda[41] to pacify her, she should accompany them back to thehouse, and spend the night with her lover.

quarrelled - gestritten; sich streiten, zanken

pacify - beschwichtigen; befrieden; friedlich stimmen

accompany - begleiten, geleiten, beiliegen

thehouse - das Haus

Thus end the love quarrels.

In conclusion.

A man, employing the sixty-four means mentioned by Babhravya, obtainshis object, and enjoys the woman of the first quality. Though he mayspeak well on other subjects, if he does not know the sixty-fourdivisions, no great respect is paid to him in the assembly of thelearned. A man, devoid of other knowledge, but well acquainted with thesixty-four divisions, becomes a leader in any society of men and women.

obtainshis - erhalten

fourdivisions - vier Divisionen

devoid - nicht vorhanden; erman: frei (von) ''adj.'': leer

thesixty - die sechzig

hat man will not respect the sixty-four parts,[42] considering they arerespected by the learned, by the cunning, and by the courtezans. As thesixty-four parts are respected, are charming, and add to the talent ofwomen, they are called by the Acharyas dear to women. A man skilled inthe sixty-four parts is looked upon with love by his own wife, by thewives of others, and by courtezans.

arerespected - respektiert werden

cunning - gerissen; schlau, clever, süß, niedlich

charming - charmant; (charm); charmant

thewives - die Frauen


[Footnote 40: The fresh juice of the cocoa nut tree, the date tree, andother kinds of palm trees are drunk in India. It will not keep freshvery long, but ferments rapidly, and is then distilled into liquor.]

cocoa - Kakao

date tree - Dattelpalme

freshvery - Frischfleisch

ferments - fermentiert; gären, stören, anstacheln, Gärmittel

rapidly - schnell

distilled - destilliert; destillieren

liquor - Schnaps; Spirituose

[Footnote 41: The characteristics of these three individuals have beengiven in Part I. page 31.]

beengiven - gegeben worden

[Footnote 42: A definition of the sixty-four parts, or divisions, isgiven in Chapter II., page 45.]






When a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordancewith the precepts of Holy Writ, the results of such an union are: theacquisition of Dharma and Artha, offspring, affinity, increase offriends, and untarnished love. For this reason a man should fix hisaffections upon a girl who is of good family, whose parents are alive,and who is three years or more younger than himself. She should be bornof a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well connected, andwith many relations and friends.

accordancewith - Übereinstimmung mit

theacquisition - die Akquisition

offspring - Nachkommen; Nachkomme, Nachkommin, Kind, Sohn

untarnished - ungetrübt

hisaffections - seineAuswirkungen

respectable - respektabel; angesehen, geachtet

andwith - und damit

She should also be beautiful, of a gooddisposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails,teeth, ears, eyes, and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought tobe, and no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sicklybody. The man should, of course, also possess these qualities himself.But at all events, says Ghotakamukha, a girl who has been already joinedwith others (_i.e._, no longer a maiden) should never be loved, for itwould be reproachable to do such a thing.

gooddisposition - gute Veranlagung

sicklybody - kränkliche Person

joinedwith - verbunden mit

maiden - Jungfrau

itwould - würde es das

reproachable - vorwurfsvoll

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as describedabove, the parents and relations of the man should exert themselves, asalso such friends on both sides as may be desired to assist in thematter.

describedabove - oben beschrieben

exert - anstrengen; ausüben

thematter - das Thema

These friends should bring to the notice of the girl's parents,the faults, both present and future, of all the other men that may wishto marry her, and should at the same time extol even to exaggerationall the excellencies, ancestral, and paternal, of their friend, so as toendear him to them, and particularly to those that may be liked by thegirl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise himself as anastrologer and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friendby showing the existence of all the lucky omens[43] and signs,[44] thegood influence of planets, the auspicious entrance of the sun into asign of the Zodiac, propitious stars and fortunate marks on his body.Others again should rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother by tellingher that their friend has a chance of getting from some other quartereven a better girl than hers.

extol - anpreisen; preisen

exaggerationall - Übertrieben

excellencies - Exzellenzen; Exzellenz

ancestral - Vorfahren

paternal - väterlicherseits

anastrologer - Anastrologe

declare - bekanntmachen, bekanntgeben, deklarieren, ausrufen, aussagen

friendby - Freundschaft

Zodiac - Zodiac, Zodiak, Tierkreis

Propitious - günstig, förderlich, gnädig, vorteilhaft, verheißungsvoll

fortunate - glücklich; günstig, verheißungsvoll

rouse - aufrütteln; wachrufen, wecken

jealousy - Eifersucht, Missgunst, Neid

tellingher - Sie erzählen

quartereven - geviertelt

A girl should be taken as a wife, as also given in marriage, whenfortune, signs, omens, and the words[45] of others are favourable, for,says Ghotakamukha, a man should not marry at any time he likes. A girlwho is asleep, crying, or gone out of the house when sought in marriage,or who is betrothed to another, should not be married. The followingalso should be avoided:

whenfortune - Wann haben Sie Glück

omens - Omen

betrothed - Verlobter, Verlobte; (betroth); verloben; verloben

followingalso - auch folgen

One who is kept concealed. One who has an ill-sounding name. One who has her nose depressed. One who has her nostril turned up. One who is formed like a male. One who is bent down. One who has crooked thighs. One who has a projecting forehead. One who has a bald head.

depressed - deprimiert; deprimieren

nostril - Nasenloch

crooked - schief; (to crook) sich krümmen

bald head - Kahlkopf

One who does not like purity. One who has been polluted by another. One who is afflicted with the Gulma.[46] One who is disfigured in any way. One who has fully arrived at puberty. One who is a friend. One who is a younger sister. One who is a Varshakari.[47]

purity - Reinheit

Polluted - Verschmutzt; verschmutzen

afflicted - behaftet; bekümmern

disfigured - verunstaltet; entstellen, verunstalten

fully - vollständig; völlig

puberty - Pubertät, Geschlechtsreife

In the same way a girl who is called by the name of one of thetwenty-seven stars, or by the name of a tree, or of a river, isconsidered worthless, as also a girl whose name ends in "r" or "l." Butsome authors say that prosperity is gained only by marrying that girl towhom one becomes attached, and that therefore no other girl but the onewho is loved should be married by anyone.

worthless - wertlos, nutzlos, nichtsnutzig

towhom - zu wem

onewho - einewer

When a girl becomes marriageable her parents should dress her smartly,and should place her where she can be easily seen by all. Everyafternoon, having dressed her and decorated her in a becoming manner,they should send her with her female companions to sports, sacrifices,and marriage ceremonies, and thus show her to advantage in society,because she is a kind of merchandise.

marriageable - heiratsfähig

smartly - klug; schlau, elegant

merchandise - Waren; Handelsware, Ware; handeln, Handel treiben

They should also receive with kindwords and signs of friendliness those of an auspicious appearance whomay come accompanied by their friends and relations for the purpose ofmarrying their daughter, and under some pretext or other having firstdressed her becomingly, should then present her to them. After this theyshould await the pleasure of fortune, and with this object shouldappoint a future day on which a determination could be come to withregard to their daughter's marriage. On this occasion when the personshave come, the parents of the girl should ask them to bathe and dine,and should say, "Everything will take place at the proper time," andshould not then comply with the request, but should settle the matterlater.

friendliness - Freundlichkeit

ofmarrying - zu heiraten

becomingly - schicklich

shouldappoint - ernennen sollte

determination - Bestimmung; Determination; Bestimmtheit; Feststellung; Entschluss; Unterscheidung

withregard - mitRücksicht

personshave - Personen haben

dine - speisen

andshould - und sollte

comply - einhalten; einwilligen, sich fügen

settle - regeln; abklären

When a girl is thus acquired, either according to the custom of thecountry, or according to his own desire, the man should marry her inaccordance with the precepts of the Holy Writ, according to one of thefour kinds of marriage.

inaccordance - Ungenauigkeit

Thus ends marriage.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:--

Amusement in society, such as completing verses begun by others,marriages, and auspicious ceremonies should be carried on neither withsuperiors, nor inferiors, but with our equals. That should be known as ahigh connection when a man, after marrying a girl, has to serve her andher relations afterwards like a servant, and such a connection iscensured by the good. On the other hand, that reproachable connection,where a man, together with his relations, lords it over his wife, iscalled a low connection by the wise.

withsuperiors - mit Vorgesetzten

inferiors - Untergebene; untergeordnet, nachgeordnet, unterlegen, tiefer

our equals - unseresgleichen

andher - und sie

iscensured - ist zensiert

lords - Herrschaften; Gebieter, Herr, herrschen

But when both the man and the womanafford mutual pleasure to each other, and when the relatives on bothsides pay respect to one another, such is called a connection in theproper sense of the word. Therefore a man should contract neither a highconnection by which he is obliged to bow down afterwards to his kinsmen,nor a low connection, which is universally reprehended by all.

womanafford - frauenaffin

bothsides - beide Seiten

obliged - verpflichtet; verpflichten, einen Gefallen tun

kinsmen - Verwandten; Verwandter, Angehöriger, Landsmann

universally - universell

reprehended - getadelt; tadeln; rügen


[Footnote 43: The flight of a blue jay on a person's left side isconsidered a lucky omen when one starts on any business; the appearanceof a cat before anyone at such a time is looked on as a bad omen. Thereare many omens of the same kind.]

jay - Eichelhäher; Tölpel

omen - Omen

appearanceof - Erscheinungsbild von

[Footnote 44: Such as the throbbing of the right eye of men and the lefteye of women, etc.]

lefteye - Linke Seite

[Footnote 45: Before anything is begun it is a custom to go early in themorning to a neighbour's house, and overhear the first words that may bespoken in his family, and according as the words heard are of good orbad import, so draw an inference as to the success or failure of theundertaking.]

themorning - Morgen

overhear - mitbekommen; zufällig mit anhören

bespoken - besprechen, diskutieren, mitteilen, vorbestellen, arrangieren

inference - Schlussfolgern, Schlussfolgerung, Inferenz

failure - Versagen; Misserfolg, Ausfall, Verschlechterung, Misslingen

theundertaking - dasUnternehmen

[Footnote 46: A disease consisting of any glandular enlargement in anypart of the body.]

glandular - drüsig

enlargement - Vergrößerung, Erweiterung

[Footnote 47: A woman, the palms of whose hands and the soles of whosefeet are always perspiring.]

soles - Sohlen; Seezunge, Sohle, einzig

whosefeet - wessen Füße

perspiring - Sie schwitzen; schwitzen



For the first three days after marriage, the girl and her husband shouldsleep on the floor, abstain from sexual pleasures, and eat their foodwithout seasoning it either with alkali or salt. For the next seven daysthey should bathe amidst the sounds of auspicious musical instruments,should decorate themselves, dine together, and pay attention to theirrelations as well as to those who may have come to witness theirmarriage. This is applicable to persons of all castes. On the night ofthe tenth day the man should begin in a lonely place with soft words,and thus create confidence in the girl. Some authors say that for thepurpose of winning her over he should not speak to her for three days,but the followers of Babhravya are of opinion that if the man does notspeak with her for three days, the girl may be discouraged by seeing himspiritless like a pillar, and, becoming dejected, she may begin todespise him as an eunuch. Vatsyayana says that the man should begin towin her over, and to create confidence in her, but should abstain atfirst from sexual pleasures.

shouldsleep - Schlafen sollen

abstain - verzichten; sich enthalten; abhalten

foodwithout - Essen ohne

Alkali - Alkali

daysthey - Tag sie

amidst - inmitten von

theirrelations - ihre Beziehungen

witness - etw. miterleben;erleben, bezeugen, Zeuge sein bei; miterleben

theirmarriage - ihreEhe

applicable - anwendbar

thepurpose - der Zweck

notspeak - nicht sprechen

discouraged - entmutigt; entmutigen, abschrecken, abraten, abraten von

himspiritless - Er ist geistlos

Women being of a tender nature, want tenderbeginnings, and when they are forcibly approached by men with whom theyare but slightly acquainted, they sometimes suddenly become haters ofsexual connection, and sometimes even haters of the male sex. The manshould therefore approach the girl according to her liking, and shouldmake use of those devices by which he may be able to establish himselfmore and more into her confidence. These devices are as follows:--

tenderbeginnings - zarte Anfänge

approached - angesprochen; sich nähern, nahekommen, ähnlich sein

haters - Hasser, Hasserin

shouldmake - machen sollte

establish - feststellen, etablieren, eröffnen, gründen, niederlassen

himselfmore - selbst mehr

He should embrace her first of all in a way she likes most, because itdoes not last for a long time.

itdoes - es tut

He should embrace her with the upper part of his body because that iseasier and simpler. If the girl is grown up, or if the man has knownher for some time, he may embrace her by the light of a lamp, but if heis not well acquainted with her, or if she is a young girl, he shouldthen embrace her in darkness.

iseasier - ist einfacher

knownher - Sie kennen

shouldthen - dann

darkness - Dunkelheit, Finsternis

When the girl accepts the embrace, the man should put a "tambula" orscrew of betel nut and betel leaves in her mouth, and if she will nottake it, he should induce her to do so by conciliatory words,entreaties, oaths, and kneeling at her feet, for it is an universal rulethat however bashful or angry a woman may be, she never disregards a mankneeling at her feet. At the time of giving this "tambula" he shouldkiss her mouth softly and gracefully without making any sound. When sheis gained over in this respect he should then make her talk, and so thatshe may be induced to talk he should ask her questions about things ofwhich he knows or pretends to know nothing, and which can be answered ina few words. If she does not speak to him, he should not frighten her,but should ask her the same thing again and again in a conciliatorymanner. If she does not then speak he should urge her to give a reply,because as Ghotakamukha says, "all girls hear everything said to them bymen, but do not themselves sometimes say a single word." When she isthus importuned, the girl should give replies by shakes of the head, butif she quarrelled with the man she should not even do that. When she isasked by the man whether she wishes for him, and whether she likes him,she should remain silent for a long time, and when at last importuned toreply, should give him a favourable answer by a nod of the head.

orscrew - oder schrauben

nottake - nicht nehmen

induce - einleiten; dazu bringen, anstacheln, bewirken, verursachen

entreaties - Bitten; Flehen

oaths - Eide; Eid, Schwur, Eid, Fluch, erman:

kneeling - kniend, hinkniend; (kneel); knien

disregards - nicht beachtet; Gleichgültigkeit, Nichtbeachten

gracefully - anmutig

thatshe - Das ist sie

ofwhich - wovon

conciliatorymanner - Schlichtungsmanier

urge - Drang; drängen, mahnen, treiben, anspornen, provozieren

bymen - von Männern

importuned - aufgedrängt; bedrängen, belästigen

butif - aber wenn

isasked - gefragt wird

nod - nicken; einnicken; Kopfnicken

If theman is previously acquainted with the girl he should converse with herby means of a female friend, who may be favourable to him, and in theconfidence of both, and carry on the conversation on both sides. On suchan occasion the girl should smile with her head bent down, and if thefemale friend say more on her part than she was desired to do, sheshould chide her and dispute with her. The female friend should say injest even what she is not desired to say by the girl, and add, "she saysso," on which the girl should say indistinctly and prettily, "O no! Idid not say so," and she should then smile and throw an occasionalglance towards the man.

theconfidence - das Selbstvertrauen

injest - injizieren

saysso - sagt

indistinctly - undeutlich

prettily - hübsche, nett

occasionalglance - gelegentlicher Blick

If the girl is familiar with the man, she should place near him,without saying anything, the tambula, the ointment, or the garland thathe may have asked for, or she may tie them up in his upper garment.While she is engaged in this, the man should touch her young breasts inthe sounding way of pressing with the nails, and if she prevents himdoing this he should say to her, "I will not do it again if you willembrace me," and should in this way cause her to embrace him. While heis being embraced by her he should pass his hand repeatedly over andabout her body.

thathe - dass er

himdoing - was er tut

embraced - umarmt; umarmen, annehmen, umarmen, Umarmung

andabout - und so weiter

By and bye he should place her in his lap, and try moreand more to gain her consent, and if she will not yield to him he shouldfrighten her by saying, "I shall impress marks of my teeth and nails onyour lips and breasts, and then make similar marks on my own body, andshall tell my friends that you did them. What will you say then?" Inthis and other ways, as fear and confidence are created in the minds ofchildren, so should the man gain her over to his wishes.

moreand - mehrund

yield - Ertrag; hervorbringen, er/sie hat/hatte ergeben, weichen

shouldfrighten - erschrecken sollte

impress - beeindrucken; prägen

onyour - bei Ihnen

andshall - undsoll

ofchildren - der Kinder

On the second and third nights, after her confidence has increased stillmore, he should feel the whole of her body with his hands, and kiss herall over; he should also place his hands upon her thighs and shampoothem, and if he succeed in this he should then shampoo the joints of herthighs. If she tries to prevent him doing this he should say to her,"What harm is there in doing it?" and should persuade her to let him doit. After gaining this point he should touch her private parts, shouldloosen her girdle and the knot of her dress, and turning up her lowergarment should shampoo the joints of her naked thighs. Under variouspretences he should do all these things, but he should not at that timebegin actual congress.

stillmore - noch mehr

shampoo - Shampoo, Schampu, Schampon, Schampun

herthighs - Oberschenkel

doit - tun

shouldloosen - lockern sollte

girdle - Gürtel, Hüfthalter

lowergarment - Unterwäsche

naked - nackt, kahl, bloß

variouspretences - verschiedene Präferenzen

timebegin - Beginn der Zeit

actual - tatsächlich, konkret, gegenwärtig, aktuell

After this he should teach her the sixty-fourarts, should tell her how much he loves her, and describe to her thehopes which he formerly entertained regarding her. He should alsopromise to be faithful to her in future, and should dispel all her fearswith respect to rival women, and, at last, after having overcome herbashfulness, he should begin to enjoy her in a way so as not to frightenher. So much about creating confidence in the girl; and there are,moreover, some verses on the subject as follows:--

thehopes - die Hoffnungen

alsopromise - ebenfalls versprechen

faithful - treu

dispel - zerstreuen

fearswith - Angst mit

herbashfulness - Herbaschaftigkeit

frightenher - ängstlicher

A man acting according to the inclinations of a girl should try and gainher over so that she may love him and place her confidence in him. Aman does not succeed either by implicitly following the inclination of agirl, or by wholly opposing her, and he should therefore adopt a middlecourse. He who knows how to make himself beloved by women, as well as toincrease their honour and create confidence in them, this man becomes anobject of their love. But he, who neglects a girl thinking she is toobashful, is despised by her as a beast ignorant of the working of thefemale mind.

inclinations - Neigungen; Neigung, Neigung

implicitly - stillschweigend

opposing - gegen; ablehnen, widersprechen

adopt - adoptieren; annehmen, übernehmen

middlecourse - Mittelweg

toincrease - zu erhöhen

anobject - einObjekt

neglects - vernachlässigt; vernachlässigen, verabsäumen, versäumen

toobashful - zu übereifrig

beast - Tier, Bestie, Unmensch, Biest

Moreover, a girl forcibly enjoyed by one who does notunderstand the hearts of girls becomes nervous, uneasy, and dejected,and suddenly begins to hate the man who has taken advantage of her; andthen, when her love is not understood or returned, she sinks intodespondency, and becomes either a hater of mankind altogether, or,hating her own man, she has recourse to other men.[48]

notunderstand - nicht verstehen

uneasy - Unbehagen; besorgt, unangenehm, unsicher

hater - Hasser, Hasserin


[Footnote 48: These last few lines have been exemplified in many ways inmany novels of this century.]

exemplified - veranschaulicht; exemplifizieren, veranschaulichen

inmany - in vielen



manifestation - Manifestation, Erscheinung

A poor man possessed of good qualities, a man born of a low familypossessed of mediocre qualities, a neighbour possessed of wealth, andone under the control of his father, mother or brothers, should notmarry without endeavouring to gain over the girl from her childhood tolove and esteem them. Thus a boy separated from his parents, and livingin the house of his uncle, should try to gain over the daughter of hisuncle, or some other girl, even though she be previously betrothed toanother.

familypossessed - familienbesessen

mediocre - mittelmäßig; Mittelmäßige

endeavouring - anstreben; sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung

esteem - Achtung, Ansehen, Wertschätzung, schätzen

livingin - leben

hisuncle - sein Onkel

toanother - zueinemanderen

And this way of gaining over a girl, says Ghotakamukha, isunexceptional, because Dharma can be accomplished by means of it, aswell as by any other way of marriage.

isunexceptional - ist ausnahmslos

accomplished - vollendet; vollenden, vollenden, vollenden, vollenden

aswell - auch

When a boy has thus begun to woo the girl he loves, he should spend histime with her and amuse her with various games and diversions fitted fortheir age and acquaintanceship, such as picking and collecting flowers,making garlands of flowers, playing the parts of members of a fictitiousfamily, cooking food, playing with dice, playing with cards, the game ofodd and even, the game of finding out the middle finger, the game of sixpebbles, and such other games as may be prevalent in the country, andagreeable to the disposition of the girl. In addition to this, he shouldcarry on various amusing games played by several persons together, suchas hide and seek, playing with seeds, hiding things in several smallheaps of wheat and looking for them, blind-man's buff, gymnasticexercises, and other games of the same sort, in company with the girl,her friends and female attendants.

woo - umwerben, werben, locken

amuse - amüsieren, vergnügen, belustigen, erheitern

fortheir - für ihre

acquaintanceship - Bekanntschaft

fictitiousfamily - fiktive familie

middle finger - Mittelfinger

andagreeable - und zustimmungsfähig

shouldcarry - tragen sollte

seek - suchen

wheat - Weizen; weizenfarben

blind - blind, unkritisch, ignorant, Jalousie, Blind, Blinder, Blinde

Buff - starkes Leder, lederfarben, Lederfarbe; abrauen, abrauhen

gymnasticexercises - Gymnastikübungen

attendants - Betreuer; Begleiter, Wächter, Aufpasser, Aufseher, Wärter

The man should also show greatkindness to any woman whom the girl thinks fit to be trusted, and shouldalso make new acquaintances, but above all he should attach to himselfby kindness and little services the daughter of the girl's nurse, forif she be gained over, even though she comes to know of his design, shedoes not cause any obstruction, but is sometimes even able to effect anunion between him and the girl. And though she knows the true characterof the man, she always talks of his many excellent qualities to theparents and relations of the girl, even though she may not be desired todo so by him.

greatkindness - Großzügigkeit

shouldalso - sollte auch

acquaintances - Bekanntschaft, Umgang, Bekannter, Bekannte

himselfby - selbst

shedoes - Sie tut es

obstruction - Hindernis; Obstruktion, Verhinderung, Blockierung, Störung

theparents - die Eltern

todo - zu tun

In this way the man should do whatever the girl takes most delight in,and he should get for her whatever she may have a desire to possess.Thus he should procure for her such playthings as may be hardly known toother girls. He may also show her a ball dyed with various colours, andother curiosities of the same sort; and should give her dolls made ofcloth, wood, buffalo-horn, ivory, wax, flour, or earth; also utensilsfor cooking food, and figures in wood, such as a man and woman standing,a pair of rams, or goats, or sheep; also temples made of earth, bamboo,or wood, dedicated to various goddesses; and cages for parrots, cuckoos,starlings, quails, cocks, and partridges; water-vessels of differentsorts and of elegant forms, machines for throwing water about, guitars,stands for putting images upon, stools, lac, red arsenic, yellowointment, vermilion and collyrium, as well as sandal-wood, saffron,betel nut and betel leaves.

delight - Freude, Entzückung, Wohlgefallen, Lust

procure - beschaffen, erwerben, besorgen, aufbringen

playthings - Spielzeuge; Spielzeug

toother - andere

dyed - gefärbt; färben (Haar, Stoff)

curiosities - Kuriositäten; Neugier, Neugierde, Kuriosität, Kuriosum

dolls - Puppen; Puppe

ofcloth - von Stoffen

buffalo - Büffel, Wisent, Bison, Büffel

horn - Horn; Waldhorn; Jagdhorn; Hupe, Trichter, Blech, Muschel

ivory - Elfenbein, Elfenbeinfarbe, elfenbeinern, Elfenbein-

wax - das Wachs

utensilsfor - Utensilien für

dedicated - engagiert; widmen, widmen, sich widmen, widmen

goddesses - Göttinnen; Göttin, weibliche Gottheit, weiblicher Gott

cuckoos - Kuckucke; Kuckuck

vessels - Schiffe; Schiff, Boot

differentsorts - verschiedene Arten

stools - Stuhl, Kot, Hocker

arsenic - Arsen

yellowointment - Gelbfärbung

vermilion - Zinnoberrot; Zinnober

saffron - Safran; Safranfarbe, Safrangelb, safranfarbig

Such things should be given at differenttimes whenever he gets a good opportunity of meeting her, and some ofthem should be given in private, and some in public, according tocircumstances. In short, he should try in every way to make her lookupon him as one who would do for her everything that she wanted to bedone.

differenttimes - verschiedene Zeiten

tocircumstances - zu den Umständen

lookupon - Nachschlagen

In the next place he should get her to meet him in some place privately,and should then tell her that the reason of his giving presents to herin secret was the fear that the parents of both of them might bedispleased, and then he may add that the things which he had given herhad been much desired by other people. When her love begins to showsigns of increasing he should relate to her agreeable stories if sheexpresses a wish to hear such narratives. Or if she takes delight inlegerdemain, he should amaze her by performing various tricks ofjugglery; or if she feels a great curiosity to see a performance of thevarious arts, he should show his own skill in them.

privately - privat

bedispleased - unzufrieden sein

showsigns - Schilder

sheexpresses - Sie drückt sich aus

amaze - verblüffen; verwundern

ofjugglery - der Gaukelei

When she isdelighted with singing he should entertain her with music, and oncertain days, and at the time of going together to moonlight fairs andfestivals, and at the time of her return after being absent from home,he should present her with bouquets of flowers, and with chaplets forthe head, and with ear ornaments and rings, for these are the properoccasions on which such things should be presented.

oncertain - unsicher

going together - zusammengehend [alt], zusammen gehend

andfestivals - und Feste

being absent - fehlend

bouquets - Sträuße; Blumenstrauß, Bouquet

rings - Ringe; Ring, Kreis

properoccasions - Eigenverantwortung

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:--

A man, who has seen and perceived the feelings of the girl towards him,and who has noticed the outward signs and movements by which thosefeelings are expressed, should do everything in his power to effect anunion with her. He should gain over a young girl by childlike sports, adamsel come of age by his skill in the arts, and a girl that loves himby having recourse to persons in whom she confides.

perceived - wahrgenommen; wahrnehmen

thosefeelings - dieseGefühle

childlike - kindlich

himby - ihn

confides - anvertraut; vertrauen, einweihen, ins Vertrauen ziehen



Now when the girl begins to show her love by outward signs and motions,as described in the last chapter, the lover should try to gain her overentirely by various ways and means, such as the following:--

motions - Bewegungen; Bewegung

overentirely - übermäßig

When engaged with her in any game or sport he should intentionally holdher hand. He should practise upon her the various kinds of embraces,such as the touching embrace, and others already described in apreceeding chapter (Part II. Chapter 2). He should show her a pair ofhuman beings cut out of the leaf of a tree, and such like things, atintervals. When engaged in water sports, he should dive at a distancefrom her, and come up close to her. He should show an increased likingfor the new foliage of trees and such like things. He should describe toher the pangs he suffers on her account. He should relate to her thebeautiful dream that he has had with reference to other women.

apreceeding - vorgehen

ofhuman - vonMenschen

atintervals - bei Intervallen

dive - tauchen

distancefrom - Entfernung von

likingfor - mögen

pangs - Schmerzen; Stechen, Schmerz

Atparties and assemblies of his caste he should sit near her, and touchher under some pretence or other, and having placed his foot upon her's,he should slowly touch each of her toes, and press the ends of thenails; if successful in this, he should get hold of her foot with hishand and repeat the same thing. He should also press a finger of herhand between his toes when she happens to be washing his feet; andwhenever he gives anything to her or takes anything from her, he shouldshow her by his manner and look how much he loves her.

assemblies - Versammlungen; Baugruppe, Versammlung, Versammlung

hishand - die Hand

herhand - von Hand

andwhenever - und wann immer

shouldshow - zeigen sollte

He should sprinkle upon her the water brought for rinsing his mouth; andwhen alone with her in a lonely place, or in darkness, he should makelove to her, and tell her the true state of his mind without distressingher in any way.

sprinkle - bestreuen; sprühen; besprühen; Nieselregen

rinsing - Spülung; (rins) Spülung

andwhen - und wann

distressingher - Sie zu quälen

Whenever he sits with her on the same seat or bed he should say to her,"I have something to tell you in private," and then, when she comes tohear it in a quiet place, he should express his love to her more bymanner and signs than by words. When he comes to know the state of herfeelings towards him he should pretend to be ill, and should make hercome to his house to speak to him. There he should intentionally holdher hand and place it on his eyes and forehead, and under the pretenceof preparing some medicine for him he should ask her to do work for hissake in the following words: "This work must be done by you, and bynobody else." When she wants to go away he should let her go, with anearnest request to come and see him again.

tohear - zu hören

herfeelings - ihreGefühle

hercome - Sie kommen

pretenceof - so tun, als ob

hissake - um seinetwillen

bynobody - von niemanden

This device of illness shouldbe continued for three days and three nights. After this, when shebegins coming to see him frequently, he should carry on longconversations with her, for, says Ghotakamukha, "though a man loves agirl ever so much, he never succeeds in winning her without a great dealof talking." At last, when the man finds the girl completely gainedover, he may then begin to enjoy her. As for the saying that women growless timid than usual during the evening, and in darkness, and aredesirous of congress at those times, and do not oppose men then andshould only be enjoyed at these hours, it is a matter of talk only.

shebegins - sie beginnt

longconversations - lange Unterhaltungen

gainedover - gewonnen

growless - wachstumslos

timid - furchtsam, zaghaft, zögerlich, schüchtern

oppose - ablehnen; widersprechen

When it is impossible for the man to carry on his endeavours alone, heshould, by means of the daughter of her nurse, or of a female friend inwhom she confides, cause the girl to be brought to him without makingknown to her his design, and he should then proceed with her in themanner above described. Or he should in the beginning send his ownfemale servant to live with the girl as her friend, and should then gainher over by her means.

endeavours - Bestrebungen; sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung

inwhom - inwieweit

makingknown - bekannt machen

ownfemale - eigene Frau

At last, when he knows the state of her feelings by her outward mannerand conduct towards him at religious ceremonies, marriage ceremonies,fairs, festivals, theatres, public assemblies, and such like occasions,he should begin to enjoy her when she is alone, for Vatsyayana lays itdown, that women, when resorted to at proper times and in properplaces, do not turn away from their lovers.

When a girl, possessed of good qualities and well-bred, though born in ahumble family, or destitute of wealth, and not therefore desired by herequals, or an orphan girl, or one deprived of her parents, but observingthe rules of her family and caste, should wish to bring about her ownmarriage when she comes of age, such a girl should endeavour to gainover a strong and good looking young man, or a person whom she thinkswould marry her on account of the weakness of his mind, and even withoutthe consent of his parents. She should do this by such means as wouldendear her to the said person, as well as by frequently seeing andmeeting him.

bred - gezüchtet; (breed) Zucht, Art, Rasse, Sorte; (breed); aufziehen

destitute - notleidend

orphan - Waisenkind; Waise

observingthe - Beobachtung der

ownmarriage - selbst heiraten

endeavour - sich nach Kräften bemühen; Bestrebung, Bestreben; Bemühung

gainover - Verstärkung

thinkswould - denkt, würde

withoutthe - ohne die

wouldendear - würden Sie

andmeeting - undTreffen

Her mother also should constantly cause them to meet bymeans of her female friends, and the daughter of her nurse. The girlherself should try to get alone with her beloved in some quiet place,and at odd times should give him flowers, betel nut, betel leaves andperfumes. She should also show her skill in the practice of the arts, inshampooing, in scratching and in pressing with the nails. She shouldalso talk to him on the subjects he likes best, and discuss with him theways and means of gaining over and winning the affections of a girl.

constantly - ständig; regelmäßig; konstant

female friends - Freundinnen

andperfumes - und Dämpfe

inshampooing - inshampoonieren

affections - Zuneigung, Rührung, Zuneigung

But old authors say that although the girl loves the man ever so much,she should not offer herself, or make the first overtures, for a girlwho does this loses her dignity, and is liable to be scorned andrejected. But when the man shows his wish to enjoy her, she should befavourable to him and should show no change in her demeanour when heembraces her, and should receive all the manifestations of his love asif she were ignorant of the state of his mind. But when he tries to kissher she should oppose him; when he begs to be allowed to have sexualintercourse with her she should let him touch her private parts only andwith considerable difficulty; and though importuned by him, she shouldnot yield herself up to him as if of her own accord, but should resistshis attempts to have her.

overtures - Ouvertüren; Angebot

dignity - Würde; Förmlichkeit; Amt

liable - haftbar; fehlbar

scorned - verschmäht; verachten, verschmähen, verspotten, Verachtung

andrejected - und abgelehnt

befavourable - vorteilhaft

demeanour - Auftreten; Benehmen, Verhalten

heembraces - umarmen

kissher - Küsser

begs - bittet; Männchen machen; etwas erbitten (von jemandem); bitten (um)

considerable - erheblich, beträchtlich, beachtlich

resistshis - widerstehen

attempts - versuchen, Versuch, Bestreben

It is only, moreover, when she is certain thatshe is truly loved, and that her lover is indeed devoted to her, andwill not change his mind, that she should then give herself up to him,and persuade him to marry her quickly. After losing her virginity sheshould tell her confidential friends about it.

truly - wirklich, wahrhaft, ehrlich, echt

andwill - und wird

virginity - Jungfräulichkeit, Virginität

Here ends the efforts of a girl to gain over a man.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows: A girl who is muchsought after should marry the man that she likes, and whom she thinkswould be obedient to her, and capable of giving her pleasure. But whenfrom the desire of wealth a girl is married by her parents to a rich manwithout taking into consideration the character or looks of thebridegroom, or when given to a man who has several wives, she neverbecomes attached to the man, even though he be endowed with goodqualities, obedient to her will, active, strong, and healthy, andanxious to please her in every way.[49] A husband who is obedient butyet master of himself, though he be poor and not good looking, is betterthan one who is common to many women, even though he be handsome andattractive.

muchsought - begehrt

obedient - gehorsam, folgsam

whenfrom - von wann

manwithout - Mann ohne

neverbecomes - wird nie

andanxious - und ängstlich

butyet - aber jetzt

Master - Haupt.., Grund, Meister, führend, leitend; bewältigen, meistern

handsome - gut aussehend; hübsch, stattlich, gutaussehend, ansehnlich

andattractive - und anziehend

The wives of rich men, where there are many wives, are notgenerally attached to their husbands, and are not confidential withthem, and even though they possess all the external enjoyments of life,still have recourse to other men. A man who is of a low mind, who hasfallen from his social position, and who is much given to travelling,does not deserve to be married; neither does one who has many wives andchildren, or one who is devoted to sport and gambling, and who comes tohis wife only when he likes. Of all the lovers of a girl he only is hertrue husband who possesses the qualities that are liked by her, and sucha husband only enjoys real superiority over her, because he is thehusband of love.

notgenerally - im Allgemeinen nicht

withthem - mit ihnen

enjoyments - Genuss, Vergnügen

hasfallen - gefallen ist

andchildren - undKinder

tohis - zu seinem

hertrue - Stimmt das

possesses - besitzt; Schutzpolizeiaufgebote

superiority - Überlegenheit


[Footnote 49: There is a good deal of truth in the last fewobservations. Woman is a monogamous animal, and loves but one, and likesto feel herself alone in the affections of one man, and cannot bearrivals. It may also be taken as a general rule that women either marriedto, or kept by, rich men love them for their wealth, but not forthemselves.]

fewobservations - wenige Beobachtungen

monogamous - monogam

likesto - magst du

bearrivals - Rivalen der Bären

marriedto - verheiratet

forthemselves - für sich selbst



When a girl cannot meet her lover frequently in private, she should sendthe daughter of her nurse to him, it being understood that she hasconfidence in her, and had previously gained her over to her interests.On seeing the man, the daughter of the nurse should, in the course ofconversation, describe to him the noble birth, the good disposition, thebeauty, talent, skill, knowledge of human nature and affection of thegirl in such a way as not to let him suppose that she has been sent bythe girl, and should thus create affection for the girl in the heart ofthe man. To the girl also she should speak about the excellent qualitiesof the man, especially of those qualities which she knows are pleasingto the girl. She should, moreover, speak with disparagement of the otherlovers of the girl, and talk about the avarice and indiscretion of theirparents, and the fickleness of their relations. She should also quotesamples of many girls of ancient times, such as Sakuntala and others,who, having united themselves with lovers of their own caste and theirown choice, were ever happy afterwards in their society.

sendthe - senden die

hasconfidence - Selbstvertrauen hat

ofconversation - der Konversation

affection - Zuneigung; Rührung

pleasingto - gefällig

disparagement - Verunglimpfung, Herabsetzung, Herabwürdigung

otherlovers - andere Liebhaber

avarice - Geiz; Gier

indiscretion - Indiskretion

theirparents - ihre Eltern

fickleness - Wankelmütigkeit; Unbeständigkeit, Wankelmut

quotesamples - Zitate-Beispiele

And she shouldalso tell of other girls who married into great families, and beingtroubled by rival wives, became wretched and miserable, and were finallyabandoned. She should further speak of the good fortune, the continualhappiness, the chastity, obedience, and affection of the man, and if thegirl gets amorous about him, she should endeavour to allay her shame[51]and her fear as well as her suspicions about any disaster that mightresult from the marriage. In a word, she should act the whole part of afemale messenger by telling the girl all about the man's affection forher, the places he frequented, and the endeavours he made to meet her,and by frequently repeating, "It will be all right if the man will takeyou away forcibly and unexpectedly."

beingtroubled - beunruhigt

wretched - unglücklich; sehr schlecht, miserabel, wertlos

miserable - unglücklich; elend, erbärmlich, jämmerlich, miserabel

finallyabandoned - endgültig aufgegeben

continualhappiness - Dauerhaftes Glücklichsein

allay - beschwichtigen; beruhigen, dämpfen, erleichtern, lindern

suspicions - Verdächtigungen; Verdacht, Argwohn, Verdacht, Verdacht, Argwohn

mightresult - ergeben könnte

frequented - frequentiert; häufig; aufsuchen

takeyou - Sie nehmen

unexpectedly - unerwartet, unerwarteterweise

_The Forms of Marriage._

When the girl is gained over, and acts openly with the man as his wife,he should cause fire to be brought from the house of a Brahman, andhaving spread the Kusha grass upon the ground, and offered an oblationto the fire he should marry her according to the precepts of thereligious law.

openly - offen, öffentlich

offered - angeboten; offerieren, anbieten, bieten, zeigen; Antrag

oblationto - Opfergabe zu

thereligious - thereligiös

After this he should inform his parents of the fact,because it is the opinion of ancient authors that a marriage solemnlycontracted in the presence of fire cannot afterwards be set aside.

inform - benachrichtigen, mitteilen, informieren

solemnlycontracted - feierlich vertraglich vereinbart

After the consummation of the marriage, the relations of the man shouldgradually be made acquainted with the affair, and the relations of thegirl should also be apprised of it in such a way that they may consentto the marriage, and overlook the manner in which it was brought about,and when this is done they should afterwards be reconciled byaffectionate presents and favourable conduct.

consummation - Vollendung

shouldgradually - sollte schrittweise

affair - Angelegenheit; Scharmützel; Ding; Beziehung, Affäre

apprised - benachrichtigt; benachrichtigen

consentto - zustimmen

overlook - Übersicht, Überblick, bemerken

byaffectionate - von Affektiertheit

In this manner the manshould marry the girl according to the Gandharva form of marriage.

When the girl cannot make up her mind, or will not express her readinessto marry, the man should obtain her in any one of the following ways:--

readinessto - bereit

(1). On a fitting occasion, and under some excuse, he should by means ofa female friend with whom he is well acquainted, and whom he can trust,and who also is well known to the girl's family, get the girl broughtunexpectedly to his house, and he should then bring fire from the houseof a Brahman, and proceed as before described.

Excuse - Wie bitte; entschuldigen, verzeihen, sich entschuldigen

trust - Vertrauen, Hoffnung, Trust, anschreiben

broughtunexpectedly - Unerwartet gebracht

(2.) When the marriage of the girl with some other person draws near,the man should disparage the future husband to the utmost in the mind ofthe mother of the girl, and then having got the girl to come with hermother's consent to a neighbouring house, he should bring fire from thehouse of a Brahman, and proceed as above.

disparage - verunglimpfen; nicht standesgemäße Ehe, Missheirat, herabsetzen

utmost - äußerst, höchst, Äußerstes, Möglichstes

hermother - Einsiedlermutter

(3.) The man should become a great friend of the brother of the girl,the said brother being of the same age as himself, and addicted tocourtesans, and to intrigues with the wives of other people, and shouldgive him assistance in such matters, and also give him occasionalpresents. He should then tell him about his great love for his sister,as young men will sacrifice even their lives for the sake of those whomay be of the same age, habits, and dispositions as themselves.

addicted - Süchtiger, Narkomane, süchtig machen

intrigues - Intrigen; Intrige, intrigieren, faszinieren

shouldgive - geben sollte

occasionalpresents - Gelegenheitsauftritte

sacrifice - opfern; Opfer

dispositions - Veranlagungen; Neigung, Gesinnung, Hang, Veranlagung

Afterthis the man should get the girl brought by means of her brother to somesecure place, and having brought fire from the house of a Brahman,should proceed as before.

somesecure - etwas sicher

(4.) The man should on the occasion of festivals get the daughter of thenurse to give the girl some intoxicating substance, and then cause herto be brought to some secure place under the pretence of some business,and there having enjoyed her before she recovers from her intoxication,should bring fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

thenurse - dann Kurs

intoxicating - berauschend; berauschen, vergiften, berauschen

secure - sicher, geschützt, beschützt, zuverlässig

recovers - erholt sich; wiederfinden, sich erholen, beikommen

intoxication - Rauschzustände; Vergiftung, Intoxikation, Trunkenheit, Rausch

(5.) The man should, with the connivance of the daughter of the nurse,carry off the girl from her house while she is asleep, and then, havingenjoyed her before she recovers from her sleep, should bring fire fromthe house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

connivance - Duldung; heimliches Einverständnis

carry off - abtragen, verschleppen

havingenjoyed - genossen haben

(6.) When the girl goes to a garden, or to some village in theneighbourhood, the man should, with his friends, fall on her guards, andhaving killed them, or frightened them away, forcibly carry her off, andproceed as before.

theneighbourhood - dieNachbarschaft

andproceed - und weitermachen

There are verses on the subject as follows:--In all the forms ofmarriage given in this chapter of this work, the one that precedes isbetter than the one that follows it, on account of its being more inaccordance with the commands of religion, and therefore it is only whenit is impossible to carry the former into practice that the lattershould be resorted to.

ofmarriage - der Ehe

precedes - vorausgeht; vorangehen, vorausgehen

isbetter - ist besser

commands - Befehl, Kommando

whenit - wann ist es

lattershould - Letzteres sollte

As the fruit of all good marriages is love, theGandharva[52] form of marriage is respected, even though it is formedunder unfavourable circumstances, because it fulfils the object soughtfor. Another cause of the respect accorded to the Gandharva form ofmarriage is, that it brings forth happiness, causes less trouble in itsperformance than any other forms of marriage, and is above all theresult of previous love.

formedunder - formunder

unfavourable - ungünstig

fulfils - erfüllt; erfüllen, ableisten, anfüllen, gerecht werden

soughtfor - gesucht

accorded - zugestanden; Übereinstimmung, Einvernehmen

itsperformance - seine Leistung

theresult - das Ergebnis


[Footnote 50: These forms of marriage differ from the four kinds ofmarriage mentioned in Chapter I., and are only to be made use of whenthe girl is gained over in the way mentioned in Chapters III. and IV.]

[Footnote 51: About this, see a story on the fatal effects of love atpage 114 of "Early Ideas; a Group of Hindoo Stories," collected andcollated by Anaryan. W. H. Allen and Co., London, 1881.]

fatal - verhängnisvoll, fatal, tödlich

andcollated - und kollidiert

[Footnote 52: About the Gandharvavivaha form of marriage, see note topage 28 of Captain R. F. Burton's "Vickram and the Vampire; or Tales ofHindu Devilry." Longman, Green & Co., London, 1870. This form ofmatrimony was recognised by the ancient Hindus, and is frequent inbooks.

vampire - ein Vampir; Blutsauger, Vampir, Vampyr; qual emale

tales - Märchen; Geschichte, Erzählung, Fabel

ofHindu - vonHindu

devilry - Unfug, böser, Quälerei, Hexerei, Teufelei

ofmatrimony - der Eheschließung

recognised - anerkannt; anerkennen

frequent - häufig; aufsuchen

It is a kind of Scotch Wedding--ultra-Caledonian--taking place bymutual consent without any form or ceremony. The Gandharvas are heavenlyminstrels of Indra's court, who are supposed to be witnesses.]

Scotch - Scotch

ultra - radikal, Ultra..

Caledonian - Kaledonisch; Kaledonier

bymutual - auf Gegenseitigkeit

witnesses - Zeugnis






A virtuous woman, who has affection for her husband, should act inconformity with his wishes as if he were a divine being, and with hisconsent should take upon herself the whole care of his family. Sheshould keep the whole house well cleaned, and arrange flowers of variouskinds in different parts of it, and make the floor smooth and polishedso as to give the whole a neat and becoming appearance.

divine - göttlich

hisconsent - sein Einverständnis

polishedso - poliert

neat - ordentlich, sauber, geschickt, hübsch

She shouldsurround the house with a garden, and place ready in it all thematerials required for the morning, noon and even sacrifices. Moreovershe should herself revere the sanctuary of the Household Gods, for saysGonardiya, "nothing so much attracts the heart of a householder to hiswife as a careful observance of the things mentioned above."

shouldsurround - sollte die Umgebung

thematerials - die Materialien

noon - Mittag

revere - verehren; ehren

sanctuary - Zufluchtsort; Zuflucht, Herberge, Asyl

saysGonardiya - sagtGonardiya

hiswife - seine Frau

Towards the parents, relations, friends, sisters, and servants of herhusband she should behave as they deserve. In the garden she shouldplant beds of green vegetables, bunches of the sugar cane, and clumps ofthe fig tree, the mustard plant, the parsley plant, the fennel plant,and the xanthochymus pictorius. Clusters of various flowers, such as thetrapa bispinosa, the jasmine, the gasminum grandiflorum, the yellowamaranth, the wild jasmine, the tabernamontana coronaria, thenadyaworta, the china rose and others, should likewise be planted,together with the fragrant grass andropogon schænanthus, and thefragrant root of the plant andropogon miricatus.

herhusband - Ihr Ehemann

shouldplant - pflanzen sollte

sugar cane - Zuckerrohr

clumps - Klumpen, Büschel

fig tree - Feigenbaum

parsley - Petersilie

fennel - Fenchel

clusters - Clustern; Anhäufung, Büschel, Gruppe, Haufen, Schwarm, Traube

jasmine - Jasmin, Jasminum

yellowamaranth - Gelbamaranth

likewise - ebenfalls

root - wurzeln; Haupt, Wurzel, Nullstelle [math.]

She should also haveseats and arbours made in the garden, in the middle of which a well,tank, or pool should be dug.

arbours - Gartenlauben; Gartenlaube, Laube

tank - Panzer, Wasserbecken, Behälter

dug - gegraben; (dig) gegraben

The wife should always avoid the company of female beggars, femalebuddish mendicants, unchaste and roguish women, female fortune tellersand witches. As regards meals she should always consider what herhusband likes and dislikes, and what things are good for him, and whatare injurious to him. When she hears the sounds of his footsteps cominghome she should at once get up, and be ready to do whatever he maycommand her, and either order her female servant to wash his feet, orwash them herself. When going anywhere with her husband, she should puton her ornaments, and without his consent she should not either give oraccept invitations, or attend marriages and sacrifices, or sit in thecompany of female friends, or visit the temples of the Gods.

femalebuddish - weiblich-knuddelig

mendicants - Bettlerinnen und Bettler; betteln

roguish - schurkisch; skrupellos, gewissenlos, spitzbübisch, verschmitzt

tellersand - Kassierer und

witches - Hexen; Zauberin [f}, Hexe

whatare - Was sind

injurious - schädlich

Footsteps - Fußstapfen; Fußabdruck, Schritt

cominghome - Kommst du nach Hause

maycommand - darf ich befehlen

orwash - oder Waschen

oraccept - oderakzeptieren

thecompany - dasUnternehmen

And if shewants to engage in any kind of games or sports, she should not do itagainst his will. In the same way she should always sit down after him,and get up before him, and should never awaken him when he is asleep.The kitchen should be situated in a quiet and retired place, so as notto be accessible to strangers, and should always look clean.

shewants - Sie will

itagainst - esgegen

awaken - erwecken; aufwecken, aufwachen, erwachen, wach werden

accessible - zugänglich

In the event of any misconduct on the part of her husband, she shouldnot blame him excessively though she be a little displeased. She shouldnot use abusive language towards him, but rebuke him with conciliatorywords, whether he be in the company of friends or alone.

misconduct - Fehlverhalten; schlecht benehmen, Verfehlung

blame - jemadem die Schuld zuweisen

excessively - übermäßig; exzessiv

displeased - unzufrieden; missfallen

abusive language - Beschimpfungen , Beleidigungen

rebuke - tadeln; Tadel, Anschiss, Rüge, Schelte

conciliatorywords - Schlichtwörter

Moreover, sheshould not be a scold, for says Gonardiya, "there is no cause of dislikeon the part of a husband so great as this characteristic in a wife."Lastly she should avoid bad expressions, sulky looks, speaking aside,standing in the doorway, and looking at passers-by, conversing in thepleasure groves, and remaining in a lonely place for a long time; andfinally she should always keep her body, her teeth, her hair, andeverything belonging to her tidy, sweet, and clean.

scold - Beißzange, Xanthippe, beschimpfen, schelten, tadeln

characteristic - charakteristisch, bezeichnend, kennzeichnend, typisch, Merkmal

sulky - mürrisch; schmollend, verdrossen, Sulky

doorway - Türöffnung

passers - Passanten; Passer

conversing - unterhalten; Umkehrung, umgekehrt, Gegenteil

groves - Hainen; Hain, Gehölz

andfinally - und schließlich

andeverything - undAlles

When the wife wants to approach her husband in private her dress shouldconsist of many ornaments, various kinds of flowers, and a clothdecorated with different colours, and some sweet-smelling ointments orunguents.

approach - sich nähern, nahekommen, ähnlich sein

shouldconsist - bestehen sollte

clothdecorated - mit Kleidung verziert

orunguents - oderunguents

But her every-day dress should be composed of a thin,close-textured cloth, a few ornaments and flowers, and a little scent,not too much. She should also observe the fasts and vows of her husband,and when he tries to prevent her doing this, she should persuade him tolet her do it.

textured - strukturiert; Textur, Textur, texturieren

scent - Geruch, Duft, Parfüm, Parfum, Fährte, Geruch (1, 3)

observe - beobachten; beachten, halten, bemerken

vows - Gelübde

At appropriate times of the year, and when they happen to be cheap, sheshould buy earth, bamboos, firewood, skins, and iron pots, as also saltand oil. Fragrant substances, vessels made of the fruit of the plantwrightea antidysenterica, or oval leaved wrightea, medicines, and otherthings which are always wanted, should be obtained when required andkept in a secret place of the house.

bamboos - Bambus, Bambus, Bambusrohr

firewood - Brennholz, Feuerholz

antidysenterica - Antidysenterika

oval - Oval

otherthings - andere Dinge

andkept - und aufbewahrt

The seeds of the radish, thepotato, the common beet, the Indian wormwood, the mangoe, the cucumber,the egg plant, the kushmanda, the pumpkin gourd, the surana, thebignonia indica, the sandal wood, the premna spinosa, the garlic plant,the onion, and other vegetables, should be bought and sown at the properseasons.

radish - Radieschen, Rettich

thepotato - die Kartoffel

beet - Rüben; Runkelrübe, Rübe

Indian - indisch, indianisch, Inder, Inderin, Indianer, Indianerin

wormwood - Wermut; Wermutstropfen

cucumber - Gurke, Salatgurke

pumpkin - Kürbis, Kürbispflanze, Kürbisfrucht, Kürbisfarbe, Kürbisfarben

gourd - Kalebasse

garlic - Knoblauch

sown - gesät; Sau; aussäen

properseasons - Jahreszeiten

The wife, moreover, should not tell to strangers the amount of herwealth, nor the secrets which her husband has confided to her. Sheshould surpass all the women of her own rank in life in her cleverness,her appearance, her knowledge of cookery, her pride, and her manner ofserving her husband. The expenditure of the year should be regulated bythe profits. The milk that remains after the meals should be turned intoghee or clarified butter. Oil and sugar should be prepared at home;spinning and weaving should also be done there; and a store of ropes andcords, and barks of trees for twisting into ropes should be kept. Sheshould also attend to the pounding and cleaning of rice, using its smallgrain and chaff in some way or other. She should pay the salaries of theservants, look after the tilling of the fields, and keeping of theflocks and herds, superintend the making of vehicles, and take care ofthe rams, cocks, quails, parrots, starlings, cuckoos, peacocks, monkeys,and deer; and finally adjust the income and expenditure of the day. Theworn-out clothes should be given to those servants who have done goodwork, in order to show them that their services have been appreciated,or they may be applied to some other use. The vessels in which wine isprepared, as well as those in which it is kept, should be carefullylooked after, and put away at the proper time. All sales and purchasesshould also be well attended to. The friends of her husband she shouldwelcome by presenting them with flowers, ointment, incense, betelleaves, and betel nut.

herwealth - ihren Reichtum

confided - anvertraut; vertrauen, einweihen, ins Vertrauen ziehen

surpass - übersteigen, übertreffen, überschreiten, überbieten

cleverness - Klugheit; Pfiffigkeit, Gewandtheit, Raffinesse

pride - Hochmut; Stolz, Trotz, Dünkel, Machtbewusstsein, Rudel

ofserving - zu dienen

expenditure - Aufwand; Aufwendung

regulated - geregelt; regeln, regulieren

clarified - geklärt; klären

weaving - Weben; Webstück; (weave) Weben; Webstück

andcords - undAufzeichnungen

twisting - (to twist) drehen

chaff - Spreu, q ow rare, Düppel

theservants - die Dienerschaft

herds - Herden; Herde

superintend - beaufsichtigen; aufsehen

peacocks - Pfaue; Pfau, qualifier

adjust - anpassen, abstimmen, ausrichten, justieren

income - Einkommen

goodwork - gute Arbeit

isprepared - ist vorbereitet

carefullylooked - sorgfältig geprüft

purchasesshould - sollten die Käufe

shouldwelcome - willkommen sein sollte

incense - Weihrauch, Räuchwerk ''(archaic)'', empören, erzürnen

Her father-in-law and mother-in law she shouldtreat as they deserve, always remaining dependant on their will, nevercontradicting them, speaking to them in few and not harsh words, notlaughing loudly in their presence, and acting with their friends andenemies as with her own. In addition to the above she should not bevain, or too much taken up with her enjoyments. She should be liberaltowards her servants, and reward them on holidays and festivals; and notgive away anything without first making it known to her husband.

shouldtreat - behandeln sollte

dependant - Abhängige, Angehörige, Anhänger

nevercontradicting - nie widersprüchlich

notlaughing - nicht lachen

andenemies - und Feinde

liberaltowards - liberal

Reward - Belohnung, Lohn

notgive - nicht geben

Thus ends the manner of living of a virtuous woman.

During the absence of her husband on a journey the virtuous woman shouldwear only her auspicious ornaments, and observe the fasts in honour ofthe Gods. While anxious to hear the news of her husband, she shouldstill look after her household affairs. She should sleep near the elderwomen of the house, and make herself agreeable to them. She should lookafter and keep in repair the things that are liked by her husband, andcontinue the works that have been begun by him. To the abode of herrelations she should not go except on occasions of joy and sorrow, andthen she should go in her usual travelling dress, accompanied by herhusband's servants, and not remain there for a long time. The fasts andfeasts should be observed with the consent of the elders of the house.The resources should be increased by making purchases and salesaccording to the practice of the merchants, and by means of honestservants, superintended by herself. The income should be increased, andthe expenditure diminished as much as possible.

shouldwear - tragen sollte

shouldstill - stillhalten sollte

elderwomen - ältere Frauen

lookafter - danach suchen

andcontinue - und fortsetzen

herrelations - ihre Beziehungen

joy - Wonne (Freude, Vergnügen); Freude (über)

sorrow - Kummer, Traurigkeit, Trauer, Sorge

andfeasts - und Feste

elders - Ältere Menschen; Holunder, älterer

purchases - Käufe; Einkauf, Kauf, Kauf, Anschaffung, Anschaffung, kaufen

honestservants - Ehrliche Diener

superintended - beaufsichtigt; aufsehen

diminished - vermindert; vermindern, verkleinern, reduzieren, verringern

And when her husbandreturns from his journey, she should receive him at first in herordinary clothes, so that he may know in what way she has lived duringhis absence, and should bring to him some presents, as also materialsfor the worship of the Deity.

husbandreturns - kehrt der Ehemann zurück

herordinary - außergewöhnlich

duringhis - während dieser

materialsfor - Materialien für

Thus ends the part relating to the behaviour of a wife during theabsence of her husband on a journey.

theabsence - die Abwesenheit

There are also some verses on the subject as follows.

"The wife, whether she be a woman of noble family, or a virgin widow[53]re-married, or a concubine, should lead a chaste life, devoted to herhusband, and doing every thing for his welfare. Women acting thus,acquire Dharma, Artha, and Kama, obtain a high position, and generallykeep their husbands devoted to them."

noble family - Adelsgeschlecht

concubine - Konkubine

chaste - keusch

welfare - Wohlergehen, Wohlfahrt, Sozialhilfe

generallykeep - im Allgemeinen


[Footnote 53: This probably refers to a girl married in her infancy, orwhen very young, and whose husband had died before she arrived at theage of puberty. Infant marriages are still the common custom of theHindoos.]

orwhen - oder wann

infant - Säugling, Wickelkind, Kleinkind



The causes of re-marrying during the lifetime of the wife are asfollows:

lifetime - Leben, Lebensdauer, Lebenszeit, Ewigkeit

(1). The folly or ill temper of the wife.

folly - Wahnsinn; Torheit, Narrheit, Dummheit, Tollheit

temper - Gereiztheit, Laune, Temperament, Anlassen, Ausheizen

(2). Her husband's dislike to her.

(3). The want of offspring.

(4). The continual birth of daughters.

(5). The incontinence of the husband.

incontinence - Zügellosigkeit, Hemmungslosigkeit, Inkontinenz

From the very beginning the wife should endeavour to attract the heartof her husband, by showing to him continually her devotion, her goodtemper, and her wisdom. If however she bears him no children, she shouldherself tell her husband to marry another woman.

devotion - Hingebung, Hingabe, Zuneigung, Zuwendung

goodtemper - gute Laune

wisdom - Weisheit

she bears - Bärinnen

shouldherself - sollte sich selbst

And when the secondwife is married, and brought to the house, the first wife should giveher a position superior to her own, and look upon her as a sister. Inthe morning the elder wife should forcibly make the younger one decorateherself in the presence of their husband, and should not mind all thehusband's favour being given to her. If the younger wife does anythingto displease her husband the elder one should not neglect her, butshould always be ready to give her most careful advice, and should teachher to do various things in the presence of her husband. Her childrenshe should treat as her own, her attendants she should look upon withmore regard, even than on her own servants, her friends she shouldcherish with love and kindness, and her relations with great honour.

secondwife - Zweitfrau

decorateherself - sich selbst schmücken

anythingto - irgendetwas zu

displease - missfallen

neglect - Vernachlässigung; vernachlässigen, verabsäumen, versäumen

butshould - aber sollte

most careful - reiflichste

teachher - Sie unterrichten

childrenshe - Kindersie

withmore - mitmehr

shouldcherish - solltecherisch

kindness - Freundlichkeit; Liebenswürdigkeit

When there are many other wives besides herself, the elder wife shouldassociate with the one who is immediately next to her in rank and age,and should instigate the wife who has recently enjoyed her husband'sfavour to quarrel with the present favourite. After this she shouldsympathize with the former, and having collected all the other wivestogether, should get them to denounce the favourite as a scheming andwicked woman, without however committing herself in any way.

shouldassociate - assoziieren sollten

instigate - anstiften, hetzen, anstacheln, anzetteln

shouldsympathize - mitfühlen

wivestogether - zusammenleben

denounce - anprangern; verurteilen; kündigen, aufkündigen

scheming - intrigieren; ränkevoll; (scheme); Programm, Plan, Projekt

If thefavourite wife happens to quarrel with the husband, then the elder wifeshould take her part and give her false encouragement, and thus causethe quarrel to be increased. If there be only a little quarrel betweenthe two, the elder wife should do all she can to work it up into a largequarrel. But if after all this she finds the husband still continues tolove his favourite wife she should then change her tactics, andendeavour to bring about a conciliation between them, so as to avoid herhusband's displeasure.

wifeshould - Frau sollte

encouragement - Ermutigung

causethe - die Ursache

largequarrel - Großquarrel

tactics - Taktik, Taktik

conciliation - Schlichtung; Einigung, Versöhnung, Ausgleich, Aussöhnung

displeasure - Unzufriedenheit; Unmut, Missfallen, Verdruss

Thus ends the conduct of the elder wife.

The younger wife should regard the elder wife of her husband as hermother, and should not give anything away, even to her own relations,without her knowledge. She should tell her everything about herself, andnot approach her husband without her permission. Whatever is told to herby the elder wife she should not reveal to others, and she should takecare of the children of the senior even more than of her own. When alonewith her husband she should serve him well, but should not tell him ofthe pain she suffers from the existence of a rival wife. She may alsoobtain secretly from her husband some marks of his particular regard forher, and may tell him that she lives only for him, and for the regardthat he has for her.

takecare - sich kümmern

senior - älter

alonewith - Alleine

alsoobtain - auch erhalten

regardthat - Was ist das

She should never reveal her love for her husband,nor her husband's love for her to any person, either in pride or inanger, for a wife that reveals the secrets of her husband is despised byhim. As for seeking to obtain the regard of her husband, Gonardiya says,that it should always be done in private, for fear of the elder wife. Ifthe elder wife be disliked by her husband, or be childless, she shouldsympathize with her, and should ask her husband to do the same, butshould surpass her in leading the life of a chaste woman.

byhim - durch ihn

seeking - suchen

childless - kinderlos

Thus ends the conduct of the younger wife towards the elder.

A widow in poor circumstances, or of a weak nature, and who alliesherself again to a man, is called a widow re-married.

alliesherself - Verbündete selbst

At the time of her marriage the widow should obtain from her husband themoney to pay the cost of drinking parties, and picnics with herrelations, and of giving them and her friends kindly gifts and presents;or she may do these things at her own cost if she likes. In the same wayshe may wear either her husband's ornaments or her own. As to thepresents of affection mutually exchanged between the husband and herselfthere is no fixed rule about them.

themoney - das Geld

wayshe - wie er

thepresents - die Präsente

mutually - gegenseitig

herselfthere - selbst dort

If she leaves her husband aftermarriage of her own accord, she should restore to him whatever he mayhave given her, with the exception of the mutual presents. If howevershe is driven out of the house by her husband she should not returnanything to him.

aftermarriage - Nach der Heirat

restore - wiederherstellen, restaurieren

howevershe - Wie auch immer

driven out - ausgetrieben

returnanything - irgendetwas zurückgeben

After her marriage she should live in the house of her husband like oneof the chief members of the family, but should treat the other ladies ofthe family with kindness, the servants with generosity, and all thefriends of the house with familiarity and good temper. She should showthat she is better acquainted with the sixty-four arts than the otherladies of the house, and in any quarrels with her husband she should notrebuke him severely, but in private do everything that he wishes, andmake use of the sixty-four ways of enjoyment. She should be obliging tothe other wives of her husband, and to their children she should givepresents, behave as their mistress, and make ornaments and play thingsfor their use.

oneof - einer von

generosity - Großzügigkeit, Generosität, Großmut, Freizügigkeit, Edelmut

familiarity - Vertrautheit

showthat - das zeigen

otherladies - andere Damen

severely - ernsthaft

andmake - und machen

obliging - zuvorkommend; verpflichten, einen Gefallen tun

givepresents - Geschenke machen

thingsfor - Dinge für

In the friends and servants of her husband she shouldconfide more than in his other wives, and finally she should have aliking for drinking parties, going to picnics, attending fairs andfestivals, and for carrying out all kinds of games and amusements.

shouldconfide - zustimmen sollten

Thus ends the conduct of a virgin widow re-married.

A woman who is disliked by her husband, and annoyed and distressed byhis other wives, should associate with the wife who is liked most by herhusband, and who serves him more than the others, and should teach herall the arts with which she is acquainted. She should act as the nurseof her husband's children, and having gained over his friends to herside, should through them make him acquainted of her devotion to him. Inreligious ceremonies she should be a leader, as also in vows and fasts,and should not hold too good an opinion of herself. When her husband islying on his bed she should only go near him when it is agreeable tohim, and should never rebuke him, or show obstinacy in any way.

byhis - von ihm

associate - Mitarbeiterin; Weggefährte; vereinigen

nurseof - Krankenschwester

herside - ihre Seite

islying - lügen

obstinacy - Hartnäckigkeit; Sturheit, Eigensinn

If herhusband happens to quarrel with any of his other wives, she shouldreconcile them to each other, and if he desires to see any womansecretly, she should manage to bring about the meeting between them. Sheshould moreover make herself acquainted with the weak points of herhusband's character, but always keep them secret, and on the wholebehave herself in such an way as may lead him to look upon her as a goodand devoted wife.

shouldreconcile - sich versöhnen sollten

womansecretly - Frau insgeheim

Here ends the conduct of a wife disliked by her husband.

The above sections will show how all the women of the King's seraglioare to behave, and therefore we shall now speak separately only aboutthe king.

aboutthe - über die

The female attendants in the harem (called severally Kanchukiyas,[54]Mahallarikas,[55] and Mahallikas,[56]) should bring flowers, ointmentsand clothes from the King's wives to the King, and he having receivedthese things should give them as presents to the servants, along withthe things worn by him the previous day. In the afternoon the King,having dressed and put on his ornaments, should interview the women ofthe harem, who should also be dressed and decorated with jewels.

severally - getrennt

ointmentsand - Salben und

receivedthese - diese erhalten

previous day - vorheriger Tag

Thenhaving given to each of them such a place and such respect as may suitthe occasion and as they may deserve, he should carry on with them acheerful conversation. After that he should see such of his wives as maybe virgin widows re-married, and after them the concubines and dancinggirls. All of these should be visited in their own private rooms.

suitthe - wie es sich gehört

acheerful - schmerzhaft

widows - Witwen; Witwe, Hurenkind

concubines - Konkubinen; Konkubine

When the King rises from his noonday sleep, the woman whose duty it isto inform the King regarding the wife who is to spend the night with himshould come to him accompanied by the female attendants of that wifewhose turn may have arrived in the regular course, and of her who mayhave been accidentally passed over as her turn arrived, and of her whomay have been unwell at the time of her turn.

himshould - sollte er

wifewhose - wessen Frau

unwell - unwohl

These attendants shouldplace before the King the ointments and unguents sent by each of thesewives, marked with the seal of her ring, and their names and theirreasons for sending the ointments should be told to the King. After thisthe King accepts the ointment of one of them, who then is informed thather ointment has been accepted, and that her day has been settled.[57]

shouldplace - platzieren sollte

thesewives - diese Frauen

seal - versiegeln;Siegel , Stempel , Seehund , Robbe ;sich etw. sichern;Plombe

ring - Ring, Kreis

theirreasons - ihre Gründe

thisthe - die

informed - informiert; benachrichtigen, mitteilen, informieren

thather - dass sie

settled - erledigt; abklären

At festivals, singing parties and exhibitions, all the wives of the Kingshould be treated with respect and served with drinks.

But the women of the harem should not be allowed to go out alone,neither should any women outside the harem be allowed to enter it exceptthose whose character is well known. And lastly the work which theKing's wives have to do should not be too fatiguing.

exceptthose - außer diesen

fatiguing - Ermüdend; Müdigkeit, Ermüdung, Schlappheit, Überdruss

Thus ends the conduct of the King towards the women of the harem, and oftheir own conduct.

oftheir - ihrer

A man marrying many wives should act fairly towards them all. He shouldneither disregard nor pass over their faults, and should not reveal toone wife the love, passion, bodily blemishes, and confidentialreproaches of the other. No opportunity should be given to any one ofthem of speaking to him about their rivals, and if one of them shouldbegin to speak ill of another, he should chide her and tell her that shehas exactly the same blemishes in her character. One of them he shouldplease by secret confidence, another by secret respect, and another bysecret flattery, and he should please them all by going to gardens, byamusements, by presents, by honouring their relations, by telling themsecrets, and lastly by loving unions.

shouldneither - sollten beide

disregard - missachten; Gleichgültigkeit, Nichtbeachten, Nichtbeachtung

pass over - übertreten

bodily - körperlich, Körper

blemishes - Unreinheiten; Makel, Schönheitsfehler, Makel

confidentialreproaches - vertrauliche Vorwürfe

rivals - Rivalen; Gegner, Rivale, Konkurrent, Gegnerin, Rivalin

shouldbegin - beginnen sollte

shehas - Sie hat

shouldplease - bitte

flattery - Schmeicheleien; Schmeichelei, Schöntuerei

honouring - zu ehren; Ehrung, Ehre; ehren; beehren, akzeptieren, annehmen

A young woman who is of a goodtemper, and who conducts herself according to the precepts of the HolyWrit, wins her husband's attachment, and obtains a superiority over herrivals.

conducts - verhält; Leitung, Führung, leiten, führen, sich verhalten

attachment - Attachment, Anhang, Dateianhang, Anlage

herrivals - Rivalen

Thus ends the conduct of a husband towards many wives.


[Footnote 54: A name given to the maid servants of the zenana of theKings in ancient times, on account of their always keeping their breastscovered with a cloth called Kanchuki. It was customary in the olden timefor the maid servants to cover their breasts with a cloth, while theQueens kept their breasts uncovered. This custom is distinctly to beseen in the Ajunta cave paintings.]

breastscovered - Brüste bedeckt

customary - Gewöhnlich; üblich

olden - altern

timefor - Zeit für

uncovered - aufgedeckt; aufdecken, enthüllen

beseen - besichtigt

cave - nachgeben, aufgeben; Höhle

paintings - Gemälde

[Footnote 55: The meaning of this word is a superior woman, so it wouldseem that a Mahallarika must be a person in authority over the maidservants of the house.]

wouldseem - erscheinen würde

maidservants - Mägde und Knechte; Zugehfrau

[Footnote 56: This was also appertaining to the rank of women employedin the harem. In latter times this place was given to eunuchs.]

appertaining - zugehörig; gehören

employedin - beschäftigt

[Footnote 57: As Kings generally had many wives, it was usual for themto enjoy their wives by turns. But as it happened sometimes that some ofthem lost their turns owing to the King's absence, or to their beingunwell, then in such cases the women whose turns had been passed over,and those whose turns had come, used to have a sort of lottery, and theointment of all the claimants were sent to the King, who accepted theointment of one of them, and thus settled the question.

themto - sie zu

beingunwell - Unwohlsein

lottery - Lotterie

theointment - die Ernennung

claimants - Anspruchsteller, Antragsteller






The wives of other people may be resorted to on the occasions alreadydescribed in Part I., Chapter 5, of this work, but the possibility oftheir acquisition, their fitness for cohabitation, the danger to oneselfin uniting with them, and the future effect of these unions, shouldfirst of all be examined.

alreadydescribed - bereits beschrieben

cohabitation - Zusammenleben; wilde Ehe

oneselfin - sich selbst

shouldfirst - sollte zuerst

A man may resort to the wife of another, forthe purpose of saving his own life, when he perceives that his love forher proceeds from one degree of intensity to another. These degrees areten in number, and are distinguished by the following marks:

perceives - wahrnimmt; wahrnehmen

distinguished - ausgezeichnet; unterscheiden, erkennen, auszeichnen

1. Love of the eye.

2. Attachment of the mind.

3. Constant reflection.

4. Destruction of sleep.

5. Emaciation of the body.

emaciation - Auszehrung; Abmagern, Abmagerung, Abgemagertheit

6. Turning away from objects of enjoyment.

7. Removal of shame.

removal - Entfernung; Umzug; Entlassung

shame - Schamgefühl; Scham, Schande

8. Madness.

madness - Wahnsinn, Verrücktheit, Tollheit

9. Fainting.

Fainting - Ohnmacht; (faint); Ohnmacht

10. Death.

Ancient authors say that a man should know the disposition,truthfulness, purity, and will of a young woman, as also the intensity,or weakness of her passions, from the form of her body, and from hercharacteristic marks and signs.

truthfulness - Wahrhaftigkeit

hercharacteristic - ihr Charakteristikum

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that theforms of bodies, and the characteristic marks or signs are but erringtests of character, and that women should be judged by their conduct, bythe outward expression of their thoughts, and by the movements of theirbodies.

theforms - die Formulare

erringtests - Fehlertests

thoughts - Gedanken; Gedanke

theirbodies - ihreKörper

Now as a general rule Gonikaputra says that a woman falls in love withevery handsome man she sees, and so does every man at the sight of abeautiful woman, but frequently they do not take any further steps,owing to various considerations. In love the following circumstances arepeculiar to the woman. She loves without regard to right or wrong,[58]and does not try to gain over a man simply for the attainment of someparticular purpose. Moreover, when a man first makes up to her shenaturally shrinks from him, even though she may be willing to uniteherself with him. But when the attempts to gain her are repeated andrenewed, she at last consents.

withevery - mit jedem

considerations - Überlegungen; Erwägung, Überlegung, Überlegung, Rücksicht

arepeculiar - eigentümlich sind

attainment - Errungenschaften; Erlangen; Errungenschaft

someparticular - etwas Bestimmtes

shenaturally - natürlich

shrinks - schrumpft; schrumpfen, schrumpfen, abnehmen, drücken

uniteherself - sich selbst zu vereinen

andrenewed - undverlängert

But with a man, even though he may havebegun to love, he conquers his feelings from a regard for morality andwisdom, and although his thoughts are often on the woman, he does notyield, even though an attempt be made to gain him over. He sometimesmakes an attempt or effort to win the object of his affections, andhaving failed, he leaves her alone for the future. In the same way, whena woman is once gained, he often becomes indifferent about her. As forthe saying that a man does not care for what is easily gained, and onlydesires a thing which cannot be obtained without difficulty, it is onlya matter of talk.

havebegun - begonnen haben

conquers - erobert; erobern

morality - Moral, Moralität

notyield - nicht ertragreich

sometimesmakes - manchmal macht

whena - Wanna

indifferent - gleichgültig

onlya - nura

The causes of a woman rejecting the addresses of a man are as follows:

1. Affection for her husband.

2. Desire of lawful progeny.

3. Want of opportunity.

4. Anger at being addressed by the man too familiarly.

anger - Ärger, Zorn, Wut, Groll

familiarly - Vertraut

5. Difference in rank of life.

6. Want of certainty on account of the man being devoted to travelling.

7. Thinking that the man may be attached to some other person.

8. Fear of the man's not keeping his intentions secret.

9. Thinking that the man is too devoted to his friends, and has toogreat a regard for them.

toogreat - zu groß

10. The apprehension that he is not in earnest.

apprehension - Befürchtungen; Greifen, Ergreifen, Fassen, Anfassen

11. Bashfulness on account of his being an illustrious man.

illustrious - erlaucht; glorreich

12. Fear on account of his being powerful, or possessed of too impetuouspassion, in the case of the deer woman.

impetuouspassion - ungestüme Leidenschaft

13. Bashfulness on account of his being too clever.

14. The thought of having once lived with him on friendly terms only.

15. Contempt of his want of knowledge of the world.

contempt - Verachtung; Schande, Blamage, Mißachtung, Beamtenbeleidigung

16. Distrust of his low character.

distrust - Misstrauen, Argwohn

17. Disgust at his want of perception of her love for him.

disgust - Abscheu; ekeln; Ekel

18. In the case of an elephant woman, the thought that he is a hare man,or a man of weak passion.

19. Compassion lest any thing should befall him on account of hispassion.

compassion - Mitleid, Erbarmen, Mitgefühl

befall - eintreten; befallen, zustoßen, hereinbrechen, widerfahren

hispassion - seine Leidenschaft

20. Despair at her own imperfections.

despair - verzweifeln; Verzweiflung

21. Fear of discovery.

22. Disillusion at seeing his grey hair or shabby appearance.

disillusion - Desillusionierung; desillusionieren; Desillusion

shabby - schäbig

23. Fear that he may be employed by her husband to test her chastity.

24. The thought that he has too much regard for morality.

Whichever of the above causes a man may detect, he should endeavour toremove it from the very beginning. Thus, the bashfulness that may arisefrom his greatness or his ability, he should remove by showing his greatlove and affection for her. The difficulty of the want of opportunity,or if his inaccessibility, he should remove by showing her some easy wayof access. The excessive respect entertained by the woman for him shouldbe removed by making himself very familiar.

whichever - was auch immer

detect - finden, ermitteln, aufspüren, entdecken, erkennen

toremove - entfernen

arisefrom - entstehen

greatness - Großartigkeit; Größe

inaccessibility - Unerreichbarkeit; Unzugänglichkeit

The difficulties that arisefrom his being thought a low character he should remove by showing hisvalour and his wisdom; those that come from neglect by extra attention;and those that arise from fear by giving her proper encouragement.

arise - sich erheben, aufstehen, entstehen, auftreten, erwachsen

The following are the men who generally obtain success with women.

1. Men well versed in the science of love.

2. Men skilled in telling stories.

3. Men acquainted with women from their childhood.

4. Men who have secured their confidence.

secured - gesichert; sicher, geschützt, beschützt, sicher, geschützt

5. Men who send presents to them.

6. Men who talk well.

7. Men who do things that they like.

8. Men who have not loved other women previously.

9. Men who act as messengers.

10. Men who knew their weak points.

11. Men who are desired by good women.

12. Men who are united with their female friends.

13. Men who are good looking.

14. Men who have been brought up with them.

15. Men who are their neighbours.

16. Men who are devoted to sexual pleasures, even though these be theirown servants.

17. The lovers of the daughters of their nurse.

18. Men who have been lately married.

19. Men who like picnics and pleasure parties.

20. Men who are liberal.

21. Men who are celebrated for being very strong (Bull men).

22. Enterprising and brave men.

enterprising - unternehmungslustig, unternehmerisch

23. Men who surpass their husbands in learning and good looks, in goodquality, and in liberality.

goodquality - gute Qualität

liberality - Liberalität, Freizügigkeit

24. Men whose dress and manner of living are magnificent.

magnificent - großartig; prächtig; ausgezeichnet

The following are the women who are easily gained over.

1. Women who stand at the doors of their houses.

2. Women who are always looking out on the street.

3. Women who sit conversing in their neighbour's house.

4. A woman who is always staring at you.

5. A female messenger.

6. A woman who looks sideways at you.

sideways - seitwärts; Seitenweg

7. A woman whose husband has taken another wife without any just cause.

8. A woman who hates her husband or who is hated by him.

9. A woman who has nobody to look after her, or keep her in check.

10. A woman who has not had any children.

11. A woman whose family or caste is not well known.

12. A woman whose children are dead.

13. A woman who is very fond of society.

14. A woman who is apparently very affectionate with her husband.

apparently - offensichtlich, offenbar, scheinbar, anscheinend

affectionate - zärtlich

15. The wife of an actor.

16. A widow.

17. A poor woman.

poor woman - Arme

18. A woman fond of enjoyments.

19. The wife of a man with many younger brothers.

20. A vain woman.

vain - eitel; unnützlich

21. A woman whose husband is inferior to her in rank or abilities.

inferior - untergeordnet, nachgeordnet, unterlegen, tiefer, minderwertig

22. A woman who is proud of her skill in the arts.

23. A woman disturbed in mind by the folly of her husband.

disturbed - beunruhigt; stören

24. A woman who has been married in her infancy to a rich man, and notliking him when she grows up, desires a man possessing a disposition,talents, and wisdom suitable to her own tastes.

notliking - nicht mögen

possessing - zu besitzen; besitzen, besitzen

25. A woman who is slighted by her husband without any cause.

slighted - beleidigt; geringfügig, leicht, gering, unbedeutend, wenig

26. A woman who is not respected by other women of the same rank orbeauty as herself.

27. A woman whose husband is devoted to travelling.

28. The wife of a jeweller.

jeweller - Bijouterie, Juwelier

29. A jealous woman.

jealous - eifersüchtig; eifrig, eifernd, neidisch

30. A covetous woman.

covetous - begehrlich

31. An immoral woman.

immoral - unmoralisch

32. A barren woman.

barren - steril, unfruchtbar, dürr, karg, ausgetrocknet

33. A lazy woman.

34. A cowardly woman.

cowardly - feige

35. A humpbacked woman.

humpbacked - buckelig

36. A dwarfish woman.

dwarfish - zwergenhaft

37. A deformed woman.

38. A vulgar woman.

vulgar - vulgär, unfein, ungebildet, unanständig

39. An ill-smelling woman.

40. A sick woman.

41. An old woman.

There was also two verses on the subject as follows:

"Desire, which springs from nature, and which is increased by art, andfrom which all danger is taken away by wisdom, becomes firm and secure.A clever man, depending on his own ability, and observing carefully theideas and thoughts of women, and removing the causes of their turningaway from men, is generally successful with them."

observing - Beobachtung; beobachten, beachten, halten, bemerken

theideas - dieIdeen

turningaway - abwenden


[Footnote 58: On peut tout attendre et tout supposer d'une femmeamoureuse.--Balzac.]

tout - werben, aufdringlich ankündigen

et - und

Supposer - Angenommen

une - nicht



Ancient authors are of opinion that girls are not so easily seduced byemploying female messengers as by the efforts of the man himself, butthat the wives of others are more easily got at by the aid of femalemessengers than by the personal efforts of a man. But Vatsyayana lays itdown that whenever it is possible a man should always act himself inthese matters, and it is only when such is impracticable, or impossible,that female messengers should be employed.

seduced - verführt; verführen, verführen, verleiten

byemploying - durchBeschäftigung

butthat - aber das

femalemessengers - Fememessenger

inthese - in diesen

impracticable - undurchführbar

As for the saying that womenwho act and talk boldly and freely are to be won by the personal effortsof the man, and that women who do not possess those qualities are to begot at by female messengers, it is only a matter of talk.

womenwho - Frauen - wer

boldly - kühn, tapfer

effortsof - Bemühungen von

begot - gezeugt; erzeugen, zeugen, fortpflanzen

Now when a man acts himself in the matter he should first of all makethe acquaintance of the woman he loves in the following manner.

makethe - machen

1st. He should arrange to be seen by the woman either on a natural orspecial opportunity. A natural opportunity is when one of them goes tothe house of the other, and a special opportunity is when they meeteither at the house of a friend, or a caste-fellow, or a minister, or aphysician, as also on the occasion of marriage ceremonies, sacrifices,festivals, funerals, and garden parties.

orspecial - oderbesonders

meeteither - treffen sich beide

fellow - Stipendiat, Typ, Kerl, Bursche; Gefährte, Kerl

aphysician - aphysiker

funerals - Beerdigungen; Bestattung, Beerdigung, Begräbnis

2nd. When they do meet, the man should be careful to look at her in sucha way as to cause the state of his mind to be made known to her; heshould pull about his moustache, make a sound with his nails, cause hisown ornaments to tinkle, bite his lower lip, and make various othersigns of that description. When she is looking at him he should speakto his friends about her and other women, and should show to her hisliberality and his appreciation of enjoyments. When sitting by the sideof a female friend he should yawn and twist his body, contract hiseyebrows, speak very slowly as if he were weary, and listen to herindifferently. A conversation having two meanings should also be carriedon with a child or some other person, apparently having regard to athird person, but really having reference to the woman he loves, and inthis way his love should be made manifest under the pretext of referringto others rather than to herself.

made known - bekannt gemacht, bekanntgemacht [alt]

hisown - sein Eigentum

tinkle - klingeln, klimpern, Klingeln, Telefonat, Anruf, Pipi

othersigns - andere Zeichen

speakto - Sprechen

hisliberality - seineLiberalität

appreciation - Anerkennung, Würdigung, Dankbarkeit, Wertschätzung

sideof - Seite von

yawn - gähnen; Gähnen

twist - Zwirn; Biegung; Wendung; Twist; verziehen, drehen, wickeln

herindifferently - sie gleichgültig

meanings - Bedeutungen; Bedeutung, Sinn

carriedon - weitergeführt

athird - dritte

referringto - auf die ich mich beziehe

He should make marks that havereference to her, on the earth with his nails, or with a stick, andshould embrace and kiss a child in her presence, and give it the mixtureof betel nut and betel leaves with his tongue, and press its chin withhis fingers in a caressing way. All these things should be done at theproper time and in proper places.

mixtureof - Mischung aus

caressing - streicheln; liebkosend

3rd. The man should fondle a child that may be sitting on her lap, andgive it something to play with, and also take the same back again.Conversation with respect to the child may also be held with her, and inthis manner he should gradually become well acquainted with her, and heshould also make himself agreeable to her relations. Afterwards, thisacquaintance should be made a pretext for visiting her house frequently,and on such occasions he should converse on the subject of love in herabsence, but within her hearing. As his intimacy with her increases heshould place in her charge some kind of deposit or trust, and take awayfrom it a small portion at a time; or he may give her some fragrantsubstances, or betel nuts to be kept for him by her. After this heshould endeavour to make her well acquainted with his own wife, and getthem to carry on confidential conversations, and to sit together inlonely places. In order to see her frequently he should arrange that thesame goldsmith, the same jeweller, the same basket maker, the same dyer,and the same washerman should be employed by the two families.

fondle - streicheln; liebkosen

gradually - nach und nach, allmählich, stufenweise, schrittweise

thisacquaintance - diese Bekanntschaft

herabsence - Herablassung

intimacy - Intimität

awayfrom - weg von

fragrantsubstances - duftende Substanzen

getthem - sie bekommen

inlonely - einsam

goldsmith - Goldschmied, Goldschmiedin, Gold- und Silberschmied

basket - Korb

Maker - Schöpfer; Macher, Hersteller, Fabrikant

dyer - Färber, Färberin

washerman - der Wäscher / die Wäscherin

And heshould also pay her long visits openly under the pretence of beingengaged with her on business, and one business should lead to another,so as to keep up the intercourse between them. Whenever she wantsanything, or is in need of money, or wishes to acquire skill in one ofthe arts, he should cause her to understand that he is willing and ableto do anything that she wants, to give her money, or teach her one ofthe arts, all these things being quite within his ability and power. Inthe same way he should hold discussions with her in company with otherpeople, and they should talk of the doings and sayings of other persons,and examine different things, like jewellery, precious stones, etc. Onsuch occasions he should show her certain things with the values ofwhich she may be unacquainted, and if she begins to dispute with himabout the things or their value, he should not contradict her, but pointout that he agrees with her in every way.

beingengaged - engagieren

wantsanything - irgendetwas will

ableto - können

otherpeople - andere Menschen

doings - tun, tuend

sayings - Sprüche; Sprichwort

precious - kostbar, wertvoll, süßlich, kitschig

unacquainted - Unbekannt

himabout - Er

contradict - widersprechen

Thus ends the ways of making the acquaintance of the woman desired.

Now after a girl has become acquainted with the man as above described,and has manifested her love to him by the various outward signs; and bythe motions of her body, the man should make every effort to gain herover. But as girls are not acquainted with sexual union, they should betreated with the greatest delicacy, and the man should proceed withconsiderable caution, though in the case of other women, accustomed tosexual intercourse, this is not necessary. When the intentions of thegirl are known, and her bashfulness put aside, the man should begin tomake use of her money, and an interchange of clothes, rings, and flowersshould be made. In this the man should take particular care that thethings given by him are handsome and valuable.

betreated - betreut

delicacy - Feinheit, Zartheit, Delikatesse, Leckerbissen, Köstlichkeit

tosexual - tosexuell

interchange - Umsteigen; Autobahnkreuz

flowersshould - Blumen sollten

thethings - dieDinge

He should moreoverreceive from her a mixture of betel nut and betel leaves, and when he isgoing to a party he should ask for the flower in her hair, or for theflower in her hand. If he himself gives her a flower it should be asweet smelling one, and marked with marks made by his nails or teeth.With increasing assiduity he should dispel her fears, and by degrees gether to go with him to some lonely place, and there he should embrace andkiss her. And finally at the time of giving her some betel nut, or ofreceiving the same from her, or at the time of making an exchange offlowers, he should touch and press her private parts, thus bringing hisefforts to a satisfactory conclusion.

moreoverreceive - darüber hinaus erhalten

isgoing - geht

theflower - dieBlume

assiduity - Beflissenheit; Fleiß

gether - zusammenzubringen

ofreceiving - zu erhalten

hisefforts - seine Bemühungen

satisfactory - befriedigend, zufriedenstellend

When a man is endeavouring to seduce one woman, he should not attempt toseduce any other at the same time. But after he had succeeded with thefirst, and enjoyed her for a considerable time, he can keep heraffections by giving her presents that she likes, and then commencemaking up to another woman. When a man sees the husband of a woman goingto some place near his house, he should not enjoy the woman then, eventhough she may be easily gained over at that time.

heraffections - ihreAuswirkungen

commencemaking - Einleiten

goingto - gehen

eventhough - obwohl

A wise man having aregard for his reputation should not think of seducing a woman who isapprehensive, timid, not to be trusted, well guarded, or possessed of afather-in-law, or mother-in-law.

afather - ein Vater



When a man is trying to gain over a woman he should examine the state ofher mind, and acts as follows.

If she listens to him, but does not manifest to him in any way her ownintentions, he should then try to gain her over by means of ago-between.

ownintentions - eigene Absichten

If she meets him once, and again comes to meet him better dressed thanbefore, or comes to him in some lonely place, he should be certain thatshe is capable of being enjoyed by the use of a little force.

thanbefore - als zuvor

A womanwho lets a man make up to her, but does not give herself up, even aftera long time, should be considered as a trifler in love, but owing to thefickleness of the human mind, even such a woman can be conquered byalways keeping up a close acquaintance with her.

womanwho - FrauWer

aftera - nach einem

trifler - Tändler

thefickleness - die Wankelmütigkeit

byalways - immer

When a woman avoids the attentions of a man, and on account of respectfor him, and pride in herself, will not meet him or approach him, shecan be gained over with difficulty, either by endeavouring to keep onfamiliar terms with her, or else by an exceedingly clever go-between.

respectfor - Respekt für

shecan - Sie kann

onfamiliar - vertraut

exceedingly - übermäßig; überaus, äußerst, außerordentlich, ungemein

When a man makes up to a woman, and she reproaches him with harsh words,she should be abandoned at once.

reproaches - Vorwürfe; Vorwurf, Schande, vorwerfen

When a woman reproaches a man, but at the same time acts affectionatelytowards him, she should be made love to in every way.

affectionatelytowards - zärtlich zu

A woman who meets a man in lonely places, and puts up with the touch ofhis foot, but pretends, on account of the indecision of her mind, not tobe aware of it, should be conquered by patience, and by continuedefforts as follows:

indecision - Unentschlossenheit, Unschlüssigkeit

patience - Geduld

continuedefforts - fortgesetzte Bemühungen

If she happens to go to sleep in his vicinity he should put his left armround her, and see when she awakes whether she repulses him in reality,or only repulses him in such a way as if she were desirous of the samething being done to her again. And what is done by the arm can also bedone by the foot. If the man succeeds in this point he should embraceher more closely, and if she will not stand the embrace and gets up, butbehaves with him as usual the next day, he should consider then that sheis not unwilling to be enjoyed by him.

vicinity - Nähe; Nachbarschaft, Umgebung

armround - Armrunde

awakes - erwacht; munter, wach; erwachen, aufwachen

repulses - abstößt; zurückschlagen, abweisen

desirous - begehrt

samething - etwas

embraceher - umarmen

butbehaves - aber verhält sich

If however she does not appearagain, the man should try to get over her by means of a go-between; andif, after having disappeared for some time she again appears, andbehaves with him as usual, the man should then consider that she wouldnot object to be united with him.

appearagain - wieder erscheinen

andif - und wenn

andbehaves - und benimmt sich

wouldnot - oder nicht

When a woman gives a man an opportunity, and makes her own love manifestto him, he should proceed to enjoy her. And the signs of a womanmanifesting her love are these:

womanmanifesting - frauenbewegend

1. She calls out to a man without being addressed by him in the firstinstance.

firstinstance - in erster Instanz

2. She shows herself to him in secret places.

3. She speaks to him tremblingly and inarticulately.

tremblingly - zitternd

inarticulately - unartikuliert

4. She has the fingers of her hand, and the toes of her feet moistenedwith perspiration, and her face blooming with delight.

moistenedwith - befeuchtet

perspiration - Schwitzen

blooming - blühen; Blüte, Blütenpracht, Duft

5. She occupies herself with shampooing his body and pressing his head.

occupies - in Anspruch nehmen, belegen, bewohnen, besetzen, okkupieren

6. When shampooing him she works with one hand only, and with the othershe touches and embraces parts of his body.

othershe - andere er

7. She remains with both hands placed on his body motionless as if shehad been surprised by something, or was overcome by fatigue.

motionless - unbeweglich, reglos, bewegungslos

shehad - Sie hatte

8. She sometimes bends down her face upon his thighs, and when asked toshampoo them does not manifest any unwillingness to do so.

unwillingness - Unwilligkeit

9. She places one of her hands quite motionless on his body, and eventhough the man should press it between two members of his body, she doesnot remove it for a long time.

10. Lastly, when she has resisted all the efforts of the man to gain herover, she returns to him next day to shampoo his body as before.

resisted - widerstanden; widerstreben, widerstehen, widerstreiten

When a woman neither gives encouragement to a man, nor avoids him, buthides herself and remains in some lonely place, she must be got at bymeans of the female servant who may be near her. If when called by theman she acts in the same way, then she should be gained over by means ofa skilful go-between. But if she will have nothing to say to the man, heshould consider well about her before he begins any further attempts togain her over.

buthides - Verstecken

skilful - gewandt, gekonnt, geschickt, erfahren

togain - zu gewinnen

Thus ends the examination of the state of a woman's mind.

A man should first get himself introduced to a woman, and then carry ona conversation with her. He should give her hints of his love for her,and if he finds from her replies that she receives these hintsfavourably, he should then set to work to gain her over without anyfear. A woman who shows her love by outward signs to the man at hisfirst interview should be gained over very easily. In the same way alascivious woman, who when addressed in loving words replies openly inwords expressive of her love, should be considered to have been gainedover at that very moment.

hintsfavourably - tippsgünstig

anyfear - keine Angst

hisfirst - seine erste

alascivious - jähzornig

With regard to all women, whether they bewise, simple, or confiding, this rule is laid down that those who makean open manifestation of their love are easily gained over.

bewise - weise

confiding - vertrauensvoll; vertrauen, einweihen, ins Vertrauen ziehen



If a woman has manifested her love or desire, either by signs or bymotions of her body, and is afterwards rarely or never seen any where,or if a woman is met for the first time, the man should get a go-betweento approach her.

Now the go-between, having wheedled herself into the confidence of thewoman by acting according to her disposition, should try to make herhate or despise her husband by holding artful conversations with her, bytelling her about medicines for getting children, by talking to herabout other people, by tales of various kinds, by stories about thewives of other men, and by praising her beauty, wisdom, generosity, andgood nature, and then saying to her: "It is indeed a pity that you, whoare so excellent a woman in every way, should be possessed of a husbandof this kind. Beautiful lady, he is not fit even to serve you.

wheedled - beschwatzt; überreden, beschwatzen, umschmeicheln, schmeicheln

despise - verachten

artful - kunstvoll; geschickt, trickreich

herabout - worüber

praising - anpreisend, lobend; (praise); Lob; loben, preisen

andgood - undGut

pity - Mitleid; schade; bemitleiden, Mitleid haben mit

husbandof - Ehemann von

Thego-between should further talk to the woman about the weakness of thepassion of her husband, his jealousy, his roguery, his ingratitude, hisaversion to enjoyments, his dullness, his meanness, and all the otherfaults that he may have, and with which she may be acquainted. Sheshould particularly harp upon that fault or that failing by which thewife may appear to be the most affected. If the wife be a deer woman,and the husband a hare man, then there would be no fault in thatdirection, but in the event of his being a hare man, and she a marewoman or elephant woman, then this fault should be pointed out to her.

roguery - Schurkerei; Gaunerei

ingratitude - Undankbarkeit; Undank

hisaversion - seine Abneigung

dullness - Langweiligkeit; Unlust, Dummheit

meanness - Gemeinheit, Fiesheit, gemeines Benehmen

otherfaults - andere Fehler

harp - Harfe; auf (etwas) herumreiten

thewife - die Ehefrau

most affected - affektierteste

thatdirection - diese Richtung

marewoman - Stutenfrau

Gonikaputra is of opinion that when it is the first affair of the woman,or when her love has only been very secretly shown, the man should thensecure and send to her a go-between, with whom she may be alreadyacquainted, and in whom she confides.

thensecure - dann sicher

alreadyacquainted - schon kennen

But to return to our subject. The go-between should tell the woman aboutthe obedience and love of the man, and as her confidence and affectionincrease, she should then explain to her the thing to be accomplished inthe following way. "Hear this, Oh beautiful lady, that this man, born ofa good family, having seen you, has gone mad on your account. The pooryoung man, who is tender by nature, has never been distressed in such away before, and it is highly probable that he will succumb under hispresent affliction, and experience the pains of death." If the womanlistens with a favourable ear, then on the following day the go-between,having observed marks of good spirits in her face, in her eyes, and inher manner of conversation, should again converse with her on thesubject of the man, and should tell her the stories of Ahalya[59] andIndra, of Sakoontala[60] and Dushyanti, and such others as may be fittedfor the occasion.

affectionincrease - Zunahme der Zuneigung

probable - glaubhaft, wahrscheinlich

succumb - erliegen, nachgeben, unterwerfen, sich ergeben, sterben

hispresent - sein Geschenk

womanlistens - Frau hört zu

inher - erben

andIndra - undIndra

fittedfor - angepasst

She should also describe to her the strength of theman, his talents, his skill in the sixty-four sorts of enjoymentsmentioned by Babhravya, his good looks, and his liaison with somepraiseworthy woman, no matter whether this last ever took place or not.

enjoymentsmentioned - genossen werden

liaison - Kontaktperson; Zusammenarbeit, Verbindung, Liaison, Liebschaft

somepraiseworthy - etwas lobenswertes

In addition to this, the go-between should carefully note the behaviourof the woman, which if favourable would be as follows: She would addressher with a smiling look, would seat herself close beside her, and askher, "Where have you been? What have you been doing? Where did you dine?Where did you sleep? Where have you been sitting?" Moreover the womanwould meet the go-between in lonely places and tell her stories there,would yawn contemplatively, draw long sighs, give her presents, rememberher on occasions of festivals, dismiss her with a wish to see her again,and say to her jestingly, "Oh, well-speaking woman, why do you speakthese bad words to me?

behaviourof - Verhalten von

addressher - Adressat

beside - daneben; neben

womanwould - Frau würde

contemplatively - kontemplativ

rememberher - Erinnern Sie sich an sie

dismiss - entlassen; abweisen, einstellen, zurückweisen

jestingly - scherzhaft

speakthese - Sprechen Sie diese

would discourse on the sin of her union with theman, would not tell her about any previous visits or conversations thatshe may have had with him, but wish to be asked about these, and lastlywould laugh at the man's desire, but would not reproach him in any way.

lastlywould - zuletzt würde

reproach - Vorwürfe; Vorwurf; Schande; vorwerfen

Thus ends the behaviour of the woman with the go-between.

The followers of Babhravya on the other hand affirm that even thoughthey be personally unacquainted, but have shown each other signs ofaffection there is an occasion for the employment of a go-between.Gonikaputra asserts that a go-between should be employed, provided theyare acquainted with each other, even though no signs of affection mayhave passed between them.

affirm - zustimmen, bejahen, bestätigen, unterstützen

thoughthey - gedacht

ofaffection - der Zuneigung

asserts - behauptet; versichern, zusichern, beteuern, beteuern, beteuern

Vatsyayana however lays it down that eventhough they may not be personally acquainted with each other, and maynot have shown each other any signs of affection, still they are bothcapable of placing confidence in a go-between.

maynot - Oder nicht

bothcapable - beide fähig

Now the go-between should show the woman the presents, such as the betelnut and betel leaves, the perfumes, the flowers, and the rings which theman may have given to her for the sake of the woman, and on thesepresents should be impressed the marks of the man's teeth, and nails,and other signs. On the cloth that he may send he should draw withsaffron both his hands joined together as if in earnest entreaty.

thesepresents - diese Präsente

withsaffron - mit Safran

entreaty - Bitten; Flehen

The go-between should also show to the woman ornamental figures ofvarious kinds cut in leaves, together with ear ornaments, and chapletsmade of flowers containing love letters expressive of the desire of theman,[61] and she should cause her to send affectionate presents to theman in return. After they have mutually accepted each other's presents,then a meeting should be arranged between them on the faith of thego-between.

ornamental - Zier-, dekorativ, Zierpflanze

chapletsmade - Kränze gemacht

Faith - Glaube; Vertrauen

The followers of Babhravya say that this meeting should take place atthe time of going to the temple of a Deity, or on occasions of fairs,garden parties, theatrical performances, marriages, sacrifices,festivals and funerals, as also at the time of going to the river tobathe, or at times of natural calamities,[62] fear of robbers or hostileinvasions of the country.

theatrical - theatralisch, Theater

calamities - Kalamitäten; Unheil

robbers - Räuber, Räuberin

hostileinvasions - feindliche Invasionen

Gonikaputra is of opinion however that these meetings had better bebrought about in the abodes of female friends, mendicants, astrologers,and ascetics.

meetings - Versammlung, Treffen, Sitzung

astrologers - Astrologen; Astrologe, Astrologin, Sterndeuter, Sterndeuterin

ascetics - Asketen; asketisch, Asket, Asketin

But Vatsyayana decides that that place is only well suitedfor the purpose which has proper means of ingress and egress, and wherearrangements have been made to prevent any accidental occurrence, andwhen a man who has once entered the house, can also leave it at theproper time without any disagreeable encounter.

suitedfor - geeignet für

ingress - eindringen; Eintritt; Zutritt, Eintrittsrecht, Eingang, Zugang

egress - Ausstieg; Ausgang

wherearrangements - wohin soll es gehen

accidental - versehentlich, zufällig, Zufall, Versehen

Occurrence - Vorkommen; Vorfall

disagreeable - unangenehm, unsympathisch

encounter - mit etw. in Berührung kommen;entgegentreten, sich begegnen, treffen auf;Begegnung , Treffen , Zusammenstoß

Now go-betweens or female messengers are of the following differentkinds, viz.:

differentkinds - verschiedene Arten

(1). A go-between who takes upon herself the whole burden of thebusiness.

burden - Belastung; Refrain, Last, Möller (Hüttenwesen); belasten

(2). A go-between who does only a limited part of the business.

(3). A go-between who is the bearer of a letter only.

bearer - Träger, Trägerin, Inhaber, Inhaberin

(4). A go-between acting on her own account.

(5). The go-between of an innocent young woman.

(6). A wife serving as a go-between.

(7). A mute go-between.

mute - stumm; sprachlos; abdämpfen, dämpfen

(8). A go-between who acts the part of the wind.

wind - aufspulen, rollen, blasen, aufwickeln, abspulen

(1). A woman who, having observed the mutual passion of a man and woman,brings them together and arranges it by the power of her own intellect,such an one is called a go-between who takes upon herself the wholeburden of the business. This kind of go-between is chiefly employed whenthe man and the woman are already acquainted with each other, and haveconversed together, and in such cases she is sent not only by the man(as is always done in all other cases) but by the woman also.

wholeburden - ganze Last

chiefly - hauptsächlich

haveconversed - haben sich ausgetauscht

-The abovename is also given to a go-between who, perceiving that the man and thewoman are suited to each other, tries to bring about a union betweenthem, even though they be not acquainted with each other.

perceiving - wahrnehmend, merkend; (perceive); wahrnehmen

betweenthem - zwischen den beiden

(2). A go-between who, perceiving that some part of the affair isalready done, or that the advances on the part of the man are alreadymade, completes the rest of the business, is called a go-between whoperforms only a limited part of the business.

isalready - ist bereits

advances - Vorschüsse; erhöhen, erheben, befördern, vorrücken, Fortschritt

alreadymade - schon gemacht

whoperforms - Wer macht das

(3). A go-between, who simply carries messages between a man and awoman, who love each other, but who cannot frequently meet, is calledthe bearer of a letter or message.

This name is also given to one who is sent by either of the lovers toacquaint either the one or the other with the time and place of theirmeeting.

toacquaint - kennenzulernen

theirmeeting - ihr Treffen

(4). A woman who goes herself to a man, and tells him of her havingenjoyed sexual union with him in a dream, and expresses her anger at hiswife having rebuked him for calling her by the name of her rival insteadof by her own name, and gives him something bearing the marks of herteeth and nails, and informs him that she knew she was formerly desiredby him, and asks him privately whether she or his wife is the bestlooking, such a person is called a woman who is a go-between forherself.

rebuked - getadelt; Tadel, Anschiss, Rüge, Schelte, Zurechtweisung

insteadof - anstelle von

informs - informiert; benachrichtigen, mitteilen, informieren

desiredby - gewünscht

bestlooking - bestaussehend

forherself - für sich selbst

Now such a woman should be met and interviewed by the man inprivate and secretly.

inprivate - inprivat

The above name is also given to a woman who having made an agreementwith some other woman to act as her go-between, gains over the man toherself, by the means of making him personally acquainted with herself,and thus causes the other woman to fail. The same applies to a man who,acting as a go-between for another, and having no previous connectionwith the woman, gains her over for himself, and thus causes the failureof the other man.

agreementwith - Vereinbarung mit

toherself - zu sich selbst

connectionwith - Verbindung mit

failureof - Versagen von

(5). A woman, who has gained the confidence of the innocent young wifeof any man, and who has learned her secrets without exercising anypressure on her mind, and found out from her how her husband behaves toher, if this woman then teaches her the art of securing his favour, anddecorates her so as to show her love, and instructs her how and when tobe angry, or to pretend to be so, and then, having herself made marks ofthe nails and teeth on the body of the wife, gets the latter to send forher husband to show these marks to him, and thus excite him forenjoyment, such is called the go-between of an innocent young woman.

wifeof - Frau von

anypressure - irgendeinen Druck

securing - sicher, geschützt, beschützt, sicher, geschützt, sicher, sicher

anddecorates - unddekoriert

instructs - anweist; instruieren, briefen, anweisen

Insuch cases the man should send replies to his wife through the samewoman.

samewoman - Gleiche Frau

(6). When a man gets his wife to gain the confidence of a woman whom hewants to enjoy, and to call on her and talk to her about the wisdom andability of her husband, that wife is called a wife serving as ago-between. In this case the feelings of the woman with regard to theman should also be made known through the wife.

hewants - er will

andability - undbarkeit

(7). When any man sends a girl or a female servant to any woman undersome pretext or other, and places a letter in her bouquet of flowers, orin her ear ornaments, or marks something about her with his teeth ornails, that girl or female servant is called a mute go-between. In thiscase the man should expect an answer from the woman through the sameperson.

undersome - unterdurchschnittlich

bouquet - Blumenstrauß, Bouquet

ornails - oderNägel

thiscase - dieser Fall

sameperson - dieselbe Person

(8). A person, who carries a message to a woman, which has a doublemeaning, or which relates to some past transactions, or which isunintelligible to other people, is called a go-between who acts the partof the wind. In this case the reply should be asked for through the samewoman.

doublemeaning - Doppelbedeutung

transactions - Transaktionen; Geschäftsabwicklung, Geschäftsdurchführung

isunintelligible - ist unverständlich

Thus end the different kinds of go-betweens.

A female astrologer, a female servant, a female beggar, or a femaleartist are well acquainted with the business of a go-between, and verysoon gain the confidence of other women. Any one of them can raiseenmity between any two persons if she wishes to do so, or extol theloveliness of any woman that she wishes to praise, or describe the artspractised by other women in sexual union.

astrologer - Astrologe, Astrologin, Sterndeuter, Sterndeuterin

femaleartist - Frauenrechtlerin

verysoon - sehr bald

artspractised - Kunst praktiziert

They can also speak highly ofthe love of a man, of his skill in sexual enjoyment, and of the desireof other women, more beautiful even than the woman they are addressing,for him, and explain the restraint under which he may be at home.

restraint - Zurückhaltung; Beschränkung, Zügelung, Einschränkung, Zwang

Lastly a go-between can, by the artfulness of her conversation unite awoman with a man, even though he may not have been thought of by her, ormay have been considered beyond his aspirations. She can also bring backa man to a woman, who, owing to some cause or other, has separatedhimself from her.

artfulness - Kunstfertigkeit; List

ormay - oder darf

beyond - darüber hinaus; jenseits

aspirations - Bestrebungen; Aufsaugung, Einsaugung

separatedhimself - sich selbst getrennt


[Footnote 59: The wife of the sage Gautama, she was seduced by Indra theking of the Gods.]

[Footnote 60: The heroine of one of the best, if not the best, of Hindooplays, and the best known in Sanscrit dramatic literature. It was firstbrought to notice by Sir William Jones, and has been well and poeticallytranslated by Dr. Monier Williams under the title of Sakoontala, or thelost ring, an Indian drama, translated into English prose and verse fromthe Sanscrit of Kalidasa.]

heroine - Heldin, Heroine

dramatic - dramatisch

firstbrought - Erstmals mitgebracht

poeticallytranslated - poetischübersetzt

Williams - Wilhelm

prose - Prosa

[Footnote 61: It is presumed that something like the following Frenchverses are intended.

Quand on a juré le plus profond hommage Voulez-vous qu'infidè le on change de langage Vous seule captive mon esprit ou mon coeur Que je puisse dans vos bras seuls goûter le bonheur; Je voudrais, mais en vain, que mon coeur en délire Couche où ce papier n'oserait vous dire. Avec soin, de ces vers lisez leur premiers mots, Vous verrez quel remède il faut à tous mes maux.

plus - plus; positiv

profond - profund

captive - Gefangener, Gefangene

esprit - Esprit

dans - Dan

Bras - BHs; (bra) BHs

Couche - Couch

dire - schrecklich; düster, böse, fatal, verzweifelt, händeringend

ces - n. Chr. (''nach Christus, nach Christo''), n. Chr. Geb

premiers - Premieren; Ministerpräzident

mots - Wort

Or these:

Quand on vous voit, on vous aime; Quand on vous aime, oĂą vous voit-on.]

[Footnote 62: It is supposed that storms, earthquakes, famines andpestilent diseases are here alluded to.]

famines - Hungersnöte; Hungersnot, Hunger, Hungersnot, Hunger

alluded - angedeutet; andeuten, erwähnen



The head man of the village, the King's officer employed there, and theman[63] whose business it is to glean corn, can gain over femalevillagers simply by asking them. It is on this account that this classof woman are called unchaste women by voluptuaries.

glean - nachlesen; stoppeln, sammeln

femalevillagers - weibliche Dorfbewohner

The union of the above mentioned men with this class of woman takesplace on the occasions of unpaid labour, of filling the granaries intheir houses, of taking things in and out of the house, of cleaning thehouses, of working in the fields, and of purchasing cotton, wool, flax,hemp, and thread, and at the season of the purchase, sale, and exchangeof various other articles, as well as at the time of doing various otherworks. In the same way the superintendents of cow pens enjoy the womenin the cow pens; and the officers, who have the superintendence ofwidows, of the women who are without supporters, and of women who haveleft their husbands, have sexual intercourse with these women.

above mentioned - obenerwähnt, oben erwähnt

takesplace - findet statt

labour - Arbeit; Arbeiter; gebären; arbeiten

granaries - Getreidespeicher, Kornhaus

intheir - in ihnen

thehouses - die Häuser

purchasing - Einkauf, Kauf, Kauf, Anschaffung, Anschaffung, kaufen

flax - Flachs, Lein, Flachsfaser, Leinen

hemp - Hanf

exchangeof - Austausch von

otherworks - andere Werke

superintendents - Superintendenten; Leiter

womenin - Frauen in

superintendence - Oberaufsicht

ofwidows - von Witwen

supporters - Unterstützer, Unterstützerin, Anhänger, Anhängerin

haveleft - verlassen haben

Theintelligent accomplish their object by wandering at night in thevillage, and while villagers also unite with the wives of their sons,being much alone with them. Lastly the superintendents of markets have agreat deal to do with the female villagers at the time of their makingpurchases in the market.

wandering - wandernd; (wander) irren, wandern

villagers - Dorfbewohner, Dorfbewohnerin, Dörfler, Dörflerin

agreat - großartig

makingpurchases - Einkäufe tätigen

During the festival of the eighth moon, _i.e._, during the bright halfof the month of Nargashirsha, as also during the moonlight festival ofthe month of Kartika, and the spring festival of Chaitra, the women ofcities and towns generally visit the women of the King's harem in theroyal palace. These visitors go to the several apartments of the womenof the harem, as they are acquainted with them, and pass the night inconversation, and in proper sports, and amusement, and go away in themorning. On such occasions a female attendant of the King (previouslyacquainted with the woman whom the King desires), should loiter about,and accost this woman when she sets out to go home, and induce her tocome and see the amusing things in the palace. Previous to thesefestivals even, she should have caused it to be intimated to this womanthat on the occasion of this festival she would show her all theinteresting things in the royal palace. Accordingly she should show herthe bower of the coral creeper, the garden house with its floor inlaidwith precious stones, the bower of grapes, the building on the water,the secret passages in the walls of the palace, the pictures, thesporting animals, the machines, the birds, and the cages of the lionsand the tigers. After this, when alone with her, she should tell herabout the love of the King for her, and should describe to her the goodfortune which would attend upon her union with the King, giving her atthe time a strict promise of secrecy.

halfof - die Hälfte

ofcities - der Städte

womenof - Frauen von

inconversation - Unterredung

previouslyacquainted - vorher kennengelernt

loiter - herumlungern; rumlungern, rumhängen, herumhängen, abhängen

accost - ansprechen

tocome - zu kommen

thesefestivals - diese Feste

intimated - angedeutet; vertraut, innig, intim, vorsichtig andeuten

womanthat - Die Frau, die

theinteresting - das Interessante

accordingly - dementsprechend; logischerweise

inlaidwith - mit eingelegt

grapes - Weintrauben; Traube, Weintraube, Weinbeere

passages - Passagen; Durchfahrt, Ăśbergang, Gang

thesporting - das Sportliche

lionsand - Löwe und

tigers - Tiger

goodfortune - Glück

strict - streng

secrecy - Geheimhaltung; Geheimniskrämerei, Geheimnistuerei

If the woman does not accept theoffer, she should conciliate and please her with handsome presentsbefitting the position of the King, and having accompanied her for somedistance should dismiss her with great affection.

theoffer - das Angebot

conciliate - beschwichtigen

presentsbefitting - Geschenkepassend

somedistance - etwas Abstand

(2). Or, having made the acquaintance of the husband of the woman whomthe King desires, the wives of the King should get the wife to pay thema visit in the harem, and on this occasion a female attendant of theKing, having been sent thither, should act as above described.

thither - dorthin, dahin

(3). Or, one of the King's wives should get acquainted with the womanthat the King desires, by sending one of the female attendants to her,who should, on their becoming more intimate, induce her to come and seethe royal abode. Afterwards, when she has visited the harem, andacquired confidence, a female confidante of the King, sent thither,should act as before described.

intimate - vertraut, innig, intim, vorsichtig andeuten

seethe - kochen, sieden, schäumen, sprudeln

andacquired - underworben

confidante - Mitwisser; Vertraute

(4). Or, the King's wife should invite the woman, whom the King desires,to come to the royal palace, so that she might see the practice of theart in which the King's wife may be skilled, and after she has come tothe harem, a female attendant of the King, sent thither, should act asbefore described.

theart - die Kunst

asbefore - wie vorher

(5). Or, a female beggar, in league with the King's wife, should say tothe woman desired by the King, and whose husband may have lost hiswealth, or may have some cause of fear from the King: "This wife of theKing has influence over him, and she is, moreover, naturallykind-hearted, we must therefore go to her in this matter. I shallarrange for your entrance into the harem, and she will do away with allcause of danger and fear from the King.

League - Liga, Spielklasse, Bund

hiswealth - seinen Reichtum

naturallykind - natürlich

shallarrange - anordnen soll

If the woman accepts thisoffer, the female beggar should take her two or three times to theharem, and the King's wife there should give her a promise ofprotection. After this, when the woman, delighted with her reception andpromise of protection, again goes to the harem, then a female attendantof the King, sent thither, should act as directed.

thisoffer - dieses Angebot

ofprotection - des Schutzes

delighted - erfreut; Freude, Entzückung, Wohlgefallen

andpromise - undVersprechen

as directed - weisungsgemäß


What has been said above regarding the wife of one who has somecause of fear from the King applies also to the wives of those who seekservice under the King, or who are oppressed by the King's ministers, orwho are poor, or who are not satisfied with their position, or who aredesirous of gaining the King's favour, or who wish to become famousamong the people, or who are oppressed by the members of their owncaste, or who want to injure their caste fellows, or who are spies ofthe King, or who have any other object to attain.

somecause - Warum

seekservice - Suchdienst

oppressed - unterdrückt; unterdrücken

famousamong - berühmt-berüchtigt

fellows - Kameraden; Stipendiat, Typ, Kerl, Bursche; Gefährte, Kerl

spies - Spione; Spion, Spionin, Spitzel, ausspionieren, erspähen

attain - erreichen, erlangen

(7). Lastly, if the woman desired by the King be living with some personwho is not her husband, then the King should cause her to be arrested,and having made her a slave, on account of her crime, should place herin the harem. Or the King should cause his ambassador to quarrel withthe husband of the woman desired by him, and should then imprison her asthe wife of an enemy of the King, and by this means should place her inthe harem.

personwho - Wer ist die Person

slave - Sklave, Sklavin, Sexsklave

ambassador - Botschafter, Botschafterin

imprison - Gefangenschaft; einsperren, einkerkern

Thus end the means of gaining over the wives of others secretly.

The above mentioned ways of gaining over the wives of other men arechiefly practised in the palaces of Kings. But a King should never enterthe abode of another person, for Abhira,[64] the King of the Kottas waskilled by a washerman while in the house of another, and in the same wayJayasana the King of the Kashis was slain by the commandment of hiscavalry.

arechiefly - chiefly

waskilled - getötet wurde

slain - erschlagen

commandment - Gebot

hiscavalry - seine Kavallerie

But according to the customs of some countries there are facilities forKings to make love to the wives of other men. Thus in the country of theAndras[65] the newly married daughters of the people thereof enter theKing's harem with some presents on the tenth day of their marriage, andhaving been enjoyed by the King are then dismissed. In the country ofthe Vatsagulmas[66] the wives of the chief ministers approach the Kingat night to serve him. In the country of the Vaidarbhas[67] thebeautiful wives of the inhabitants pass a month in the King's haremunder the pretence of affection for the King.

facilities - Einrichtungen; Leichtigkeit, Einrichtung, Vorrichtung, Anlage

forKings - fürKönige

newly - neu

inhabitants - Einwohner, Einwohnerin, Bewohner, Bewohnerin

In the country of theAparatakas[68] the people gave their beautiful wives as presents to theministers and the Kings. And lastly in the country of theSaurashtras[69] the women of the city and the country enter the royalharem for the King's pleasure either together or separately.

theministers - den Ministerien

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The above and other ways are the means employed in different countriesby Kings with regard to the wives of other persons. But a King, who hasthe welfare of his people at heart, should not on any account put theminto practice."

countriesby - Länderspiel

hasthe - hast die

theminto - in sie hinein

"A King who has conquered the six[70] enemies of mankind, becomes themaster of the whole earth."


[Footnote 63: This is a phrase used for a man who does the work ofeverybody, and who is fed by the whole village.]

ofeverybody - vonjedem

[Footnote 64: The exact date of the reign of these kings is not known.It is supposed to have been about the beginning of the Christian era.]

reign - Herrschaft, Regentschaft, herrschen, regieren

[Footnote 65: The modern country of Tailangam, which is to the South ofRajamundry.]

ofRajamundry - vonRajamundry

[Footnote 66: Supposed to be a tract of the country to the south ofMalwa.]

tract - Traktat; Gebiet, Teil

ofMalwa - vonMalwa

[Footnote 67: Now known by the name of Berar. Its capital wasKundinpura, which has been identified with the modern Oomravati.]

wasKundinpura - warKundinpura

[Footnote 68: Also called Aparantakas, being the northern and southernConcan.]

[Footnote 69: The modern provinces of Katteeawar. Its capital was calledGirinaguda, or the modern Junagurh.]

calledGirinaguda - genanntGirinaguda

[Footnote 70: These are Lust, Anger, Avarice, Spiritual Ignorance,Pride, and Envy.]

spiritual - spirituell; geistig

envy - Neid; beneiden



The women of the royal harem cannot see or meet any men on account oftheir being strictly guarded, neither do they have their desiressatisfied, because their only husband is common to many wives. For thisreason among themselves they give pleasure to each other in various waysas now described.

strictly - strenges, grundsätzlich, pingelig

desiressatisfied - Sehnsüchte befriedigt

thisreason - diesen Grund

give pleasure - Vergnügen bereiten (machen)

Having dressed the daughters of their nurses, or their female friends,or their female attendants, like men, they accomplish their object bymeans of bulbs, roots, and fruits having the form of the Lingam, or theylie down upon the statue of a male figure, in which the Lingam isvisible and erect.

bulbs - Glühbirnen; Zwiebel

roots - wurzeln; Haupt, Wurzel, Nullstelle [math.]

theylie - Sie lieben

isvisible - sichtbar ist

Some Kings, who are compassionate, take or apply certain medicines toenable them to enjoy many wives in one night, simply for the purpose ofsatisfying the desire of their women, though they perhaps have no desireof their own. Others enjoy with great affection only those wives thatthey particularly like, while others only take them according as theturn of each wife arrives in due course.

compassionate - mitfühlend; mitleidig

toenable - deaktivieren

ofsatisfying - vonbefriedigend

theturn - die Wende

Such are the ways of enjoymentprevalent in Eastern countries, and what is said about the means ofenjoyment of the female is also applicable to the male.

enjoymentprevalent - Genuss vorherrschend

By means of their female attendants the ladies of the royal haremgenerally get men into their apartments in the disguise or dress ofwomen. Their female attendants, and the daughters of their nurses, whoare acquainted with their secrets, should exert themselves to get men tocome to the harem in this way by telling them of the good fortuneattending it, and by describing the facilities of entering and leavingthe palace, the large size of the premises, the carelessness of thesentinels, and the irregularities of the attendants about the persons ofthe royal wives.

haremgenerally - Hase im Allgemeinen

fortuneattending - Glücklich zu sein

leavingthe - verlassen

large size - Großformat

premises - Prämisse, Voraussetzung, Lokal

carelessness - Nachlässigkeit; Unvorsichtigkeit, Leichtsinn

irregularities - Unregelmäßigkeiten; Unregelmäßigkeit, Unregelmäßigkeit

But these women should never induce a man to enter theharem by telling him falsehoods, for that would probably lead to hisdestruction.

falsehoods - Unwahrheiten; Unwahrheit, Falschheit, Lüge, unwahre Behauptung

hisdestruction - seine Zerstörung

As for the man himself, he had better not enter a royal harem, eventhough it may be easily accessible, on account of the numerous disastersto which he may be exposed there. If however he wants to enter it, heshould first ascertain whether there is an easy way to get out, whetherit is closely surrounded by the pleasure garden, whether it has separateenclosures belonging to it, whether the sentinels are careless, whetherthe King has gone abroad, and then, when he is called by the women ofthe harem, he should carefully observe the localities, and enter by theway pointed out by them.

numerous - zahlreich, vielzählig

disastersto - Katastrophen zu

whetherit - ob es

separateenclosures - getrennte Gehäuse

sentinels - Wache, Wachposten, Wächter, Wächterin, Markierung, Schlüsselwort

whetherthe - ob die

localities - Ortschaften; Ortschaft

theway - den Weg

If he is able to manage it, he should hangabout the harem every day, and, under some pretext or other, makefriends with the sentinels, and show himself attached to the femaleattendants of the harem, who may have become acquainted with his design,and to whom he should express his regret at not being able to obtain theobject of his desire. Lastly he should cause the whole business of ago-between to be done by the woman who may have access to the harem, andhe should be careful to be able to recognize the emissaries of the King.

makefriends - Freundschaften schließen

regret - bedauern, bereuen, leidtun, Reue, Bedauern

andhe - Und er

emissaries - Emissär, Emissärin, Abgesandter

When a go-between has no access to the harem, then the man should standin some place where the lady, whom he loves, and whom he is anxious toenjoy, can be seen.

toenjoy - zu genießen

If that place is occupied by the King's sentinels, he should thendisguise himself as a female attendant of the lady who comes to theplace, or passes by it. When she looks at him he should let her know hisfeelings by outward signs and gestures, and should show her pictures,things with double meanings, chaplets of flowers, and rings. He shouldcarefully mark the answer she gives, whether by word or by sign, or bygesture, and should then try and get into the harem.

occupied - besetzt; in Anspruch nehmen, belegen, bewohnen, besetzen

theplace - den Ort

passes by - (pass by) vorüberziehen, sterben, vorbeigehen

hisfeelings - seinen Gefühlen

shouldcarefully - sollten Sie vorsichtig sein

by word - Sprichwort

bygesture - eine Geste

If he is certain ofher coming to some particular place he should conceal himself there, andat the appointed time should enter along with her as one of the guards.He may also go in and out, concealed in a folded bed, or bed covering,or with his body made invisible,[71] by means of external applications,a receipt for one of which is as follows:

conceal - verbergen, verheimlichen, verschleiern, verschweigen

appointed time - Termin

invisible - unsichtbar; versteckt

The heart of an ichneumon, the fruit of the long gourd (Tumbi), and theeyes of the serpent, should all be burnt without letting out the smoke,the ashes should then be ground and mixed in equal quantities withwater. By putting this mixture upon the eyes a man can go about unseen.

ichneumon - Schlupfwespe; Ichneumon

theeyes - die Augen

serpent - Schlange, Serpent

letting out - durchlassend

ashes - Esche, Asche

withwater - mit Wasser

unseen - ungesehen; unbesehen, unsichtbar

Other means of invisibility are prescribed by Duyana Brahmans andJogashiras.

invisibility - Unsichtbarkeit

prescribed - verschrieben; verschreiben, verordnen, vorschreiben, verordnen

andJogashiras - undJogashiras

Again the man may enter the harem during the festival of the eight moonin the month of Nargashirsha, and during the moonlight festivals whenthe female attendants of the harem are all busily occupied, or inconfusion.

busily - fleißig; eifrig, geschäftig, beschäftigt

inconfusion - Verwirrung

The following principles are laid down on this subject.

The entrance of young men into harems, and their exit from them,generally take place when things are being brought into the palace, orwhen things are being taken out of it, or when drinking festivals aregoing on, or when the female attendants are in a hurry, or when theresidence of some of the royal ladies is being changed, or when theKing's wives go to gardens, or to fairs, or when they enter the palaceon their return from them; or, lastly, when the King is absent on a longpilgrimage.

harems - Harem, Harem

exit - aussteigen, Ausgang; Abgang, Ausgang, Ausstieg, Ende

aregoing - gehen

theresidence - den Wohnsitz

is absent - fehlt

longpilgrimage - lange Pilgerreise

The women of the royal harem know each other's secrets, andhaving but one object to attain, they give assistance to each other. Ayoung man, who enjoys all of them, and who is common to them all, cancontinue enjoying his union with them so long as it is kept quiet, andis not known abroad.

cancontinue - fortsetzen kann

Now in the country of the Aparatakas the royal ladies are not wellprotected, and consequently many young men are passed into the harem bythe women who have access to the royal palaces. The wives of the King ofthe Ahira country accomplish their objects with those sentinels in theharem who bear the name of Kashtriyas. The royal ladies in the countryof the Vatsagulmas cause such men as are suitable to enter into theharem along with their female messengers. In the country of theVaidarbhas the sons of the royal ladies enter the royal harem when theyplease, and enjoy the women, with the exception of their own mothers. Inthe Stri-rajya the wives of the King are enjoyed by his caste fellowsand relations.

wellprotected - gut geschützt

countryof - Land der

theVaidarbhas - dieVaidarbhas

theyplease - Bitte

In the Ganda country the royal wives are enjoyed byBrahmans, friends, servants, and slaves. In the Samdhava country,servants, foster children, and other persons like them enjoy the womenof the harem. In the country of the Haimavatas adventurous citizensbribe the sentinels and enter the harem. In the country of the Vanyasand the Kalmyas, Brahmans, with the knowledge of the King, enter theharem under the pretence of giving flowers to the ladies, and speak withthem from behind a curtain, and from such conversation union afterwardstakes place. Lastly, the women in the harem of the King of the Prachyasconceal one young man in the harem for every batch of nine or ten of thewomen.

byBrahmans - vonBrahmanen

foster - aufziehen, pflegen

adventurous - abenteuerlich

citizensbribe - Bürgerbestechung

afterwardstakes - Gewinnspiele nachher

batch - Charge; stapeln (Computer); Stapel, Stoß, Batch, Schub

thewomen - dieFrauen

Thus act the wives of others.

For these reasons a man should guard his own wife.

Old authors say thata King should select for sentinels in his harem such men as have theirfreedom from carnal desires well tested. But such men, though freethemselves from carnal desire, by reason of their fear or avarice, maycause other persons to enter the harem, and therefore Gonikaputra says,that Kings should place such men in the harem as may have had theirfreedom from carnal desires, their fears, and their avarice well tested.Lastly, Vatsyayana says that under the influence of Dharma[72] peoplemight be admitted, and therefore men should be selected who are freefrom carnal desires, fear, avarice, and Dharma.[73]

theirfreedom - ihre Freiheit

carnal - fleischlich, körperlich, sexuell, sinnlich, diesseitig

freethemselves - sich selbst befreien

maycause - Kann das sein

selected - ausgewählt; auswählen

The followers of Babhravya say that a man should cause his wife toassociate with a young woman who would tell him the secrets of otherpeople, and thus find out from her about his wife's chastity. ButVatsyayana says, that as wicked persons are always successful withwomen, a man should not cause his innocent wife to be corrupted bybringing her into the company of a deceitful woman.

toassociate - zu assoziieren

withwomen - mit Frauen

corrupted - korrumpiert; korrupt, verderben, korrumpieren

bybringing - mitbringen

The following are the causes of the destruction of a woman's chastity:

Always going into society, and sitting in company.

Absence of restraint.

The loose habits of her husband.

Want of caution in her relations with other men.

Continued and long absence of her husband.

Living in a foreign country.

Destruction of her love and feelings by her husband.

The company of loose women.

The jealousy of her husband.

There are also the following verses on the subject.

"A clever man, learning from the Shastras the ways of winning over thewives of other people, is never deceived in the case of his own wives.No one, however, should make use of these ways for seducing the wives ofothers, because they do not always succeed, and, moreover, often causedisasters, and the destruction of Dharma and Artha. This book, which isintended for the good of the people, and to teach them the ways ofguarding their own wives, should not be made use of merely for gainingover the wives of others.

deceived - getäuscht; betrügen, täuschen

causedisasters - Katastrophen verursacht

isintended - ist beabsichtigt

ofguarding - der Bewachung

gainingover - Verstärkung


[Footnote 71: The way to make oneself invisible; the knowledge of theart of transmigration, or changing ourselves or others into any shape orform by the use of charms and spells; the power of being in two placesat once, and other occult sciences are frequently referred to in allOriental literature.]

oneself - sich selbst; selbst, sich

orform - oder Form

occult - okkult; Okkult, Okkultismus

[Footnote 72: This may be considered as meaning religious influence, andalludes to persons who may be gained over by that means.]

[Footnote 73: It may be noted from the above remarks that eunuchs do notappear to have been employed in the King's harem in those days, thoughthey seem to have been employed for other purposes. See Part II., page43.]

remarks - Bemerkungen; bemerken; Anmerkung, Bemerkung

notappear - nicht erscheinen





This Part VI., about courtesans, was prepared by Vatsyayana, from atreatise on the subject, that was written by Dattaka, for the women ofPataliputra (the modern Patna), some two thousand years ago. Dattaka'swork does not appear to be extant now, but this abridgement of it isvery clever, and quite equal to any of the productions of Emile Zola,and other writers of the realistic school of to-day.

atreatise - atreatieren

ofPataliputra - vonPataliputra

swork - s Arbeit

abridgement - Kürzung, Kurzfassung, Verkürzung

Although a great deal has been written on the subject of the courtesan,nowhere will be found a better description of her, of her belongings, ofher ideas, and of the working of her mind, than is contained in thefollowing pages.

belongings - Hab und Gut; gehörend, zugehörig

thefollowing - das Folgende

The details of the domestic and social life of the early Hindoos wouldnot be complete without mention of the courtesan, and Part VI. isentirely devoted to this subject. The Hindoos have ever had the goodsense to recognise courtesans as a part and portion of human society,and so long as they behaved themselves with decency and propriety, theywere regarded with a certain respect.

isentirely - ganz und gar

recognise - anerkennen

decency - Anstand

propriety - Angemessenheit, Richtigkeit, Korrektheit, Ordnungsmäßigkeit

theywere - waren sie es

regarded - betrachtet; schätzen, betrachten, berücksichtigen

Anyhow, they have never beentreated in the East with that brutality and contempt so common in theWest, while their education has always been of a superior kind to thatbestowed upon the rest of womankind in Oriental countries.

beentreated - behandelt werden

brutality - Brutalität

thatbestowed - das geschenkt

womankind - Frauenzimmer; weibliches Geschlecht, Frauenwelt

Oriental - orientalisch, Orientale, östlich

In the earlier days the well-educated Hindoo dancing girl and courtesandoubtless resembled the Hetera of the Greeks, and being educated andamusing, were far more acceptable as companions than the generality ofthe married or unmarried women of that period. At all times and in allcountries, there has ever been a little rivalry between the chaste andthe unchaste.

courtesandoubtless - ohne Zweifel höflich

resembled - ähnelte; ähneln, gleichen

andamusing - und amüsant

acceptable - akzeptabel

generality - Allgemeinheit; Allgemeingültigkeit

unmarried - unverheiratet, ledig, solo; (unmarry); unverheiratet, ledig

allcountries - alleLänder

rivalry - Rivalität

But while some women are born courtesans, and follow theinstincts of their nature in every class of society, it has been trulysaid by some authors that every woman has got an inkling of theprofession in her nature, and does her best, as a general rule, to makeherself agreeable to the male sex.

theinstincts - die Instinkte

trulysaid - wahrhaftig gesagt

inkling - Andeutung

theprofession - derBeruf

makeherself - sich selbst machen

The subtlety of women, their wonderful perceptive powers, theirknowledge, and their intuitive appreciation of men and things, are allshown in the following pages, which may be looked upon as a concentratedessence that has been since worked up into detail by many writers inevery quarter of the globe.

subtlety - Geschicklichkeit, Feinheit, Feinsinn, Feinsinnigkeit

perceptive - einfühlsam

theirknowledge - ihr Wissen

intuitive - intuitiv

concentratedessence - konzentrierte Essenz

inevery - invery

globe - Erde, Erdkugel, Globus



By having intercourse with men courtesans obtain sexual pleasure, aswell as their own maintenance. Now when a courtesan takes up with a manfrom love, the action is natural; but when she resorts to him for thepurpose of getting money, her action is artificial or forced. Even inthe latter case, however, she should conduct herself as if her love wereindeed natural, because men repose their confidence on those women whoapparently love them.

sexual pleasure - Lust

maintenance - Instandhaltung, Wartung, Unterhalt

wereindeed - wirklich

repose - ruhen

whoapparently - wer anscheinend

In making known her love to the man she shouldshow an entire freedom from avarice, and for the sake of her futurecredit she should abstain from acquiring money from him by unlawfulmeans.

making known - bekannt machend, bekanntmachend [alt]

freedom - Freiheit

unlawfulmeans - ungesetzliche Mittel

A courtesan, well dressed and wearing her ornaments, should sit or standat the door of her house, and without exposing herself too much, shouldlook on the public road so as to be seen by the passers by, she beinglike an object on view for sale.

exposing - entlarven; aufdecken, offenbaren, entblößen, bloßlegen

shouldlook - aussehen sollte

public road - öffentliche Straße

beinglike - wesensgleich

[74] She should form friendships withsuch persons as would enable her to separate men from other women, andattach them to herself, and repair her own misfortunes, to acquirewealth, and to protect her from being bullied, or set upon by personswith whom she may have dealings of some kind or another.

withsuch - mit solchen

enable - berechtigen, befähigen, ermöglichen, anordnen, aktivieren

andattach - undanbringen

misfortunes - Unglücke; Pech

acquirewealth - Reichtum erwerben

bullied - schikaniert; Rabauke, Bully, Tyrann, Schikaneur, einschüchtern

personswith - Personen mit

dealings - Geschäfte; handelnd

These persons are:

The guards of the town, or the police.

The officers of the courts of justice.

justice - Gerechtigkeit, Genugtuung, Justiz


Powerful men, or men with interest.

Learned men.

Teachers of the sixty-four arts.

Pithamardas or confidants.

confidants - Mitwisser; Vertrauter

Vitas or parasites.

parasites - Parasiten; Parasit, Schmarotzer, Parasit

Vidushakas or jesters.

jesters - Narren; Spaßmacher, Spaßmacherin, Clown, Clownin, Hampelmann

Flower sellers.


Perfumers - Parfümeure; Parfümeur

Vendors of spirits.

vendors - Anbieter, Vertreiber, Lieferant, Lieferantin, Lieferer




And such other persons as may be found necessary for the particularobject to be acquired.

particularobject - bestimmtes Objekt

The following kinds of men may be taken up with simply for the purposeof getting their money.

purposeof - Zweck der

Men of independent income.

Young men.

Men who are free from any ties.

Men who hold places of authority under the King.

Men who have secured their means of livelihood without difficulty.

Men possessed of unfailing sources of income.

unfailing - unfehlbar

Men who consider themselves handsome.

Men who are always praising themselves.

One who is an eunuch, but wishes to be thought a man.

One who hates his equals.

One who is naturally liberal.

One who has influence with the King or his ministers.

One who is always fortunate.

One who is proud of his wealth.

One who disobeys the orders of his elders.

disobeys - nicht gehorcht; missachten, nicht gehorchen

One upon whom the members of his caste keep an eye.

The only son whose father is wealthy.

An ascetic who is internally troubled with desire.

internally - innerbetrieblich

A brave man.

A physician of the King.

physician - Arzt, Ärztin, Mediziner, Medizinerin

Previous acquaintance.

On the other hand, those who are possessed of excellent qualities are tobe resorted to for the sake of love, and fame. Such men are as follows:

fame - Ruhm, Berühmtheit, Bekanntheit

Such are the good qualities of a man.

The woman also should have the following characteristics, viz.:

She should be possessed of beauty, and amiability, with auspicious bodymarks. She should have a liking for good qualities in other people, asalso a liking for wealth. She should take delight in sexual unionsresulting from love, and should be of a firm mind, and of the same classas the man with regard to sexual enjoyment.

amiability - Liebenswürdigkeit

bodymarks - Körperstellen

unionsresulting - Gewerkschaften resultieren

She should always be anxious to acquire and obtain experience andknowledge, be free from avarice, and always have a liking for socialgatherings, and for the arts.

be anxious - besorgt sein

andknowledge - undWissen

socialgatherings - geselliges Beisammensein

The following are the ordinary qualities of all women, viz.:

The faults of the women are to be known by the absence of any of theabove mentioned good qualities.

The following kinds of men are not fit to be resorted to by courtesans,viz.:

Ancient authors are of opinion that the causes of a courtesan resortingto men are love, fear, money, pleasure, returning some act of enmity,curiosity, sorrow, constant intercourse, Dharma, celebrity, compassion,the desire of having a friend, shame, the likeness of the man to somebeloved person, the search after good fortune, the getting rid of thelove of somebody else, the being of the same class as the man withrespect to sexual union, living in the same place, constancy, andpoverty.

resortingto - Zuflucht zu

likeness - Ähnlichkeit; Gestalt; Abbild

search after - durchsuchen, suchen, forschen nach

withrespect - mitRespekt

constancy - Konstanz, Beständigkeit, Ausdauer

andpoverty - undArmut

But Vatsyayana decides that desire of wealth, freedom frommisfortune, and love, are the only causes that affect the union ofcourtesans with men.

frommisfortune - vom Unglück

Now a courtesan should not sacrifice money to her love, because money isthe chief thing to be attended to. But in cases of fear, etc., sheshould pay regard to strength and other qualities. Moreover, even thoughshe be invited by any man to join him, she should not at once consent toan union, because men are apt to despise things which are easilyacquired. On such occasions she should first send the shampooers, andthe singers, and the jesters, who may be in her service, or, in theirabsence the Pithamardas, or confidants, and others, to find out thestate of his feelings, and the condition of his mind.

isthe - ist die

thoughshe - Aber sie

apt - passend; Hochgeschwindigkeitszug; geeignet, begabt

easilyacquired - leicht zu erwerben

theirabsence - ihre Abwesenheit

thestate - den Staat

By means of thesepersons she should ascertain whether the man is pure or impure,affected, or the reverse, capable of attachment, or indifferent, liberalor niggardly; and if she finds him to her liking, she should thenemploy the Vita and others to attach his mind to her.

thesepersons - diesePersonen

impure - unrein

liberalor - liberal oder

niggardly - knauserig; geizig

thenemploy - dann beschäftigen

Accordingly, the Pithamarda should bring the man to her house, under thepretence of seeing the fights of quails, cocks, and rams, of hearing themaina (a kind of starling) talk, or of seeing some other spectacle, orthe practice of some art; or he may take the woman to the abode of theman. After this, when the man comes to her house the woman should givehim something capable of producing curiosity, and love in his heart,such as an affectionate present, telling him that it was speciallydesigned for his use.

thepretence - die Vorhersage

starling - Star; Eisbrecher

spectacle - Spektakel, Schauspiel

givehim - Ihm geben

speciallydesigned - speziell entwickelt

She should also amuse him for a long time bytelling him such stories, and doing such things as he may take mostdelight in. When he goes away she should frequently send to him a femaleattendant, skilled in carrying on a jesting conversation, and also asmall present at the same time. She should also sometimes go to himherself under the pretence of some business, and accompanied by thePithamarda.

femaleattendant - weibliche Betreuerin

jesting - scherzend; (jest) scherzend

asmall - asklein

himherself - sich selbst

Thus end the means of attaching to herself the man desired.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

"When a lover comes to her abode, a courtesan should give him a mixtureof betel leaves and betel nut, garlands of flowers, and perfumedointments, and, showing her skill in arts, should entertain him with along conversation. She should also give him some loving presents, andmake an exchange of her own things with his, and at the same time shouldshow him her skill in sexual enjoyment.

perfumedointments - parfümierte Salben

When a courtesan is thus unitedwith her lover she should always delight him by affectionate gifts, byconversation, and by the application of tender means of enjoyment."

unitedwith - vereinigt mit

byconversation - durch Konversation


[Footnote 74: In England the lower classes of courtesans walk thestreets; in India and other places in the East they sit at the windows,or at the doors of their houses.]

lower classes - Gesindel

thestreets - die Straßen



When a courtesan is living as a wife with her lover, she should behavelike a chaste woman, and do everything to his satisfaction. Her duty inthis respect, in short, is, that she should give him pleasure, butshould not become attached to him, though behaving as if she were reallyattached.

behavelike - verhaltensmäßig

reallyattached - wirklich gebunden

Now the following is the manner in which she is to conduct herself, soas to accomplish the above mentioned purpose. She should have a motherdependent on her, one who should be represented as very harsh, and wholooked upon money as her chief object in life. In the event of therebeing no mother, then an old and confidential nurse should play the samerole.

motherdependent - mutterabhängig

wholooked - Wer hat nachgeschaut

therebeing - gibt es

The mother or nurse, on their part, should appear to be displeasedwith the lover, and forcibly take her away from him. The woman herselfshould always show pretended anger, dejection, fear, and shame on thisaccount, but should not disobey the mother or nurse at any time.

displeasedwith - unzufrieden mit

herselfshould - selbst sollte

dejection - Kotentleerung, Niedergeschlagenheit

thisaccount - diesesKonto

disobey - missachten; nicht gehorchen

She should make out to the mother or nurse that the man is sufferingfrom bad health, and making this a pretext for going to see him, sheshould go on that account. She is, moreover, to do the following thingsfor the purpose of gaining the man's favour, viz.:

sufferingfrom - Leiden von

When the man sets out on a journey, she should make him swear that hewill return quickly, and in his absence should put aside her vows ofworshipping the Deity, and should wear no ornaments except those thatare lucky. If the time fixed for his return has passed, she shouldendeavour to ascertain the real time of his return from omens, from thereports of the people, and from the positions of the planets, the moonand the stars.

swear - schwören

hewill - Er wird

ofworshipping - der Anbetung

shouldendeavour - sollte man sich bemühen

On occasions of amusement, and of auspicious dreams, sheshould say "Let me be soon united to him." If, moreover, she feelsmelancholy, or sees any inauspicious omen, she should perform some riteto appease the Deity.

feelsmelancholy - Melancholie fühlen

inauspicious - ungünstig

appease - besänftigen, friedlich stimmen, beschwichtigen

When the man does return home she should worship the God Kama (_i.e._,the Indian Cupid), and offer oblations to other Deities, and havingcaused a pot filled with water to be brought by her friends, she shouldperform the worship in honour of the crow who eats the offerings whichwe make to the manes of deceased relations.

Cupid - Amor, Cupido

oblations - Opfergaben; Opfergabe, Opfer

havingcaused - Verursacht haben

offerings - Angebote; Angebot

whichwe - was wir

manes - Mähnen; Mähne, Mähne

deceased - verstorben; Ableben, Exitus, Hinschied, ableben, hinscheiden

After the first visit isover she should ask her lover also to perform certain rites, and this hewill do if he is sufficiently attached to her.

rites - Riten; Ritus, Brauch

Now a man is said to be sufficiently attached to a woman when his loveis disinterested; when he has the same object in view as his belovedone; when he is quite free from any suspicions on her account; and whenhe is indifferent to money with regard to her.

disinterested - desinteressiert; Desinteresse

whenhe - wann er

Such is the manner of a courtesan living with a man like a wife, and setforth here for the sake of guidance from the rules of Dattaka. What isnot laid down here should be practised according to the custom of thepeople, and the nature of each individual man.

setforth - fortfahren

guidance - Anleitung, Richtungsweisung, Handlungsempfehlung

isnot - oder nicht

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The extent of the love of women is not known, even to those who are theobjects of their affection, on account of its subtlety, and on accountof the avarice, and natural intelligence of womankind."

extent - Umfang, Ausdehnung, Ausmaß, Größe

accountof - Konto von

"Women are hardly ever known in their true light, though they may lovemen, or become indifferent towards them; may give them delight, orabandon them; or may extract from them all the wealth that they maypossess."

lovemen - Verliebte

orabandon - oder aufgeben

extract - Auszug; Extrakt; entnehmen, herausziehen, entziehen

maypossess - besitzen darf



Money is got out of a lover in two ways, viz.:

By natural or lawful means, and by artifices. Old authors are of opinionthat when a courtesan can get as much money as she wants from her lover,she should not make use of artifice. But Vatsyayana lays down thatthough she may get some money from him by natural means, yet when shemakes use of artifice he gives her doubly more, and therefore artificeshould be resorted to for the purpose of extorting money from him at allevents.

thatthough - Aber das

shemakes - sie macht

artificeshould - künstlich sein sollte

extorting - Erpressung; erpressen, erzwingen

Now the artifices to be used for getting money from her lover are asfollows:

artifices - Kunstgriffe; Kunstgriff

1st. Taking money from him on different occasions, for the purpose ofpurchasing various articles, such as ornaments, food, drink, flowers,perfumes and cloths, and either not buying them, or getting from himmore than their cost.

ofpurchasing - des Kaufs

himmore - himmlisch

2nd. Praising his intelligence to his face.

3rd. Pretending to be obliged to make gifts on occasion of festivalsconnected with vows, trees, gardens, temples, or tanks.[75]

be obliged - müssen

tanks - Panzer, Wasserbecken, Behälter

4th. Pretending that at the time of going to his house, her jewels havebeen stolen either by the King's guards, or by robbers.

5th. Alleging that her property has been destroyed by fire, by thefalling of her house, or by the carelessness of her servants.

alleging - behauptet; behaupten

thefalling - das Fallen

6th. Pretending to have lost the ornaments of her lover along with herown.

7th. Causing him to hear through other people of the expenses incurredby her in coming to see him.

expenses - Ausgaben; Ausgabe, Aufwand, Verlust

incurredby - angefallen

8th. Contracting debts for the sake of her lover.

contracting - Vertrag, Kontrakt; ich/er/sie zog zusammen, Vertrag abschließen

debts - Schuld, Verbindlichkeit, Verpflichtung, Schulden

9th. Disputing with her mother on account of some expense incurred byher for her lover, and which was not approved of by her mother.

disputing - anfechten; Streit, Disput, Debatte, erörtern, bestreiten

incurred - entstanden; zufügen, zurechnen, haftbar machen

approved - genehmigt; billigen, genehmigen, zusagen

10th. Not going to parties and festivities in the houses of her friendsfor the want of presents to make to them, she having previously informedher lover of the valuable presents given to her by these very friends.

festivities - Festlichkeiten; Fest

friendsfor - Freunde für

informedher - Sie informiert

11th. Not performing certain festive rites under the pretence that shehas no money to perform them with.

festive - festlich

12th. Engaging artists to do something for her lover.

engaging - engagieren; beschäftigen, anstellen, angreifen, anlegen

13th. Entertaining physicians and ministers for the purpose of attainingsome object.

physicians - Ärzten; Arzt, Ärztin, Mediziner, Medizinerin, Doktor, Doktorin

attainingsome - etwas zu erreichen

14th. Assisting friends and benefactors both on festive occasions, andin misfortune.

benefactors - Wohltäter, Wohltäterin, Benefaktor

misfortune - Pech, Ungemach, Unglück, Unfall, Unheil

15th. Performing household rites.

16th. Having to pay the expenses of the ceremony of marriage of the sonof a female friend.

17th. Having to satisfy curious wishes during her state of pregnancy.

pregnancy - Schwangerschaft

18th. Pretending to be ill, and charging her cost of treatment.

19th. Having to remove the troubles of a friend.

20th. Selling some of her ornaments, so as to give her lover a present.

21st. Pretending to sell some of her ornaments, furniture, or cookingutensils to a trader, who has been already tutored how to behave in thematter.

cookingutensils - Kochutensilien

tutored - unterrichtet; Privatunterricht geben; Lehrprogramm, Begleiter

22nd. Having to buy cooking utensils of greater value than those ofother people, so that they might be more easily distinguished, and notchanged for others of an inferior description.

utensils - Utensilien; Gerät

ofother - der anderen

notchanged - gekerbt

23rd. Remembering the former favours of her lover, and causing themalways to be spoken of by her friends and followers.

themalways - dieimmer

24th. Informing her lover of the great gains of other courtezans.

informing - benachrichtigen, mitteilen, informieren

25th. Describing before them, and in the presence of her lover, her owngreat gains, and making them out to be greater even than theirs, thoughsuch may not have been really the case.

owngreat - großartig

thoughsuch - obwohl diese

26th. Openly opposing her mother when she endeavours to persuade her totake up with men with whom she has been formerly acquainted, on accountof the great gains to be got from them.

27th. Lastly, pointing out to her lover the liberality of his rivals.

Thus end the ways and means of getting money.

* * * * *

A woman should always know the state of the mind, of the feelings, andof the disposition of her lover towards her, from the changes of histemper, his manner, and the colour of his face.

histemper - Staupe

The behaviour of a waning lover is as follows:

waning - (wane) abnehmen, abflauen, schwinden; (wan) (wane) abnehmen

1st. He gives the woman either less than is wanted, or something elsethan that which is asked for.

2nd. He keeps her in hopes by promises.

3rd. He pretends to do one thing, and does something else.

4th. He does not fulfil her desires.

fulfil - erfüllen, ableisten, anfüllen, gerecht werden

5th. He forgets his promises, or does something else than that which hehas promised.

hehas - Er hat

6th. He speaks with his own servants in a mysterious way.

mysterious - geheimnisvoll; mysteriös; rätselhaft

7th. He sleeps in some other house under the pretence of having to dosomething for a friend.

dosomething - etwas tun

8th. Lastly, he speaks in private with the attendants of a woman withwhom he was formerly acquainted.

withwhom - mitwem

The means of getting rid of a lover are as follows:

1st. Describing the habits and vices of the lover as disagreeable andcensurable, with the sneer of the lip, and the stamp of the foot.

vices - Laster; der Schraubstock

andcensurable - und zählbar

sneer - spotten; Spott; grinsen, spötteln

2nd. Speaking on a subject with which he is not acquainted.

3rd. Showing no admiration for his learning, and passing a censure uponit.

admiration - Bewunderung

censure - Misstrauen; Tadel, Zurechtweisung, Kritik, Ermahnung

uponit - darauf

4th. Putting down his pride.

5th. Seeking the company of men who are superior to him in learning andwisdom.

6th. Showing a disregard for him on all occasions.

7th. Censuring men possessed of the same faults as her lover.

censuring - Zensur; Tadel, Zurechtweisung, Kritik, Ermahnung, Tadeln

8th. Expressing dissatisfaction at the ways and means of enjoyment usedby him.

dissatisfaction - Unzufriedenheit

usedby - benutzt

9th. Not giving him her mouth to kiss.

10th. Refusing access to her Jaghana, _i.e._, the part of the bodybetween the navel and the thighs.

refusing - Müll; abweisen, verweigern, abschlagen, ablehnen

11th. Showing a dislike for the wounds made by his nails and teeth.

wounds - anschießen, verwunden

12th. Not pressing close up against him at the time when he embracesher.

embracesher - sie umarmen

13th. Keeping her limbs without movement at the time of congress.

limbs - Gliedmaßen; Schenkel (geol. Falte), Glied

14th. Desiring him to employ her when he is fatigued.

desiring - begehren, begehren, Begehren

15th. Laughing at his attachment to her.

16th. Not responding to his embraces.

17th. Turning away from him when he begins to embrace her.

18th. Pretending to be sleepy.

19th. Going out visiting, or into company, when she perceives his desireto enjoy her during the day time.

desireto - wünschen

20th. Mis-constructing his words.

Mis - (miss) Frl. Fräulein; (MI) (miss) Frl. Fräulein

21st. Laughing without any joke, or at the time of any joke made by him,laughing under some pretence.

22nd. Looking with side glances at her own attendants, and clapping herhands when he says anything.

side glances - Seitenblicke

clapping - Klatschen; (clap); Klatschen

23rd. Interrupting him in the middle of his stories, and beginning totell other stories herself.

interrupting - unterbrechen

24th. Reciting his faults and his vices, and declaring them to beincurable.

reciting - vortragen; rezitieren; zu Gehör bringen; qoem also:

declaring - bekanntmachen, bekanntgeben, deklarieren, ausrufen, aussagen

beincurable - unheilbar sein

25th. Saying words to her female attendants calculated to cut the heartof her lover to the quick.

calculated - berechnet; kalkulieren, berechnen, ausrechnen, rechnen

26th. Taking care not to look at him when he comes to her.

27th. Asking him what cannot be granted.

granted - gewährt; gewähren, erteilen, bewilligen

28th. And, after all, finally dismissing him.

dismissing - entlassen, entlassen, abweisen, einstellen, zurückweisen

There are also two verses on this subject as follows:

"The duty of a courtesan consists in forming connections with suitablemen after due and full consideration, and attaching the person with whomshe is united to herself; in obtaining wealth from the person who isattached to her, and then dismissing him after she has taken away allhis possessions."

suitablemen - geeignet

whomshe - Wer

"A courtesan leading in this manner the life of a wife is not troubledwith too many lovers, and yet obtains abundance of wealth."

troubledwith - beunruhigt

abundance - Reichtum; Überfluss


[Footnote 75: On the completion of a vow a festival takes place. Sometrees such as the Peepul and Banyan trees, are invested with sacredthreads like the Brahman's, and on the occasion of this ceremony afestival is given. In the same way when gardens are made, and tanks ortemples built, then also festivals are observed.]

vow - Gelübde, Schwur, Eid, Gelöbnis, schwören

ortemples - oderTempel



When a courtesan abandons her present lover after all his wealth isexhausted, she may then consider about her re-union with a former lover.But she should return to him only if he has acquired fresh wealth, or isstill wealthy, and if he is still attached to her. And if this man beliving at the time with some other women she should consider well beforeshe acts.

abandons - aufgibt; im Stich lassen, preisgeben, verlassen, abbrechen

isexhausted - ist erschöpft

beliving - zu glauben

beforeshe - vor ihr

Now such a man can only be in one of the six following conditions, viz.:

1st. He may have left the first woman of his own accord, and may evenhave left another woman since then.

evenhave - selbst haben

2nd. He may have been driven away from both women.

driven away - (drive away) wegjagen, vertreiben

3rd. He may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be livingwith another woman.

livingwith - mit leben

5th. He may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the otherof his own accord.

otherof - anderen

6th. He may have been driven away by the one woman, and may be livingwith another.

(1). Now if the man has left both women of his own accord, he should notbe resorted to, on account of the fickleness of his mind, and hisindifference to the excellencies of both of them.

notbe - nicht sein

hisindifference - seine Gleichgültigkeit

(2). As regards the man who may have been driven away from both women,if he has been driven away from the last one because the woman could getmore money from some other man, then he should be resorted to, for ifattached to the first woman he would give her more money, through vanityand emulation to spite the other woman.

getmore - mehr bekommen

vanityand - Eitelkeit und

emulation - Nacheiferung, Wetteifer, Emulation

spite - Bosheit; trotz

But if he has been driven awayby the woman on account of his poverty, or stinginess, he should notthen be resorted to.

stinginess - Knauserigkeit; Geiz, Knauserei

notthen - nicht

(3). In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his ownaccord, and been driven away by the other, if he agrees to return to theformer and give her plenty of money beforehand, then he should beresorted to.

beforehand - vorher


In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his ownaccord, and be living with another woman, the former (wishing to take upwith him again) should first ascertain if he left her in the firstinstance in the hope of finding some particular excellence in the otherwoman, and that not having found any such excellence, he was willing tocome back to her, and to give her much money on account of his conduct,and on account of his affection still existing for her.

upwith - mit

excellence - Exzellenz; Vortrefflichkeit

otherwoman - eine andere Frau

Or, whether, having discovered many faults in the other woman, he wouldnow see even more excellences in herself than actually exist, and wouldbe prepared to give her much money for these qualities.

wouldnow - Jetzt

excellences - Exzellenzen; Vortrefflichkeit

Or, lastly, to consider whether he was a weak man, or a man fond ofenjoying many women, or one who liked a poor woman, or one who never didanything for the woman that he was with. After maturely considering allthese things, she should resort to him or not, according tocircumstances.

ofenjoying - zu genießen

didanything - irgendetwas getan

maturely - reif

(5). As regards the man who may have been driven away from the onewoman, and left the other of his own accord, the former woman (wishingto re-unite with him) should first ascertain whether he still has anyaffection for her, and would consequently spend much money upon her; orwhether, being attached to her excellent qualities, he did not takedelight in any other women; or whether, being driven away from herformerly before completely satisfying his sexual desires, he wished toget back to her, so as to be revenged for the injury done to him; orwhether he wished to create confidence in her mind, and then take backfrom her the wealth which she formerly took from him, and finallydestroy her; or, lastly, whether he wished first to separate her fromher present lover, and then to break away from her himself.

onewoman - eine Frau

wishingto - Sie wünschen

anyaffection - irgendeine Zuneigung

orwhether - oder ob

herformerly - sie früher

satisfying - zufriedenstellend; befriedigen, zufriedenstellen

toget - zusammen

revenged - gerächt; Rache, rächen

backfrom - zurück von

finallydestroy - endgültig zerstören

fromher - von ihr

break away - abbrechen

If, afterconsidering all these things, she is of opinion that his intentions arereally pure and honest, she can re-unite herself with him. But if hismind be at all tainted with evil intentions, he should be avoided.

afterconsidering - nachdenklich

arereally - wirklich

hismind - seinen Verstand

tainted - verunreinigt; verderben

(6). In the case of the man who may have been driven away by onewoman, and be living with another, if the man makes overtures in returnto the first one, the courtesan should consider well before she acts,and while the other woman is engaged in attracting him to herself, sheshould try in her turn (through keeping herself behind the scenes) togain him over, on the grounds of any of the following considerations,viz.:

returnto - zurückkehren

1st. That he was driven away unjustly and for no proper reason, and nowthat he has gone to another woman, every effort must be used to bringhim back to myself.

unjustly - zu Unrecht; ungerecht

nowthat - Und das

bringhim - ihn mitbringen

2nd. That if he were once to converse with me again, he would break awayfrom the other woman.

3rd. That the pride of my present lover would be put down by means ofthe former one.

4th. That he has become wealthy, has secured a higher position, andholds a place of authority under the King.

andholds - und hält

5th. That he is separate from his wife.

6th. That he is now independent.

7th. That he lives apart from his father, or brother.

8th. That by making peace with him I shall be able to get hold of a veryrich man, who is now prevented from coming to me by my present lover.

veryrich - sehr reich

9th. That as he is not respected by his wife, I shall now be able toseparate him from her.

toseparate - zu trennen

10th. That the friend of this man loves my rival, who hates mecordially; I shall, therefore, by this means separate the friend fromhis mistress.

mecordially - mecordial

fromhis - von ihm

11th. And lastly, I shall bring discredit upon him by bringing him backto me, thus showing the fickleness of his mind.

discredit - in Misskredit bringen

backto - zurück zu

When a courtesan is resolved to take up again with a former lover, herPithamurda and other servants should tell him that his former expulsionfrom the woman's house was caused by the wickedness of her mother; thatthe woman loved him just as much as ever at that time, but could nothelp the occurrence on account of her deference to her mother's will;that she hated the union of her present lover, and disliked himexcessively.

resolved - geklärt; auflösen, beschließen

expulsionfrom - Ausweisung aus

wickedness - Bösartigkeit; Bosheit

nothelp - nicht helfen

deference - Ehrerbietung, Respekt, Achtung

himexcessively - ihn exzessiv

In addition to this, they should create confidence in hismind by speaking to him of her former love for him, and should allude tothe mark of that love that she has ever remembered. This mark of herlove should be connected with some kind of pleasure that may have beenpractised by him, such as his way of kissing her, or manner of havingconnection with her.

allude - anspielen; andeuten, erwähnen

beenpractised - praktiziert worden

havingconnection - Verbindung haben

Thus end the ways of bringing about a re-union with a former lover.

When a woman has to choose between two lovers, one of whom was formerlyunited with her, while the other is a stranger, the Acharyas (sages) areof opinion that the first one is preferable, because his disposition andcharacter being already known by previous careful observation, he can beeasily pleased and satisfied; but Vatsyayana thinks that a former lover,having already spent a great deal of his wealth, is not able or willingto give much money again, and is not, therefore, to be relied upon somuch as a stranger.

formerlyunited - ehemals vereinigt

sages - Weisen; weise, klug, Weise

preferable - vorzuziehen

andcharacter - undCharakter

observation - Beobachtung; Bemerkung

beeasily - bienenfleißig

willingto - bereit

relied - sich verlassen (auf)

somuch - etwas

Particular cases may, however, arise differing fromthis general rule on account of the different natures of men.

differing - abweichend; sich unterscheiden

fromthis - von dem hier

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"Re-union with a former lover may be desirable so as to separate someparticular woman from some particular man, or some particular man fromsome particular woman, or to have a certain effect upon the presentlover."

fromsome - vonsome

"When a man is excessively attached to a woman, he is afraid of hercoming into contact with other men; he does not then regard or noticeher faults; and he gives her much wealth through fear of her leavinghim."

hercoming - kommen

noticeher - merkt

leavinghim - ihn verlassen

"A courtesan should be agreeable to the man who is attached to her, anddespise the man who does not care for her. If while she is living withone man a messenger comes to her from some other man, she may eitherrefuse to listen to any negotiations on his part, or appoint a fixedtime for him to visit her, but she should not leave the man who may beliving with her and who may be attached to her."

anddespise - und Verachtung

eitherrefuse - entweder ablehnen

negotiations - Verhandlungen; Verhandlung

appoint - ernennen; bestimmen, festlegen, ausstatten, ausrüsten

fixedtime - feste Zeit

"A wise woman should only renew her connection with a former lover ifshe is satisfied that good fortune, gain, love, and friendship, arelikely to be the result of such a re-union."

renew - erneuern

ifshe - ob sie

arelikely - wahrscheinlich sind



When a courtesan is able to realize much money every day, by reason ofmany customers, she should not confine herself to a single lover; undersuch circumstances, she should fix her rate for one night, afterconsidering the place, the season, and the condition of the people, andhaving regard to her own good qualities and good looks, and aftercomparing her rates with those of other courtesans.

customers - Kunden; Kunde, Abnehmer, Käufer

confine - einschränken; beschränken; Begrenzung

undersuch - darunter

aftercomparing - nachvergleichen

She can inform herlovers, and friends, and acquaintances about these charges. If, however,she can obtain a great gain from a single lover, she may resort to himalone, and live with him like a wife.

himalone - Er allein

Now, the Sages are of opinion that when a courtesan has the chance of anequal gain from two lovers at the same time, a preference should begiven to the one who would give her the kind of thing which she wants.But Vatsyayana says that the preference should be given to the one whogives her gold, because it cannot be taken back like some other things,it can be easily received, and is also the means of procuring anythingthat may be wished for.

preference - Präferenz, Bevorzugung, Vorliebe; Einstellung

whogives - Wer gibt

taken back - zurückgenommen

procuring - beschaffen, erwerben, besorgen, aufbringen, verschaffen

anythingthat - irgendetwas, das

Of such things as gold, silver, copper, bellmetal, iron, pots, furniture, beds, upper garments, under vestments,fragrant substances, vessels made of gourds, ghee, oil, corn, cattle,and other things of a like nature, the first, viz., gold, is superior toall the others.

vestments - Gewänder; Ornat

gourds - Kürbisse; Kalebasse

ghee - Ghee

toall - an alle

When the same labour is required to gain any two lovers, or when thesame kind of thing is to be got from each of them, the choice should bemade by the advice of a friend, or it may be made from their personalqualities, or from the signs of good or bad fortune that may beconnected with them.

personalqualities - Persönliche Qualitäten

beconnected - verbunden werden

When there are two lovers, one of whom is generous, and the other readyto do any service for the courtesan, some Sages say that the one who isready to do the service should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is ofopinion that a man who does a service thinks that he has gained hisobject when he has done something once, but a generous man does not carefor what he has given before.

readyto - bereit

isready - bereit

hisobject - seinGegenstand

Even here the choice should be guided bythe likelihood of the future good to be derived from her union witheither of them.

likelihood - Wahrscheinlichkeit

witheither - mit einem von beiden

When one of the two lovers is grateful, and the other liberal, someSages say that the liberal one should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is ofopinion that the former should be chosen, because liberal men aregenerally haughty, plain spoken, and wanting in consideration towardsothers. Even though these liberal men have been on friendly terms for along time, yet if they see any fault in the courtesan, or are told liesabout her by some other women, they do not care for past services, butleave abruptly.

aregenerally - sind im Allgemeinen

haughty - hochmütig, stolz, überheblich, arrogant

towardsothers - gegenüber anderen

liesabout - Lügenmärchen

butleave - aber verlassen

abruptly - abrupt, plötzlich, unerwartet, abgerissen, abschüssig

On the other hand the grateful man does not at oncebreak off from her, on account of a regard for the pains she may havetaken to please him. In this case also the choice is to be guided withrespect to what may happen in future.

oncebreak - einmal brechen

havetaken - eingenommen haben

When an occasion for complying with the request of a friend, and achance of getting money come together, the Sages say that the chance ofgetting money should be preferred. But Vatsyayana thinks that the moneycan be obtained to-morrow as well as to-day, but if the request of afriend be not at once complied with, he may become disaffected. Evenhere, in making the choice, regard must be paid to future good fortune.

complying - einhalten; einwilligen, sich fügen

ofgetting - zu bekommen

afriend - einen Freund

complied - nachgekommen; einwilligen, sich fügen

On such an occasion, however, the courtesan might pacify her friend bypretending to have some work to do, and telling him that his requestwill be complied with next day, and in this way secure the chance ofgetting the money that has been offered her.

bypretending - durch Vorspiegeln

When the chance of getting money, and the chance of avoiding somedisaster come at the same time, the Sages are of opinion that the chanceof getting money should be preferred, but Vatsyayana says that money hasonly a limited importance, while a disaster that is once averted maynever occur again. Here, however, the choice should be guided by thegreatness or smallness of the disaster.

somedisaster - eine Katastrophe

chanceof - Chance auf

averted - abgewehrt; abwenden, abwenden, verhindern

maynever - vielleicht nie

smallness - Kleinheit

The gains of the wealthiest and best kind of courtesans are to be spentas follows:

wealthiest - am reichsten; wohlhabend, reich

Building temples, tanks, and gardens; giving a thousand cows todifferent Brahmans; carrying on the worship of the Gods, and celebratingfestivals in their honour; and, lastly, performing such vows as may bewithin their means.

celebratingfestivals - Feste feiern

bewithin - in sich selbst

The gains of other courtesans are to be spent as follows:

Having a white dress to wear every day; getting sufficient food anddrink to satisfy hunger and thirst; eating daily a perfumed Tambula,_i.e._, a mixture of betel nut and betel leaves; and wearing ornamentsgilt with gold.

sufficient - genügend, ausreichend, hinreichend

anddrink - und trinken

hunger - hungern; Hunger

thirst - Durst; dürsten

ornamentsgilt - ornamente vergoldet

The Sages say that these represent the gains of all themiddle and lower classes of courtesans, but Vatsyayana is of opinionthat their gains cannot be calculated, or fixed in any way, as thesedepend on the influence of the place, the customs of the people, theirown appearance, and many other things.

themiddle - Mitte

thesedepend - die abhängig sind

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"In considering her present gains, and her future welfare, a courtesanshould avoid such persons as have gained their means of subsistence withvery great difficulty, as also those who have become selfish andhard-hearted by becoming the favourites of Kings."

courtesanshould - Kurtisane sollte

subsistence - Auskommen, Lebensunterhalt

withvery - mit allem

Selfish - egoistisch, selbstsüchtig, egozentrisch, checkegoistisch

andhard - und hart

"She should make every endeavour to unite herself with prosperous andwell-to-do people, and with those whom it is dangerous to avoid, or toslight in any way. Even at some cost to herself she should becomeacquainted with energetic and liberal-minded men, who when pleased wouldgive her a large sum of money, even for very little service, or for somesmall thing."

prosperous - wohlhabend

andwell - Und nun

becomeacquainted - Kennenlernen

energetic - energisch, energiegeladen, Energie

wouldgive - geben würde

sum - Betrag, Summe, Geldbetrag

somesmall - etwas Kleines



It sometimes happens that while gains are being sought for, or expectedto be realised, that losses only are the result of our efforts, thecauses of these losses are:

expectedto - erwartet

realised - realisiert; erfassen, (Gewinn) erzielen, zu Geld machen

thecauses - die Ursachen

Weakness of intellect.

Excessive love.

Excessive pride.

Excessive self conceit.

conceit - Eingebung; Einbildung; Konzept

Excessive simplicity.

Excessive confidence.

Excessive anger.



recklessness - Leichtsinnigkeit, Fahrlässigkeit, Gewagtheit

Influence of evil genius.

genius - Genie; Genialität

Accidental circumstances.

The results of these losses are:

Expense incurred without any result.

Destruction of future good fortune.

Stoppage of gains about to be realized.

stoppage - Stillstand; Sperrung, Hemmung

Loss of what is already obtained.

Acquisition of a sour temper.

Becoming unaimiable to every body.

unaimiable - unvorhersehbar

Injury to health.

Loss of hair and other accidents.

Now gain is of three kinds, viz.: gain of wealth, gain of religiousmerit, and gain of pleasure; and similarly, loss is of three kinds,viz.: loss of wealth, loss of religious merit, and loss of pleasure. Atthe time when gains are sought for, if other gains come along with them,these are called attendant gains. When gain is uncertain, the doubt ofits being a gain is called a simple doubt. When there is a doubtwhether either of two things will happen or not, it is called a mixeddoubt.

religiousmerit - religiöses Verdienst

uncertain - unsicher

ofits - von ihr

doubtwhether - zweifeln, ob

If while one thing is being done two results take place, it iscalled a combination of two results, and if several results follow fromthe same action, it is called a combination of results on every side.

We shall now give examples of the above.

As already stated, gain is of three kinds, and loss, which is opposed togain, is also of three kinds.

(a). When by living with a great man a courtesan acquires presentwealth, and in addition to this becomes acquainted with other people,and thus obtains a chance of future fortune, and an accession of wealth,and becomes desirable to all, this is called a gain of wealth attendedby other gain.

acquires - erwirbt; erwerben, erwerben, akquirieren

presentwealth - gegenwärtigen Reichtum

accession - Beitritt; Zuwachs; Vermögenszuwachs; Antritt, Besteigung

attendedby - besucht

(b). When by living with a man a courtesan simply gets money, this iscalled a gain of wealth not attended by any other gain.

(c). When a courtesan receives money from other people besides herlover, the results are: the chance of the loss of future good from herpresent lover; the chance of disaffection of a man securely attached toher; the hatred of all; and the chance of a union with some low person,tending to destroy her future good. This gain is called a gain of wealthattended by losses.

herpresent - ihr Geschenk

disaffection - Enttäuschung; Unzufriedenheit

securely - sicher

hatred - Hass

wealthattended - Reichtum besucht

(d). When a courtesan, at her own expense, and without any results inthe shape of gain, has connected with a great man, or an avariciousminister, for the sake of diverting some misfortune, or removing somecause that may be threatening the destruction of a great gain, this lossis said to be a loss of wealth attended by gains of the future goodwhich it may bring about.

avariciousminister - avaricious minister

diverting - ablenkend; umlenken, umleiten, ablenken, unterhalten

threatening - bedrohlich; drohend; (threaten); drohen, bedrohen, androhen

goodwhich - gut-was

(e). When a courtesan is kind, even at her own expense, to a man who isvery stingy, or to a man proud of his looks, or to an ungrateful manskilled in gaining the heart of others, without any good resulting fromthese connections to her in the end, this loss is called a loss ofwealth not attended by any gain.

stingy - geizig

ungrateful - undankbar

manskilled - qualifiziert

fromthese - von diesen

ofwealth - des Reichtums

(f). When a courtesan is kind to any such man as described above, butwho in addition are favourites of the King, and moreover cruel andpowerful, without any good result in the end, and with a chance of herbeing turned away at any moment, this loss is called a loss of wealthattended by other losses.

butwho - aber wer

andpowerful - und kraftvoll

herbeing - Sie sein

In this way gains and losses, and attendant gains and losses inreligious merit and pleasures may become known to the reader, andcombinations of all of them may also be made.

andcombinations - undKombinationen

Thus end the remarks on gains and losses, and attendant gains andlosses.

andlosses - undVerluste

In the next place we come to doubts, which are again of three kinds,viz.: doubts about wealth, doubts about religious merit, and doubtsabout pleasures.

doubtsabout - Zweifeln Sie

The following are examples.

(a). When a courtesan is not certain how much a man may give her, orspend upon her, this is called a doubt about wealth.

orspend - oder ausgeben

(b). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she is right in entirelyabandoning a lover from whom she is unable to get money, she havingtaken all his wealth from him in the first instance, this doubt iscalled a doubt about religious merit.

entirelyabandoning - völlig aufgeben

havingtaken - genommen

(c). When a courtesan is unable to get hold of a lover to her liking,and is uncertain whether she will derive any pleasure from a personsurrounded by his family, or from a low person, this is called a doubtabout pleasure.

personsurrounded - Personen umzingelt

doubtabout - im Zweifel

(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether some powerful but lowprincipled fellow would cause loss to her on account of her not beingcivil to him, this is called a doubt about the loss of wealth.

lowprincipled - prinzipienlos

beingcivil - zivilisiert sein

(e). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she would lose religiousmerit by abandoning a man who is attached to her without giving him theslightest favour, and thereby causing him unhappiness in this world andthe next,[76] this doubt is called a doubt about the loss of a religiousmerit.

Abandoning - Aufgeben; im Stich lassen, preisgeben, verlassen, abbrechen

theslightest - am leichtesten

unhappiness - unglücklich; Traurigkeit, Unglück

(f). When a courtesan is uncertain as to whether she might createdisaffection by speaking out, and revealing her love and thus not gether desire satisfied, this is called a doubt about the loss of pleasure.

createdisaffection - eine Affinität geschaffen

revealing - aufschlussreich; gewagt

Thus end the remarks on doubts.

_Mixed Doubts_.

(a). The intercourse or connection with a stranger, whose disposition isunknown, and who may have been introduced by a lover, or by one whopossessed authority, may be productive either of gain or loss, andtherefore this is called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss ofwealth.

isunknown - ist nicht bekannt

whopossessed - Wer hat es gewusst

productive - produktiv

andtherefore - und deshalb

(b). When a courtesan is requested by a friend, or is impelled by pityto have intercourse with a learned Brahman, a religious student, asacrificer, a devotee, or an ascetic who may have all fallen in lovewith her, and who may be consequently at the point of death, by doingthis she might either gain or lose religious merit, and therefore thisis called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of religious merit.

impelled - angetrieben; antreiben, vorantreiben, treiben, nötigen

asacrificer - Aufopferungsvoll

devotee - Bewunderer, Enthusiast, Fan, Anhänger

lovewith - mit lieben

doingthis - dies zu tun

(c). If a courtesan relies solely upon the report of other people (_i.e._,hearsay) about a man, and goes to him without ascertaining herselfwhether he possesses good qualities or not, she may either gain or losepleasure in proportion as he may be good or bad, and therefore this iscalled a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of pleasure.

relies - vertraut; sich verlassen (auf)

solely - nur; einzig und allein; ausschließlich, exklusiv, alleinig

hearsay - Hörensagen, Gerücht

ascertaining - feststellen

herselfwhether - sich selbst, ob

losepleasure - das Vergnügen verlieren

proportion - Verhältnis; Teil, Proportion, Anteil

Uddalika has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.

(a). If, when living with a lover, a courtesan gets both wealth andpleasure from him, it is called a gain on both sides.

(b). When a courtesan lives with a lover at her own expense withoutgetting any profit out of it, and the lover even takes back from herwhat he may have formerly given her, it is called a loss on both sides.

withoutgetting - ohne etwas zu bekommen

takes back - (take back) zurücknehmen

herwhat - Was

(c). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a new acquaintance wouldbecome attached to her, and, moreover, if he became attached to her,whether he would give her any thing, it is then called a doubt on bothsides about gains.

wouldbecome - werden würde

(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a former enemy, if made up byher at her own expense, would do her some injury on account of hisgrudge against her; or, if becoming attached to her, would take awayangrily from her any thing that he may have given to her, this is calleda doubt on both sides about loss.

hisgrudge - seinen Groll

awayangrily - wütend weg

Babhravya has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.

(a). When a courtesan can get money from a man whom she may go to see,and also money from a man whom she may not go to see, this is called again on both sides.

(b). When a courtesan has to incur further expense if she goes to see aman, and yet runs the risk of incurring an irremediable loss if she doesnot go to see him, this is called a loss on both sides.

incurring - anfallen; zufügen, zurechnen, haftbar machen, in Haftung nehmen

irremediable - unabänderlich

(c). When a courtesan is uncertain, whether a particular man would giveher anything on her going to see him, without incurring expense on herpart, or whether on her neglecting him another man would give hersomething, this is called a doubt on both sides about gain.

neglecting - vernachlässigen, verabsäumen, versäumen, missachten

hersomething - Ihr etwas

(d.) When a courtesan is uncertain, whether, on going at her own expenseto see an old enemy, he would take back from her what he may have givenher, or whether by her not going to see him he would cause some disasterto fall upon her, this is called a doubt on both sides about loss.

expenseto - Kosten zu

givenher - ihr gegeben

disasterto - katastrophe zu

By combining the above, the following six kinds of mixed results areproduced, viz.:

areproduced - produziert werden

(a). Gain on one side, and loss on the other.

(b). Gain on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.

(c). Gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.

(d). Loss on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.

(e). Doubt of gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.

(f). Doubt of loss on one side, and loss on the other.

A courtesan, having considered all the above things, and taken councilwith her friends, should act so as to acquire gain, the chances of greatgain, and the warding off of any great disaster. Religious merit andpleasure should also be formed into separate combinations like those ofwealth, and then all should be combined with each other, so as to formnew combinations.

councilwith - mit dem Rat

warding - Vorbeugung; (ward) abwehren

When a courtesan consorts with men she should cause each of them to giveher money as well as pleasure. At particular times, such as the SpringFestivals, etc., she should make her mother announce to the various men,that on a certain day her daughter would remain with the man who wouldgratify such and such a desire of hers.

consorts - Gattinnen; Gemahl, Gemahlin

wouldgratify - gratulieren würde

When young men approach her with delight, she should think of what shemay accomplish through them.

The combination of gains and losses on all sides are: gain on one side,and loss on all others; loss on one side and gain on all others; gain onall sides, loss on all sides.

onall - alles

A courtesan should also consider doubts about gain and doubts about losswith reference both to wealth, religious merit, and pleasure.

losswith - Verlust mit

Thus ends the consideration of gain, loss, attendant gains, attendantlosses, and doubts.

attendantlosses - Begleiterscheinungsverluste

The different kinds of courtesans are:

A bawd.

bawd - Puffmutter; Kupplerin

A female attendant.

An unchaste woman.

A dancing girl.

A female artisan.

Artisan - Kunsthandwerker; Handwerker, Handwerkerin

A woman who has left her family.

A woman living on her beauty.

And, finally, a regular courtesan.

All the above kinds of courtesans are acquainted with various kinds ofmen, and should consider the ways of getting money from them, ofpleasing them, of separating themselves from them, and of re-unitingwith them. They should also take into consideration particular gains andlosses, attendant gains and losses, and doubts in accordance with theirseveral conditions.

ofpleasing - zu gefallen

unitingwith - mit vereinigen

theirseveral - ihremehreren

Thus end the considerations of courtesans.

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"Men want pleasure, while women want money, and therefore this Part,which treats of the means of gaining wealth, should be studied."

"There are some women who seek for love, and there are others who seekfor money; for the former the ways of love are told in previous portionsof this work, while the ways of getting money, as practised bycourtesans, are described in this Part."

seekfor - suchen

portionsof - Portionen von

bycourtesans - von Courtesanern


[Footnote 76: The souls of men who die with their desires unfulfilledare said to go to the world of the Manes, and not direct to the SupremeSpirit.]

souls - Seelen; Inbrunst, Seele, Gefühl, Herz

unfulfilledare - unerfüllt sind






When a person fails to obtain the object of his desires by any of theways previously related, he should then have recourse to other ways ofattracting others to himself.

ofattracting - der Anziehung

Now, good looks, good qualities, youth, and liberality are the chief andmost natural means of making a person agreeable in the eyes of others.But in the absence of these a man or a woman must have resort toartificial means, or to art, and the following are some recipes that maybe found useful.

andmost - und am meisten

toartificial - zu künstlich

(a). An ointment made of the tabernamontana coronaria, the costusspeciosus or arabicus, and the flacourtia cataphracta, can be used as anunguent of adornment.

(b). If a fine powder is made of the above plants, and applied to thewick of a lamp, which is made to burn with the oil of blue vitrol, theblack pigment or lamp black produced therefrom, when applied to theeye-lashes, has the effect of making a person look lovely.

pigment - Pigment; Farbstoff, checkPigment, pigmentieren

therefrom - davon ab

lashes - Wimpern; Peitsche, Wimper; anbinden

(c). The oil of the hog weed, the echites putescens, the sarina plant,the yellow amaranth, and the leaf of the nymphæ, if applied to the body,has the same effect.

hog - Schwein

weed - Unkraut; aussondern, ausscheiden; (wee) Unkraut; aussondern

(d). A black pigment from the same plants produce a similar effect.

(e). By eating the powder of the nelumbrium speciosum, the blue lotus,and the mesna roxburghii, with ghee and honey, a man becomes lovely inthe eyes of others.

honey - Schatz; Honig

(f). The above things, together with the tabernamontana coronaria, andthe xanthochymus pictorius, if used as an ointment, produce the sameresults.

sameresults - die gleichen Ergebnisse

(g). If the bone of a peacock or of an hyena be covered with gold, andtied on the right hand, it makes a man lovely in the eyes of otherpeople.

hyena - Hyäne

andtied - und gefesselt

(h). In the same way, if a bead, made of the seed of the jujube, or ofthe conch shell, be enchanted by the incantations mentioned in theAtharvana Veda, or by the incantations of those well skilled in thescience of magic, and tied on the hand, it produces the same result asdescribed above.

bead - Perle; Tropfen

jujube - Jujube, chinesische Dattel, Brustbeere

conch - Muschel; conchieren

enchanted - verzaubert; verzaubern, verzaubern

theAtharvana - dasAtharvana

thescience - die Wissenschaft

asdescribed - wie beschrieben

(i). When a female attendant arrives at the age of puberty, her mastershould keep her secluded, and when men ardently desire her on account ofher seclusion, and on account of the difficulty of approaching her, heshould then bestow her hand on such a person as may endow her withwealth and happiness.

mastershould - Meister sollte

secluded - Abgelegen; absondern, abschließen

seclusion - Abgeschiedenheit, Abschottung, Absonderung

approaching - sich nähern, nahekommen, ähnlich sein

bestow - verstauen, einlagern, unterbringen, schenken, verleihen

endow - stiften; ausstatten

withwealth - mit Reichtum

This is a means of increasing the loveliness of a person in the eyes ofothers.

loveliness - Lieblichkeit

In the same way, when the daughter of a courtesan arrives at the age ofpuberty, the mother should get together a lot of young men of the sameage, disposition, and knowledge as her daughter, and tell them that shewould give her in marriage to the person who would give her presents ofa particular kind.

ofpuberty - der Pubertät

sameage - gleichberechtigt

After this the daughter should be kept in seclusion as far as possible,and the mother should give her in marriage to the man who may be readyto give her the presents agreed upon. If the mother is unable to get somuch out of the man, she should show some of her own things as havingbeen given to the daughter by the bridegroom.

havingbeen - gewesen zu sein

bridegroom - Bräutigam

Or, the mother may allow her daughter to be married to the manprivately, as if she was ignorant of the whole affair, and thenpretending that it has come to her knowledge, she may give her consentto the union.

manprivately - Mannprivat

thenpretending - dann vorgeben

The daughter, too, should make herself attractive to the sons of wealthycitizens, unknown to her mother, and make them attached to her, and forthis purpose should meet them at the time of learning to sing, and inplaces where music is played, and at the houses of other people, andthen request her mother, through a female friend, or servant, to beallowed to unite herself to the man who is most agreeable to her.[77]

wealthycitizens - Wohlstandsbürger

unknown - unbekannt; Unbekannte; Unbekannter

forthis - vor

beallowed - erlaubt sein

When the daughter of a courtesan is thus given to a man, the ties ofmarriage should be observed for one year, and after that she may do whatshe likes. But even after the end of the year, when otherwise engaged,if she should be now and then invited by her first husband to come andsee him, she should put aside her present gain, and go to him for thenight.

whatshe - Dingsbums

andsee - und sehen

thenight - Und dann

Such is the mode of temporary marriage among courtesans, and ofincreasing their loveliness, and their value in the eyes of others. Whathas been said about them should also be understood to apply to thedaughters of dancing women, whose mothers should give them only to suchpersons as are likely to become useful to them in various ways.

mode - Betriebsart, Betrieb, Modus, Art

temporary - zeitweilig, temporär, vorübergehend, Zeitarbeitskraft

ofincreasing - zu erhöhen

thedaughters - die Töchter

suchpersons - solche Personen

Thus end the ways of making oneself lovely in the eyes of others.

(a). If a man, after anointing his lingam with a mixture of the powdersof the white thorn apple, the long pepper, and the black pepper, andhoney, engages in sexual union with a woman, he makes her subject to hiswill.

anointing - Salbung; ölen, schmieren, einreiben, ölen, salben

powdersof - Pulver von

thorn - Dornen; Dorn

andhoney - undHonig

hiswill - seinen Willen

(b). The application of a mixture of the leaf of the plant vatodbhranta,of the flowers thrown on a human corpse when carried out to be burnt,and the powder of the bones of the peacock, and of the jiwanjiva bird,produces the same effect.

corpse - Leiche, Leichnam

(c). The remains of a kite who has died a natural death, ground intopowder, and mixed with cowach and honey, has also the same effect.

kite - flitzen; Drachen, Milan

(d). Anointing oneself with an ointment made of the plant emblicamyrabolans has the power of subjecting women to one's will.


If a man cuts into small pieces the sprouts of the vajnasunhiplant, and dips them into a mixture of red arsenic and sulphur, and thendries them seven times, and applies this powder mixed with honey to hislingam, he can subjugate a woman to his will directly that he has hadsexual union with her, or, if, by burning these very sprouts at nightand looking at the smoke, he sees a golden moon behind, he will then besuccessful with any woman; or if he throws some of the powder of thesesame sprouts mixed with the excrement of a monkey upon a maiden, shewill not be given in marriage to any body else.

cuts into - (cut into) einschnüren (einengen)

dips - einfallen, sich senken, sich neigen, färben; Dip, Tunke

sulphur - Schwefel

subjugate - unterjochen, unterwerfen

hadsexual - hadsexuell

nightand - Nacht und

Golden - golden, goldgelb

besuccessful - erfolgreich sein

thesesame - dasselbe

excrement - Exkremente; Kot

(f). If pieces of the arris root are dressed with the oil of the mango,and placed for six months in a hole made in the trunk of the sisu tree,and are then taken out and made up into an ointment, and applied to thelingam, this is said to serve as the means of subjugating women.

arris - scharfe Kante

mango - Mangobaum; Mango


If the bone of a camel is dipped into the juice of the planteclipta prostata, and then burnt, and the black pigment produced fromits ashes is placed in a box also made of the bone of a camel, andapplied together with antimony to the eye lashes with a pencil also madeof the bone of a camel, then that pigment is said to be very pure, andwholesome for the eyes, and serves as a means of subjugating others tothe person who uses it. The same effect can be produced by black pigmentmade of the bones of hawks, vultures, and peacocks.

camel - Kamel

dipped into - eingetaucht

fromits - vonits

andapplied - und angewandt

antimony - Antimon

madeof - hergestellt aus

andwholesome - und gesundheitsfördernd

hawks - Falken; Falke, Habicht; auf der Straße verkaufen, beizen (Jagd)

vultures - Geier, Geierin, Aasgeier

Thus end the ways of subjugating others to one's own will.

Now the means of increasing sexual vigour are as follows:

vigour - Vitalität; Ausdruckskraft, Energie, Leidenschaftlichkeit

(a). A man obtains sexual vigour by drinking milk mixed with sugar, theroot of the uchchata plant, the piper chaba, and liquorice.

theroot - Wurzel

piper - Pfeifer, Dudelsackspieler

liquorice - Süßholz, Lakritze, Lakritz

(b). Drinking milk mixed with sugar, and having the testicle of a ram ora goat boiled in it, is also productive of vigour.

testicle - Hoden, Testikel

(c). The drinking of the juice of the hedysarum gangeticum, the kuili,and the kshirika plant mixed with milk, produces the same effect.

(d). The seed of the long pepper along with the seeds of the sansevieraroxburghiana, and the hedysarum gangeticum plant, all pounded together,and mixed with milk, is productive of a similar result.

(e). According to ancient authors, if a man pounds the seeds or roots ofthe trapa bispinosa, the kasurika, the tuscan jasmine, and liquorice,together with the kshirakapoli (a kind of onion), and puts the powderinto milk mixed with sugar and ghee, and having boiled the whole mixtureon a moderate fire, drinks the paste so formed, he will be able to enjoyinnumerable women.

Tuscan - Toskanisch; Toskaner, Toskanerin

powderinto - Pulver in

paste - Paste; Teig, Pastete, Kleister, Klebstoff, Kitt, Strass

enjoyinnumerable - Unzählige genießen

(f). In the same way, if a man mixes rice with the eggs of the sparrow,and having boiled this in milk, adds to it ghee and honey, and drinks asmuch of it as necessary, this will produce the same effect.

asmuch - wie viel

(g). If a man takes the outer covering of sesamum seeds, and soaks themwith the eggs of sparrows, and then, having boiled them in milk, mixedwith sugar and ghee, along with the fruits of the trapa bispinosa andthe kasurika plant, and adding to it the flour of wheat and beans, andthen drinks this composition, he is said to be able to enjoy many women.

soaks - durchnässen, tränken, einweichen, durchziehen, Einweichen

themwith - mit ihnen

sparrows - Spatzen; Sperling, Spatz

mixedwith - gemischt mit

composition - Zusammenstellung; Zusammensetzung, Komposition

(h). If ghee, honey, sugar, and liquorice in equal quantities, the juiceof the fennel plant, and milk are mixed together, this nectar-likecomposition is said to be holy, and provocative of sexual vigour, apreservative of life, and sweet to the taste.

juiceof - Saft von

nectar - Nektar

likecomposition - wie Komposition

provocative - provokativ; provokant

apreservative - ein Konservierungsmittel

(i). The drinking of a paste composed of the asparagus racemosus, theshvadaushtra plant, the guduchi plant, the long pepper, and liquorice,boiled in milk, honey, and ghee, in the spring, is said to have the sameeffect as the above.

asparagus - Spargel

sameeffect - gleiche Wirkung

(j). Boiling the asparagus racemosus, and the shvadaushtra plant, alongwith the pounded fruits of the premna spinosa in water, and drinking thesame, is said to act in the same way.

(k). Drinking boiled ghee, or clarified butter in the morning during thespring season, is said to be beneficial to health and strength, andagreeable to the taste.

beneficial - nützlich

(l). If the powder of the seed of the shvadaushtra plant and the flowerof barley are mixed together in equal parts, and a portion of it, _i.e._,two palas in weight, is eaten every morning on getting up, it has thesame effect as the preceding recipe.

barley - Gerste

preceding - vorangegangen; vorangehen, vorausgehen

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"The means[78] of producing love and sexual vigour should be learnt fromthe science of medicine, from the Vedas, from those who are learned inthe arts of magic, and from confidential relatives. No means should betried which are doubtful in their effects, which are likely to causeinjury to the body, which involve the death of animals, and which bringus in contact with impure things.

Vedas - Veda, Veden-p

betried - betrogen

causeinjury - eine Verletzung verursachen

Such means should only be used as areholy, acknowledged to be good, and approved of by Brahmans, andfriends."

areholy - heilig sind

acknowledged - zur Kenntnis nehmen, erkennen, bekennen, anerkennen

andfriends - und Freunde


[Footnote 77: It is a custom of the courtesans of Oriental countries togive their daughters temporarily in marriage when they come of age, andafter they have received an education in the Kama Sutra and other arts.Full details are given of this at page 76 of "Early Ideas, a group ofHindoo stories, collected and collated by Anaryan. W. H. Allen and Co.,London, 1881."]

togive - zu geben

temporarily - vorübergehend

ofHindoo - vonHindoo

collated - zusammengetragen; abgleichen, kollationieren, vergleichen

[Footnote 78: From the earliest times Oriental authors have occupiedthemselves about aphrodisiacs. The following note on the subject istaken from page 29 of a translation of the Hindoo Art of Love, otherwisethe Anunga Runga, alluded to in the preface of this work, Part I., pages3 and 5:--"most eastern treatises divide aphrodisiacs into two differentkinds: 1.

occupiedthemselves - sich selbst beschäftigt

aphrodisiacs - Aphrodisiaka; aphrodisisch, Aphrodisiakum

istaken - ist genommen

otherwisethe - sonst

most eastern - östlichste

treatises - Abhandlungen; Abhandlung, Traktat

the mechanical or natural, such as scarification,flagellation, etc.; and 2., the medicinal or artificial. To the formerbelong the application of insects, as is practised by some savage races;and all orientalists will remember the tale of the old Brahman, whoseyoung wife insisted upon his being again stung by a wasp."]

mechanical - mechanisch

scarification - Skarifizierung; Sakrifizierung

flagellation - Geißelung

medicinal - medikamentös, medizinal, medizinisch, Arznei

formerbelong - ehemaliger Angehöriger

savage - Wilde; wild, wüst, unbebaut, unbändig, rasend

Orientalists - Orientalisten; Orientalist, Orientalistin

Tale - Geschichte, Erzählung, Fabel

whoseyoung - Wer ist jung

insisted - darauf bestanden; auf , bestehen

stung - gestochen; Stachel, brennender Schmerz

wasp - die Wespe



If a man is unable to satisfy a Hastini, or elephant woman, he shouldhave recourse to various means to excite her passion. At thecommencement he should rub her yoni with his hand or fingers, and notbegin to have intercourse with her until she becomes excited, orexperiences pleasure. This is one way of exciting a woman.

shouldhave - Hätte

thecommencement - derBeginn

notbegin - nicht beginnen

orexperiences - oderErfahrungen

Or, he may make use of certain Apadravyas, or things which are put on oraround the lingam to supplement its length or its thickness, so as tofit it to the yoni.

oraround - oder herum

supplement - Ergänzung; Nachtrag; q

thickness - Dicke

tofit - tauglich

In the opinion of Babhravya, these Apadravyas shouldbe made of gold, silver, copper, iron, ivory, buffalo's horn, variouskinds of wood, tin or lead, and should be soft, cool, provocative ofsexual vigour, and well fitted to serve the intended purpose.Vatsyayana, however, says that they may be made according to the naturalliking of each individual.

intended purpose - Verwendungszweck

naturalliking - Naturbelassenheit

The following are the different kinds of Apadravyas.

(1). "The armlet" (Valaya) should be of the same size as the lingam, andshould have its outer surface made rough with globules.

armlet - Armreif, Armbinde

globules - Globuli; Kügelchen

(2). "The couple" (Sanghati) is formed of two armlets.

(3). "The bracelet" (Chudaka) is made by joining three or more armlets,until they come up to the required length of the lingam.

bracelet - Armband

(4). "The single bracelet" is formed by wrapping a single wire aroundthe lingam, according to its dimensions.

wrapping - verpacken; einpacken, einwickeln

wire - Draht, Ader, Wanze, Geld

aroundthe - um die

(5). The Kantuka or Jalaka is a tube open at both ends, with a holethrough it, outwardly rough and studded with soft globules, and made tofit the side of the yoni, and tied to the waist.

holethrough - Loch durch

outwardly - nach außen hin; äußerlich

studded - bespickt; übersäen, verzieren, verstreut sein

When such a thing cannot be obtained, then a tube made of the woodapple, or tubular stalk of the bottle gourd, or a reed made soft withoil and extracts of plants, and tied to the waist with strings, may bemade use of, as also a row of soft pieces of wood tied together.

woodapple - Holzapfel

tubular - röhrenförmig

stalk - jdn. belauern;Stiel , Stengel

reed - Schilf, Ried, Schilfrohr

Row - Rudern; Reihe, Zeile

The above are the things that can be used in connection with or in theplace of the lingam.

The people of the southern countries think that true sexual pleasurecannot be obtained without perforating the lingam, and they thereforecause it to be pierced like the lobes of the ears of an infant piercedfor earrings.

pleasurecannot - Vergnügenkannnicht

perforating - perforieren

thereforecause - deshalb

lobes - Hirnlappen

piercedfor - durchbohrt für

earrings - Ohrringe; Ohrring

Now, when a young man perforates his lingam he should pierce it with asharp instrument, and then stand in water so long as the blood continuesto flow. At night he should engage in sexual intercourse, even withvigour, so as to clean the hole. After this he should continue to washthe hole with decoctions, and increase the size by putting into it smallpieces of cane, and the wrightia antidysenterica, and thus graduallyenlarging the orifice.

perforates - durchlöchert; perforieren

pierce - lochen, durchbohren

continuesto - fortsetzen

withvigour - mit Elan

washthe - Was ist das

decoctions - Abkochungen; Abkochung, Dekokt

smallpieces - Kleinteile

cane - Schilfrohr; Rohr; Rohrstock; Blindenstock, weisser Langstock

graduallyenlarging - allmählich vergrößert

orifice - Blende; Öffnung

It may also be washed with liquorice mixed withhoney, and the size of the hole increased by the fruit stalks of thesima-patra plant. The hole should be annointed with a small quantity ofoil.

withhoney - mit Geld

stalks - Stängel; jdn. belauern; Stiel, Stengel

annointed - gesalbt

ofoil - von Öl

The ways of enlarging the lingam must be now related.

When a man wishes to enlarge his lingam, he should rub it with thebristles of certain insects that live in trees, and then, after rubbingit for ten nights with oils, he should again rub it with the bristles asbefore. By continuing to do this a swelling will be gradually producedin the lingam, and he should then lie on a cot, and cause his lingam tohang down through a hole in the cot.

enlarge - vergrößern

bristles - Borsten; Borste, Borste

rubbingit - reiben

swelling - Schwellungen; Anschwellen

producedin - hergestellt in

cot - Kinderbett; Hütte; Feldbett

After this he should take away allthe pain from the swelling by using cool concoctions. The swelling,which is called "Suka," and is often brought about among the people ofthe Dravida country, lasts for life.

concoctions - Gebräu; Mischen

If the lingam is rubbed with the following things, viz., the plantphysalis flexuosa, the shavara-kandaka plant, the jalasuka plant, thefruit of the egg plant, the butter of a she buffalo, the hastri-charmaplant, and the juice of the vajra-rasa plant, a swelling lasting for onemonth will be produced.

onemonth - einmonatig

By rubbing it with oil boiled in the concoctions of the above things,the same effect will be produced, but lasting for six months.

The enlargement of the lingam is also effected by rubbing it ormoistening it with oil boiled on a moderate fire along with the seeds ofthe pomegranate, and the cucumber, the juices of the valuka plant, thehasti-charma plant, and the egg-plant.

ormoistening - oder Befeuchtung

pomegranate - Granatapfel, Grenadine

charma - Charme

In addition to the above, other means may be learnt from experienced andconfidential persons.

andconfidential - und vertraulich

The miscellaneous experiments and recipes are as follows:

(a). If a man mixes the powder of the milk hedge plant, and the kantakaplant with the excrement of a monkey, and the powdered root of thelanjalalika plant, and throws this mixture on a woman, she will not loveany body else afterwards.

hedge - Hecke

(b). If a man thickens the juice of the fruits of the cassia fistula,and the eugenia jambolana by mixing them with the powder of the somaplant, the vernonia anthelmintica, the eclipta prostata, and thelohopa-jihirka, and applies this composition to the yoni of a woman, andthen has sexual intercourse with her, his love for her will bedestroyed.

thickens - verdickt; verdicken

fistula - Fistel

eugenia - Eugenie

eclipta - Eklipta

bedestroyed - zerstört werden

(c). The same effect is produced if a man has connection with a womanwho has bathed in the butter-milk of a she-buffalo mixed with thepowders of the gopalika plant, the banu-padika plant, and the yellowamaranth.

(d). An ointment made of the flowers of the nauclea cadamba, the hogplum, and the eugenia jambolana, and used by a woman, causes her to bedisliked by her husband.

bedisliked - unbeliebt

(e). Garlands made of the above flowers, when worn by the woman, producethe same effect.

producethe - produzieren

(f). An ointment made of the fruit of the asteracantha longifolia(kokilaksha) will contract the yoni of a Hastini or elephant woman, andthis contraction lasts for one night.

contraction - Verkleinerung, Kontraktion, Schrumpfung, Schrumpfen

(g). An ointment made by pounding the roots of the nelumbrium speciosum,and of the blue lotus, and the powder of the plant physalis flexuosamixed with ghee and honey, will enlarge the yoni of the Mrigi or deerwoman.

physalis - Blasenkirsche, Judenkirsche, Physalis, Kapstachelbeere

deerwoman - Wildhüterin

(h). An ointment made of the fruit of the emblica myrabolans soaked inthe milky juice of the milk hedge plant, of the soma plant, thecalotropis gigantea, and the juice of the fruit of the vernoniaanthelmintica, will make the hair white.

myrabolans - Myrabolanen

soaked - durchtränkt; durchnässen, tränken, einweichen, durchziehen

Milky - milchig

(i). The juice of the roots of the madayantaka plant, the yellowamaranth, the anjanika plant, the clitoria ternateea, and theshlakshnaparni plant, used as a lotion, will make the hair grow.

clitoria - Klitoris

lotion - Lotion

(j). An ointment made by boiling the above roots in oil, and rubbed in,will make the hair black, and will also gradually restore hair that hasfallen off.

(k) If lac is saturated seven times in the sweat of the testicle of awhite horse, and applied to a red lip, the lip will become white.

saturated - gesättigt; sättigen, sättigen

(l). The colour of the lips can be regained by means of the madayantikaand other plants mentioned above under (i).

regained - wiedergewonnen; wiedergewinnen

(m). A woman who hears a man playing on a reed pipe which has beendressed with the juices of the bahupadika plant, the tabernamontanacoronaria, the costus speciosus or arabicus, the pinus deodora, theeuphorbia antiquorum, the vajra and the kantaka plant, becomes hisslave.

beendressed - angezogen sein

hisslave - Sklave

(n). If food be mixed with the fruit of the thorn apple (Dathura) itcauses intoxication.

itcauses - es verursacht

(o). If water be mixed with oil and the ashes of any kind of grassexcept the kusha grass, it becomes the colour of milk.

(p). If yellow myrabolans, the hog plum, the shrawana plant, and thepriyangu plant be all pounded together, and applied to iron pots, thesepots become red.

plum - Pflaumenbaum; Pflaume, Zwetschke (österr.)

thesepots - diese Töpfe

(q). If a lamp, trimmed with oil extracted from the shrawana andpriyangn plants, its wick being made of cloth and the slough of theskins of snakes, is lighted, and long pieces of wood placed near it,those pieces of wood will resemble so many snakes.

trimmed - zurechtgestutzt; kürzen, nachschneiden, schneiden, stutzen

extracted - extrahiert; Auszug, Auszug, Extrakt

wick - der Docht

slough - Sumpf

theskins - die Häute

resemble - ähneln, gleichen

(r). Drinking the milk of a white cow who has a white calf at her feetis auspicious, produces fame, and preserves life.

feetis - die Füße

(s). The blessings of venerable Brahmans, well propitiated, have thesame effect.

blessings - Segnungen; Segen, Segnung, Segnen, Segen, Segnung, Segnen

propitiated - besänftigt; besänftigen

There are also some verses in conclusion:

"Thus have I written in a few words the 'Science of love,'after readingthe texts of ancient authors, and following the ways of enjoymentmentioned in them."

readingthe - Lesen der

enjoymentmentioned - Genuss erwähnt

"He who is acquainted with the true principles of this science paysregard to Dharma, Artha, Kama, and to his own experiences, as well as tothe teachings of others, and does not act simply on the dictates of hisown desire. As for the errors in the science of love which I havementioned in this work, on my own authority as an author, I have,immediately after mentioning them, carefully censured and prohibitedthem."

paysregard - bezahlt

teachings - unterrichten, beibringen, lehren

dictates - diktiert; Diktat

censured - zensiert; Tadel, Zurechtweisung, Kritik, Ermahnung, Tadeln

prohibitedthem - sie verboten

"An act is never looked upon with indulgence for the simple reason thatit is authorised by the science, because it ought to be remembered thatit is the intention of the science, that the rules which it containsshould only be acted upon in particular cases. After reading andconsidering the works of Babhravya and other ancient authors, andthinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, the Kama Sutra wascomposed, according to the precepts of Holy Writ, for the benefit of theworld, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of a religious student, andwholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity.

indulgence - Ablasshandel; Nachgiebigkeit, Nachsicht, Milde, Nachsichtigkeit

thatit - dass es

authorised - genehmigt; bevollmächtigen, bewilligen, genehmigen

containsshould - enthaltennSollte

andconsidering - undüberlegen

andthinking - und Denken

wascomposed - komponiert wurde

theworld - die Welt

andwholly - undganz

"This work is not intended to be used merely as an instrument forsatisfying our desires. A person, acquainted with the true principles ofthis science, and who preserves his Dharma, Artha, and Kama, and hasregard for the practices of the people, is sure to obtain the masteryover his senses."

hasregard - nicht beachtet

"In short, an intelligent and prudent person, attending to Dharma andArtha, and attending to Kama also, without becoming the slave of hispassions, obtains success in everything that he may undertake."

Prudent - umsichtig, vorsichtig

andArtha - undArtha

hispassions - seine Leidenschaften

undertake - unternehmen, ausführen, verpflichten



Thus ends, in seven parts, the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, which mightotherwise be called a treatise on men and women, their mutualrelationship, and connection with each other.

mightotherwise - könnte es anders sein

mutualrelationship - gegenseitige Beziehung

It is a work that should be studied by all, both old and young; theformer will find in it real truths, gathered by experience, and alreadytested by themselves, while the latter will derive the great advantageof learning things, which some perhaps may otherwise never learn at all,or which they may only learn when it is too late ("too late" thoseimmortal words of Mirabeau) to profit by the learning.

by experience - aus Erfahrung

alreadytested - bereits getestet

advantageof - Vorteil

thoseimmortal - die unsterblich sind

It can also be fairly commended to the student of social science and ofhumanity, and above all to the student of those early ideas, which havegradually filtered down through the sands of time, and which seem toprove that the human nature of to-day is much the same as the humannature of the long ago.

commended - gelobt; belobigen, beglückwünschen, loben, anvertrauen

ofhumanity - der Menschlichkeit

havegradually - allmählich haben

filtered - gefiltert; Filter, Filter, Filter, filtern, filtern, filtrieren

humannature - die menschliche Natur

It has been said of Balzac [the great, if not the greatest of Frenchnovelists] that he seemed to have inherited a natural and intuitiveperception of the feelings of men and women, and has described them withan analysis worthy of a man of science. The author of the present workmust also have had a considerable knowledge of the humanities.

inherited - geerbt; erben, übernehmen, erben, erben, vererben

intuitiveperception - intuitive Wahrnehmung

withan - mitan

workmust - Arbeitssucht

Many ofhis remarks are so full of simplicity and truth, that they have stoodthe test of time, and stand out still as clear and true as when theywere first written, some eighteen hundred years ago.

stoodthe - stand der

As a collection of facts, told in plain and simple language, it must beremembered that in those early days there was apparently no idea ofembellishing the work, either with a literary style, a flow oflanguage, or a quantity of superfluous padding. The author tells theworld what he knows in very concise language, without any attempt toproduce an interesting story.

beremembered - erinnerst du dich

ofembellishing - der Verschönerung

oflanguage - der Sprache

superfluous - überflüssig

padding - Polsterung; Füllung; (pad) Polsterung; Füllung

concise - kurz, prägnant, knapp, konzis

toproduce - zu produzieren

From his facts how many novels could bewritten! Indeed much of the matter contained in parts III. IV. V. andVI., has formed the basis of many of the stories and the tales of pastcenturies.

bewritten - geschrieben

andVI - undVI

pastcenturies - vergangenen Jahrhunderten

There will be found in part VII., some curious recipes. Many of themappear to be as primitive as the book itself, but in later works of thesame nature these recipes and prescriptions appear to have increased,both as regards quality and quantity.

primitive - primitiv; Wortstamm & Stamm, Stammwort, Urwort

prescriptions - Verschreibungen; Rezept

In the Anunga Runga or "The Stageof Love," mentioned at page 5 of the Preface in Part I., there are foundno less than thirty-three different subjects for which one hundred andthirty recipes and prescriptions are given.

foundno - gefundennicht

andthirty - und dreißig

As the details may be interesting, these subjects are described asfollows:

1. For hastening the paroxysm of the woman.

hastening - eilig; hasten, beeilen

paroxysm - Paroxysmus

2. For delaying the organs of the man.

delaying - verzögern; Verspätung, Verzögerung, Verzug

3. Aphrodisiacs.

4. For thickening and enlarging the lingam, rendering it sound andstrong, hard and lusty.

thickening - Dickwerden; Verdickungsmittel; (thicken); Dickwerden; Verdickungsmittel

rendering - wiedergebend, huldigend, Aufführung; (render) wiedergebend

andstrong - undstark

lusty - lüstern; rüstig, kräftig

5. For narrowing and contracting the yoni.

6. For perfuming the yoni.

7. For removing and destroying the hair of the body.

8. For removing the sudden stopping of the monthly ailment.

monthly - monatlich

ailment - Krankheit; Leiden

9. For abating the immoderate appearance of the monthly ailment.

abating - nachlassen; vermindern, verzehren (Rauch), verringern

immoderate - unangemessen

10. For purifying the womb.

purifying - reinigen, rein machen

womb - Gebärmutter; q

11. For causing pregnancy.

12. For preventing miscarriage and other accidents.

miscarriage - Fehlgeburt

13. For ensuring easy labour and ready deliverance.

ensuring - sicherstellen, gewährleisten

deliverance - Auslieferung, Abgabe, Erlösung, Befreiung

14. For limiting the number of children.

15. For thickening and beautifying the hair.

beautifying - verschönern, ausschmücken

16. For obtaining a good black colour to it.

17. For whitening and bleaching it.

whitening - Aufhellung; (whiten) weiß machen; (whiten); weißen; erman: weiß werden

bleaching - bleichend, Bleiche, ausbleichend; (bleach) bleichend, Bleiche

18. For renewing it.

renewing - erneuern, erneuern

19. For clearing the skin of the face from eruptions that break out andleave black spots upon it.

eruptions - Ausbrüche; Eruption, Ausbruch, Vulkanausbruch, Ausbruch

20. For removing the black colour of the epidermis.

epidermis - Oberhaut, Epidermis

21. For enlarging the breasts of women.

22. For raising and hardening pendulous breasts.

hardening - Aushärtung; härten

pendulous - pendelnd

23. For giving a fragrance to the skin.

24. For removing the evil savour of perspiration.

savour - schmecken; Geschmack; genießen, würdigen, recht genießen

25. For anointing the body after bathing.

26. For causing a pleasant smell to the breath.

27. Drugs and charms for the purposes of fascinating, overcoming, andsubduing either men or women.

Overcoming - Überwindung; überwinden

andsubduing - und Unterwerfung

28. Recipes for enabling a woman to attract and preserve her husband'slove.

enabling - Freigabe; berechtigen, befähigen, ermöglichen, anordnen

preserve - Konserve, Eingemachtes, Naturschutzgebiet, Naturreservat

slove - Schleife

29. Magical collyriums for winning love and friendship.

magical - magisch

30. Prescriptions for reducing other persons to submission.

submission - Unterbreitung, Unterwerfung

31. Philter pills, and other charms.

philter - Liebestrank

pills - Pillen; Medikament, Pille, Tablette; Fluse

32. Fascinating incense, or fumigation.

fumigation - Ausräucherung; Desinfektion

33. Magical verses which have the power of fascination.

fascination - Faszination

Of the one hundred and thirty recipes given, many of them are absurd,but not more perhaps than many of the recipes and prescriptions in usein Europe not so very long ago. Love-philters, charms, and herbalremedies have been, in early days, as freely used in Europe as in Asia,and doubtless some people believe in them still in many places.

absurd - absurd

usein - verwenden

philters - Filter; Liebestrank

herbalremedies - pflanzliche Heilmittel

Asia - Asien

doubtless - zweifelsfrei, zweifellos

And now, one word about the author of the work, the good old sageVatsyayana. It is much to be regretted that nothing can be discoveredabout his life, his belongings, and his surroundings. At the end of PartVII. he states that he wrote the work while leading the life of areligious student [probably at Benares] and while wholly engaged in thecontemplation of the Deity.

sageVatsyayana - weiseVatsyayana

regretted - bedauert; bedauern, bereuen, leidtun, Reue, Bedauern

discoveredabout - entdeckt

surroundings - Umgebung, umliegend

thecontemplation - die Besinnung

He must have arrived at a certain age atthat time, for throughout he gives us the benefit of his experience, andof his opinions, and these bear the stamp of age rather than of youth;indeed the work could hardly have been written by a young man.

atthat - Das

In a beautiful verse of the Vedas of the Christians it has been said ofthe peaceful dead, that they rest from their labours, and that theirworks do follow them. Yes indeed, the works of men of genius do followthem, and remain as a lasting treasure. And though there may bedisputes and discussions about the immortality of the body or the soul,nobody can deny the immortality of genius, which ever remains as abright and guiding star to the struggling humanities of succeeding ages.

Christians - Christen; Christ, Christin, Christian, christlich

labours - Arbeit, Arbeiter-p, gebären, arbeiten

theirworks - ihre Werke

followthem - ihnen folgen

immortality - Unsterblichkeit

deny - verweigern, leugnen;gegen jdn. retten

abright - aufrecht

struggling - sich abmühen; kämpfend, ringend; (struggle); Kampf, Gefecht

his work, then, which has stood the test of centuries, has placedVatsyayana among the immortals, and on This, and on Him no better elegyor eulogy can be written than the following lines:

placedVatsyayana - platziertVatsyayana

immortals - Unsterbliche; unsterblich, unvergesslich

eulogy - Lobrede, Lobesrede, Traurrede

"So long as lips shall kiss, and eyes shall see, So long lives This, and This gives life to Thee."

thee - dich, dir

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