preface - prefacio, introducir

In the literature of all countries there will be found a certain numberof works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealtwith differently, and from various points of view. In the presentpublication it is proposed to give a complete translation of what isconsidered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and whichis called the 'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,'or Aphorisms on Love, byVatsyayana.

numberof - número de

dealtwith - con qué

presentpublication - presenta la publicación

isconsidered - se considera

standard work - trabajo estándar

whichis - cuál es

aphorisms - aforismos; aforismo

byVatsyayana - orVatsyayana

While the introduction will bear with the evidence concerning the dateof the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the chaptersfollowing the introduction will give a translation of the work itself.

dateof - fecha de

chaptersfollowing - capítulos siguientes

It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works ofthe same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years afterVatsya had passed away, but who still considered him as a greatauthority, and always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo eroticliterature.

advisable - aconsejable, recomendable, conveniente

furnish - amoblar, amueblar, suministrar, proporcionar, dotar

ofthe - el.

afterVatsya - Después de Vatsya

greatauthority - gran autoridad

eroticliterature - literatura erótica

Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the samesubject are procurable in India:--

treatise - tratado

samesubject - el mismo tema

procurable - Proporcionable

India - India

1. The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love.

2. The Panchasakya, or the five arrows.

3. The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love.

4. The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love.

garland - guirnalda, galardón, marco de honor

5. The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love.

sprout - brotar

6. The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love.

The author of the 'Secrets of Love'(No. 1) was a poet named Kukkoka. Hecomposed his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. Whenwriting his own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself "Siddhapatiya pandita," _i.e._, an ingenious man among learned men. The workwas translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's name waswritten as Koka.

ingenious - ingenioso

workwas - trabajaba

Hindi - Hindúes

waswritten - Fue escrito

And as the same name crept into all the translationsinto other languages in India, the book became generally known, and thesubject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or doctrines of Koka, whichis identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of love, and the wordsKoka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used indiscriminately.

translationsinto - traducciones

thesubject - el tema

popularly - popularmente

wordsKoka - palabrasKoka

indiscriminately - indiscriminadamente

The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into tenchapters, which are called Pachivedas. Some of the things treated of inthis work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana, such as the fourclasses of women, viz., the Padmini, Chitrini, Shankini and Hastini, asalso the enumeration of the days and hours on which the women of thedifferent classes become subject to love. The author adds that he wrotethese things from the opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara, both ofwhom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their works are not now extant. Itis difficult to give any approximate idea as to the year in which thework was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was written afterthat of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this subject thatare still extant.

tenchapters - Diez capítulos

inthis - en esto

fourclasses - Cuatro clases

asalso - también

enumeration - enumeración

thedifferent - diferente

wrotethese - Escribió esto

ofwhom - de quién

extant - existente, extante, actual

approximate - aproximada; aproximado, avanzar, acercar, juntar, estrechar

thework - el trabajo

afterthat - Después de eso

thatare - que son

Vatsyayana gives the names of ten authors on thesubject, all of whose works he had consulted, but none of which areextant, and does not mention this one. This would tend to show thatKukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly havementioned him as an author in this branch of literature along with theothers.

areextant - sonextant

thatKukkoka - Kukkoka

assuredly - seguro

havementioned - ha mencionado

theothers - los otros

The author of the 'Five Arrows'(No. 2 in the list) was one Jyotirisha.He is called the chief ornament of poets, the treasure of the sixty-fourarts, and the best teacher of the rules of music. He says that hecomposed the work after reflecting on the aphorisms of love as revealedby the gods, and studying the opinions of Gonikaputra, Muladeva,Babhravya, Ramtideva, Nundikeshwara and Kshemandra. It is impossible tosay whether he had perused all the works of these authors, or had onlyheard about them; anyhow, none of them appear to be in existence now.

ornament - ornamento, ornamento musical

fourarts - cuatroarts

revealedby - revelado por

perused - percibido; examinar, ojear, hojear, leer por encima

onlyheard - sólo oído

anyhow - de todos modos; de todas maneras, de todas formas, comoquiera

his work contains nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into fivechapters, called Sayakas or Arrows.

fivechapters - Cinco capítulos

The author of the 'Light of Love'(No. 3) was the poet Gunakara, the sonof Vechapati. The work contains four hundred verses, and gives only ashort account of the doctrines of love, dealing more with othermatters.

sonof - ijo de.

ashort - Corto

othermatters - Otros asuntos

'The Garland of Love'(No. 4) is the work of the famous poet Jayadeva,who said about himself that he is a writer on all subjects. Thistreatise is, however, very short, containing only one hundred andtwenty-five verses.

andtwenty - y veinte

The author of the 'Sprout of Love'(No. 5) was a poet called Bhanudatta.It appears from the last verse of the manuscript that he was a residentof the province of Tirhoot, the son of a Brahman named Ganeshwar, whowas also a poet. The work, written in Sanscrit, gives the descriptionsof different classes of men and women, their classes being made out fromtheir age, description, conduct, etc.

residentof - residente de

Brahman - Brahman

whowas - Qué

descriptionsof - Descripción

fromtheir - De ellos

etc - tc

It contains three chapters, andits date is not known, and cannot be ascertained.

andits - y sus

ascertained - averiguado; averiguar, determinar, establecer, definir

'The Stage of Love'(No. 6) was composed by the poet Kullianmull, forthe amusement of Ladkhan, the son of Ahmed Lodi, the same Ladkhan beingin some places spoken of as Ladana Mull, and in others as Ladanaballa.He is supposed to have been a relation or connection of the house ofLodi, which reigned in Hindostan from A.D. 1450-1526.

forthe - para el

amusement - divertimiento, esparcimiento, diversión

beingin - serin

ofLodi - eLodi

The work would,therefore, have been written in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. Itcontains ten chapters, and has been translated into English, but onlysix copies were printed for private circulation. This is supposed to bethe latest of the Sanscrit works on the subject, and the ideas in itwere evidently taken from previous writings of the same nature.

Fifteenth - decimoquinto, decimoquinto, decimoquinta, quinceavo

Sixteenth - dieciséis; decimosexto, dieciseisavo

onlysix - Sólo seis

itwere - lo eran

evidently - evidentemente

writings - escritos; (writing) escritos

The contents of these works are in themselves a literary curiosity.There are to be found both in Sanscrit poetry and in the Sanscrit dramaa certain amount of poetical sentiment and romance, which have, in everycountry and in every language, thrown an immortal halo round thesubject. But here it is treated in a plain, simple, matter of fact sortof way. Men and women are divided into classes and divisions in the sameway that Buffon and other writers on natural history have classified anddivided the animal world.

Contents - ontenido; satisfecho

dramaa - Drama

poetical - poético

everycountry - en todos los países

immortal - inmortal, inmortal

halo - halo, nimbo, aureola

sortof - Algo así

anddivided - dividido

animal world - mundo animal

As Venus was represented by the Greeks tostand forth as the type of the beauty of woman, so the Hindoos describethe Padmini or Lotus woman as the type of most perfect feminineexcellence, as follows:

Venus - Venus

Greeks - griegos; griego, griego, griega

tostand - tostar

describethe - Describirlo

lotus - loto

feminineexcellence - excelencia femenina

She in whom the following signs and symptoms appear is called a Padmini.Her face is pleasing as the full moon; her body, well clothed withflesh, is soft as the Shiras or mustard flower, her skin is fine,tender and fair as the yellow lotus, never dark coloured. Her eyes arebright and beautiful as the orbs of the fawn, well cut, and with reddishcorners. Her bosom is hard, full and high; she has a good neck; her noseis straight and lovely, and three folds or wrinkles cross hermiddle--about the umbilical region. Her yoni resembles the opening lotusbud, and her love seed (Kama salila) is perfumed like the lily that hasnewly burst. She walks with swan-like gait, and her voice is low andmusical as the note of the Kokila bird, she delights in white raiments,in fine jewels, and in rich dresses.

withflesh - con carne

mustard - mostaza

arebright - rebright

orbs - Orbita

Fawn - cervato

bosom - seno, pechera, busto

wrinkles - arrugas; arruga

yoni - ioni

perfumed - perfumado; aroma, perfume, perfumar

Lily - azucena, lirio

hasnewly - nunca

swan - cisne

gait - caminar; andar

andmusical - musical

raiments - Ropa

jewels - joyas; gema, joya, alhaja, rubí

She eats little, sleeps lightly,and being as respectful and religious as she is clever and courteous,she is ever anxious to worship the gods, and to enjoy the conversationof Brahmans. Such, then, is the Padmini or Lotus woman.

lightly - a la ligera; ligeramente

respectful - respetuoso

courteous - cordial, cortés

conversationof - Conversación

Brahmans - brahmanes; Brahman

One work in the English language is somewhat similar to these works ofthe Hindoos. It is called 'Kalogynomia: or the Laws of Female Beauty,'being the elementary principles of that science, by T. Bell, M.D., withtwenty-four plates, and printed in London in 1821.

withtwenty - con veinte

It treats of Beauty,of Love, of Sexual Intercourse, of the Laws regulating that Intercourse,of Monogamy and Polygamy, of Prostitution, of Infidelity, ending with a_catalogue raisonnée_ of the defects of female beauty.

intercourse - conversación, coito, acto sexual, relación sexual

Monogamy - monogamia

polygamy - poligamia

prostitution - prostitución

infidelity - infidelidad

After a perusal of the Hindoo work, and of the English books abovementioned, the reader will understand the subject, at all events from amaterialistic, realistic and practical point of view. If all science isfounded more or less on a stratum of facts, there can be no harm inmaking known to mankind generally certain matters intimately connectedwith their private, domestic, and social life.

perusal - consulta; escrutinio, lectura atenta, lectura cuidadosa

abovementioned - ntes mencionado

amaterialistic - amaterialista

isfounded - fundado

stratum - estrato, capa

mankind - la humanidad; humanidad, género humano, raza humana

intimately - íntimamente

connectedwith - Conectado

Alas! complete ignorance of them has unfortunately wrecked many a manand many a woman, while a little knowledge of a subject generallyignored by the masses would have enabled numbers of people to haveunderstood many things which they believed to be quite incomprehensible,or which were not thought worthy of their consideration.

Alas - !ay!; (ala) !ay!

wrecked - destrozado; cacharro, trasto, guinapo, choque, desastre

generallyignored - generalmente ignorado

haveunderstood - lo has entendido

incomprehensible - incomprensible


It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about thatVatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the Englishlanguage. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the'Anunga runga, or the stage of love,'reference was frequently found tobe made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of thatopinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions wereasked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was theauthor of the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, that noSanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was mostdifficult now to obtain in its entire state.

thatVatsyayana - ueVatsyayana

pundits - los expertos; comentarista experto, pandito

tobe - ser

sage - sabio; salvia

thatopinion - esaopinión

wereasked - se le preguntó

theauthor - elautor

mostdifficult - Más difícil

The copy of the manuscriptobtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares,Calcutta and Jeypoor for copies of the manuscript from Sanscritlibraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were thencompared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called'Jayamangla'a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, andfrom this copy the English translation was made. The following is thecertificate of the chief pundit:--

manuscriptobtained - Manuscrito obtenido

Bombay - Bombay

defective - defectuoso, defectivo

Calcutta - Calcuta

thencompared - comparados

andfrom - y de

thecertificate - el certificado

pundit - un experto; comentarista experto, pandito

"The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing fourdifferent copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentarycalled 'Jayamangla'for correcting the portion in the first five parts,but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because,with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, allthe other copies I had were far too incorrect.

fourdifferent - cuatrodiferentes

thereof - de eso; de esta, de esto, de ella, de ello

allthe - Todos

However, I took thatportion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with eachother."

thatportion - Esa proporción

eachother - El uno al otro

"After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancientauthors, and thinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, thistreatise was composed, according to the precepts of the Holy Writ, forthe benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of areligious student at Benares, and wholly engaged in the contemplation ofthe Deity. This work is not to be used merely as an instrument forsatisfying our desires. A person acquainted with the true principles ofthis science, who preserves his Dharma (virtue or religious merit), hisArtha (worldly wealth) and his Kama (pleasure or sensual gratification),and who has regard to the customs of the people, is sure to obtain themastery over his senses.

ancientauthors - antiguos autores

precepts - preceptos; precepto

areligious - Son religiosos

contemplation - contemplación

Deity - dios, diosa, deidad, divinidad

forsatisfying - para satisfacer

acquainted - conocido; dar a conocer, familiarizar

ofthis - De esto

Dharma - dharma

hisArtha - SuArtha

worldly - undano

sensual - sensual

themastery - Masterio

In short, an intelligent and knowing person,attending to Dharma and Artha and also to Kama, without becoming theslave of his passions, will obtain success in everything that he maydo."

theslave - el esclavo

It is impossible to fix the exact date either of the life of Vatsyayanaor of his work. It is supposed that he must have lived between the firstand the sixth centuries of the Christian era, on the followinggrounds:--He mentions that Satkarni Srtvahan, a king of Kuntal, killedMalayevati his wife with an instrument called kartari by striking her inthe passion of love, and Vatsya quotes this case to warn people of thedanger arising from some old customs of striking women when under theinfluence of this passion. Now this king of Kuntal is believed to havelived and reigned during the first century A.C., and consequently Vatsyamust have lived after him.

firstand - Primero

Christian - cristiano, cristiana, Cristián

followinggrounds - Seguimientos

killedMalayevati - Mataron a Malayevati

inthe - en el

thedanger - el peligro

theinfluence - la influencia

havelived - Ha vivido

On the other hand, Virahamihira, in theeighteenth chapter of his 'Brihatsanhita,'treats of the science oflove, and appears to have borrowed largely from Vatsyayana on thesubject. Now Virahamihira is said to have lived during the sixth centuryA.D., and as Vatsya must have written his works previously, thereforenot earlier than the first century, A.C., and not later than the sixthcentury A.D., must be considered as the approximate date of hisexistence.

theeighteenth - la decimoctava

oflove - de amor

centuryA - igloA

thereforenot - no

sixthcentury - Siglo VI

hisexistence - su existencia

On the text of the 'Aphorisms on Love,'by Vatsyayana, only twocommentaries have been found. One called 'Jayamangla'or 'Sutrabashya,'and the other 'Sutra vritti.'The date of the 'Jayamangla'is fixedbetween the tenth and thirteenth centuries A.D., because while treatingof the sixty-four arts an example is taken from the 'Kávyaprakásha,'which was written about the tenth century A.

twocommentaries - doscomentarios

fixedbetween - fijadoentre

tenth - diez; décimo, décimo, décima

thirteenth - la decimotercera; decimotercero, treceavo

treatingof - tratamiento

. Again, the copy of thecommentary procured was evidently a transcript of a manuscript whichonce had a place in the library of a Chaulukyan king named Vishaladeva,a fact elicited from the following sentence at the end of it:--

thecommentary - el comentario

whichonce - cuál

elicited - obtenido; provocar, suscitar, evocar, educir, sonsacar

"Here ends the part relating to the art of love in the commentary on the'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra,'a copy from the library of the king of kings,Vishaladeva, who was a powerful hero, as it were a second Arjuna, andhead jewel of the Chaulukya family."

andhead - Y la cabeza

jewel - gema, joya, alhaja, rubí

Now it is well known that this king ruled in Guzerat from 1244 to 1262A.D., and founded a city called Visalnagur. The date, therefore, of thecommentary is taken to be not earlier than the tenth and not later thanthe thirteenth century. The author of it is supposed to be oneYashodhara, the name given him by his preceptor being Indrapada.

thanthe - Qué

oneYashodhara - UnYashodhara

Heseems to have written it during the time of affliction caused by hisseparation from a clever and shrewd woman, at least that is what hehimself says at the end of each chapter. It is presumed that he calledhis work after the name of his absent mistress, or the word may havesome connection with the meaning of her name.

affliction - aflicción, tribulación, quebranto

hisseparation - su separación

shrewd - perspicaz, astuto

hehimself - Él mismo

calledhis - Su nombre

Mistress - senora; duena, maestra, querida, amante, barragana, manceba, ama

havesome - Tienes algo

This commentary was most useful in explaining the true meaning ofVatsyayana, for the commentator appears to have had a considerableknowledge of the times of the older author, and gives in some placesvery minute information. This cannot be said of the other commentary,called "Sutra vritti," which was written about A.D., by Narsing Shastri,a pupil of a Sarveshwar Shastri; the latter was a descendant of Bhaskur,and so also was our author, for at the conclusion of every part he callshimself Bhaskur Narsing Shastra.

ofVatsyayana - eVatsyayana

considerableknowledge - conocimientos considerables

placesvery - lugarvery

descendant - descendiente

callshimself - se llama a sí mismo

He was induced to write the work byorder of the learned Raja Vrijalala, while he was residing in Benares,but as to the merits of this commentary it does not deserve muchcommendation. In many cases the writer does not appear to haveunderstood the meaning of the original author, and has changed the textin many places to fit in with his own explanations.

byorder - Por orden

muchcommendation - mucha recomendación

textin - Mensaje de texto

A complete translation of the original work now follows. It has beenprepared in complete accordance with the text of the manuscript, and isgiven, without further comments, as made from it.

beenprepared - se ha preparado

isgiven - se da




introductory - introductorio


In the beginning, the Lord of Beings created men and women, and in theform of commandments in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rulesfor regulating their existence with regard to Dharma,[1] Artha,[2] andKama.

beings - seres; ser, criatura, existencia

theform - la forma

Commandments - mandamientos; mandamiento

rulesfor - Reglas para

andKama - Kama

3] Some of these commandments, namely those which treated ofDharma, were separately written by Swayambhu Manu; those that related toArtha were compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred to Kama wereexpounded by Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva, in one thousand chapters.

ofDharma - el Dharma

separately - por separado; separadamente

toArtha - aArtha

wereexpounded - Explotado

follower - seguidor, seguidora, imitador

1st. Sadharana (general topics).

2nd. Samprayogika (embraces, etc.).

3rd. Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and females).

4th. Bharyadhikarika (on one's own wife).

5th. Paradika (on the wives of other people).

6th. Vaisika (on courtesans).

courtesans - cortesanas; cortesana

7th. Aupamishadika (on the arts of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.).

seduction - seducción

tonic - tónica

The sixth part of this last work was separately expounded by Dattaka atthe request of the public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the sameway Charayana explained the first part of it. The remaining parts, viz.,the second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh were each separatelyexpounded by--

sixth part - la sexta parte

atthe - en el

separatelyexpounded - expuesto por separado

Suvarnanabha (second part).

Ghotakamukha (third part).

Gonardiya (fourth part).

Gonikaputra (fifth part).

Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.


Footnotes - pie de página; nota

[Footnote 1: Dharma is acquisition of religious merit, and is fullydescribed in Chapter 5, Volume III., of Talboys Wheeler's 'History ofIndia,'and in the edicts of Asoka.]

Footnote - una nota a pie de página; nota

fullydescribed - ompletamente descrito

wheeler - Rueda

ofIndia - eIndia

edicts - dictos; edicto

[Footnote 2: Artha is acquisition of wealth and property, etc.]

[Footnote 3: Kama is love, pleasure and sensual gratification.

These three words are retained throughout in their original, astechnical terms. They may also be defined as virtue, wealth andpleasure, the three things repeatedly spoken of in the Laws of Manu.]

astechnical - stécnico

andpleasure - y el placer

repeatedly - reiteradamente, repetidamente




Chapter II. Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue, Wealth and Love.

attainments - ogros; logro, consecución, realización

" III. On the study of the Sixty-four Arts.

" IV. On the Arrangements of a House, and Household Furniture; and about the Daily Life of a Citizen, his Companions, Amusements, &c.

amusements - diversiones; divertimiento, esparcimiento, diversión

" V. About classes of Women fit and unfit for Congress with the Citizen, and of Friends, and Messengers.

unfit - incapaz; impropio

Congress - congreso

Messengers - mensajeros; mensajero



Chapter I. Kinds of Union according to Dimensions, Force of Desire, and Time; and on the different kinds of Love.

" II. Of the Embrace.

" III. On Kissing.

" IV. On Pressing or Marking with the Nails.

" V. On Biting, and the ways of Love to be employed with regard to Women of different countries.

" VI. On the various ways of Lying Down, and the different kinds of Congress.

" VII. On the various ways of Striking, and of the Sounds appropriate to them.

" VIII. About females acting the part of Males.

" IX. On holding the Lingam in the Mouth.

lingam - pene

" X. How to begin and how to end the Congress. Different kinds of Congress, and Love Quarrels.

quarrels - peleas; pelea, rina



Chapter I. Observations on Betrothal and Marriage.

betrothal - esponsales, palabra de matrimonio, promesa de matrimonio

" II. About creating Confidence in the Girl.

" III. Courtship, and the manifestations of the feelings by outward signs and deeds.

courtship - cortejo

manifestations - anifestaciones; manifestación

feelings - Sentimientos

outward - hacia fuera

" IV. On things to be done only by the Man, and the acquisition of the Girl thereby. Also what to be done by a Girl to gain over a Man and subject him to her.

" V. On the different Forms of Marriage.



Chapter I. On the manner of living of a virtuous Woman, and of her behaviour during the absence of her Husband.

virtuous - virtuoso

" II. On the conduct of the eldest Wife towards the other Wives of her husband, and of the younger Wife towards the elder ones. Also on the conduct of a Virgin Widow re-married; of a Wife disliked by her Husband; of the Women in the King's Harem; and of a Husband who has more than one Wife.

Virgin - virgen, doncel, doncella, senorita

harem - harén



Chapter I. On the Characteristics of Men and Women, and the reason why Women reject the Addresses of Men. About Men who have Success with Women, and about Women who are easily gained over.

" II. About making Acquaintance with the Woman, and of the efforts to gain her over.

acquaintance - conocido; amistad, conocimiento, junta, relación

" III. Examination of the State of a Woman's mind.

" IV. The business of a Go-between.

" V. On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other People.

" VI. About the Women of the Royal Harem, and of the keeping of one's own Wife.



Chapter I. Of the Causes of a Courtesan resorting to Men; of the means of Attaching to herself the Man desired, and the kind of Man that it is desirable to be acquainted with.

courtesan - cortés; cortesana

" II. Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife.

" III. Of the means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is beginning to be weary, and of the way to get rid of him.

lover - amante

weary - cansado, cansino, cansar

" IV. About a Re-union with a former Lover.

" V. Of different kinds of Gain.

" VI. Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts; and lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans.

attendant - asistente, guarda, concomitante, inherente



Chapter I. On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of tonic medicines.

adornment - adorno, decoración

subjugating - sometiendo; sojuzgar

" II. Of the Means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging the Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts.

enlarging - ampliando; ampliar, agrandar, engrandecer

miscellaneous - varios, misceláneo




Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practiseDharma, Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner thatthey may harmonize together and not clash in any way. He should acquirelearning in his childhood, in his youth and middle age he should attendto Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thusseek to gain Moksha, _i.e._, release from further transmigration.

practiseDharma - Practicar el Dharma

thatthey - que ellos

harmonize - harmonizar

acquirelearning - adquiriraprendizaje

attendto - Atendto

thusseek - Así que busca

Moksha - moksha, moxel

transmigration - migración, transmigración

Or, onaccount of the uncertainty of life, he may practise them at times whenthey are enjoined to be practised. But one thing is to be noted, heshould lead the life of a religious student until he finishes hiseducation.

whenthey - Cuándo

enjoined - ordenado; imponer, ordenar, mandar, prohibir

heshould - Debería

hiseducation - Su educación

_Dharma_ is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of theHindoos to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices,which are not generally done because they do not belong to this world,and produce no visible effect; and not to do other things, such aseating meat, which is often done because it belongs to this world, andhas visible effects.

obedience - obediencia

theHindoos - losHindoos

aseating - asientos

andhas - y tiene

Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from thoseconversant with it.

learnt from - Aprender de alguien

thoseconversant - esosconversantes

_Artha_ is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth,equipages and friends. It is, further, the protection of what isacquired, and the increase of what is protected.

equipages - bagaje, furgón, tren de equipajes, carroza, carruaje de lujo

isacquired - se adquiere

Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants whomay be versed in the ways of commerce.

whomay - A quién

_Kama_ is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses ofhearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, and smelling, assisted by the mindtogether with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contactbetween the organ of sense and its object, and the consciousness ofpleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama.

enjoyment - disfrutar; disfrute, gozo, regocijo, holganza

ofhearing - e la audiencia

mindtogether - Mente en común

contactbetween - contacto intermedio

ofpleasure - de placer

Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and fromthe practice of citizens.

fromthe - Del

When all the three, viz., Dharma, Artha, and Kama come together, theformer is better than the one which follows it, _i.e._, Dharma is betterthan Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should be alwaysfirst practised by the king, for the livelihood of men is to be obtainedfrom it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, theyshould prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to thegeneral rule.

theformer - el formador

betterthan - Mejor que

alwaysfirst - siempre primero

livelihood - sustento

obtainedfrom - obtenido de

theyshould - deberían

thegeneral - el general

_Objection 1._

Some learned men say that as Dharma is connected with things notbelonging to this world, it is appropriately treated of in a book; andso also is Artha, because it is practised only by the application ofproper means, and a knowledge of those means can only be obtained bystudy and from books. But Kama being a thing which is practised even bythe brute creation, and which is to be found everywhere, does not wantany work on the subject.

notbelonging - nopertenencia

andso - Y qué

ofproper - eproper

bystudy - estudiar

bythe - Por qué

brute - bruto; animal, bestia

wantany - Quieres


_Objection 2._

The Lokayatikas[4] say:--Religious ordinances should not be observed,for they bear a future fruit, and at the same time it is also doubtfulwhether they will bear any fruit at all. What foolish person will giveaway that which is in his own hands into the hands of another?

ordinances - ordenanzas; ordenanza

doubtfulwhether - duda

foolish - tonto, necio, imprudente

giveaway - regalo

oreover, it is better to have a pigeon to-day than a peacock to-morrow;and a copper coin which we have the certainty of obtaining, is betterthan a gold coin, the possession of which is doubtful.

pigeon - paloma

peacock - pavo real, pavorreal

morrow - manana; manana

gold coin - una moneda de oro

doubtful - dudoso


It is not so. 1st. Holy Writ, which ordains the practice of Dharma, doesnot admit of a doubt.

ordains - ordenar

doesnot - No

admit of - admitirlo

2nd. Sacrifices such as those made for the destruction of enemies, orfor the fall of rain, are seen to bear fruit.

orfor - o para

3rd. The sun, moon, stars, planets and other heavenly bodies appear towork intentionally for the good of the world.

heavenly bodies - Cuerpos celestes

towork - Trabajar

intentionally - intencionadamente; intencionalmente

4th. The existence of this world is effected by the observance of therules respecting the four classes[5] of men and their four stages oflife.

oflife - e la vida

5th. We see that seed is thrown into the ground with the hope of futurecrops.

futurecrops - futurocultivos

Vatsyayana is therefore of opinion that the ordinances of religion mustbe obeyed.

mustbe - Debe ser

_Objection 3._

Those who believe that destiny is the prime mover of all things say:--Weshould not exert ourselves to acquire wealth, for sometimes it is notacquired although we strive to get it, while at other times it comes tous of itself without any exertion on our part. Everything is thereforein the power of destiny, who is the lord of gain and loss, of successand defeat, of pleasure and pain.

destiny - destino, sino

prime mover - motor principal; causa primera

notacquired - noadquirido

exertion - esfuerzo

thereforein - Por lo tanto

successand - éxito

Thus we see the Bali[6] was raised tothe throne of Indra by destiny, and was also put down by the same power,and it is destiny only that can re-instate him.

tothe - a la

throne - trono

Indra - Indra

instate - instaurar


It is not right to say so. As the acquisition of every objectpre-supposes at all events some exertion on the part of man, theapplication of proper means may be said to be the cause of gaining allour ends, and this application of proper means being thus necessary(even where a thing is destined to happen), it follows that a person whodoes nothing will enjoy no happiness.

objectpre - Objetopre

theapplication - la aplicación

allour - Alour

whodoes - quién lo hace

_Objection 4._

Those who are inclined to think that Artha is the chief object to beobtained argue thus. Pleasures should not be sought for, because theyare obstacles to the practice of Dharma and Artha, which are bothsuperior to them, and are also disliked by meritorious persons.Pleasures also bring a man into distress, and into contact with lowpersons; they cause him to commit unrighteous deeds, and produceimpurity in him; they make him regardless of the future, and encouragecarelessness and levity. And lastly, they cause him to be disbelieved byall, received by none, and despised by everybody, including himself.

beobtained - se puede obtener

theyare - Son

bothsuperior - Ambos superiores

meritorious - meritorio, loable, laudable, encomiable

lowpersons - personas bajas

unrighteous - Injusto

produceimpurity - Producir impureza

encouragecarelessness - fomentar el descuido

disbelieved - descreído; descreer

byall - todos

despised - despreciado; desdenar

Itis notorious, moreover, that many men who have given themselves up topleasure alone, have been ruined along with their families andrelations. Thus, King Dandakya,[7] of the Bhoja dynasty, carried off aBrahman's daughter with evil intent, and was eventually ruined and losthis kingdom. Indra, too, having violated the chastity of Ahalya,[8] wasmade to suffer for it. In a like manner the mighty Kichaka,[9] who triedto seduce Draupadi, and Ravana,[10] who attempted to gain over Sita, werepunished for their crimes. These and many others fell by reason of theirpleasures.

andrelations - relaciones

dynasty - dinastía

losthis - Perdiste esto

chastity - castidad

wasmade - fue hecho

mighty - poderoso

triedto - lo intentó

seduce - seducir

werepunished - fueron castigados

theirpleasures - Sus placeres


This objection cannot be sustained, for pleasures, being as necessaryfor the existence and well being of the body as food, are consequentlyequally required. They are, moreover, the results of Dharma and Artha.Pleasures are, therefore, to be followed with moderation and caution. Noone refrains from cooking food because there are beggars to ask for it,or from sowing seed because there are deer to destroy the corn when itis grown up.

necessaryfor - para qué

consequentlyequally - En consecuencia

moderation - moderación

refrains - estribillos; estribillo

beggars - mendigos; mendigo, mendiga, pordiosero, mendicante

deer - ciervo, venado

corn - cereales (maíz, trigo, avena)


[Footnote 4: These were certainly materialists who seemed to think thata bird in the hand was worth two in the bush.]

materialists - materialistas; materialista, panish: t-needed

thata - esa

[Footnote 5: Among the Hindoos the four classes of men are the Brahmansor priestly class, the Kshutrya or warlike class, the Vaishya oragricultural and mercantile class, and the Shoodra or menial class. Thefour stages of life are, the life of a religious student, the life of ahouseholder, the life of a hermit, and the life of a Sunyasi ordevotee.]

warlike - bélico; guerrero, beligerante, belicoso

oragricultural - oagrícola

mercantile - mercantil

menial - menor; criado

ahouseholder - Propietario de la casa

Hermit - ermitano; ermitano

[Footnote 6: Bali was a demon who had conquered Indra and gained histhrone, but was afterwards overcome by Vishnu at the time of his fifthincarnation.]

histhrone - Histrone

Vishnu - Vishnú

fifthincarnation - quinta encarnación

[Footnote 7: Dandakya is said to have abducted from the forest thedaughter of a Brahman, named Bhargava, and being cursed by the Brahman,was buried with his kingdom under a shower of dust. The place was calledafter his name the Dandaka forest, celebrated in the Ramayana, but nowunknown.]

abducted - secuestrado; raptar, secuestrar, abducir

thedaughter - la hija

cursed - Maldito; (curs) Maldito

calledafter - llamado después

nowunknown - ahora desconocido

[Footnote 8: Ahalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. Indra caused herto believe that he was Gautama, and thus enjoyed her. He was cursed byGautama and subsequently afflicted with a thousand ulcers on his body.]

byGautama - yGautama

afflicted - fligido; afligir

ulcers - úlceras; llaga, úlcera

[Footnote 9: Kichaka was the brother-in-law of King Virata, with whomthe Pandavas had taken refuge for one year. Kichaka was killed by Bhima,who assumed the disguise of Draupadi. For this story the Mahabaratashould be referred to.]

whomthe - a quién

disguise - disfraz, pantalla, tapadera, disfrazar

[Footnote 10: The story of Ravana is told in the Ramayana, which with theMahabarata form the two great epic poems of the Hindoos; the latter waswritten by Vyasa, and the former by Valmiki.]

theMahabarata - El Mahabarata

epic poems - poemas épicos



Man should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinatethereto, in addition to the study of the arts and sciences contained inDharma and Artha. Even young maids should study this Kama Sutra alongwith its arts and sciences before marriage, and after it they shouldcontinue to do so with the consent of their husbands.

subordinatethereto - ubordinado

inDharma - enDharma

maids - sirvientas; doncella, senorita, doméstica, empleada doméstica

alongwith - con

shouldcontinue - debe continuar

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed tostudy any science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

tostudy - Estudiar

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good, forwomen already know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice isderived from the Kama Shastra, or the science of Kama itself. Moreover,it is not only in this but in many other cases that though the practiceof a science is known to all, only a few persons are acquainted with therules and laws on which the science is based. Thus the Yadnikas orsacrificers, though ignorant of grammar, make use of appropriate wordswhen addressing the different Deities, and do not know how these wordsare framed. Again, persons do the duties required of them on auspiciousdays, which are fixed by astrology, though they are not acquainted withthe science of astrology.

forwomen - para las mujeres

isderived - se deriva

practiceof - Práctica

orsacrificers - Osacrificadores

ignorant - ignorante, ignaro, inculto

Grammar - gramática

wordswhen - alabras?cuándo

deities - deidades; dios, diosa, deidad, divinidad

wordsare - Palabras

auspiciousdays - días propicios

astrology - astrología

withthe - con el

In a like manner riders of horses andelephants train these animals without knowing the science of traininganimals, but from practice only. And similarly the people of the mostdistant provinces obey the laws of the kingdom from practice, andbecause there is a king over them, and without further reason.[11] Andfrom experience we find that some women, such as daughters of princesand their ministers, and public women, are actually versed in the KamaShastra.

riders - jinetes; jinete

andelephants - yelefantes

traininganimals - entrenamiento de animales

mostdistant - másdistante

andbecause - Y por qué

princesand - Príncipes

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a partof it, by studying its practice from some confidential friend. Sheshould study alone in private the sixty-four practices that form a partof the Kama Shastra. Her teacher should be one of the following persons,viz., the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and alreadymarried,[12] or a female friend who can be trusted in everything, or thesister of her mother (_i.

partof - parte de

confidential - confidencial

alreadymarried - ya casado

thesister - la hermana

._, her aunt), or an old female servant, or afemale beggar who may have formerly lived in the family, or her ownsister, who can always be trusted.

afemale - female

beggar - mendigo, mendiga, pordiosero, mendicante

ownsister - propietario

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the KamaSutra:--

1. Singing.

2. Playing on musical instruments.

3. Dancing.

4. Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music.

5. Writing and drawing.

6. Tattooing.

tattooing - tatuaje; tatuar

7. Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers.

adorning - adorno; adornar, engalanar

idol - ídolo

8. Spreading and arraying beds or couches of flowers, or flowers uponthe ground.

couches - camas; sofá, canapé

uponthe - sobre el

9. Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails, and bodies, _i.e._,staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same.

garments - prendas de vestir; prenda, prenda de vestir

staining - manchado; (stain); mancha, lamparón, tacha, mancilla, colorante

Dyeing - Tenido; (dye) Tenido

10. Fixing stained glass into a floor.

stained - manchado; mancha, lamparón, tacha, mancilla, colorante

11. The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions forreclining.

cushions - cojines; cojín, almohadón, colchón, amortiguante, banda

forreclining - para reclinarse

12. Playing on musical glasses filled with water.

13. Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns andreservoirs.

aqueducts - acueductos; acueducto

cisterns - aljibes; aljibe, cisterna

andreservoirs - reservorios

14. Picture making, trimming and decorating.

trimming - Recorte; (trim); recortar, orlar, ribetear

15. Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths.

rosaries - rosarios; rosario, rosario

necklaces - collares; collar

garlands - guirnaldas; guirnalda, galardón, marco de honor

wreaths - coronas; guirnalda, corona, burelete, rodear

16. Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots offlowers.

turbans - turbantes; turbante

chaplets - Capilla

crests - crestas; cornisa, cresta, cimera

knots - nudos; nudo

offlowers - fflowers

17. Scenic representations. Stage playing.

Scenic - escénico

18. Art of making ear ornaments.

ornaments - dornos; ornamento, ornamento musical

19. Art of preparing perfumes and odours.

perfumes - perfumes; aroma, perfume, perfumar

odours - olores; olor

20. Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment indress.

disposition - disposición; inclinación, temperamento, carácter

21. Magic or sorcery.

sorcery - hechicería; brujería, magia

22. Quickness of hand or manual skill.

quickness - rapidez

23. Culinary art, _i.e._, cooking and cookery.

culinary - culinario

cookery - Cocina

24. Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituousextracts with proper flavour and colour.

lemonades - limonadas; limonada, gaseosa de limón, soda limonada

sherbets - orbetes; sorbete, polvo acidulado

spirituousextracts - extractos espirituosos

25. Tailor's work and sewing.

tailor - sastre, modisto, modista, confeccionar, panish: t-needed

sewing - Coser; (sew) Coser

26. Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs,&c., out of yarn or thread.

parrots - loros; papagayo, loro, cotorra

tufts - mechones; mechón

tassels - orlas; borla

knobs - pomos; perilla, asa

yarn - hilo, hilado, lana, hilaza, cuento

27. Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles andenigmatical questions.

riddles - enigmas; adivinanza, acertijo

enigmas - enigmas; enigma

covert - encubierto

andenigmatical - yenigmático

28. A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one personfinished, another person had to commence at once, repeating anotherverse, beginning with the same letter with which the last speaker'sverse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to have lost, andto be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind.

personfinished - personaacabada

anotherverse - otro universo

sverse - verse

andto - y a

forfeit - renuncia; penalización, perder, rendir

29. The art of mimicry or imitation.

imitation - imitación

30. Reading, including chanting and intoning.

chanting - cantando; salmodiar

intoning - entonando; (intone) entonando

31. Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a gamechiefly by women and children, and consists of a difficult sentencebeing given, and when repeated quickly, the words are often transposedor badly pronounced.

sentencebeing - Sentencia

32. Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff, and bow and arrow.

bow - arco; inclinar(se), hacer una reverencia

33. Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring.

inferences - inferencias; inferencia, ilación

34. Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter.

carpentry - carpintería

Carpenter - carpintero, carpintera, ebanista

35. Architecture, or the art of building.

36. Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems.

silver coins - monedas de plata

gems - gemas; joya, alhaja, piedra preciosa, gema

37. Chemistry and mineralogy.

mineralogy - mineralogía

38. Colouring jewels, gems and beads.

beads - perlas; cuenta, gota

39. Knowledge of mines and quarries.

quarries - canteras; cantera

40. Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants,of nourishing them, and determining their ages.

nourishing - nutritiva; nutrir

41. Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting.

cock - polla; gallo, macho

quail - codorniz; acobardarse, amedrentarse

ram - RAM, memoria RAM

42. Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak.

starlings - Estorninos

43. Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing thehair with unguents and perfumes and braiding it.

ointments - ungüentos; pomada, ungüento

thehair - El pelo

unguents - Ungüento

braiding - Trenzado; (braid) Trenzado

44. The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of wordsin a peculiar way.

45. The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of variouskinds. Some speak by changing the beginning and end of words, others byadding unnecessary letters between every syllable of a word, and so on.

variouskinds - varios tipos

byadding - anadiendo

syllable - sílaba

46. Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects.

vernacular - idioma, dialecto, lengua vernácula, vernáculo

dialects - ialectos; dialecto

47. Art of making flower carriages.

48. Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms,and binding armlets.

mystical - místico

50. Composing poems.

51. Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies.

vocabularies - vocabularios; vocabulario, léxico

52. Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance ofpersons.

disguising - Disfraz; (disguise); disfraz, pantalla, tapadera, disfrazar

ofpersons - de las personas

53. Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such asmaking cotton to appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear asfine and good.

asmaking - Haciendo

coarse - grosero; tosco, rústico, rudo, bruto

54. Various ways of gambling.

55. Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means ofmuntras or incantations.

ofmuntras - fmuntras

56. Skill in youthful sports.

youthful - juvenil, joven

57. Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respects andcompliments to others.

andcompliments - y cumplidos

58. Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, &c.

59. Knowledge of gymnastics.

60. Art of knowing the character of a man from his features.

61. Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses.

62. Arithmetical recreations.

arithmetical - aritmética; aritmético

recreations - recreaciones; recreación

63. Making artificial flowers.

64. Making figures and images in clay.

clay - arcilla, barro

A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and otherwinning qualities, and also versed in the above arts, obtains the nameof a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives a seat ofhonour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always respected bythe king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for byall, she becomes an object of universal regard. The daughter of a kingtoo, as well as the daughter of a minister, being learned in the abovearts, can make their husbands favourable to them, even though these mayhave thousands of other wives besides themselves.

endowed - dotar, costear, financiar, ser bendecido, ser dotado

otherwinning - otrowinning

nameof - nombre de

ofhonour - De honor

abovearts - Sobrearts

mayhave - puede tener

And in the samemanner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and falls intodistress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign country, bymeans of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare knowledge of themgives attractiveness to a woman, though the practice of them may be onlypossible or otherwise according to the circumstances of each case. A manwho is versed in these arts, who is loquacious and acquainted with thearts of gallantry, gains very soon the hearts of women, even though heis only acquainted with them for a short time.

samemanner - el mismo modo

intodistress - introductora

bymeans - Por qué

attractiveness - atractivo, atractividad

onlypossible - Sólo es posible

manwho - Quién

loquacious - locuaz

thearts - las artes

gallantry - galantería; coraje, valor


[Footnote 11: The author wishes to prove that a great many things aredone by people from practice and custom, without their being acquaintedwith the reason of things, or the laws on which they are based, and thisis perfectly true.]

aredone - ya está

acquaintedwith - Conocer

thisis - Esto es

[Footnote 12: The proviso of being married applies to all the teachers.]

proviso - provisión; salvedad



Having thus acquired learning, a man, with the wealth that he may havegained by gift, conquest, purchase, deposit,[14] or inheritance from hisancestors, should become a householder, and pass the life of a citizen.He should take a house in a city, or large village, or in the vicinityof good men, or in a place which is the resort of many persons. Thisabode should be situated near some water, and divided into differentcompartments for different purposes. It should be surrounded by agarden, and also contain two rooms, an outer and an inner one. The innerroom should be occupied by the females, while the outer room, balmy withrich perfumes, should contain a bed, soft, agreeable to the sightcovered with a clean white cloth, low in the middle part, havinggarlands and bunches of flowers[15] upon it, and a canopy above it, andtwo pillows, one at the top, another at the bottom. There should be alsoa sort of couch besides, and at the head of this a sort of stool, onwhich should be placed the fragrant ointments for the night, as well asflowers, pots containing collyrium and other fragrant substances, thingsused for perfuming the mouth, and the bark of the common citron tree.

havegained - han ganado

conquest - conquista

inheritance - herencia

hisancestors - sus antepasados

householder - propietario; panish: t-needed

vicinityof - Cercanía de

differentcompartments - Diferentes compartimentos

innerroom - Habitación interior

be occupied - estar ocupado

withrich - conrich

agreeable - lisonjero, agradable, dispuesto, conforme

sightcovered - A la vista

havinggarlands - tener tierras

canopy - cubierta; dosel, palio, toldo, alero, copa, parabrisas, capota

andtwo - y dos

pillows - almohadas; almohada

alsoa - también

couch - un sofá; sofá, canapé

stool - heces; taburete

onwhich - sobre qué

fragrant - oloroso; fragante, perfumado

asflowers - como flores

collyrium - Colirio

thingsused - Cosas usadas

perfuming - perfumando; aroma, perfume, perfumar

bark - corteza; ladrido

ear the couch, on the ground, there should be a pot for spitting, a boxcontaining ornaments, and also a lute hanging from a peg made of thetooth of an elephant, a board for drawing, a pot containing perfume,some books, and some garlands of the yellow amaranth flowers. Not farfrom the couch, and on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toycart, and a board for playing with dice; outside the outer roomthere should be cages of birds,[16] and a separate place for spinning,carving, and such like diversions. In the garden there should be awhirling swing and a common swing, as also a bower of creepers coveredwith flowers, in which a raised parterre should be made for sitting.

spitting - Escupiendo; (spit) Escupiendo

boxcontaining - contiene caja

lute - Laúd

peg - clavija, tarugo, colgador, perchero, gancho, fijar, tachar

thetooth - El diente

perfume - aroma, perfume, perfumar

amaranth - amaranto, bledo

farfrom - lejos

toycart - Carro de juguete

dice - dados; cortar en cubos

roomthere - Habitación

cages - jaulas; jaula, cabina, enjaular

diversions - diversiones; distracción, diversión, desviación

awhirling - whirling

creepers - enredaderas; rastrera

coveredwith - con qué

Now the householder having got up in the morning and performed hisnecessary duties,[17] should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity ofointments and perfumes to his body, put some ornaments on his person andcollyrium on his eyelids and below his eyes, colour his lips withalacktaka,[18] and look at himself in the glass. Having then eaten betelleaves, with other things that give fragrance to the mouth, he shouldperform his usual business. He should bathe daily, anoint his body withoil every other day, apply a lathering[19] substance to his body everythree days, get his head (including face) shaved every four days, andthe other parts of his body every five or ten days.[20] All these thingsshould be done without fail, and the sweat of the armpits should also beremoved. Meals should be taken in the forenoon, in the afternoon, andagain at night, according to Charayana.

hisnecessary - es necesario

ofointments - Ungüentos

andcollyrium - colirio

eyelids - párpados; párpado

withalacktaka - conalacktaka

fragrance - fragancia, aroma

shouldperform - debería funcionar

bathe - banarse; banar, lavar

anoint - ungir

withoil - con aceite

everythree - Cada tres

andthe - y el

thingsshould - debería

sweat - sudor

armpits - las axilas; axila, sobaco

beremoved - Quitar

andagain - y otra vez

After breakfast, parrots andother birds should be taught to speak, and the fighting of cocks,quails, and rams should follow. A limited time should be devoted todiversions with Pithamardas, Vitas, and Vidushakas,[21] and then shouldbe taken the midday sleep.[22] After this the householder, having put onhis clothes and ornaments, should, during the afternoon, converse withhis friends. In the evening there should be singing, and after that thehouseholder, along with his friend, should await in his room, previouslydecorated and perfumed, the arrival of the woman that may be attached tohim, or he may send a female messenger for her, or go for her himself.After her arrival at his house, he and his friend should welcome her,and entertain her with a loving and agreeable conversation. Thus end theduties of the day.

andother - y otros

cocks - pollas; gallo, macho

quails - codornices; acobardarse, amedrentarse

rams - los carneros; RAM, memoria RAM

todiversions - diversiones

shouldbe - debería ser

midday sleep - siesta

converse - conversar, charlar

withhis - Con esto

thehouseholder - el accionista

previouslydecorated - decorado anteriormente

tohim - a él

messenger - mensajero

theduties - las funciones

The following are the things to be done occasionally as diversions oramusements.

1. Holding festivals[23] in honour of different Deities.

2. Social gatherings of both sexes.

gatherings - reunión

3. Drinking parties.

4. Picnics.

picnics - picnics; jira, pícnic

5. Other social diversions.


On some particular auspicious day, an assembly of citizens should beconvened in the temple of Saraswati.[24] There the skill of singers, andof others who may have come recently to the town, should be tested, andon the following day they should always be given some rewards. Afterthat they may either be retained or dismissed, according as theirperformances are liked or not by the assembly.

auspicious - uspicioso; prometedor, propicio

beconvened - convocado

andof - y de

theirperformances - Sus resultados

The members of theassembly should act in concert, both in times of distress as well as intimes of prosperity, and it is also the duty of these citizens to showhospitality to strangers who may have come to the assembly. What is saidabove should be understood to apply to all the other festivals which maybe held in honour of the different Deities, according to the presentrules.

theassembly - la asamblea

showhospitality - Mostrar hospitalidad

strangers - Extrano

saidabove - Dicho anteriormente

presentrules - Preséntulas

_Social Gatherings._

When men of the same age, disposition and talents, fond of the samediversions and with the same degree of education, sit together incompany with public women,[25] or in an assembly of citizens, or at theabode of one among themselves, and engage in agreeable discourse witheach other, such is called a sitting in company or a social gathering.

samediversions - diversiones

incompany - Incompanía

theabode - elabode

witheach - con cada uno

he subjects of discourse are to be the completion of verses halfcomposed by others, and the testing the knowledge of one another in thevarious arts. The women who may be the most beautiful, who may like thesame things that the men like, and who may have power to attract theminds of others, are here done homage to.

halfcomposed - Compuesto a medias

thevarious - varios

thesame - Lo mismo

homage - homenaje

_Drinking Parties._

Men and women should drink in one another's houses. And here the menshould cause the public women to drink, and should then drinkthemselves, liquors such as the Madhu, Aireya, Sara, and Asawa, whichare of bitter and sour taste; also drinks concocted from the barks ofvarious trees, wild fruits and leaves.

menshould - deberían los hombres

drinkthemselves - se beben

liquors - licores; jugo, licor

whichare - cuál

sour - agrio, ácido, acedo, acidez

concocted - inventado; confeccionar

barks - ladridos; ladrido

ofvarious - evarios

_Going to Gardens or Picnics._

In the forenoon, men, having dressed themselves should go to gardens onhorseback, accompanied by public women and followed by servants. Andhaving done there all the duties of the day, and passed the time invarious agreeable diversions, such as the fighting of quails, cocks andrams, and other spectacles, they should return home in the afternoon inthe same manner, bringing with them bunches of flowers, &c.

onhorseback - a caballo

invarious - invarios

andrams - Andramas

The same also applies to bathing in summer in water from which wicked ordangerous animals have previously been taken out, and which has beenbuilt in on all sides.

wicked - malvado, cruel, insoportable; (wick) malvado, cruel

ordangerous - peligroso

beenbuilt - Se ha construido

_Other Social Diversions._

Spending nights playing with dice. Going out on moonlight nights.Keeping the festive day in honour of spring. Plucking the sprouts andfruits of the mangoe trees. Eating the fibres of lotuses. Eating thetender ears of corn. Picnicing in the forests when the trees get theirnew foliage. The Udakakashvedika or sporting in the water.

moonlight - la luz de la luna; luz de la luna, lunada, pluriemplearse

festive day - Día festivo

plucking - desplumando; herir, desplumar, perseverancia

sprouts - brotes; brotar

andfruits - y frutos

lotuses - lotos; loto

theirnew - Su nuevo

foliage - follaje

Decoratingeach other with the flowers of some trees. Pelting each other with theflowers of the Kadamba tree, and many other sports which may either beknown to the whole country, or may be peculiar to particular parts ofit. These and similar other amusements should always be carried on bycitizens.

theflowers - las flores

beknown - conocer

ofit - De eso

bycitizens - or los ciudadanos

The above amusements should be followed by a person who diverts himselfalone in company with a courtesan, as well as by a courtesan who can dothe same in company with her maid servants or with citizens.

himselfalone - Solo

dothe - te

maid - mucama; doncella, senorita, doméstica, empleada doméstica

A Pithamarda[26] is a man without wealth, alone in the world, whose onlyproperty consists of his Mallika,[27] some lathering, substance and ared cloth, who comes from a good country, and who is skilled in all thearts; and by teaching these arts is received in the company of citizens,and in the abode of public women.

onlyproperty - sólopropiedad

lathering - enjabonarse; espuma

ared - red

abode - Morada; (abide); quedar, permanecer, resistir, aguantar

A Vita[28] is a man who has enjoyed the pleasures of fortune, who is acompatriot of the citizens with whom he associates, who is possessed ofthe qualities of a householder, who has his wife with him, and who ishonoured in the assembly of citizens, and in the abodes of public women,and lives on their means and on them.

acompatriot - compatriota

ishonoured - se honra

abodes - oradas; Morada

A Vidushaka[29] (also called a Vaihasaka, _i.e._, one who provokeslaughter) is a person only acquainted with some of the arts who is ajester, and who is trusted by all.

provokeslaughter - provoca risa

ajester - Jugador

These persons are employed in matters of quarrels and reconciliationsbetween citizens and public women.

reconciliationsbetween - conciliaciones

This remark applies also to female beggars, to women with their headsshaved, to adulterous women, and to old public women skilled in all thevarious arts.

headsshaved - cabezas afeitadas

adulterous - adúltera; adúltero

Thus a citizen living in his town or village, respected by all, shouldcall on the persons of his own caste who may be worth knowing. He shouldconverse in company and gratify his friends by his society, and obligingothers by his assistance in various matters, he should cause them toassist one another in the same way.

shouldcall - debería llamar

caste - casta

shouldconverse - convertirse

obligingothers - Obligar a los demás

toassist - ayudar

There are some verses on this subject as follows:--

A citizen discoursing, not entirely in the Sanscrit language,[30] norwholly in the dialects of the country, on various topics in society,obtains great respect. The wise should not resort to a society dislikedby the public, governed by no rules, and intent on the destruction ofothers.

dislikedby - no le gusta

ofothers - e otros

But a learned man living in a society which acts according tothe wishes of the people, and which has pleasure for its only object ishighly respected in this world.

ishighly - es muy


[Footnote 13: This term would appear to apply generally to an inhabitantof Hindoostan. It is not meant only for a dweller in a city, like theLatin Urbanus as opposed to Rusticus.]

inhabitantof - habitante de

dweller - habitante

theLatin - El latín

[Footnote 14: Gift is peculiar to a Brahman, conquest to a Kshatrya,while purchase, deposit, and other means of acquiring wealth belongs tothe Vaishya.]

[Footnote 15: Natural garden flowers.]

[Footnote 16: Such as quails, partridges, parrots, starlings, &c.]

Partridges - perdices; perdiz

[Footnote 17: The calls of nature always performed by the Hindoos thefirst thing in the morning.]

thefirst - el primero

[Footnote 18: A colour made from lac.]

[Footnote 19: This would act instead of soap, which was not introduceduntil the rule of the Mahomedans.]

introduceduntil - hasta

[Footnote 20: Ten days are allowed when the hair is taken out with a pairof pincers.]

pincers - Pinza

[Footnote 21: These are characters generally introduced in the Hindoodrama; their characteristics will be explained further on.]

[Footnote 22: Noonday sleep is only allowed in summer, when the nightsare short.]

noonday - Mediodía

nightsare - Noches

[Footnote 23: These are very common in all parts of India.]

[Footnote 24: In the 'Asiatic Miscellany,'and in Sir W. Jones's works,will be found a spirited hymn addressed to this goddess, who is adoredas the patroness of the fine arts, especially of music and rhetoric, asthe inventress of the Sanscrit language, &c., &c. She is the goddess ofharmony, eloquence, and language, and is somewhat analogous to Minerva.For further information about her, see Edward Moor's 'Hindoo Pantheon.']

Asiatic - Asiático

miscellany - miscelánea, miscelánea, antología

hymn - himno

goddess - diosa

adoredas - doredas

asthe - como el

inventress - Inventora

ofharmony - de armonía

eloquence - elocuencia

analogous - análogo

Edward - Eduardo

moor - páramos; páramo

Pantheon - panteón

[Footnote 25: The public women, or courtesans (Vesya), of the earlyHindoos have often been compared with the Hetera of the Greeks. Thesubject is dealt with at some length in H. H. Wilson's 'Select Specimensof the Theatre of the Hindoos,'in two volumes, Trubner & Co.

earlyHindoos - Hindoos primitivos

1871. Itmay be fairly considered that the courtesan was one of the elements, andan important element too, of early Hindoo society, and that hereducation and intellect were both superior to that of the women of thehousehold. Wilson says, "By the Vesya or courtesan, however, we are notto understand a female who has disregarded the obligation of law or theprecepts of virtue, but a character reared by a state of mannersunfriendly to the admission of wedded females into society, and openingit only at the expense of reputation to women who were trained forassociation with men by personal and mental acquirements to which thematron was a stranger."]

hereducation - ereducación

intellect - intelecto

thehousehold - la casa

notto - No

disregarded - ignorado; descuidar, desatender, ignorar

theprecepts - los preceptos

mannersunfriendly - malos modales

wedded - casada; casar

openingit - Abrirlo

forassociation - para la asociación

acquirements - adquisición

thematron - Tematron

[Footnote 26: According to this description a Pithamarda would be a sortof professor of all the arts, and as such received as the friend andconfidant of the citizens.]

andconfidant - y confidente

[Footnote 27: A seat in the form of the letter T.]

[Footnote 28: The Vita is supposed to represent somewhat the characterof the Parasite of the Greek comedy. It is possible that he was retainedabout the person of the wealthy and dissipated as a kind of privateinstructor, as well as an entertaining companion.]

characterof - Carácter de

parasite - parásito

Greek - griego, griego, griega

retainedabout - Retenido

privateinstructor - instructor particular

[Footnote 29: Vidushaka is evidently the buffoon and jester. Wilson saysof him that he is the humble companion, not the servant, of a prince orman of rank, and it is a curious peculiarity that he is always aBrahman. He bears more affinity to Sancho Panza, perhaps, than any othercharacter in western fiction, imitating him in his combination ofshrewdness and simplicity, his fondness of good living and his love ofease.

buffoon - bufón, panish: t-needed

saysof - Decir

peculiarity - particularidad; peculiaridad

affinity - afinidad

othercharacter - Otro personaje

imitating - imitando; imitar

ofshrewdness - e astucia

simplicity - simplicidad, sencillez, llano

fondness - carino; apego, querencia

ofease - eease

In the dramas of intrigue he exhibits some of the talents ofMercury, but with less activity and ingenuity, and occasionally suffersby his interference. According to the technical definition of hisattributes he is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person, age, andattire.]

intrigue - intriga, argumento, intrigar

ofMercury - e Mercurio

ingenuity - ingenuidad; ingenio

suffersby - Sufrir

hisattributes - Sus atributos

mirth - felicidad, alegría, júbilo

[Footnote 30: This means, it is presumed, that the citizen should beacquainted with several languages. The middle part of this paragraphmight apply to the Nihilists and Fenians of the day, or to secretsocieties. It was perhaps a reference to the Thugs.]

beacquainted - conocerse

paragraphmight - párrafo

nihilists - nihilistas; nihilista

secretsocieties - secretosociedades

Thugs - matones; matón, macarra, rufián, perdonavidas



When Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the rulesof the Holy Writ (_i.e._, by lawful marriage) with virgins of their owncaste, it then becomes a means of acquiring lawful progeny and goodfame, and it is not also opposed to the customs of the world. On thecontrary the practice of Kama with women of the higher castes, and withthose previously enjoyed by others, even though they be of the samecaste, is prohibited.

castes - astas; casta

rulesof - Reglas de

lawful - legal; panish: t-needed

virgins - vírgenes; virgen, doncel, doncella, senorita

owncaste - casta propia

progeny - progenie; descendiente

goodfame - buena fama

thecontrary - elcontrario

withthose - Con esos

But the practice of Kama with women of the lowercastes, with women excommunicated from their own caste, with publicwomen, and with women twice married,[31] is neither enjoined norprohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasureonly.

lowercastes - Castes inferiores

excommunicated - excomulgado; excomulgar

publicwomen - mujeres públicas

norprohibited - i prohibidas

pleasureonly - Sólo placer

Nayikas,[32] therefore, are of three kinds, viz., maids, women twicemarried, and public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion thatthere is a fourth kind of Nayika, viz., a woman who is resorted to onsome special occasion even though she be previously married to another.These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:--

twicemarried - dos veces casado

thatthere - Eso

(_a_). This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and in so doing I shall not be violating the ordinances of Dharma.

safely - seguro; seguramente

Or thus:--

(_b_). This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me, there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.

Or thus:--

(_c_). This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she becomes united with me, she will cause her husband to abandon my enemy.

mastery - dominio, maestría

Or thus:--

(_d_). This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me some harm.

disaffected - desafecto

Or thus:--

(_e_). By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine, or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some other difficult purpose.

Or thus:--

(_f_). By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast riches which I covet.

covet - desear, codiciar, checkenvidiar

Or thus:--

(_g_). The union of this woman with me is not attended with any danger, and will bring me wealth, of which, on account of my poverty and inability to support myself, I am very much in need. I shall, therefore, obtain her vast riches in this way without any difficulty.

Or thus:--

(_h_). This woman loves me ardently, and knows all my weak points, if therefore, I am unwilling to be united with her, she will make my faults public, and thus tarnish my character and reputation. Or she will bring some gross accusation against me, of which it may be hard to clear myself, and I shall be ruined.

ardently - con ardor

unwilling - No quiere

tarnish - empanar; oxidación, oxidar, deslustrar, empanar, tiznar

Or perhaps she will detach from me her husband, who is powerful, and yet under her control, and will unite him to my enemy, or will herself join the latter.

detach - desprender; desacoplar

Or thus:--

(_i_). The husband of this woman has violated the chastity of my wives, I shall therefore return that injury by seducing his wives.

seducing - Seducir; (seduce); seducir

Or thus:--

(_j_). By the help of this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king, who has taken shelter with her, and whom I am ordered by the king to destroy.

Or thus:

(_k_). The woman whom I love is under the control of this woman. I shall, through the influence of the latter, be able to get at the former.

Or thus:--

(_l_). This woman will bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and beauty, but who is hard to get at, and under the control of another.

Or, lastly, thus:--

(_m_). My enemy is a friend of this woman's husband, I shall therefore cause her to join him, and will thus create an enmity between her husband and him.

enmity - enemistad

For these and similar other reasons the wives of other men may beresorted to, but it must be distinctly understood that is only allowedfor special reasons, and not for mere carnal desire.

beresorted - Resorted

distinctly - laramente; distintamente

allowedfor - Permitido

carnal desire - deseo carnal

Charayana thinks that under these circumstances there is also a fifthkind of Nayika, viz., a woman who is kept by a minister, and who repairsto him occasionally; or a widow who accomplishes the purpose of a manwith the person to whom she resorts.

fifthkind - Quinta humanidad

repairsto - Reparar

Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who passes the life of an ascetic and inthe condition of a widow may be considered as a sixth kind of Nayika.

ascetic - ascético, asceta

Ghotakamukha says that the daughter of a public woman, and a femaleservant, who are still virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika.

femaleservant - Sirvienta femenina

Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine that any woman born of good family,after she has come of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika.

Eighth - octavo, octavo

But these four latter kinds of Nayikas do not differ much from the firstfour kinds of them, as there is no separate object in resorting tothem. Therefore Vatsyayana is of opinion that there are only four kindsof Nayikas, _i.e._, the maid, the twice married woman, the public woman,and the woman resorted to for a special purpose.

firstfour - primercuatro

tothem - a ellos

kindsof - De qué tipo

The following women are not to be enjoyed:--

A leper.

leper - leproso, leprosa

A lunatic.

lunatic - insano, orate, lunático

A woman turned out of caste.

A woman who reveals secrets.

A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse.

publicly - públicamente

A woman who is extremely white.

A woman who is extremely black.

A bad-smelling woman.

A woman who is a near relation.

A woman who is a female friend.

A woman who leads the life of an ascetic.

And, lastly, the wife of a relation, of a friend, of a learned Brahman,and of the king.

The followers of Babhravya say that any woman who has been enjoyed byfive men is a fit and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra is ofopinion that even when this is the case, the wives of a relation, of alearned Brahman and of a king should be excepted.

followers - seguidores; seguidor, seguidora, imitador

byfive - Cinco

ofopinion - deopinión

alearned - aprendido

The following are the kind of friends:--

One who has played with you in the dust, _i.e._, in childhood.

One who is bound by an obligation.

One who is of the same disposition and fond of the same things.

One who is a fellow student.

fellow student - Companero de estudios

One who is acquainted with your secrets and faults, and whose faults andsecrets are also known to you.

andsecrets - secretos

One who is a child of your nurse.

One who is brought up with you.

One who is an hereditary friend.

hereditary - heredado, hereditario

These friends should possess the following qualities:--

They should tell the truth.

They should not be changed by time.

They should be favourable to your designs.

They should be firm.

They should be free from covetousness.

covetousness - codicia

They should not be capable of being gained over by others.

They should not reveal your secrets.

Charayana says that citizens form friendship with washermen, barbers,cowherds, florists, druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers,beggars, Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas, as also with the wives ofall these people.

washermen - lavanderos; lavandero, lavandera

barbers - barberos; barbero, peluquero

cowherds - vaqueros; vaquero

florists - floristas; florista

druggists - Farmacia

betel - betel

sellers - vendedores; Vendedor

tavern - taberna

keepers - custodios; guardián, guardiana, custodio

ofall - De todo

A messenger should possess the following qualities:--



boldness - audacia; osadía

Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward signs.

Absence of confusion, _i.e._, no shyness.

shyness - timidez

Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or say.

Good manners.

Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing different things.

Ingenuity in business.

Quick comprehension.

comprehension - comprensión, entendimiento

Quick application of remedies, _i.e._, quick and ready resources.

And this part ends with a verse:--

The man who is ingenious and wise, who is accompanied by a friend, andwho knows the intentions of others, as also the proper time and placefor doing everything, can gain over, very easily, even a woman who isvery hard to be obtained.

andwho - y quién

placefor - para qué

isvery - svery


[Footnote 31: This term does not apply to a widow, but to a woman whohad probably left her husband, and is living with some other person as amarried woman, maritalement, as they say in France.]

whohad - Quién tenía

amarried - Casado

maritalement - Matrimonio

[Footnote 32: Any woman fit to be enjoyed without sin. The object of theenjoyment of women is twofold, viz., pleasure and progeny. Any woman whocan be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of accomplishing either theone or the other of these two objects is a Nayika.

theenjoyment - Disfrutar

twofold - doble, doblemente

whocan - Quién puede

The fourth kind ofNayika which Vatsya admits further on is neither enjoyed for pleasure orfor progeny, but merely for accomplishing some special purpose in hand.The word Nayika is retained as a technical term throughout.]

ofNayika - eNayika

technical term - término técnico







_Kinds of Union._

Man is divided into three classes, viz., the hare man, the bull man, andthe horse man, according to the size of his lingam.

Hare - liebre

Bull - toro

Woman also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer,a mare, or a female elephant.

mare - yegua

There are thus three equal unions between persons of correspondingdimensions, and there are six unequal unions, when the dimensions do notcorrespond, or nine in all, as the following table shows:

correspondingdimensions - dimensiones correspondientes

unequal - desigual

notcorrespond - no corresponde

+--------------------+--------------------+ | EQUAL. | UNEQUAL. | +--------------------+--------------------+ | MEN. | WOMEN. | MEN. | WOMEN. | +--------+-----------+--------|-----------+ | | | | | | Hare. | Deer. | Hare.

| Mare. | | Bull. | Mare. | Hare. | Elephant. | | Horse. | Elephant. | Bull. | Deer. | | | | Bull. | Elephant. | | | | Horse. | Deer. | | | | Horse. | Mare. | +--------+-----------+--------+-----------+

In these unequal unions, when the male exceeds the female in point ofsize, his union with a woman who is immediately next to him in size iscalled high union, and is of two kinds; while his union with the womanmost remote from him in size is called the highest union, and is of onekind only.

ofsize - De tamano

iscalled - se llama

womanmost - Mujermost

onekind - un tipo

On the other hand when the female exceeds the male in pointof size, her union with a man immediately next to her in size is calledlow union, and is of two kinds; while her union with a man most remotefrom her in size is called the lowest union, and is of one kind only.

pointof - punto

calledlow - Calllow

remotefrom - lejos de

In other words, the horse and mare, the bull and deer, form the highunion, while the horse and deer form the highest union. On the femaleside, the elephant and bull, the mare and hare, form low unions, whilethe elephant and the hare make the lowest unions.

femaleside - femenino

whilethe - Mientras

There are then, nine kinds of union according to dimensions. Amongst allthese, equal unions are the best, those of a superlative degree, _i.e._,the highest and the lowest, are the worst, and the rest are middling,and with them the high[33] are better than the low.

amongst - entre

allthese - Todos estos

superlative - superlativo, superlativo, supremo

There are also nine kinds of union according to the force of passion orcarnal desire, as follows:

+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+ | MEN. | WOMEN. | MEN. | WOMEN. | +-----------+-----------+-----------|-----------+ | | | | | | Small. | Small. | Small. | Middling. | | Middling. | Middling. | Small.

| Intense. | | Intense. | Intense. | Middling. | Small. | | | | Middling. | Intense. | | | | Intense. | Small. | | | | Intense. | Middling. | +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

A man is called a man of small passion whose desire at the time ofsexual union is not great, whose semen is scanty, and who cannot bearthe warm embraces of the female.

ofsexual - fsexual

semen - semen

scanty - escaso, exiguo

Those who differ from this temperament are called men of middlingpassion, while those of intense passion are full of desire.

temperament - temperamento

middlingpassion - pasiónmedia

In the same way, women are supposed to have the three degrees of feelingas specified above.

feelingas - sentimientos

Lastly, according to time there are three kinds of men and women, viz.,the short-timed, the moderate-timed, and the long-timed, and of these asin the previous statements, there are nine kinds of union.

But on this last head there is a difference of opinion about the female,which should be stated.

Auddalika says, "Females do not emit as males do. The males simplyremove their desire, while the females, from their consciousness ofdesire, feel a certain kind of pleasure, which gives them satisfaction,but it is impossible for them to tell you what kind of pleasure theyfeel.

emit - emitir

simplyremove - Simplemente eliminar

ofdesire - de deseo

theyfeel - Se sienten

The fact from which this becomes evident is, that males, whenengaged in coition, cease of themselves after emission, and aresatisfied, but it is not so with females."

whenengaged - cuándo se compromete

coition - Coición

aresatisfied - está satisfecho

This opinion is, however, objected to on the grounds that if a male be along-timed, the female loves him the more, but if he be short-timed, sheis dissatisfied with him. And this circumstance, some say, would provethat the female emits also.

grounds - uelo

dissatisfied - insatisfecho; descontentar

provethat - Probarlo

emits - mite; emitir

But this opinion does not hold good, for if it takes a long time toallay a woman's desire, and during this time she is enjoying greatpleasure, it is quite natural then that she should wish for itscontinuation. And on this subject there is a verse as follows:

greatpleasure - gran placer

itscontinuation - su continuación

"By union with men the lust, desire, or passion of women is satisfied,and the pleasure derived from the consciousness of it is called theirsatisfaction."

lust - lujuria, deseo, ganas, lujuria, alegría

theirsatisfaction - Su satisfacción

The followers of Babhravya, however, say that the semen of womencontinues to fall from the beginning of the sexual union to its end, andit is right that it should be so, for if they had no semen there wouldbe no embryo.

womencontinues - ujerescontinúa

andit - Y eso

wouldbe - sería

embryo - embrión

To this there is an objection. In the beginning of coition the passionof the woman is middling, and she cannot bear the vigorous thrusts ofher lover, but by degrees her passion increases until she ceases tothink about her body, and then finally she wishes to stop from furthercoition.

passionof - Pasión

vigorous - vigoroso

thrusts - empujones; estocada, empuje, envión, impulso, énfasis

ofher - e ella

by degrees - Poco a poco

tothink - Pensar

furthercoition - más coición

This objection, however, does not hold good, for even in ordinary thingsthat revolve with great force, such as a potter's wheel, or a top, wefind that the motion at first is slow, but by degrees it becomes veryrapid. In the same way the passion of the woman having graduallyincreased, she has a desire to discontinue coition, when all the semenhas fallen away. And there is a verse with regard to this as follows:

thingsthat - Qué cosas

revolve - girar, rotar

potter's wheel - torno del alfarero

wefind - Encontramos

veryrapid - Muy rápido

graduallyincreased - ha aumentado gradualmente

discontinue - descontinuar, descatalogar, retirar

"The fall of the semen of the man takes place only at the end ofcoition, while the semen of the woman falls continually, and after thesemen of both has all fallen away then they wish for the discontinuanceof coition."[34]

ofcoition - De la coalición

thesemen - los hombres

discontinuanceof - continuación de

Lastly, Vatsyayana is of opinion that the semen of the female falls inthe same way as that of the male.

Now some may ask here: If men and women are beings of the same kind, andare engaged in bringing about the same result, why should they havedifferent works to do.

andare - yare

havedifferent - Ha cambiado

Vatsya says that this is so, because the ways of working as well as theconsciousness of pleasure in men and women are different. The differencein the ways of working, by which men are the actors, and women are thepersons acted upon, is owing to the nature of the male and the female,otherwise the actor would be sometimes the person acted upon, and viceversâ.

theconsciousness - la conciencia

differencein - Diferencia

thepersons - las personas

And from this difference in the ways of working follows thedifference in the consciousness of pleasure, for a man thinks, "thiswoman is united with me," and a woman thinks, "I am united with thisman."

thedifference - la diferencia

thiswoman - Esta mujer

thisman - Este hombre

It may be said that if the ways of working in men and women aredifferent, why should not there be a difference, even in the pleasurethey feel, and which is the result of those ways.

aredifferent - son diferentes

pleasurethey - Disfrutan

But this objection is groundless, for the person acting and the personacted upon being of different kinds, there is a reason for thedifference in their ways of working; but there is no reason for anydifference in the pleasure they feel, because they both naturally derivepleasure from the act they perform.[35]

groundless - infundado, sin fundamento

personacted - persona actuó

anydifference - alguna diferencia

derivepleasure - Derivar el placer

On this again some may say that when different persons are engaged indoing the same work, we find that they accomplish the same end orpurpose: while, on the contrary, in the case of men and women we findthat each of them accomplishes his or her own end separately, and thisis inconsistent. But this is a mistake, for we find that sometimes twothings are done at the same time, as for instance in the fighting oframs, both the rams receive the shock at the same time on their heads.Again, in throwing one wood apple against another, and also in a fightor struggle of wrestlers.

indoing - indo

orpurpose - o propósito

findthat - Encontrar eso

inconsistent - inconsistente, inconsecuente

twothings - Dos veces

oframs - Orams

fightor - Peleador

wrestlers - luchadores; luchador

If it be said that in these cases the thingsemployed are of the same kind, it is answered that even in the case ofmen and women, the nature of the two persons is the same. And as thedifference in their ways of working arises from the difference of theirconformation only, it follows that men experience the same kind ofpleasure as women do.

thingsemployed - Empleado

ofmen - hombres

theirconformation - su conformación

There is also a verse on this subject as follows: "Men and women beingof the same nature, feel the same kind of pleasure, and therefore a manshould marry such a woman as will love him ever afterwards."

beingof - de qué

manshould - el hombre debería

The pleasure of men and women being thus proved to be of the same kind,it follows that in regard to time, there are nine kinds of sexualintercourse, in the same way as there are nine kinds, according to theforce of passion.

sexualintercourse - intercurso sexual

theforce - la fuerza

There being thus nine kinds of union with regard to dimensions, force ofpassion, and time, respectively, by making combinations of them,innumerable kinds of union would be produced. Therefore in eachparticular kind of sexual union, men should use such means as they maythink suitable for the occasion.[36]

ofpassion - de la pasión

innumerable - innumerables; innumerable, incontable

eachparticular - Cada uno en particular

maythink - pensar

At the first time of sexual union the passion of the male is intense,and his time is short, but in subsequent unions on the same day thereverse of this is the case. With the female, however, it is thecontrary, for at the first time her passion is weak, and then her timelong, but on subsequent occasions on the same day, her passion isintense and her time short, until her passion is satisfied.

thereverse - Allí

timelong - Tiempo

isintense - intenso

_On the different kinds of Love._

Men learned in the humanities are of opinion that love is of four kinds,viz.:

1. Love acquired by continual habit.

2. Love resulting from the imagination.

3. Love resulting from belief.

4. Love resulting from the perception of external objects.

(1). Love resulting from the constant and continual performance andhabit, as for instance the love of sexual intercourse, the love ofhunting, the love of drinking, the love of gambling, etc., etc.

andhabit - ?hábito

ofhunting - e la caza

(2). Love which is felt for things to which we are not habituated, andwhich proceeds entirely from ideas, is called love resulting fromimagination, as for instance, that love which some men and women andeunuchs feel for the Auparishtaka or mouth congress, and that which isfelt by all for such things as embracing, kissing, etc., etc.

habituated - habituarse

andwhich - y cuál

fromimagination - de la imaginación

andeunuchs - Andeunucos

isfelt - se siente

(3). The love which is mutual on both sides, and proved to be true, wheneach looks upon the other as his or her very own, such is called loveresulting from belief by the learned.

wheneach - cuándo

loveresulting - amoresultantes

(4). The love resulting from the perception of eternal objects is quiteevident and well-known to the world, because the pleasure which itaffords is superior to the pleasure of the other kinds of love, whichexists only for its sake.

quiteevident - Es evidente

whichexists - quéexiste

What has been said in this chapter upon the subject of sexual union issufficient for the learned; but for the edification of the ignorant, thesame will now be treated of at length and in detail.

issufficient - Emisor eficiente

edification - dificación; panish: t-needed


[Footnote 33: High unions are said to be better than low ones, for inthe former it is possible for the male to satisfy his own passionwithout injuring the female, while in the latter it is difficult for thefemale to be satisfied by any means.]

passionwithout - sin pasión

thefemale - lahembra

[Footnote 34: The strength of passion with women varies a great deal,some being easily satisfied, and others eager and willing to go on for along time. To satisfy these last thoroughly a man must have recourse toart. It is certain that a fluid flows from the woman in larger orsmaller quantities, but her satisfaction is not complete until she hasexperienced the "spasme génêsique," as described in a French workrecently published and called "Breviare de l'Amour Experimental par leDr.

recourse - recurso

orsmaller - o más pequeno

hasexperienced - ha experimentado

spasme - espasmo

workrecently - ha trabajado recientemente

par - valor medio; par

Jules Guyot."]

[Footnote 35: This is a long dissertation very common among Sanscritauthors, both when writing and talking socially. They start certainpropositions, and then argue for and against them. What it is presumedthe author means, is, that though both men and women derive pleasurefrom the act of coition, the way it is produced is brought about bydifferent means, each individual performing his own work in the matter,irrespective of the other, and each deriving individually their ownconsciousness of pleasure from the act they perform.

dissertation - disertación

socially - socialmente

certainpropositions - eterminadasproposiciones

presumedthe - se supone que

pleasurefrom - Del placer

bydifferent - pordiferente

irrespective - independientemente; sin considerar

individually - individualmente

ownconsciousness - conciencia propia

There is adifference in the work that each does, and a difference in theconsciousness of pleasure that each has, but no difference in thepleasure they feel, for each feels that pleasure to a greater or lesserdegree.]

adifference - diferencia

thepleasure - el placer

lesserdegree - menor grado

[Footnote 36: This paragraph should be particularly noted, for itspecially applies to married men and their wives. So many men utterlyignore the feelings of the women, and never pay the slightest attentionto the passion of the latter. To understand the subject thoroughly, itis absolutely necessary to study it, and then a person will know that,as dough is prepared for baking, so must a woman be prepared for sexualintercourse, if she is to derive satisfaction from it.

itspecially - especialmente

utterlyignore - ignorar completamente

attentionto - Atención

dough - masa, pasta, guita, plata



This part of the Kama Shastra, which treats of sexual union, is alsocalled "Sixty-four" (Chatushshashti). Some old authors say that it iscalled so, because it contains sixty-four chapters. Others are ofopinion that the author of this part being a person named Panchala, andthe person who recited the part of the Rig Veda called Dashatapa, whichcontains sixty-four verses, being also called Panchala, the name"sixty-four" has been given to the part of the work in honour of the RigVedas. The followers of Babhravya say on the other hand that this partcontains eight subjects, viz., the embrace, kissing, scratching with thenails or fingers, biting, lying down, making various sounds, playing thepart of a man, and the Auparishtaka, or mouth congress.

alsocalled - también llamado

recited - Recitar

Rig - arreglar; aparejar

whichcontains - Qué contiene

partcontains - contiene parte

thenails - las unas

thepart - la parte

Each of thesesubjects being of eight kinds, and eight multiplied by eight beingsixty-four, this part is therefore named "sixty-four." But Vatsyayanaaffirms that as this part contains also the following subjects, viz.,striking, crying, the acts of a man during congress, the various kindsof congress, and other subjects, the name "sixty-four" is given to itonly accidentally. As, for instance, we say this tree is "Saptaparna,"or seven-leaved, this offering of rice is "Panchavarna," orfive-coloured, but the tree has not seven leaves, neither has the ricefive colours.

thesesubjects - estos temas

beingsixty - Ser sesentón

itonly - sólo

leaved - Con hojas

orfive - Cinco

ricefive - icefive

However the part sixty-four is now treated of, and the embrace, beingthe first subject, will now be considered.

beingthe - ser el

Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and woman whohave come together is of four kinds, viz.:

whohave - quién tiene

Touching. Piercing. Rubbing. Pressing.

piercing - pirsin, perforación, punzante; (pierce); pirsin, perforación

The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word whichstands for it.

denoted - senalar, denotar, marcar, revelar, significar

whichstands - cuál

(1). When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongsideof a woman and touches her body with his own, it is called the "touchingembrace."

pretext - pretexto

alongsideof - al lado de

touchingembrace - Tocando

(2). When a woman in a lonely place bends down, as if to pick upsomething, and pierces, as it were, a man sitting or standing, with herbreasts, and the man in return takes hold of them, it is called a"piercing embrace."

bends down - agacharse

upsomething - Algo

pierces - perfora; atravesar, traspasar

herbreasts - Hierbas

The above two kinds of embrace takes place only between persons who donot, as yet, speak freely with each other.

donot - No

(3). When two lovers are walking slowly together, either in the dark, orin a place of public resort, or in a lonely place, and rub their bodiesagainst each other, it is called a "rubbing embrace."

lovers - amante

bodiesagainst - cuerpos en contra

(4). When on the above occasion one of them presses the other's bodyforcibly against a wall or pillar, it is called a "pressing embrace."

bodyforcibly - Cuerpo a la fuerza

pillar - pilar

These two last embraces are peculiar to those who know the intentions ofeach other.

ofeach - e cada uno

At the time of the meeting the four following kinds of embrace are used,viz.:

_Jataveshtitaka_, or the twining of a creeper.

creeper - enredadera; rastrera

_Vrikshadhirudhaka_, or climbing a tree.

_Tila-Tandulaka_, or the mixture of sesamum seed with rice.

sesamum - Sésamo

_Kshiraniraka_, or milk and water embrace.

(1). When a woman, clinging to a man as a creeper twines round a tree,bends his head down to hers with the desire of kissing him and slightlymakes the sound of sut sut, embraces him, and looks lovingly towardshim, it is called an embrace like the "twining of a creeper."

twines - torzales; bramante

slightlymakes - hace poco

lovingly - con carino; amorosamente

towardshim - hacia él

(2). When a woman, having placed one of her feet on the foot of herlover, and the other on one of his thighs, passes one of her arms roundhis back, and the other on his shoulders, makes slightly the sounds ofsinging and cooing, and wishes, as it were, to climb up him in order tohave a kiss, it is called an embrace like the "climbing of a tree."

thighs - muslos; muslo, muslamen

roundhis - oundhis

ofsinging - de cantar

cooing - A arrullar; (coo) A arrullar

tohave - Tener

These two kinds of embrace take place when the lover is standing.

(3). When lovers lie on a bed, and embrace each other so closely thatthe arms and thighs of the one are encircled by the arms and thighs ofthe other, and are, as it were, rubbing up against them, this is calledan embrace like "the mixture of sesamum seed with rice."

thatthe - Qué

encircled - rodeado; rodear

calledan - Llaman

(4). When a man and a woman are very much in love with each other, andnot thinking of any pain or hurt, embrace each other as if they wereentering into each other's bodies, either while the woman is sitting onthe lap of the man or in front of him, or on a bed, then it is called anembrace like a "mixture of milk and water."

andnot - y no

wereentering - estaban entrando

onthe - en el

anembrace - Abrazo

These two kinds of embrace take place at the time of sexual union.

Babhravya has thus related to us the above eight kinds of embraces.

Suvarnanabha, moreover, gives us four ways of embracing simple membersof the body, which are:

membersof - miembros de

The embrace of the thighs.

The embrace of the jaghana, _i.e._, the part of the body from the naveldownwards to the thighs.

The embrace of the breasts.

The embrace of the forehead.

(1). When one of two lovers presses forcibly one or both of the thighsof the other between his or her own, it is called the "embrace ofthighs."

thighsof - Muslos

ofthighs - e muslos

(2). When a man presses the jaghana or middle part of the woman's bodyagainst his own, and mounts upon her to practise, either scratching withthe nail or finger, or biting, or striking, or kissing, the hair of thewoman being loose and flowing, it is called the "embrace of thejaghana."

bodyagainst - cuerpo en contra

thewoman - La mujer

thejaghana - eljaghana

(3). When a man places his breast between the breasts of a woman, andpresses her with it, it is called the "embrace of the breasts."

andpresses - y prensas

(4). When either of the lovers touches the mouth, the eyes and theforehead of the other with his or her own, it is called the "embrace ofthe forehead."

Some say that even shampooing is a kind of embrace, because there is atouching of bodies in it. But Vatsyayana thinks that shampooing isperformed at a different time, and for a different purpose, and it isalso of a different character, it cannot be said to be included in theembrace.

shampooing - champú

atouching - tocando

isperformed - se realiza

isalso - También

theembrace - el abrazo

There are also some verses on the subject as follows: "The whole subjectof embracing is of such a nature that men who ask questions about it, orwho hear about it, or who talk about it, acquire thereby a desire forenjoyment. Even those embraces that are not mentioned in the KamaShastra should be practised at the time of sexual enjoyment, if they arein any way conducive to the increase of love or passion.

subjectof - Sujeto de

orwho - o quién

forenjoyment - Disfrutar

conducive - propicio; favorable

The rules ofthe Shastra apply so long as the passion of man is middling, but whenthe wheel of love is once set in motion, there is then no Shastra and noorder."

whenthe - cuándo



It is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between theembrace, the kiss, and the pressing or scratching with the nails orfingers, but that all these things should be done generally beforesexual union takes place, while striking and making the various soundsgenerally takes place at the time of the union. Vatsyayana, however,thinks that anything may take place at any time, for love does not carefor time or order.

orfingers - Dedos

beforesexual - antes-sexual

soundsgenerally - Suena en general

carefor - Cuidado

On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other thingsmentioned above should be done moderately, they should not be continuedfor a long time, and should be done alternately. On subsequentoccasions, however, the reverse of all this may take place, andmoderation will not be necessary, they may continue for a long time, andfor the purpose of kindling love, they may be all done at the same time.

thingsmentioned - Cosasmencionadas

moderately - moderadamente

continuedfor - continuó

alternately - alternativamente, por turno

subsequentoccasions - ocasiones posteriores

andmoderation - y la moderación

andfor - y para

kindling - lena; astillas; (kindle) lena; astillas

The following are the places for kissing, viz., the forehead, the eyes,the cheeks, the throat, the bosom, the breasts, the lips, and theinterior of the mouth. Moreover, the people of the Lat country kiss alsoon the following places, viz., the joints of the thighs, the arms, andthe navel.

theinterior - el interior

alsoon - también

navel - obligo; ombligo

But Vatsyayana thinks that though kissing is practised bythese people in the above places on account of the intensity of theirlove, and the customs of their country, it is not fit to be practised byall.

bythese - Por estos

theirlove - Su amor

Now in a case of a young girl there are three sort of kisses, viz.:

The nominal kiss. The throbbing kiss. The touching kiss.

nominal - nominal

throbbing - palpitaciones; (throb); palpitar

(1). When a girl only touches the mouth of her lover with her own, butdoes not herself do anything, it is called the "nominal kiss."

butdoes - pero lo hace

(2). When a girl, setting aside her bashfulness a little, wishes totouch the lip that is pressed into her mouth, and with that objectmoves her lower lip, but not the upper one, it is called the "throbbingkiss."

totouch - Touch

objectmoves - se mueve el objeto

throbbingkiss - Beso palpitante

(3). When a girl touches her lover's lip with her tongue, and havingshut her eyes, places her hands on those of her lover, it is called the"touching kiss."

Other authors describe four other kinds of kisses, viz.:

The straight kiss. The bent kiss. The turned kiss. The pressed kiss.

(1). When the lips of two lovers are brought into direct contact witheach other, it is called a "straight kiss."

(2). When the heads of two lovers are bent towards each other, and whenso bent kissing takes place, it is called a "bent kiss."

whenso - cuándo

(3). When one of them turns up the face of the other by holding the headand chin, and then kissing, it is called a "turned kiss."

headand - cabeza

chin - barbilla, mentón

(4). Lastly, when the lower lip is pressed with much force, it is calleda "pressed kiss."

There is also a fifth kind of kiss called the "greatly pressed kiss,"which is effected by taking hold of the lower lip between two fingers,and then after touching it with the tongue, pressing it with great forcewith the lip.

forcewith - con fuerza

As regards kissing, a wager may be laid as to which will get hold of thelips of the other first. If the woman loses, she should pretend to cry,should keep her lover off by shaking her hands, and turn away from himand dispute with him, saying "let another wager be laid." If she losesthis a second time, she should appear doubly distressed, and when herlover is off his guard or asleep, she should get hold of his lower lip,and hold it in her teeth, so that it should not slip away, and then sheshould laugh, make a loud noise, deride him, dance about, and saywhatever she likes in a joking way, moving her eyebrows, and rolling hereyes.

wager - apostar; apuesta

thelips - lips

himand - Éland

doubly - doblemente

deride - burlarse; ridiculizar

saywhatever - lo que sea

eyebrows - cejas; ceja

hereyes - Sí

Such are the wagers and quarrels as far as kissing is concerned,but the same may be applied with regard to the pressing or scratchingwith the nails and fingers, biting and striking. All these, however, areonly peculiar to men and women of intense passion.

wagers - apuestas; apuesta

scratchingwith - Rascarse con

areonly - Sólo

When a man kisses the upper lip of a woman, while she in return kisseshis lower lip, it is called the "kiss of the upper lip."

kisseshis - Besos

When one of them takes both the lips of the other between his or herown, it is called "a clasping kiss." A woman, however, only takes thiskind of kiss from a man who has no moustache. And on the occasion ofthis kiss, if one of them touches the teeth, the tongue, and the palateof the other, with his or her tongue, it is called the "fighting of thetongue.

herown - Propiedad

clasping - Chocando; (clasp); broche, manija, corchete, hebilla, agarrar

thiskind - Esta clase

moustache - bigote, mostacho

palateof - Paladar de

thetongue - la lengua

In the same way, the pressing of the teeth of the one againstthe mouth of the other is to be practised.

againstthe - Contra el

Kissing is of four kinds, viz., moderate, contracted, pressed, and soft,according to the different parts of the body which are kissed, fordifferent kinds of kisses are appropriate for different parts of thebody.

fordifferent - diferente

thebody - El cuerpo

When a woman looks at the face of her lover while he is asleep, andkisses it to show her intention or desire, it is called a "kiss thatkindles love."

andkisses - y besos

thatkindles - que enciende

When a woman kisses her lover while he is engaged in business, or whilehe is quarrelling with her, or while he is looking at something else, sothat his mind may be turned away, it is called a "kiss that turns away."

whilehe - Mientras

quarrelling - Discutiendo; (quarrel) Discutiendo

sothat - Eso

When a lover coming home late at night kisses his beloved, who is asleepor in bed, in order to show her his desire, it is called a "kiss thatawakens." On such an occasion the woman may pretend to be asleep at thetime of her lover's arrival, so that she may know his intention andobtain respect from him.

thatawakens - que despierta

thetime - La hora

andobtain - obtener

When a person kisses the reflection of the person he loves in a mirror,in water, or on a wall, it is called a "kiss showing the intention."

When a person kisses a child sitting on his lap, or a picture, or animage, or figure, in the presence of the person beloved by him, it iscalled a "transferred kiss."

When at night at a theatre, or in an assembly of caste men, a man comingup to a woman kisses a finger of her hand if she be standing, or a toeof her foot if she be sitting, or when a woman is shampooing her lover'sbody, places her face on his thigh (as if she was sleepy) so as toinflame his passion, and kisses his thigh or great toe, it is called a"demonstrative kiss."

comingup - que viene

toeof - a

sbody - body

thigh - muslo, muslamen

sleepy - tienes sueno; sueno, cansado, adormecido, sonoliento

toinflame - inflamar

demonstrative - demostrativo

There is also a verse on the subject as follows:--

"Whatever things may be done by one of the lovers to the other, the sameshould be returned by the other, _i.e._, if the woman kisses him he shouldkiss her in return, if she strikes him he should also strike her inreturn."

sameshould - debería

shouldkiss - Besar

inreturn - indevolución



When love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching thebody with them is practised, and it is done on the following occasions:On the first visit; at the time of setting out on a journey; on thereturn from a journey; at the time when an angry lover is reconciled;and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

thereturn - dar la vuelta

reconciled - reconciliado; reconciliar, avenir

intoxicated - intoxicado; intoxicar, emborrachar

But pressing with the nails is not an usual thing except with those whoare intensely passionate, _i.e._, full of passion. It is employed togetherwith biting, by those to whom the practice is agreeable.

whoare - Quién es

intensely - intensamente

togetherwith - con

Pressing with the nails is of the eight following kinds, according tothe forms of the marks which are produced, viz.:

1. Sounding.

2. Half moon.

3. A circle.

4. A line.

5. A tiger's nail or claw.

tiger - tigre; tigresa

claw - garra

6. A peacock's foot.

7. The jump of a hare.

8. The leaf of a blue lotus.

The places that are to be pressed with the nails are as follows: the armpit, the throat, the breasts, the lips, the jaghana, or middle parts ofthe body, and the thighs. But Suvarnanabha is of opinion that when theimpetuosity of passion is excessive, then the places need not beconsidered.

armpit - la axila; axila, sobaco

theimpetuosity - impetuosidad

beconsidered - se puede considerar

The qualities of good nails are that they should be bright, well set,clean, entire, convex, soft, and glossy in appearance. Nails are ofthree kinds according to their size, viz.:

convex - convexo

glossy - brillante, lustroso, reluciente

ofthree - De tres

Small. Middling. Large.

Large nails, which give grace to the hands, and attract the hearts ofwomen from their appearance, are possessed by the Bengalees.

ofwomen - e las mujeres

Small nails, which can be used in various ways, and are to be appliedonly with the object of giving pleasure, are possessed by the people ofthe southern districts.

appliedonly - Sólo aplicado

Middling nails, which contain the properties of both the above kinds,belong to the people of the Maharashtra.

Maharashtra - Maharashtra

(1). When a person presses the chin, the breasts, the lower lip, or thejaghana of another so softly that no scratch or mark is left, but onlythe hair on the body becomes erect from the touch of the nails, and thenails themselves make a sound, it is called a "sounding or pressing withthe nails."

softly - suavemente, inaudiblemente, silenciosamente

onlythe - Sólo el

This pressing is used in the case of a young girl when her lovershampoos her, scratches her head, and wants to trouble or frighten her.

lovershampoos - overshampoos

(2). The curved mark with the nails, which is impressed on the neck andthe breasts, is called the "half moon."

(3). When the half moons are impressed opposite to each other, it iscalled a "circle." This mark with the nails is generally made on thenavel, the small cavities about the buttocks, and on the joints of thethigh.

thenavel - entoncesavel

cavities - cavidad, caries

buttocks - nalgas; nalga

thethigh - el muslo

(4). A mark in the form of a small line, and which can be made on anypart of the body, is called a "line."

anypart - alguna parte

(5). This same line, when it is curved, and made on the breast, iscalled a "tiger's nail."

(6). When a curved mark is made on the breast by means of the fivenails, it is called a "peacock's foot." This mark is made with theobject of being praised, for it requires a great deal of skill to makeit properly.

theobject - el objeto

makeit - Hacerlo

(7). When five marks with the nails are made close to one another nearthe nipple of the breast, it is called "the jump of a hare."

nearthe - cerca del

nipple - pezón

(8). A mark made on the breast or on the hips in the form of a leaf ofthe blue lotus, is called the "leaf of a blue lotus."

When a person is going on a journey, and makes a mark on the thighs, oron the breast, it is called a "token of remembrance." On such anoccasion three or four lines are impressed close to one another with thenails.

token - sena, recuerdo, ficha, prenda, símbolo, simbólico, cosmético

remembrance - recuerdo, memoria, recordatorio, remembranza

anoccasion - una ocasión

Here ends the marking with the nails. Marks of other kinds than theabove may also be made with the nails, for the ancient authors say,that as there are innumerable degrees of skill among men (the practiceof this art being known to all), so there are innumerable ways of makingthese marks. And as pressing or marking with the nails is independent oflove, no one can say with certainty how many different kinds of markswith the nails do actually exist.

theabove - lo anterior

makingthese - Haciendo esto

markswith - Markwith

The reason of this is, Vatsyayanasays, that as variety is necessary in love, so love is to be produced bymeans of variety. It is on this account that courtezans, who are wellacquainted with various ways and means, become so desirable, for ifvariety is sought in all the arts and amusements, such as archery andothers, how much more should it be sought after in the present case.

courtezans - Cortezana

wellacquainted - Conocido

ifvariety - fvariedad

Archery - arquería, tiro con arco

andothers - y otros

The marks of the nails should not be made on married women, butparticular kinds of marks may be made on their private parts for theremembrance and increase of love.

butparticular - pero particular

theremembrance - heremembrance

There are also some verses on the subject, as follows:

"The love of a woman who sees the marks of nails on the private parts ofher body, even though they are old and almost worn out, becomes againfresh and new. If there be no marks of nails to remind a person of thepassages of love, then love is lessened in the same way as when no uniontakes place for a long time."

againfresh - Otra vez fresco

thepassages - los pasajes

lessened - isminuido; menoscabar, disminuir, reducir, aminorar

uniontakes - sindicalistas

Even when a stranger sees at a distance a young woman with the marks ofnails on her breast,[37] he is filled with love and respect for her.

ofnails - De unas

A man, also, who carries the marks of nails and teeth on some parts ofhis body, influences the mind of a woman, even though it be ever sofirm. In short, nothing tends to increase love so much as the effects ofmarking with the nails, and biting.

ofhis - De él

sofirm - suavizar

ofmarking - e la marca


[Footnote 37: From this it would appear that in ancient times thebreasts of women were not covered, and this is seen in the painting ofthe Ajunta and other caves, where we find that the breasts of even royalladies and others are exposed.]

thebreasts - los pechos



All the places that can be kissed, are also the places that can bebitten, except the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes.

The qualities of good teeth are as follows: They should be equal,possessed of a pleasing brightness, capable of being coloured, of properproportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.

brightness - brillo

properproportions - proporciones adecuadas

unbroken - intacto

The defects of teeth on the other hand are, that they are blunt,protruding from the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

blunt - desafilado, despuntado

protruding - saliente; sobresalir, protruir

gums - encías; encía

loosely - a la ligera; vagamente

The following are the different kinds of biting, viz.:

The hidden bite. The swollen bite. The point. The line of points. The coral and the jewel. The line of jewels. The broken cloud. The biting of the boar.

swollen - inflamado; hinchar(se), inflar(se)

coral - coral

boar - jabalí; verraco

(1). The biting which is shown only by the excessive redness of the skinthat is bitten, is called the "hidden bite."

redness - enrojecimiento; rojez

skinthat - kinthat

(2). When the skin is pressed down on both sides, it is called the"swollen bite."

pressed down - Presionar

(3). When a small portion of the skin is bitten with two teeth only, itis called the "point."

(4). When such small portions of the skin are bitten with all the teeth,it is called the "line of points."

(5). The biting which is done by bringing together the teeth and thelips, is called the "coral and the jewel." The lip is the coral, and theteeth the jewel.

theteeth - los dientes

(6). When biting is done with all the teeth, it is called the "line ofjewels."

ofjewels - e joyas

(7). The biting which consists of unequal risings in a circle, and whichcomes from the space between the teeth, is called the "broken cloud."This is impressed on the breasts.

risings - subidas; rebelión, levantamiento, alzamiento, ascensión, ascenso

whichcomes - qué viene

(8). The biting which consists of many broad rows of marks near to oneanother, and with red intervals, is called the "biting of a boar." Thisis impressed on the breasts and the shoulders; and these two last modesof biting are peculiar to persons of intense passion.

rows - filas; hilera, fila

oneanother - Otra

modesof - modo

The lower lip is the place on which the "hidden bite," the "swollenbite," and the "point" are made; again the "swollen bite," and the"coral and the jewel" bite are done on the cheek. Kissing, pressing withthe nails, and biting are the ornaments of the left cheek, and when theword cheek is used it is to be understood as the left cheek.

swollenbite - Mordedura hinchada

theword - la palabra

Both the "line of points" and the "line of jewels" are to be impressedon the throat, the arm pit, and the joints of the thighs; but the "lineof points" alone is to be impressed on the forehead and the thighs.

impressedon - Impresionado

lineof - en qué línea

The marking with the nails, and the biting of the following things,viz., an ornament of the forehead, an ear ornament, a bunch of flowers,a betel leaf, or a tamala leaf, which are worn by, or belong to thewoman that is beloved, are signs of the desire of enjoyment.

Here end the different kinds of biting.

* * * * *

In the affairs of love a man should do such things as are agreeable tothe women of different countries.

The women of the central countries (_i.e._, between the Ganges and theJumna) are noble in their character, not accustomed to disgracefulpractices, and dislike pressing the nails and biting.

Ganges - Ganges

theJumna - elJumna

accustomed - acostumbrado; acostumbrarse, habituar

disgracefulpractices - prácticas vergonzosas

The women of the Balhika country are gained over by striking.

The women of Avantika are fond of foul pleasures, and have not goodmanners.

foul - falta; asqueroso, fétido

goodmanners - buenos modales

The women of the Maharashtra are fond of practising the sixty-four arts,they utter low and harsh words, and like to be spoken to in the sameway, and have an impetuous desire of enjoyment.

utter - totalmente; absoluto, total

impetuous - impulsivo, impetuoso, brutal, brusco

The women of Pataliputra (_i.e._, the modern Patna) are of the same natureas the women of the Maharashtra, but show their likings only in secret.

natureas - atureas

likings - Te gusta

The women of the Dravida country, though they are rubbed and pressedabout at the time of sexual enjoyment, have a slow fall of semen, thatis they are very slow in the act of coition.

thatis - Eso es

The women of Vanavasi are moderately passionate, they go through everykind of enjoyment, cover their bodies, and abuse those who utter low,mean and harsh words.

everykind - de todo tipo

The women of Avanti hate kissing, marking with the nails, and biting,but they have a fondness for various kinds of sexual union.

The women of Malwa like embracing and kissing, but not wounding, andthey are gained over by striking.

andthey - y ellos

The women of Abhira, and those of the country about the Indus and fiverivers (_i.e._, the Punjab), are gained over by the Auparishtaka or mouthcongress.

Punjab - Punyab

mouthcongress - Bococongreso

The women of Aparatika are full of passion, and make slowly the sound"Sit."

The women of the Lat country have even more impetuous desire, and alsomake the sound "Sit."

alsomake - también

The women of the Stri Rajya, and of Koshola (Oude), are full ofimpetuous desire, their semen falls in large quantities, and they arefond of taking medicine to make it do so.

ofimpetuous - eimpetuoso

arefond - fond

The women of the Audhra country have tender bodies, they are fond ofenjoyment, and have a liking for voluptuous pleasures.

ofenjoyment - de disfrute

voluptuous - voluptuosa; voluptuoso, sensual

The women of Ganda have tender bodies, and speak sweetly.

sweetly - dulcemente, abemoladamente

Among the things mentioned above, viz., embracing, kissing, etc., thosewhich increase passion should be done first, and those which are onlyfor amusement or variety should be done afterwards.

thosewhich - cuáles

onlyfor - sólo para

There are also some verses on this subject as follows:

"When a man bites a woman forcibly, she should angrily do the same tohim with double force. Thus a 'point'should be returned with a 'line ofpoints,'and a 'line of points'with a 'broken cloud,'and if she beexcessively chafed, she should at once begin a love quarrel with him. Atsuch a time she should take hold of her lover by the hair, and bend hishead down, and kiss his lower lip, and then, being intoxicated withlove, she should shut her eyes and bite him in various places.

angrily - enfadado; furiosamente, con ira

ofpoints - e puntos

beexcessively - excesivamente

chafed - raspado; calor friccional, escocimiento, irritación, cocedura

quarrel - discutir; pelea, rina

hishead - cabeza

withlove - con amor

Even byday, and in a place of public resort, when her lover shows her any markthat she may have inflicted on his body, she should smile at the sightof it, and turning her face as if she were going to chide him, sheshould show him with an angry look the marks on her own body that havebeen made by him. Thus if men and women act according to each other'sliking, their love for each other will not be lessened even in onehundred years."

byday - yday

sightof - a la vista

chide - reprender

havebeen - Han estado

sliking - deslizamiento

onehundred - Cien



On the occasion of a "high congress" the Mrigi (Deer) woman should liedown in such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a "low congress" theHastini (Elephant) woman should lie down so as to contract hers. But inan "equal congress" they should lie down in the natural position.

theHastini - ElHastini

Whatis said above concerning the Mrigi and the Hastini applies also to theVadawa (Mare) woman. In a "low congress" the women should particularlymake use of medicine, to cause her desires to be satisfied quickly.

theVadawa - laVadawa

particularlymake - en particular

The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down.

The widely opened position. The yawning position. The position of the wife of Indra.

yawning - Bostezando; (yawn); bostezar, abrirse, bostezo

(1). When she lowers her head and raises her middle parts, it is calledthe "widely opened position." At such a time the man should apply someunguent, so as to make the entrance easy.

lowers - bajos; oscurecerse, encapotarse

calledthe - Llamado el

someunguent - unguento

(2). When she raises her thighs and keeps them wide apart and engages incongress, it is called the "yawning position."

incongress - congreso

(3). When she places her thighs with her legs doubled on them upon hersides, and thus engages in congress, it is called the position ofIndrani, and this is learnt only by practice. The position is alsouseful in the case of the "highest congress."

ofIndrani - eIndrani

alsouseful - lsouseful

The "clasping position" is used in "low congress," and in the "lowestcongress," together with the "pressing position," the "twiningposition", and the "mare's position."

lowestcongress - el congreso más bajo

twiningposition - Posición de giro

When the legs of both the male and the female are stretched straightout over each other, it is called the "clasping position." It is of twokinds, the side position and the supine position, according to the wayin which they lie down. In the side position the male should invariablylie on his left side, and cause the woman to lie on her right side, andthis rule is to be observed in lying down with all kinds of women.

straightout - Sin rodeos

twokinds - dos tipos

supine - en posición supina; supino

invariablylie - nvariablementelie

andthis - y esto

When, after congress has begun in the clasping position, the womanpresses her lover with her thighs, it is called the "pressing position."

womanpresses - prensas para mujeres

When the woman places one of her thighs across the thigh of her lover,it is called the "twining position."

When a woman forcibly holds in her yoni the lingam after it is in, it iscalled the "mare's position." This is learnt by practice only, and ischiefly found among the women of the Andra country.

The above are the different ways of lying down, mentioned by Babhravya;Suvarnanabha, however, gives the following in addition.

When the female raises both of her thighs straight up, it is called the"rising position."

When she raises both of her legs, and places them on her lover'sshoulders, it is called the "yawning position."

sshoulders - hombros

When the legs are contracted, and thus held by the lover before hisbosom, it is called the "pressed position."

When only one of her legs is stretched out, it is called the "halfpressed position."

halfpressed - medio prensado

When the woman places one of her legs on her lover's shoulder, andstretches the other out, and then places the latter on his shoulder, andstretches out the other, and continues to do so alternately, it iscalled the "splitting of a bamboo."

andstretches - Y se estira

bamboo - bambú

When one of her legs is placed on the head, and the other is stretchedout, it is called the "fixing of a nail." This is learnt by practiceonly.

stretchedout - Extendido

practiceonly - Sólo prácticas

When both the legs of the woman are contracted, and placed on herstomach, it is called the "crab's position."

herstomach - su estómago

Crab - cangrejo

When the thighs are raised and placed one upon the other, it is calledthe "packed position."

When the shanks are placed one upon the other, it is called the"lotus-like position."

shanks - jarretes; pincho

When a man, during congress, turns round, and enjoys the woman withoutleaving her, while she embraces him round the back all the time, it iscalled the "turning position," and is learnt only by practice.

withoutleaving - sin salir

Thus says Suvarnanabha, these different ways of lying down, sitting, andstanding should be practised in water, because it is easy to do sotherein. But Vatsyayana is of opinion that congress in water isimproper, because it is prohibited by the religious law.

andstanding - y de pie

sotherein - En qué sentido

isimproper - es apropiado

When a man and a woman support themselves on each other's bodies, or ona wall, or pillar, and thus while standing engage in congress, it iscalled the "supported congress."

When a man supports himself against a wall, and the woman, sitting onhis hands joined together and held underneath her, throws her arms roundhis neck, and putting her thighs alongside his waist, moves herself byher feet, which are touching the wall against which the man is leaning,it is called the "suspended congress."

underneath - abajo, por debajo, bajos

waist - cintura

byher - yher

When a woman stands on her hands and feet like a quadruped, and herlover mounts her like a bull, it is called the "congress of a cow." Atthis time everything that is ordinarily done on the bosom should be doneon the back.

quadruped - cuadrúpedo, tetrápodo

doneon - Hecho

In the same way can be carried on the congress of a dog, the congress ofa goat, the congress of a deer, the forcible mounting of an ass, thecongress of a cat, the jump of a tiger, the pressing of an elephant, therubbing of a boar, and the mounting of a horse. And in all these casesthe characteristics of these different animals should be manifested byacting like them.

ofa - fa

goat - cabra, chivo, libidinoso, libidinosa

forcible - forzable, poderoso, potente, forzado, forzoso

ass - culo; asno, burro

thecongress - el congreso

therubbing - erubbing

casesthe - Casos

byacting - actuando

When a man enjoys two women at the same time, both of whom love himequally, it is called the "united congress."

himequally - imequally

When a man enjoys many women altogether, it is called the "congress of aherd of cows."

The following kinds of congress, viz., sporting in water, or thecongress of an elephant with many female elephants, which is said totake place only in the water, the congress of a collection of goats, thecongress of a collection of deer, take place in imitation of theseanimals.

totake - Tomar

goats - cabras; cabra, chivo, libidinoso, libidinosa

theseanimals - Estos animales

In Gramaneri many young men enjoy a woman that may be married to one ofthem, either one after the other, or at the same time. Thus one of themholds her, another enjoys her, a third uses her mouth, a fourth holdsher middle part, and in this way they go on enjoying her several partsalternately.

ofthem - e ellos

themholds - Mantenimientos

holdsher - Sostiene

partsalternately - Partes alternativas

The same things can be done when several men are sitting in company withone courtesan, or when one courtesan is alone with many men. In the sameway this can be done by the women of the King's harem when theyaccidentally get hold of a man.

withone - Con uno

theyaccidentally - accidentalmente

The people in the Southern countries have also a congress in the anus,that is called the "lower congress."

anus - ano; (Anu); ano

Thus ends the various kinds of congress. There are also two verses onthe subject as follows.

"An ingenious person should multiply the kinds of congress after thefashion of the different kinds of beasts and of birds. For thesedifferent kinds of congress, performed according to the usage of eachcountry, and the liking of each individual, generate love, friendship,and respect in the hearts of women."

thefashion - la moda

thesedifferent - son diferentes

eachcountry - Cada país



Sexual intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of thecontrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The place of strikingwith passion is the body, and on the body the special places are:

thecontrarieties - contrariedades

strikingwith - Golpeando

The shoulders. The head. The space between the breasts. The back. The jaghana, or middle part of the body. The sides.

Striking is of four kinds, viz.:

Striking with the back of the hand. Striking with the fingers a little contracted. Striking with the fist. Striking with the open palm of the hand.

On account of its causing pain, striking gives rise to the hissingsound, which is of various kinds, and to the eight kinds of crying,viz.:

hissingsound - Siseo

The sound Hin. The thundering sound. The cooing sound. The weeping sound. The sound Phut. The sound Phât. The sound Sût. The sound Plât.

Hin - hin

thundering - Trueno; (thunder); trueno, estruendo, fragor, tronar

weeping - Llorando; (weep) Llorando

Besides these, there are also words having a meaning, such as "mother,"and those that are expressive of prohibition, sufficiency, desire ofliberation, pain or praise, and to which may be added sounds like thoseof the dove, the cuckoo, the green pigeon, the parrot, the bee, thesparrow, the flamingo, the duck, and the quail, which are alloccasionally made use of.

expressive - expresivo

prohibition - prohibición

sufficiency - suficiencia

ofliberation - e la liberación

thoseof - De qué

cuckoo - cuco, cuclillo

parrot - papagayo, loro, cotorra

thesparrow - el gorrión

flamingo - flamenco

Duck - pato; hundir, sumergir

alloccasionally - de vez en cuando

Blows with the fist should be given on the back of the woman, while sheis sitting on the lap of the man, and she should give blows in return,abusing the man as if she were angry, and making the cooing and theweeping sounds. While the woman is engaged in congress the space betweenthe breasts should be struck with the back of the hand, slowly at first,and then proportionately to the increasing excitement, until the end.

theweeping - la llorona

betweenthe - entre los

proportionately - proporcionalmente

At this time the sounds Hin and others may be made, alternately oroptionally, according to habit. When the man, making the sound Phât,strikes the woman on the head, with the fingers of his hand a littlecontracted, it is called Prasritaka, which means striking with thefingers of the hand a little contracted. In this case the appropriatesounds are the cooing sound, the sound Phât, and the sound Phut in theinterior of the mouth, and at the end of congress the sighing andweeping sounds. The sound Phât is an imitation of the sound of a bamboobeing split, while the sound Phut is like the sound made by somethingfalling into water.

oroptionally - Opcionalmente

littlecontracted - poco contratado

thefingers - Los dedos

appropriatesounds - sonidos apropiados

andweeping - y llorando

bamboobeing - Bambú

somethingfalling - cae algo

At all times when kissing and such like things arebegun, the woman should give a reply with a hissing sound. During theexcitement when the woman is not accustomed to striking, she continuallyutters words expressive of prohibition, sufficiently, or desire ofliberation, as well as the words "father," "mother," intermingled withthe sighing, weeping and thundering sounds.[38] Towards the conclusionof the congress, the breasts, the jaghana, and the sides of the womanshould be pressed with the open palms of the hand, with some force,until the end of it, and then sounds like those of the quail, or thegoose should be made.

arebegun - se han iniciado

theexcitement - la emoción

continuallyutters - continuamente

intermingled - entremezclados; entreverar, entremezclar

conclusionof - Conclusión

womanshould - Debería la mujer

thegoose - la ganso

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The characteristics of manhood are said to consist of roughness andimpetuosity, while weakness, tenderness, sensibility, and an inclinationto turn away from unpleasant things are the distinguishing marks ofwomanhood. The excitement of passion, and peculiarities of habit maysometimes cause contrary results to appear, but these do not last long,and in the end the natural state is resumed."

roughness - rudeza; aspereza

andimpetuosity - y la impetuosidad

tenderness - ternura

sensibility - sensibilidad

inclinationto - desea

ofwomanhood - e la feminidad

peculiarities - particularidades; peculiaridad

maysometimes - a veces

In the same way anything that is a local peculiarity should not alwaysbe adopted elsewhere, and even in the place where the practice isprevalent, excess of it should always be avoided. Instances of thedangerous use of them may be given as follows. The King of the Panchalaskilled the courtezan Madhavasena by means of the wedge during congress.

alwaysbe - siempre

isprevalent - es frecuente

thedangerous - peligroso

courtezan - Cortezana

wedge - cuna

ing Shatakarni Shatavahana of the Kuntalas deprived his great QueenMalayavati of her life by a pair of scissors, and Naradeva, whose handwas deformed, blinded a dancing girl by directing a piercing instrumentin a wrong way.

scissors - tijeras; tijera, hacer la tijereta, hacer la tijera

handwas - manos

deformed - deformado; deformar

instrumentin - instrumentación

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"About these things there cannot be either enumeration or any definiterule. Congress having once commenced, passion alone gives birth to allthe acts of the parties."

definiterule - efiniterule


[Footnote 38: Men who are well acquainted with the art of love are wellaware how often one woman differs from another in her sighs and soundsduring the time of congress. Some women like to be talked to in the mostloving way, others in the most abusive way, and so on.

wellaware - bienware

soundsduring - onidosdurante

mostloving - el más carinoso

abusive - abusivo

Some women enjoythemselves with closed eyes in silence, others make a great noise overit, and some almost faint away. The great art is to ascertain what givesthem the greatest pleasure, and what specialities they like best.]

enjoythemselves - Disfrutar

overit - Sobre eso

faint - desmayarse; débil, tenue

ascertain - averiguar, determinar, establecer, definir

givesthem - les das

specialities - especialidades; especialidad



When a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress,without having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission,lay him down upon his back, and give him assistance by acting his part.She may also do this to satisfy the curiosity of her lover, or her owndesire of novelty.

fatigued - fatigado; fatiga, fatigar, acosar

owndesire - deseo propio

novelty - novedad

There are two ways of doing this, the first is when during congress sheturns round, and gets on the top of her lover, in such a manner as tocontinue the congress, without obstructing the pleasure of it; and theother is when she acts the man's part from the beginning. At such atime, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and her smiles broken byhard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom with her ownbreasts, and lowering her head frequently, should do in return the sameactions which he used to do before, returning his blows and chaffinghim, should say, "I was laid down by you, and fatigued with hardcongress, I shall now therefore lay you down in return.

tocontinue - continuar

obstructing - obstruyendo; entorpecer, estorbar, atorar, obstruir

atime - tiempo

byhard - duro

breathings - respiraciones; respiración

ownbreasts - pechos propios

lowering - Bajando; (lower) Bajando

sameactions - mismas acciones

chaffinghim - Rechazarlo

hardcongress - congreso duro

She should thenagain manifest her own bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire ofstopping the congress. In this way she should do the work of a man,which we shall presently relate.

thenagain - otra vez

fatigue - fatiga, fatigar, acosar

ofstopping - de parar

Whatever is done by a man for giving pleasure to a woman is called thework of a man, and is as follows:--

While the woman is lying on his bed, and is as it were abstracted by hisconversation, he should loosen the knot of her under garments, and whenshe begins to dispute with him, he should overwhelm her with kisses.Then when his lingam is erect he should touch her with his hands invarious places, and gently manipulate various parts of the body. If thewoman is bashful, and if it is the first time that they have cometogether, the man should place his hands between her thighs, which shewould probably keep close together, and if she is a very young girl, heshould first get his hands upon her breasts, which she would probablycover with her own hands, and under her armpits and on her neck.

hisconversation - Su conversación

loosen - aflojar, soltar

knot - nudo

whenshe - Cuándo

gently - suavemente; mansamente, suave

bashful - tímido

cometogether - Juntos

shewould - lo haría

probablycover - Probablemente cubierto

Ifhowever she is a seasoned woman, he should do whatever is agreeableeither to him or to her, and whatever is fitting for the occasion. Afterthis he should take hold of her hair, and hold her chin in his fingersfor the purpose of kissing her. On this, if she is a young girl, shewill become bashful and close her eyes. Any how he should gather fromthe action of the woman what things would be pleasing to her duringcongress.

agreeableeither - Está de acuerdo

fingersfor - Dedos para

shewill - lo hará

duringcongress - durante el congreso

Here Suvarnanabha says that while a man is doing to the woman what helikes best during congress, he should always make a point of pressingthose parts of her body on which she turns her eyes.

helikes - Le gusta

pressingthose - Presionando esos

The signs of the enjoyment and satisfaction of the women are as follows:her body relaxes, she closes her eyes, she puts aside all bashfulness,and shows increased willingness to unite the two organs as closelytogether as possible. On the other hand, the signs of her want ofenjoyment and of failing to be satisfied are as follows: she shakes herhands, she does not let the man get up, feels dejected, bites the man,kicks him, and continues to go on moving after the man has finished.

closelytogether - untos

herhands - Manos

dejected - desanimado

Insuch cases the man should rub the yoni of the woman with his hand andfingers (as the elephant rubs anything with his trunk) before engagingin congress, until it is softened, and after that is done he shouldproceed to put his lingam into her.

andfingers - Y dedos

trunk - tronco, baúl, trompa

engagingin - Comprometiéndose

softened - suavizado; ablandar, suavizar

shouldproceed - debería proceder

The acts to be done by the man are:

Moving forward. Friction or churning. Piercing. Rubbing. Pressing. Giving a blow. The blow of a boar. The blow of a bull. The sporting of a sparrow.

friction - fricción

churning - atido; (churn); batir, mantequera

sparrow - pasérido, gorrión, pájaro

(1). When the organs are brought together properly and directly it iscalled "moving the organ forward."

(2). When the lingam is held with the hand, and turned all round in theyoni, it is called "churning."

theyoni - Theoni

(3). When the yoni is lowered, and the upper part of it is struck withthe lingam, it is called "piercing."

lowered - bajado; oscurecerse, encapotarse

(4). When the same thing is done on the lower part of the yoni, it iscalled "rubbing."

(5). When the yoni is pressed by the lingam for a long time, it iscalled "pressing."

(6). When the lingam is removed to some distance from the yoni, and thenforcibly strikes it, it is called "giving a blow."

thenforcibly - entonces forzosamente

(7). When only one part of the yoni is rubbed with the lingam, it iscalled the "blow of a boar."

(8). When both sides of the yoni are rubbed in this way, it is calledthe "blow of a bull."

(9). When the lingam is in the yoni, and moved up and down frequently,and without being taken out, it is called the "sporting of a sparrow."This takes place at the end of congress.

When a woman acts the part of a man, she has the following things to doin addition to the nine given above, viz.

doin - Haciendo

The pair of tongs. The top. The swing.

(1). When the woman holds the lingam in her yoni, draws it in, pressesit, and keeps it thus in her for a long time, it is called the "pair oftongs."

oftongs - ftongs

(2). When, while engaged in congress, she turns round like a wheel, itis called the "top." This is learnt by practice only.

(3). When, on such an occasion, the man lifts up the middle part of hisbody, and the woman turns round her middle part, it is called the"swing."

hisbody - Su cuerpo

When the woman is tired, she should place her forehead on that of herlover, and should thus take rest without disturbing the union of theorgans, and when the woman has rested herself the man should turn roundand begin the congress again.

theorgans - los órganos

roundand - oundand

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

"Though a woman is reserved, and keeps her feelings concealed, yet whenshe gets on the top of a man, she then shows all her love and desire. Aman should gather from the actions of the woman of what disposition sheis, and in what way she likes to be enjoyed. A woman during her monthlycourses, a woman who has been lately confined, and a fat woman shouldnot be made to act the part of a man."

gather from - Recoger de

monthlycourses - cursos mensuales

shouldnot - No debería



There are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, andthose that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as femalesimitate their dress, speech, gestures, tenderness, timidity, simplicity,softness and bashfulness. The acts that are done on the jaghana ormiddle parts of women, are done in the mouths of these eunuchs, and thisis called Auparishtaka.

eunuchs - eunucos; eunuco

disguised - disfrazado; disfraz, pantalla, tapadera, disfrazar

andthose - Y esos

femalesimitate - mujeresimitadas

timidity - timidez

softness - suavidad, molicie

ormiddle - o medio

These eunuchs derive their imaginable pleasure,and their livelihood from this kind of congress, and they lead the lifeof courtezans. So much concerning eunuchs disguised as females.

imaginable - imaginable, concebible

lifeof - Vida de

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they wishto do anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under the pretence ofshampooing, an eunuch of this kind embraces and draws towards himselfthe thighs of the man whom he is shampooing, and after this he touchesthe joints of his thighs and his jaghana, or central portions of hisbody. Then, if he finds the lingam of the man erect, he presses it withhis hands, and chaffs him for getting into that state.

wishto - desea

ofshampooing - el champú

Eunuch - eunuco

himselfthe - el

touchesthe - tocarla

chaffs - rechazos; paja, barcia, exico, pienso

If after this,and after knowing his intention, the man does not tell the eunuch toproceed, then the latter does it of his own accord and begins thecongress. If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputeswith him, and only consents at last with difficulty.

toproceed - Tener éxito

accord - acuerdo, convenio, acordar, conceder, conferir

disputeswith - Disputas

The following eight things are then done by the eunuch one after theother, viz.

The nominal congress. Biting the sides. Pressing outside. Pressing inside. Kissing. Rubbing. Sucking a mangoe fruit. swallowing up.

swallowing up - tragar

At the end of each of these the eunuch expresses his wish to stop, butwhen one of them is finished, the man desires him to do another, andafter that is done, then the one that follows it, and so on.

butwhen - pero cuándo

andafter - y después

(1). When, holding the man's lingam with his hand, and placing itbetween his lips, the eunuch moves about his mouth, it is called the"nominal congress."

itbetween - entre

(2). When, covering the end of the lingam with his fingers collectedtogether like the bud of a plant or flower, the eunuch presses the sidesof it with his lips, using his teeth also, it is called "biting thesides."

collectedtogether - reunidos

bud - colega; brote

sidesof - Lado de

thesides - los laterales

(3). When, being desired to proceed, the eunuch presses the end of thelingam with his lips closed together, and kisses it as if he weredrawing it out, it is called the "outside pressing."

weredrawing - dibujar

(4). When, being asked to go on, he put the lingam further into hismouth, and presses it with his lips and then takes it out, it is calledthe "inside pressing."

hismouth - South

(5). When, holding the lingam in his hand, the eunuch kisses it as if hewere kissing the lower lip, it is called "kissing."

hewere - dónde

(6). When, after kissing it, he touches it with his tongue everywhere,and passes the tongue over the end of it, it is called "rubbing."

(7). When, in the same way, he puts the half of it into his mouth, andforcibly kisses and sucks it, this is called "sucking a mangoe fruit."

andforcibly - y por la fuerza

(8). And lastly, when, with the consent of the man, the eunuch puts thewhole lingam into his mouth, and presses it to the very end, as if hewere going to swallow it up, it is called "swallowing up."

thewhole - Todo

Striking, scratching, and other things may also be done during this kindof congress.

kindof - Algo así

The Auparishtaka is practised only by unchaste and wanton women, femaleattendants and serving maids, _i.e._, those who are not married toanybody, but who live by shampooing.

wanton - gracioso; indisciplinado, desenfadado, juguetón, lascivo

femaleattendants - asistentes femeninas

toanybody - a alguien

The Acharyas (_i.e._, ancient and venerable authors) are of opinion thatthis Auparishtaka is the work of a dog and not of a man, because it is alow practice, and opposed to the orders of the Holy Writ, and becausethe man himself suffers by bringing his lingam into contact with themouths of eunuchs and women. But Vatsyayana says that the orders of theHoly Writ do not affect those who resort to courtezans, and the lawprohibits the practice of the Auparishtaka with married women only.

venerable - venerable

thatthis - Esto

alow - Permitir

becausethe - Porque

themouths - los jóvenes

theHoly - El Santo

lawprohibits - la ley lo prohíbe

Asregards the injury to the male, that can be easily remedied.

The people of Eastern India do not resort to women who practise theAuparishtaka.

theAuparishtaka - El Auparishtaka

The people of Ahichhatra resort to such women, but do nothing with them,so far as the mouth is concerned.

The people of Saketa do with these women every kind of mouth congress,while the people of Nagara do not practise this, but do every otherthing.

otherthing - Otra cosa

The people of the Shurasena country, on the southern bank of the Jumna,do everything without any hesitation, for they say that women beingnaturally unclean, no one can be certain about their character, theirpurity, their conduct, their practices, their confidences, or theirspeech. They are not however on this account to be abandoned, becausereligious law, on the authority of which they are reckoned pure, laysdown that the udder of a cow is clean at the time of milking, though themouth of a cow, and also the mouth of her calf, are considered uncleanby the Hindoos. Again a dog is clean when he seizes a deer in hunting,though food touched by a dog is otherwise considered very unclean.

hesitation - hesitación, vacilación, dudas, titubeo

beingnaturally - ser natural

theirpurity - Su pureza

theirspeech - Su discurso

becausereligious - porque es religioso

udder - ubre

themouth - mouth

calf - ternero

uncleanby - impuro

Abird is clean when it causes a fruit to fall from a tree by pecking atit, though things eaten by crows and other birds are considered unclean.And the mouth of a woman is clean for kissing and such like things atthe time of sexual intercourse. Vatsyayana moreover thinks that in allthese things connected with love, everybody should act according to thecustom of his country, and his own inclination.

pecking - Picoteando; (pec) Picoteando

crows - cuervos; cuervo, grajo

thecustom - la costumbre

inclination - inclinación

There are also the following verses on the subject.

"The male servants of some men carry on the mouth congress with theirmasters. It is also practised by some citizens, who know each otherwell, among themselves. Some women of the harem, when they are amorous,do the acts of the mouth on the yonis of one another, and some men dothe same thing with women.

theirmasters - Sus amos

otherwell - Otrewell

amorous - amoroso, carinoso, enamorado

yonis - yonis; ioni

The way of doing this (_i.e._, of kissing theyoni) should be known from kissing the mouth. When a man and woman liedown in an inverted order, _i.e._, with the head of the one towards thefeet of the other and carry on this congress, it is called the "congressof a crow."

inverted - invertida; invertir

thefeet - los pies

crow - cuervo, grajo

For the sake of such things courtezans abandon men possessed of goodqualities, liberal and clever, and become attached to low persons, suchas slaves and elephant drivers. The Auparishtaka, or mouth congress,should never be done by a learned Brahman, by a minister that carries onthe business of a state, or by a man of good reputation, because thoughthe practice is allowed by the Shastras, there is no reason why itshould be carried on, and need only be practised in particular cases. Asfor instance, the taste, and the strength, and the digestive qualitiesof the flesh of dogs are mentioned in works on medicine, but it does nottherefore follow that it should be eaten by the wise. In the same waythere are some men, some places and some times, with respect to whichthese practices can be made use of. A man should therefore pay regard tothe place, to the time, and to the practice which is to be carried out,as also as to whether it is agreeable to his nature and to himself, andthen he may or may not practise these things according to circumstances.

goodqualities - Buenas cualidades

suchas - Cómo

thoughthe - Pensó

Shastras - hastra

itshould - Debería

digestive - digestivo, digestivo

qualitiesof - ualidadesde

nottherefore - no es así

waythere - Allí

whichthese - cuáles

andthen - y después

ut after all, these things being done secretly, and the mind of the manbeing fickle, how can it be known what any person will do at anyparticular time and for any particular purpose.

secretly - secretamente, en secreto

manbeing - Ser humano

fickle - veleidoso; inconstante, voluble

anyparticular - alguna en particular


[Footnote 39: This practice appears to have been prevalent in some partsof India from a very ancient time. The "Shushruta," a work on medicinesome two thousand years old, describes the wounding of the lingam withthe teeth as one of the causes of a disease treated upon in that work.Traces of the practice are found as far back as the eighth century, forvarious kinds of the Auparishtaka are represented in the sculptures ofmany Shaiva temples at Bhuvaneshwara, near Cuttack, in Orissa, and whichwere built about that period.

prevalent - dominante, mayoritario, prevalente, predominante

partsof - Partes de

medicinesome - Medicina

forvarious - varios

ofmany - de muchos

whichwere - cuáles

From these sculptures being found in suchplaces, it would seem that this practice was popular in that part of thecountry at that time. It does not seem to be so prevalent now inHindustan, its place perhaps is filled up by the practice of sodomy,introduced since the Mahomedan period.]

suchplaces - Tales lugares

thecountry - El país

inHindustan - nHindustán

sodomy - sodomía




In the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant withperfumes, attended by his friends and servants, the citizen shouldreceive the woman, who will come bathed and dressed, and will invite herto take refreshment and to drink freely. He should then seat her on hisleft side, and holding her hair, and touching also the end and knot ofher garment, he should gently embrace her with his right arm. Theyshould then carry on an amusing conversation on various subjects, andmay also talk suggestively of things which would be considered ascoarse, or not to be mentioned generally in society.

withperfumes - con perfumes

shouldreceive - debería recibir

refreshment - refresco; refrescamiento, refrigerio

hisleft - Su izquierda

garment - prenda, prenda de vestir

andmay - y puede

suggestively - Sugestivamente

They may then sing,either with or without gesticulations, and play on musical instruments,talk about the arts, and persuade each other to drink. At last when thewoman is overcome with love and desire, the citizen should dismiss thepeople that may be with him, giving them flowers, ointment, and betelleaves, and then when the two are left alone, they should proceed as hasbeen already described in the previous chapters.

gesticulations - gesticulaciones; gesticulación

thepeople - la gente

ointment - pomada, ungüento

hasbeen - ha sido

Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress, thelovers with modesty, and not looking at each other, should go separatelyto the washing-room. After this, sitting in their own places, theyshould eat some betel leaves, and the citizen should apply with his ownhand to the body of the woman some pure sandal wood ointment, orointment of some other kind. He should then embrace her with his leftarm, and with agreeable words should cause her to drink from a cup heldin his own hand, or he may give her water to drink. They can then eatsweetmeats, or anything else, according to their likings, and may drinkfresh juice,[40] soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the juice ofmangoe fruits, the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed withsugar, or anything that may be liked in different countries, and knownto be sweet, soft, and pure.

thelovers - los amantes

modesty - modestia, pudor

separatelyto - Por separado

ownhand - propia mano

sandal - sandalia

orointment - Organización

leftarm - Brazo izquierdo

heldin - retenida

eatsweetmeats - atsweetmeats

drinkfresh - rinkfresh

gruel - Gachas

sherbet - sorbete, polvo acidulado

ofmangoe - fmangoe

withsugar - con azúcar

knownto - Saberlo

The lovers may also sit on the terrace ofthe palace or house, and enjoy the moonlight, and carry on an agreeableconversation. At this time, too, while the woman lies in his lap, withher face towards the moon, the citizen should show her the differentplanets, the morning star, the polar star, and the seven Rishis, orGreat Bear.

terrace - terraza, terrado, bancal, azotea, terraplenar, aterrazar

agreeableconversation - una conversación agradable

withher - con ella

differentplanets - Diferentes planetas

polar star - una estrella polar

orGreat - oGrande

This is the end of sexual union.

Congress is of the following kinds, viz.:

Loving congress. Congress of subsequent love. Congress of artificial love. Congress of transferred love. Congress like that of eunuchs. Deceitful congress. Congress of spontaneous love.

deceitful - enganoso; falso, deshonesto

spontaneous - espontáneo

(1). When a man and a woman, who have been in love with each other forsome time, come together with great difficulty, or when one of the tworeturns from a journey, or is reconciled after having been separated onaccount of a quarrel, then congress is called the "loving congress." Itis carried on according to the liking of the lovers, and as long as theychoose.

forsome - para algunos

tworeturns - dosvueltas

theychoose - Escogen

(2). When two persons come together, while their love for each other isstill in its infancy, their congress is called the "congress ofsubsequent love."

isstill - Aún

ofsubsequent - esubsiguiente

(3). When a man carries on the congress by exciting himself by means ofthe sixty-four ways, such as kissing, etc., etc., or when a man and awoman come together, though in reality they are both attached todifferent persons, their congress is then called "congress of artificiallove." At this time all the ways and means mentioned in the Kama Shastrashould be used.

awoman - woman

todifferent - Diferente

(4). When a man, from the beginning to the end of the congress, thoughhaving connection with the women, thinks all the time that he isenjoying another one whom he loves, it is called the "congress oftransferred love."

thoughhaving - unque.

isenjoying - disfruta

oftransferred - e transferidos

(5). Congress between a man and a female water carrier, or a femaleservant of a caste lower than his own, lasting only until the desire issatisfied, is called "congress like that of eunuchs." Here externaltouches, kisses, and manipulations are not to be employed.

carrier - transportista, companía de transportes, empresa de transportes

issatisfied - está satisfecho

externaltouches - toques externos

(6). The congress between a courtezan and a rustic, and that betweencitizens and the women of villages, and bordering countries, is called,"deceitful congress."

rustic - rústico

betweencitizens - entre ciudadanos

(7). The congress that takes place between two persons who are attachedto one another, and which is done according to their own liking iscalled "spontaneous congress."

attachedto - a qué

Thus ends the kinds of congress.

We shall now speak of love quarrels.

A woman who is very much in love with a man cannot bear to hear the nameof her rival mentioned, or to have any conversation regarding her, or tobe addressed by her name through mistake. If such takes place, a greatquarrel arises, and the woman cries, becomes angry, tosses her hairabout, strikes her lover, falls from her bed or seat, and, casting asideher garlands and ornaments, throws herself down on the ground.

greatquarrel - Granquarrel

becomes angry - Enfadarse

hairabout - cabello

asideher - Aparte

At this time, the lover should attempt to reconcile her withconciliatory words, and should take her up carefully and place her onher bed. But she, not replying to his questions, and with increasedanger, should bend down his head by pulling his hair, and having kickedhim once, twice, or thrice on his arms, head, bosom or back, should thenproceed to the door of the room. Dattaka says that she should then sitangrily near the door and shed tears, but should not go out, because shewould be found fault with for going away.

reconcile - reconciliar, avenir

withconciliatory - conciliar

onher - nher

increasedanger - incremento

bend down - agacharse

kickedhim - Pateado

thrice - tres veces; tres vez

thenproceed - proceder

sitangrily - Sentarse enfadado

shed tears - derramar lágrimas

After a time, when she thinksthat the conciliatory words and actions of her lover have reached theirutmost, she should then embrace him, talking to him with harsh andreproachful words, but at the same time showing a loving desire forcongress.

thinksthat - eso crees

theirutmost - más

andreproachful - y los reproches

forcongress - para el congreso

When the woman is in her own house, and has quarrelled with her lover,she should go to him and show how angry she is, and leave him.Afterwards the citizen having sent the Vita,[41] the Vidushaka[41] orthe Pithamurda[41] to pacify her, she should accompany them back to thehouse, and spend the night with her lover.

quarrelled - discutieron; pelea, rina

orthe - o el

pacify - pacificar

thehouse - la casa

Thus end the love quarrels.

In conclusion.

A man, employing the sixty-four means mentioned by Babhravya, obtainshis object, and enjoys the woman of the first quality. Though he mayspeak well on other subjects, if he does not know the sixty-fourdivisions, no great respect is paid to him in the assembly of thelearned. A man, devoid of other knowledge, but well acquainted with thesixty-four divisions, becomes a leader in any society of men and women.

obtainshis - Obtenerlo

fourdivisions - cuatro divisiones

thelearned - lo aprendido

devoid - vacío, desprovisto

thesixty - los sesenta

hat man will not respect the sixty-four parts,[42] considering they arerespected by the learned, by the cunning, and by the courtezans. As thesixty-four parts are respected, are charming, and add to the talent ofwomen, they are called by the Acharyas dear to women. A man skilled inthe sixty-four parts is looked upon with love by his own wife, by thewives of others, and by courtezans.

arerespected - se respetan

cunning - astucia; astuto

thewives - las esposas


[Footnote 40: The fresh juice of the cocoa nut tree, the date tree, andother kinds of palm trees are drunk in India. It will not keep freshvery long, but ferments rapidly, and is then distilled into liquor.]

date tree - Árbol de dátiles

freshvery - Fresco

ferments - fermentos; fermentar

distilled - Destilar

liquor - jugo, licor

[Footnote 41: The characteristics of these three individuals have beengiven in Part I. page 31.]

beengiven - se le ha dado

[Footnote 42: A definition of the sixty-four parts, or divisions, isgiven in Chapter II., page 45.]






When a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordancewith the precepts of Holy Writ, the results of such an union are: theacquisition of Dharma and Artha, offspring, affinity, increase offriends, and untarnished love. For this reason a man should fix hisaffections upon a girl who is of good family, whose parents are alive,and who is three years or more younger than himself. She should be bornof a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well connected, andwith many relations and friends.

accordancewith - De acuerdo

theacquisition - la adquisición

offriends - Amigos

untarnished - Sin mancha

hisaffections - Sus efectos

respectable - respetable

andwith - y con

She should also be beautiful, of a gooddisposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails,teeth, ears, eyes, and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought tobe, and no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sicklybody. The man should, of course, also possess these qualities himself.But at all events, says Ghotakamukha, a girl who has been already joinedwith others (_i.e._, no longer a maiden) should never be loved, for itwould be reproachable to do such a thing.

gooddisposition - Buena disposición

sicklybody - Enfermo

joinedwith - unido a

maiden - doncella

itwould - lo haría

reproachable - reprochable

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as describedabove, the parents and relations of the man should exert themselves, asalso such friends on both sides as may be desired to assist in thematter.

describedabove - escrito anteriormente

thematter - Importa

These friends should bring to the notice of the girl's parents,the faults, both present and future, of all the other men that may wishto marry her, and should at the same time extol even to exaggerationall the excellencies, ancestral, and paternal, of their friend, so as toendear him to them, and particularly to those that may be liked by thegirl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise himself as anastrologer and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friendby showing the existence of all the lucky omens[43] and signs,[44] thegood influence of planets, the auspicious entrance of the sun into asign of the Zodiac, propitious stars and fortunate marks on his body.Others again should rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother by tellingher that their friend has a chance of getting from some other quartereven a better girl than hers.

extol - exaltar; alabar, elogiar, loar, enaltecer

exaggerationall - exagerado

excellencies - excelencias; excelencia

ancestral - ancestral

paternal - paterno, paternal

thegirl - La chica

anastrologer - Anastrologo

friendby - Amigo

thegood - el bien

asign - asignar

Zodiac - zodíaco

Propitious - propicio; panish: t-needed

rouse - revivir; despertar

jealousy - celo, celos, envidia

tellingher - Te lo digo

quartereven - uartereven

A girl should be taken as a wife, as also given in marriage, whenfortune, signs, omens, and the words[45] of others are favourable, for,says Ghotakamukha, a man should not marry at any time he likes. A girlwho is asleep, crying, or gone out of the house when sought in marriage,or who is betrothed to another, should not be married. The followingalso should be avoided:

whenfortune - cuándo desgracia

omens - presagios; presagio

betrothed - comprometida, comprometido; (betroth); prometer (en matrimonio)

followingalso - siguiendo también

One who is kept concealed. One who has an ill-sounding name. One who has her nose depressed. One who has her nostril turned up. One who is formed like a male. One who is bent down. One who has crooked thighs. One who has a projecting forehead. One who has a bald head.

nostril - narina, fosa nasal

crooked - Corrupto; (crook) Corrupto

bald - calvo, pelón

One who does not like purity. One who has been polluted by another. One who is afflicted with the Gulma.[46] One who is disfigured in any way. One who has fully arrived at puberty. One who is a friend. One who is a younger sister. One who is a Varshakari.[47]

purity - pureza

Polluted - contaminado; contaminar

disfigured - desfigurado; desfigurar

puberty - pubertad

In the same way a girl who is called by the name of one of thetwenty-seven stars, or by the name of a tree, or of a river, isconsidered worthless, as also a girl whose name ends in "r" or "l." Butsome authors say that prosperity is gained only by marrying that girl towhom one becomes attached, and that therefore no other girl but the onewho is loved should be married by anyone.

thetwenty - losveinte

worthless - sin valor

towhom - a quién

onewho - quién

When a girl becomes marriageable her parents should dress her smartly,and should place her where she can be easily seen by all. Everyafternoon, having dressed her and decorated her in a becoming manner,they should send her with her female companions to sports, sacrifices,and marriage ceremonies, and thus show her to advantage in society,because she is a kind of merchandise.

smartly - Inteligentemente

merchandise - mercancía, mercadería

They should also receive with kindwords and signs of friendliness those of an auspicious appearance whomay come accompanied by their friends and relations for the purpose ofmarrying their daughter, and under some pretext or other having firstdressed her becomingly, should then present her to them. After this theyshould await the pleasure of fortune, and with this object shouldappoint a future day on which a determination could be come to withregard to their daughter's marriage. On this occasion when the personshave come, the parents of the girl should ask them to bathe and dine,and should say, "Everything will take place at the proper time," andshould not then comply with the request, but should settle the matterlater.

kindwords - indwords

friendliness - amabilidad; amigabilidad

ofmarrying - e casarse

firstdressed - primervestido

becomingly - con elegancia

shouldappoint - debería nombrar

withregard - Indiferente

dine - cenar

andshould - ?debería

matterlater - más tarde

When a girl is thus acquired, either according to the custom of thecountry, or according to his own desire, the man should marry her inaccordance with the precepts of the Holy Writ, according to one of thefour kinds of marriage.

inaccordance - inacordancia

Thus ends marriage.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:--

Amusement in society, such as completing verses begun by others,marriages, and auspicious ceremonies should be carried on neither withsuperiors, nor inferiors, but with our equals. That should be known as ahigh connection when a man, after marrying a girl, has to serve her andher relations afterwards like a servant, and such a connection iscensured by the good. On the other hand, that reproachable connection,where a man, together with his relations, lords it over his wife, iscalled a low connection by the wise.

withsuperiors - con los superiores

inferiors - inferiores; inferior

our equals - nuestros iguales

ahigh - Ah, sí

andher - y ella

iscensured - está censurado

But when both the man and the womanafford mutual pleasure to each other, and when the relatives on bothsides pay respect to one another, such is called a connection in theproper sense of the word. Therefore a man should contract neither a highconnection by which he is obliged to bow down afterwards to his kinsmen,nor a low connection, which is universally reprehended by all.

bothsides - Ambos lados

theproper - elpropio

highconnection - alta conexión

universally - universalmente

reprehended - Reprender


[Footnote 43: The flight of a blue jay on a person's left side isconsidered a lucky omen when one starts on any business; the appearanceof a cat before anyone at such a time is looked on as a bad omen. Thereare many omens of the same kind.]

omen - presagio

appearanceof - apariencia de

[Footnote 44: Such as the throbbing of the right eye of men and the lefteye of women, etc.]

[Footnote 45: Before anything is begun it is a custom to go early in themorning to a neighbour's house, and overhear the first words that may bespoken in his family, and according as the words heard are of good orbad import, so draw an inference as to the success or failure of theundertaking.]

themorning - Manana

overhear - escuchar; oír por casualidad, oír sin querer

inference - inferencia, ilación

theundertaking - la empresa

[Footnote 46: A disease consisting of any glandular enlargement in anypart of the body.]

glandular - glandular

enlargement - agrandamiento, ampliación

[Footnote 47: A woman, the palms of whose hands and the soles of whosefeet are always perspiring.]

whosefeet - De quién son los pies

perspiring - sudando; transpirar



For the first three days after marriage, the girl and her husband shouldsleep on the floor, abstain from sexual pleasures, and eat their foodwithout seasoning it either with alkali or salt. For the next seven daysthey should bathe amidst the sounds of auspicious musical instruments,should decorate themselves, dine together, and pay attention to theirrelations as well as to those who may have come to witness theirmarriage. This is applicable to persons of all castes. On the night ofthe tenth day the man should begin in a lonely place with soft words,and thus create confidence in the girl. Some authors say that for thepurpose of winning her over he should not speak to her for three days,but the followers of Babhravya are of opinion that if the man does notspeak with her for three days, the girl may be discouraged by seeing himspiritless like a pillar, and, becoming dejected, she may begin todespise him as an eunuch. Vatsyayana says that the man should begin towin her over, and to create confidence in her, but should abstain atfirst from sexual pleasures.

shouldsleep - debería dormir

abstain - abstenerse, retener

foodwithout - sin comida

Alkali - álcali

daysthey - Días

amidst - en medio de; en medio

theirrelations - Sus relaciones

theirmarriage - Su matrimonio

thepurpose - el propósito

himspiritless - sin espíritu

towin - Twin

atfirst - primero

Women being of a tender nature, want tenderbeginnings, and when they are forcibly approached by men with whom theyare but slightly acquainted, they sometimes suddenly become haters ofsexual connection, and sometimes even haters of the male sex. The manshould therefore approach the girl according to her liking, and shouldmake use of those devices by which he may be able to establish himselfmore and more into her confidence. These devices are as follows:--

tenderbeginnings - los tiernos comienzos

haters - odiadores; odiador, odiadora, detractor, detractora, envidioso

shouldmake - debería hacer

himselfmore - más a sí mismo

He should embrace her first of all in a way she likes most, because itdoes not last for a long time.

itdoes - lo hace

He should embrace her with the upper part of his body because that iseasier and simpler. If the girl is grown up, or if the man has knownher for some time, he may embrace her by the light of a lamp, but if heis not well acquainted with her, or if she is a young girl, he shouldthen embrace her in darkness.

iseasier - es más fácil

knownher - Conocerla

shouldthen - debería

When the girl accepts the embrace, the man should put a "tambula" orscrew of betel nut and betel leaves in her mouth, and if she will nottake it, he should induce her to do so by conciliatory words,entreaties, oaths, and kneeling at her feet, for it is an universal rulethat however bashful or angry a woman may be, she never disregards a mankneeling at her feet. At the time of giving this "tambula" he shouldkiss her mouth softly and gracefully without making any sound. When sheis gained over in this respect he should then make her talk, and so thatshe may be induced to talk he should ask her questions about things ofwhich he knows or pretends to know nothing, and which can be answered ina few words. If she does not speak to him, he should not frighten her,but should ask her the same thing again and again in a conciliatorymanner. If she does not then speak he should urge her to give a reply,because as Ghotakamukha says, "all girls hear everything said to them bymen, but do not themselves sometimes say a single word." When she isthus importuned, the girl should give replies by shakes of the head, butif she quarrelled with the man she should not even do that. When she isasked by the man whether she wishes for him, and whether she likes him,she should remain silent for a long time, and when at last importuned toreply, should give him a favourable answer by a nod of the head.

orscrew - o atornillar

entreaties - suplicas; petición, solicitud, plegaria

oaths - juramentos; juramento, jurar

rulethat - ulethat

disregards - descuidar, desatender, ignorar

mankneeling - Arrodillarse

gracefully - con elegancia; agraciadamente

thatshe - Ella

ofwhich - de qué

conciliatorymanner - manera conciliadora

bymen - Por hombres

isthus - Esto

importuned - importunado; importunar, prostituirse

butif - pero si

isasked - se le pregunta

toreply - Responder

If theman is previously acquainted with the girl he should converse with herby means of a female friend, who may be favourable to him, and in theconfidence of both, and carry on the conversation on both sides. On suchan occasion the girl should smile with her head bent down, and if thefemale friend say more on her part than she was desired to do, sheshould chide her and dispute with her. The female friend should say injest even what she is not desired to say by the girl, and add, "she saysso," on which the girl should say indistinctly and prettily, "O no! Idid not say so," and she should then smile and throw an occasionalglance towards the man.

herby - herbal

theconfidence - la confianza

suchan - talan

injest - ingerir

saysso - lo dice

indistinctly - indistintamente

prettily - bonito; bellamente, hermosamente, lindamente

occasionalglance - una mirada ocasional

If the girl is familiar with the man, she should place near him,without saying anything, the tambula, the ointment, or the garland thathe may have asked for, or she may tie them up in his upper garment.While she is engaged in this, the man should touch her young breasts inthe sounding way of pressing with the nails, and if she prevents himdoing this he should say to her, "I will not do it again if you willembrace me," and should in this way cause her to embrace him. While heis being embraced by her he should pass his hand repeatedly over andabout her body.

thathe - Él

himdoing - Qué está haciendo

andabout - y por ahí

By and bye he should place her in his lap, and try moreand more to gain her consent, and if she will not yield to him he shouldfrighten her by saying, "I shall impress marks of my teeth and nails onyour lips and breasts, and then make similar marks on my own body, andshall tell my friends that you did them. What will you say then?" Inthis and other ways, as fear and confidence are created in the minds ofchildren, so should the man gain her over to his wishes.

moreand - Más

shouldfrighten - debería asustar

onyour - Sobre ti

andshall - Y

ofchildren - e los ninos

On the second and third nights, after her confidence has increased stillmore, he should feel the whole of her body with his hands, and kiss herall over; he should also place his hands upon her thighs and shampoothem, and if he succeed in this he should then shampoo the joints of herthighs. If she tries to prevent him doing this he should say to her,"What harm is there in doing it?" and should persuade her to let him doit. After gaining this point he should touch her private parts, shouldloosen her girdle and the knot of her dress, and turning up her lowergarment should shampoo the joints of her naked thighs. Under variouspretences he should do all these things, but he should not at that timebegin actual congress.

stillmore - Aún más

shampoothem - champoothem

herthighs - Muslos

doit - Hacerlo

shouldloosen - debería aflojar

girdle - faja; cinto

lowergarment - prenda inferior

variouspretences - variaspretencias

timebegin - comienza el tiempo

After this he should teach her the sixty-fourarts, should tell her how much he loves her, and describe to her thehopes which he formerly entertained regarding her. He should alsopromise to be faithful to her in future, and should dispel all her fearswith respect to rival women, and, at last, after having overcome herbashfulness, he should begin to enjoy her in a way so as not to frightenher. So much about creating confidence in the girl; and there are,moreover, some verses on the subject as follows:--

thehopes - las esperanzas

alsopromise - también promete

faithful - fieles; fiel, leal

dispel - disipar, dispersar

fearswith - con qué

herbashfulness - Hierbas

frightenher - Asustador

A man acting according to the inclinations of a girl should try and gainher over so that she may love him and place her confidence in him. Aman does not succeed either by implicitly following the inclination of agirl, or by wholly opposing her, and he should therefore adopt a middlecourse. He who knows how to make himself beloved by women, as well as toincrease their honour and create confidence in them, this man becomes anobject of their love. But he, who neglects a girl thinking she is toobashful, is despised by her as a beast ignorant of the working of thefemale mind.

inclinations - inclinaciones; inclinación

implicitly - implícitamente

middlecourse - Curso medio

toincrease - aumentar

anobject - un objeto

Moreover, a girl forcibly enjoyed by one who does notunderstand the hearts of girls becomes nervous, uneasy, and dejected,and suddenly begins to hate the man who has taken advantage of her; andthen, when her love is not understood or returned, she sinks intodespondency, and becomes either a hater of mankind altogether, or,hating her own man, she has recourse to other men.[48]

notunderstand - No lo entiendes

uneasy - inquieta; inquieto

intodespondency - incidencia

hater - odiador, odiadora, detractor, detractora, envidioso


[Footnote 48: These last few lines have been exemplified in many ways inmany novels of this century.]

exemplified - ejemplificado; ejemplificar



manifestation - manifestación

A poor man possessed of good qualities, a man born of a low familypossessed of mediocre qualities, a neighbour possessed of wealth, andone under the control of his father, mother or brothers, should notmarry without endeavouring to gain over the girl from her childhood tolove and esteem them. Thus a boy separated from his parents, and livingin the house of his uncle, should try to gain over the daughter of hisuncle, or some other girl, even though she be previously betrothed toanother.

familypossessed - familiaposeída

mediocre - mediocre

andone - Y uno

notmarry - No casarse

tolove - Amar

esteem - estima

livingin - vivir

hisuncle - Su tío

toanother - a otro

And this way of gaining over a girl, says Ghotakamukha, isunexceptional, because Dharma can be accomplished by means of it, aswell as by any other way of marriage.

isunexceptional - es excepcional

aswell - también

When a boy has thus begun to woo the girl he loves, he should spend histime with her and amuse her with various games and diversions fitted fortheir age and acquaintanceship, such as picking and collecting flowers,making garlands of flowers, playing the parts of members of a fictitiousfamily, cooking food, playing with dice, playing with cards, the game ofodd and even, the game of finding out the middle finger, the game of sixpebbles, and such other games as may be prevalent in the country, andagreeable to the disposition of the girl. In addition to this, he shouldcarry on various amusing games played by several persons together, suchas hide and seek, playing with seeds, hiding things in several smallheaps of wheat and looking for them, blind-man's buff, gymnasticexercises, and other games of the same sort, in company with the girl,her friends and female attendants.

woo - cortejar

amuse - entretener, distraer, divertir

fortheir - Para ellos

acquaintanceship - Conocimiento

fictitiousfamily - familia ficticia

sixpebbles - seispebbles

andagreeable - y de acuerdo

shouldcarry - debería llevar

smallheaps - pequenos

Buff - color de ante

gymnasticexercises - ejercicios gimnásticos

attendants - asistentes; asistente, guarda, concomitante, inherente

The man should also show greatkindness to any woman whom the girl thinks fit to be trusted, and shouldalso make new acquaintances, but above all he should attach to himselfby kindness and little services the daughter of the girl's nurse, forif she be gained over, even though she comes to know of his design, shedoes not cause any obstruction, but is sometimes even able to effect anunion between him and the girl. And though she knows the true characterof the man, she always talks of his many excellent qualities to theparents and relations of the girl, even though she may not be desired todo so by him.

greatkindness - gran bondad

shouldalso - también

acquaintances - conocidos; amistad, conocimiento, junta, relación

himselfby - por sí mismo

anunion - anunión

theparents - los padres

In this way the man should do whatever the girl takes most delight in,and he should get for her whatever she may have a desire to possess.Thus he should procure for her such playthings as may be hardly known toother girls. He may also show her a ball dyed with various colours, andother curiosities of the same sort; and should give her dolls made ofcloth, wood, buffalo-horn, ivory, wax, flour, or earth; also utensilsfor cooking food, and figures in wood, such as a man and woman standing,a pair of rams, or goats, or sheep; also temples made of earth, bamboo,or wood, dedicated to various goddesses; and cages for parrots, cuckoos,starlings, quails, cocks, and partridges; water-vessels of differentsorts and of elegant forms, machines for throwing water about, guitars,stands for putting images upon, stools, lac, red arsenic, yellowointment, vermilion and collyrium, as well as sandal-wood, saffron,betel nut and betel leaves.

toother - Otro

dyed - tenido; tenir

dolls - munecas; muneca

ofcloth - de tela

buffalo - búfalo, bisonte

ivory - marfil, ebúrneo

wax - cera

utensilsfor - utensilios para

goddesses - diosas; diosa

cuckoos - cucos; cuco, cuclillo

differentsorts - diferentes tipos

stools - heces; taburete

arsenic - arsénico, trióxido de arsénico

yellowointment - amarillismo

vermilion - vermellón; bermellón, bermejo

saffron - azafrán, azafranar

Such things should be given at differenttimes whenever he gets a good opportunity of meeting her, and some ofthem should be given in private, and some in public, according tocircumstances. In short, he should try in every way to make her lookupon him as one who would do for her everything that she wanted to bedone.

differenttimes - en diferentes momentos

tocircumstances - a las circunstancias

lookupon - Buscar

In the next place he should get her to meet him in some place privately,and should then tell her that the reason of his giving presents to herin secret was the fear that the parents of both of them might bedispleased, and then he may add that the things which he had given herhad been much desired by other people. When her love begins to showsigns of increasing he should relate to her agreeable stories if sheexpresses a wish to hear such narratives. Or if she takes delight inlegerdemain, he should amaze her by performing various tricks ofjugglery; or if she feels a great curiosity to see a performance of thevarious arts, he should show his own skill in them.

privately - en privado; privadamente

bedispleased - está disgustado

herhad - Tenía

showsigns - Signos

sheexpresses - expresa

amaze - pasmar, sorprender, asombrar

ofjugglery - e malabarismo

When she isdelighted with singing he should entertain her with music, and oncertain days, and at the time of going together to moonlight fairs andfestivals, and at the time of her return after being absent from home,he should present her with bouquets of flowers, and with chaplets forthe head, and with ear ornaments and rings, for these are the properoccasions on which such things should be presented.

isdelighted - está encantado

oncertain - Seguro

going together - Ir juntos

andfestivals - festivales

being absent - estar ausente

bouquets - ramilletes; ramo, ramita, buqué, aroma

rings - anillos; anillo

properoccasions - Ocasiones adecuadas

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:--

A man, who has seen and perceived the feelings of the girl towards him,and who has noticed the outward signs and movements by which thosefeelings are expressed, should do everything in his power to effect anunion with her. He should gain over a young girl by childlike sports, adamsel come of age by his skill in the arts, and a girl that loves himby having recourse to persons in whom she confides.

thosefeelings - Esos sentimientos

childlike - infantil

himby - leby

confides - confía; confiar



Now when the girl begins to show her love by outward signs and motions,as described in the last chapter, the lover should try to gain her overentirely by various ways and means, such as the following:--

overentirely - En exceso

When engaged with her in any game or sport he should intentionally holdher hand. He should practise upon her the various kinds of embraces,such as the touching embrace, and others already described in apreceeding chapter (Part II. Chapter 2). He should show her a pair ofhuman beings cut out of the leaf of a tree, and such like things, atintervals. When engaged in water sports, he should dive at a distancefrom her, and come up close to her. He should show an increased likingfor the new foliage of trees and such like things. He should describe toher the pangs he suffers on her account. He should relate to her thebeautiful dream that he has had with reference to other women.

apreceeding - Precedente

ofhuman - ehumano

atintervals - intervalos

distancefrom - Distancia desde

likingfor - te gusta

pangs - angustias; punzada, dolor agudo

thebeautiful - hebeautiful

Atparties and assemblies of his caste he should sit near her, and touchher under some pretence or other, and having placed his foot upon her's,he should slowly touch each of her toes, and press the ends of thenails; if successful in this, he should get hold of her foot with hishand and repeat the same thing. He should also press a finger of herhand between his toes when she happens to be washing his feet; andwhenever he gives anything to her or takes anything from her, he shouldshow her by his manner and look how much he loves her.

hishand - Su mano

herhand - La mano

andwhenever - ?cuándo

shouldshow - debería mostrar

He should sprinkle upon her the water brought for rinsing his mouth; andwhen alone with her in a lonely place, or in darkness, he should makelove to her, and tell her the true state of his mind without distressingher in any way.

sprinkle - salpicar, rociar, asperjar, espolvorear

rinsing - Enjuague; (rins) Enjuague

andwhen - y cuándo

distressingher - la angustia

Whenever he sits with her on the same seat or bed he should say to her,"I have something to tell you in private," and then, when she comes tohear it in a quiet place, he should express his love to her more bymanner and signs than by words. When he comes to know the state of herfeelings towards him he should pretend to be ill, and should make hercome to his house to speak to him. There he should intentionally holdher hand and place it on his eyes and forehead, and under the pretenceof preparing some medicine for him he should ask her to do work for hissake in the following words: "This work must be done by you, and bynobody else." When she wants to go away he should let her go, with anearnest request to come and see him again.

tohear - Oír

bymanner - ymanner

herfeelings - Sus sentimientos

hercome - Viene

pretenceof - Pretensión de

hissake - Por su bien

bynobody - por nadie

anearnest - unearnest

This device of illness shouldbe continued for three days and three nights. After this, when shebegins coming to see him frequently, he should carry on longconversations with her, for, says Ghotakamukha, "though a man loves agirl ever so much, he never succeeds in winning her without a great dealof talking." At last, when the man finds the girl completely gainedover, he may then begin to enjoy her. As for the saying that women growless timid than usual during the evening, and in darkness, and aredesirous of congress at those times, and do not oppose men then andshould only be enjoyed at these hours, it is a matter of talk only.

shebegins - empieza

longconversations - largas conversaciones

dealof - Trato hecho

growless - Increíble

timid - tímido

aredesirous - están deseosos

When it is impossible for the man to carry on his endeavours alone, heshould, by means of the daughter of her nurse, or of a female friend inwhom she confides, cause the girl to be brought to him without makingknown to her his design, and he should then proceed with her in themanner above described. Or he should in the beginning send his ownfemale servant to live with the girl as her friend, and should then gainher over by her means.

inwhom - en quién

makingknown - Conociendo

ownfemale - wnfemale

At last, when he knows the state of her feelings by her outward mannerand conduct towards him at religious ceremonies, marriage ceremonies,fairs, festivals, theatres, public assemblies, and such like occasions,he should begin to enjoy her when she is alone, for Vatsyayana lays itdown, that women, when resorted to at proper times and in properplaces, do not turn away from their lovers.

mannerand - Manierand

properplaces - Propios lugares

When a girl, possessed of good qualities and well-bred, though born in ahumble family, or destitute of wealth, and not therefore desired by herequals, or an orphan girl, or one deprived of her parents, but observingthe rules of her family and caste, should wish to bring about her ownmarriage when she comes of age, such a girl should endeavour to gainover a strong and good looking young man, or a person whom she thinkswould marry her on account of the weakness of his mind, and even withoutthe consent of his parents. She should do this by such means as wouldendear her to the said person, as well as by frequently seeing andmeeting him.

destitute - indigente

herequals - aquíquals

orphan - huérfano, huérfana

observingthe - Observando el

ownmarriage - Matrimonio propio

gainover - Ganancia

thinkswould - cree que lo haría

withoutthe - Sin el

wouldendear - Dendear

andmeeting - ?reunión

Her mother also should constantly cause them to meet bymeans of her female friends, and the daughter of her nurse. The girlherself should try to get alone with her beloved in some quiet place,and at odd times should give him flowers, betel nut, betel leaves andperfumes. She should also show her skill in the practice of the arts, inshampooing, in scratching and in pressing with the nails. She shouldalso talk to him on the subjects he likes best, and discuss with him theways and means of gaining over and winning the affections of a girl.

andperfumes - perfumes

inshampooing - nshampooing

theways - Cómo

But old authors say that although the girl loves the man ever so much,she should not offer herself, or make the first overtures, for a girlwho does this loses her dignity, and is liable to be scorned andrejected. But when the man shows his wish to enjoy her, she should befavourable to him and should show no change in her demeanour when heembraces her, and should receive all the manifestations of his love asif she were ignorant of the state of his mind. But when he tries to kissher she should oppose him; when he begs to be allowed to have sexualintercourse with her she should let him touch her private parts only andwith considerable difficulty; and though importuned by him, she shouldnot yield herself up to him as if of her own accord, but should resistshis attempts to have her.

overtures - ofertas; obertura

scorned - despreciado; despreciar, desdenar, menospreciar, rechazar

andrejected - y rechazado

befavourable - favorable

demeanour - conducta, comportamiento

heembraces - abrazaderas

kissher - Besador

resistshis - Se resiste

It is only, moreover, when she is certain thatshe is truly loved, and that her lover is indeed devoted to her, andwill not change his mind, that she should then give herself up to him,and persuade him to marry her quickly. After losing her virginity sheshould tell her confidential friends about it.

andwill - y lo hará

virginity - virginidad, doncellez

Here ends the efforts of a girl to gain over a man.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows: A girl who is muchsought after should marry the man that she likes, and whom she thinkswould be obedient to her, and capable of giving her pleasure. But whenfrom the desire of wealth a girl is married by her parents to a rich manwithout taking into consideration the character or looks of thebridegroom, or when given to a man who has several wives, she neverbecomes attached to the man, even though he be endowed with goodqualities, obedient to her will, active, strong, and healthy, andanxious to please her in every way.[49] A husband who is obedient butyet master of himself, though he be poor and not good looking, is betterthan one who is common to many women, even though he be handsome andattractive.

muchsought - muy buscado

obedient - obediente

whenfrom - de cuándo

thebridegroom - el novio

neverbecomes - nunca llega

andanxious - y ansioso

butyet - pero ya

handsome - apuesto, guapo, de buen parecer, lindo

andattractive - atractivo

The wives of rich men, where there are many wives, are notgenerally attached to their husbands, and are not confidential withthem, and even though they possess all the external enjoyments of life,still have recourse to other men. A man who is of a low mind, who hasfallen from his social position, and who is much given to travelling,does not deserve to be married; neither does one who has many wives andchildren, or one who is devoted to sport and gambling, and who comes tohis wife only when he likes. Of all the lovers of a girl he only is hertrue husband who possesses the qualities that are liked by her, and sucha husband only enjoys real superiority over her, because he is thehusband of love.

notgenerally - Generalmente no

withthem - Con ellos

enjoyments - disfruta; disfrute, gozo, regocijo, holganza

hasfallen - ha caído

andchildren - y los ninos

tohis - a esto

hertrue - Es cierto

superiority - superioridad

thehusband - elmarido


[Footnote 49: There is a good deal of truth in the last fewobservations. Woman is a monogamous animal, and loves but one, and likesto feel herself alone in the affections of one man, and cannot bearrivals. It may also be taken as a general rule that women either marriedto, or kept by, rich men love them for their wealth, but not forthemselves.]

fewobservations - pocas observaciones

monogamous - monógamo

likesto - Te gusta

bearrivals - Osos rivales

marriedto - Con quién

forthemselves - por sí mismos



When a girl cannot meet her lover frequently in private, she should sendthe daughter of her nurse to him, it being understood that she hasconfidence in her, and had previously gained her over to her interests.On seeing the man, the daughter of the nurse should, in the course ofconversation, describe to him the noble birth, the good disposition, thebeauty, talent, skill, knowledge of human nature and affection of thegirl in such a way as not to let him suppose that she has been sent bythe girl, and should thus create affection for the girl in the heart ofthe man. To the girl also she should speak about the excellent qualitiesof the man, especially of those qualities which she knows are pleasingto the girl. She should, moreover, speak with disparagement of the otherlovers of the girl, and talk about the avarice and indiscretion of theirparents, and the fickleness of their relations. She should also quotesamples of many girls of ancient times, such as Sakuntala and others,who, having united themselves with lovers of their own caste and theirown choice, were ever happy afterwards in their society.

sendthe - enviar el

hasconfidence - tiene confianza

ofconversation - e conversación

thebeauty - la belleza

pleasingto - Agradable

otherlovers - otros amantes

avarice - avaricia, codicia

indiscretion - indiscreción

theirparents - sus padres

fickleness - veleidad

quotesamples - citasmuestras

And she shouldalso tell of other girls who married into great families, and beingtroubled by rival wives, became wretched and miserable, and were finallyabandoned. She should further speak of the good fortune, the continualhappiness, the chastity, obedience, and affection of the man, and if thegirl gets amorous about him, she should endeavour to allay her shame[51]and her fear as well as her suspicions about any disaster that mightresult from the marriage. In a word, she should act the whole part of afemale messenger by telling the girl all about the man's affection forher, the places he frequented, and the endeavours he made to meet her,and by frequently repeating, "It will be all right if the man will takeyou away forcibly and unexpectedly."

beingtroubled - Problemas

finallyabandoned - finalmenteabandonado

continualhappiness - felicidad continua

allay - disipar; aquietar, calmar, aliviar, mitigar

mightresult - podría resultar

takeyou - Te llevo

unexpectedly - inesperadamente, inopinadamente

_The Forms of Marriage._

When the girl is gained over, and acts openly with the man as his wife,he should cause fire to be brought from the house of a Brahman, andhaving spread the Kusha grass upon the ground, and offered an oblationto the fire he should marry her according to the precepts of thereligious law.

offered - ofrecido; ofrecer

oblationto - Oblación

thereligious - tereligioso

After this he should inform his parents of the fact,because it is the opinion of ancient authors that a marriage solemnlycontracted in the presence of fire cannot afterwards be set aside.

solemnlycontracted - contrato solemne

After the consummation of the marriage, the relations of the man shouldgradually be made acquainted with the affair, and the relations of thegirl should also be apprised of it in such a way that they may consentto the marriage, and overlook the manner in which it was brought about,and when this is done they should afterwards be reconciled byaffectionate presents and favourable conduct.

shouldgradually - deberíagradualmente

apprised - Aprender

consentto - Consentirlo

byaffectionate - afectuoso

In this manner the manshould marry the girl according to the Gandharva form of marriage.

When the girl cannot make up her mind, or will not express her readinessto marry, the man should obtain her in any one of the following ways:--

readinessto - Preparado

(1). On a fitting occasion, and under some excuse, he should by means ofa female friend with whom he is well acquainted, and whom he can trust,and who also is well known to the girl's family, get the girl broughtunexpectedly to his house, and he should then bring fire from the houseof a Brahman, and proceed as before described.

broughtunexpectedly - raído inesperadamente

houseof - casa de

(2.) When the marriage of the girl with some other person draws near,the man should disparage the future husband to the utmost in the mind ofthe mother of the girl, and then having got the girl to come with hermother's consent to a neighbouring house, he should bring fire from thehouse of a Brahman, and proceed as above.

disparage - despreciar; denigrar, menospreciar

utmost - extremo, descollante, extremado, sobresaliente, sumo, máximo

hermother - hermana

(3.) The man should become a great friend of the brother of the girl,the said brother being of the same age as himself, and addicted tocourtesans, and to intrigues with the wives of other people, and shouldgive him assistance in such matters, and also give him occasionalpresents. He should then tell him about his great love for his sister,as young men will sacrifice even their lives for the sake of those whomay be of the same age, habits, and dispositions as themselves.

addicted - adicto, viciado, causar adicción en, volver adicto, viciar

tocourtesans - tourtesanos

intrigues - intrigas; intriga, argumento, intrigar

shouldgive - debería dar

occasionalpresents - presentaciones ocasionales

dispositions - disposición; inclinación, temperamento, carácter

Afterthis the man should get the girl brought by means of her brother to somesecure place, and having brought fire from the house of a Brahman,should proceed as before.

somesecure - algo seguro

(4.) The man should on the occasion of festivals get the daughter of thenurse to give the girl some intoxicating substance, and then cause herto be brought to some secure place under the pretence of some business,and there having enjoyed her before she recovers from her intoxication,should bring fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

thenurse - entonces

intoxicating - intoxicante; intoxicar, emborrachar

(5.) The man should, with the connivance of the daughter of the nurse,carry off the girl from her house while she is asleep, and then, havingenjoyed her before she recovers from her sleep, should bring fire fromthe house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

carry off - conseguir

havingenjoyed - Disfrutando

(6.) When the girl goes to a garden, or to some village in theneighbourhood, the man should, with his friends, fall on her guards, andhaving killed them, or frightened them away, forcibly carry her off, andproceed as before.

theneighbourhood - el barrio

andproceed - y proceder

There are verses on the subject as follows:--In all the forms ofmarriage given in this chapter of this work, the one that precedes isbetter than the one that follows it, on account of its being more inaccordance with the commands of religion, and therefore it is only whenit is impossible to carry the former into practice that the lattershould be resorted to.

ofmarriage - e matrimonio

isbetter - es mejor

whenit - Cuándo

lattershould - debería

As the fruit of all good marriages is love, theGandharva[52] form of marriage is respected, even though it is formedunder unfavourable circumstances, because it fulfils the object soughtfor. Another cause of the respect accorded to the Gandharva form ofmarriage is, that it brings forth happiness, causes less trouble in itsperformance than any other forms of marriage, and is above all theresult of previous love.

formedunder - Formunder

unfavourable - desfavorable, no favorable

soughtfor - se busca

accorded - oncedido; acuerdo, convenio, acordar, conceder, conferir

itsperformance - su rendimiento

theresult - el resultado


[Footnote 50: These forms of marriage differ from the four kinds ofmarriage mentioned in Chapter I., and are only to be made use of whenthe girl is gained over in the way mentioned in Chapters III. and IV.]

[Footnote 51: About this, see a story on the fatal effects of love atpage 114 of "Early Ideas; a Group of Hindoo Stories," collected andcollated by Anaryan. W. H. Allen and Co., London, 1881.]

atpage - página

andcollated - y coloreado

[Footnote 52: About the Gandharvavivaha form of marriage, see note topage 28 of Captain R. F. Burton's "Vickram and the Vampire; or Tales ofHindu Devilry." Longman, Green & Co., London, 1870. This form ofmatrimony was recognised by the ancient Hindus, and is frequent inbooks.

vampire - vampiro

ofHindu - eHindú

ofmatrimony - ematrimonio

recognised - Reconoces

Hindus - Hindúes; (Hindu); hindú, hindú, hinduista

It is a kind of Scotch Wedding--ultra-Caledonian--taking place bymutual consent without any form or ceremony. The Gandharvas are heavenlyminstrels of Indra's court, who are supposed to be witnesses.]

bymutual - ymutual

heavenlyminstrels - los juglares celestiales






A virtuous woman, who has affection for her husband, should act inconformity with his wishes as if he were a divine being, and with hisconsent should take upon herself the whole care of his family. Sheshould keep the whole house well cleaned, and arrange flowers of variouskinds in different parts of it, and make the floor smooth and polishedso as to give the whole a neat and becoming appearance.

inconformity - inconformidad

hisconsent - Su consentimiento

polishedso - pulido también

She shouldsurround the house with a garden, and place ready in it all thematerials required for the morning, noon and even sacrifices. Moreovershe should herself revere the sanctuary of the Household Gods, for saysGonardiya, "nothing so much attracts the heart of a householder to hiswife as a careful observance of the things mentioned above."

shouldsurround - debe rodear

thematerials - los materiales

revere - venerar; reverenciar, idolatrar

sanctuary - santuario; sanctuario

saysGonardiya - iceGonardiya

hiswife - Su mujer

Towards the parents, relations, friends, sisters, and servants of herhusband she should behave as they deserve. In the garden she shouldplant beds of green vegetables, bunches of the sugar cane, and clumps ofthe fig tree, the mustard plant, the parsley plant, the fennel plant,and the xanthochymus pictorius. Clusters of various flowers, such as thetrapa bispinosa, the jasmine, the gasminum grandiflorum, the yellowamaranth, the wild jasmine, the tabernamontana coronaria, thenadyaworta, the china rose and others, should likewise be planted,together with the fragrant grass andropogon schænanthus, and thefragrant root of the plant andropogon miricatus.

herhusband - Su marido

shouldplant - Debería plantar

cane - canón; cana, bastón, bastón blanco

clumps - grumos; grumo, matorral, mechón, plop, amontonar, marchar

fig tree - higuera

parsley - perejil

fennel - hinojo

thetrapa - eltrapa

jasmine - jazmín, jazmín

yellowamaranth - amarillo

tabernamontana - abernamontana

thenadyaworta - entoncesadyaworta

thefragrant - elfragante

She should also haveseats and arbours made in the garden, in the middle of which a well,tank, or pool should be dug.

arbours - Enramada

The wife should always avoid the company of female beggars, femalebuddish mendicants, unchaste and roguish women, female fortune tellersand witches. As regards meals she should always consider what herhusband likes and dislikes, and what things are good for him, and whatare injurious to him. When she hears the sounds of his footsteps cominghome she should at once get up, and be ready to do whatever he maycommand her, and either order her female servant to wash his feet, orwash them herself. When going anywhere with her husband, she should puton her ornaments, and without his consent she should not either give oraccept invitations, or attend marriages and sacrifices, or sit in thecompany of female friends, or visit the temples of the Gods.

femalebuddish - femenino

mendicants - mendicantes; mendicante, panish: t-needed

tellersand - Cajeros y

witches - brujas; bruja

whatare - Qué es

Footsteps - pasos; huella, paso

cominghome - vienes a casa

maycommand - Mandato de mayo

orwash - o lavar

puton - Putón

oraccept - o aceptar

thecompany - La empresa

And if shewants to engage in any kind of games or sports, she should not do itagainst his will. In the same way she should always sit down after him,and get up before him, and should never awaken him when he is asleep.The kitchen should be situated in a quiet and retired place, so as notto be accessible to strangers, and should always look clean.

shewants - quiere

itagainst - contra

awaken - despertar, despertarse

In the event of any misconduct on the part of her husband, she shouldnot blame him excessively though she be a little displeased. She shouldnot use abusive language towards him, but rebuke him with conciliatorywords, whether he be in the company of friends or alone.

misconduct - mala conducta

excessively - excesivamente, demasiado, en demasía

abusive language - lenguaje abusivo

rebuke - reprender; reproche, reprensión, reprimenda, reprobación

conciliatorywords - palabras conciliadoras

Moreover, sheshould not be a scold, for says Gonardiya, "there is no cause of dislikeon the part of a husband so great as this characteristic in a wife."Lastly she should avoid bad expressions, sulky looks, speaking aside,standing in the doorway, and looking at passers-by, conversing in thepleasure groves, and remaining in a lonely place for a long time; andfinally she should always keep her body, her teeth, her hair, andeverything belonging to her tidy, sweet, and clean.

scold - reganar; reganar, retar, renir

sulky - enfurrunado; mohíno

doorway - puerta; entrada

conversing - conversando; conversar, charlar

groves - arboledas; arboleda

andfinally - Y finalmente

andeverything - y todo

When the wife wants to approach her husband in private her dress shouldconsist of many ornaments, various kinds of flowers, and a clothdecorated with different colours, and some sweet-smelling ointments orunguents.

shouldconsist - debe consistir

clothdecorated - vestidodecorado

orunguents - Orungentes

But her every-day dress should be composed of a thin,close-textured cloth, a few ornaments and flowers, and a little scent,not too much. She should also observe the fasts and vows of her husband,and when he tries to prevent her doing this, she should persuade him tolet her do it.

scent - olor, esencia, olfato, fragancia, oler

At appropriate times of the year, and when they happen to be cheap, sheshould buy earth, bamboos, firewood, skins, and iron pots, as also saltand oil. Fragrant substances, vessels made of the fruit of the plantwrightea antidysenterica, or oval leaved wrightea, medicines, and otherthings which are always wanted, should be obtained when required andkept in a secret place of the house.

bamboos - bambúes; bambú

firewood - lena; lena

plantwrightea - plantawrightea

oval - óvalo, oval, ovalado

otherthings - Otras cosas

andkept - y guardado

The seeds of the radish, thepotato, the common beet, the Indian wormwood, the mangoe, the cucumber,the egg plant, the kushmanda, the pumpkin gourd, the surana, thebignonia indica, the sandal wood, the premna spinosa, the garlic plant,the onion, and other vegetables, should be bought and sown at the properseasons.

radish - rábano

thepotato - la patata

beet - Remolacha

Indian - indio, hindú, indígena, indio, india

wormwood - artemisa; ajenjo, absintio, alosna, amargor, amargura

cucumber - pepino

pumpkin - calabaza, calabazera, auyama

gourd - calabaza, calabacino, bangana

thebignonia - labignonia

spinosa - Espinosa

garlic - ajo

sown - sembrado; sembrar

properseasons - temporadas propicias

The wife, moreover, should not tell to strangers the amount of herwealth, nor the secrets which her husband has confided to her. Sheshould surpass all the women of her own rank in life in her cleverness,her appearance, her knowledge of cookery, her pride, and her manner ofserving her husband. The expenditure of the year should be regulated bythe profits. The milk that remains after the meals should be turned intoghee or clarified butter. Oil and sugar should be prepared at home;spinning and weaving should also be done there; and a store of ropes andcords, and barks of trees for twisting into ropes should be kept. Sheshould also attend to the pounding and cleaning of rice, using its smallgrain and chaff in some way or other. She should pay the salaries of theservants, look after the tilling of the fields, and keeping of theflocks and herds, superintend the making of vehicles, and take care ofthe rams, cocks, quails, parrots, starlings, cuckoos, peacocks, monkeys,and deer; and finally adjust the income and expenditure of the day. Theworn-out clothes should be given to those servants who have done goodwork, in order to show them that their services have been appreciated,or they may be applied to some other use. The vessels in which wine isprepared, as well as those in which it is kept, should be carefullylooked after, and put away at the proper time. All sales and purchasesshould also be well attended to. The friends of her husband she shouldwelcome by presenting them with flowers, ointment, incense, betelleaves, and betel nut.

herwealth - Su patrimonio

confided - confiado; confiar

surpass - sobrepasar, superar, aventajar

cleverness - inteligencia, habilidad, listeza, agudeza

ofserving - de servir

intoghee - Inghee

andcords - Y los discos

smallgrain - pequeno grano

chaff - paja, barcia, exico, pienso

theservants - Los sirvientes

theflocks - losflocks

herds - ebanos; rebano, manada, piara

peacocks - pavos reales; pavo real, pavorreal

goodwork - buen trabajo

isprepared - está preparado

carefullylooked - mirado cuidadosamente

purchasesshould - debería comprar

shouldwelcome - debería ser bienvenido

incense - incienso, sahumerio, sahumo

Her father-in-law and mother-in law she shouldtreat as they deserve, always remaining dependant on their will, nevercontradicting them, speaking to them in few and not harsh words, notlaughing loudly in their presence, and acting with their friends andenemies as with her own. In addition to the above she should not bevain, or too much taken up with her enjoyments. She should be liberaltowards her servants, and reward them on holidays and festivals; and notgive away anything without first making it known to her husband.

shouldtreat - debe tratarse

dependant - dependiente

nevercontradicting - nunca contradictorio

notlaughing - No te ríes

andenemies - yenemigos

liberaltowards - Liberal

notgive - No dar

Thus ends the manner of living of a virtuous woman.

During the absence of her husband on a journey the virtuous woman shouldwear only her auspicious ornaments, and observe the fasts in honour ofthe Gods. While anxious to hear the news of her husband, she shouldstill look after her household affairs. She should sleep near the elderwomen of the house, and make herself agreeable to them. She should lookafter and keep in repair the things that are liked by her husband, andcontinue the works that have been begun by him. To the abode of herrelations she should not go except on occasions of joy and sorrow, andthen she should go in her usual travelling dress, accompanied by herhusband's servants, and not remain there for a long time. The fasts andfeasts should be observed with the consent of the elders of the house.The resources should be increased by making purchases and salesaccording to the practice of the merchants, and by means of honestservants, superintended by herself. The income should be increased, andthe expenditure diminished as much as possible.

shouldwear - debería vestir

shouldstill - debería

elderwomen - mujeres mayores

lookafter - Mirar después

andcontinue - continuar

herrelations - Sus relaciones

sorrow - pena; tristeza, aflicción, infelicidad, pesar

andfeasts - fiestas

elders - ancianos; mayor

salesaccording - según las ventas

honestservants - Servidores honrados

And when her husbandreturns from his journey, she should receive him at first in herordinary clothes, so that he may know in what way she has lived duringhis absence, and should bring to him some presents, as also materialsfor the worship of the Deity.

husbandreturns - vuelve el marido

herordinary - Herordinario

duringhis - durante su

materialsfor - materiales para

Thus ends the part relating to the behaviour of a wife during theabsence of her husband on a journey.

theabsence - la ausencia

There are also some verses on the subject as follows.

"The wife, whether she be a woman of noble family, or a virgin widow[53]re-married, or a concubine, should lead a chaste life, devoted to herhusband, and doing every thing for his welfare. Women acting thus,acquire Dharma, Artha, and Kama, obtain a high position, and generallykeep their husbands devoted to them."

noble family - familia noble

concubine - concubina

chaste - casta; casto

generallykeep - Generalmente


[Footnote 53: This probably refers to a girl married in her infancy, orwhen very young, and whose husband had died before she arrived at theage of puberty. Infant marriages are still the common custom of theHindoos.]

orwhen - o cuándo



The causes of re-marrying during the lifetime of the wife are asfollows:

asfollows - sfollows

(1). The folly or ill temper of the wife.

folly - una locura; capricho

temper - temperamento, temple, templar, temperar

(2). Her husband's dislike to her.

(3). The want of offspring.

(4). The continual birth of daughters.

(5). The incontinence of the husband.

incontinence - incontinencia

From the very beginning the wife should endeavour to attract the heartof her husband, by showing to him continually her devotion, her goodtemper, and her wisdom. If however she bears him no children, she shouldherself tell her husband to marry another woman.

heartof - Corazón

devotion - devoción, dedicación, fervor, veneración

goodtemper - Buen humor

she bears - ella lleva

shouldherself - debería

And when the secondwife is married, and brought to the house, the first wife should giveher a position superior to her own, and look upon her as a sister. Inthe morning the elder wife should forcibly make the younger one decorateherself in the presence of their husband, and should not mind all thehusband's favour being given to her. If the younger wife does anythingto displease her husband the elder one should not neglect her, butshould always be ready to give her most careful advice, and should teachher to do various things in the presence of her husband. Her childrenshe should treat as her own, her attendants she should look upon withmore regard, even than on her own servants, her friends she shouldcherish with love and kindness, and her relations with great honour.

secondwife - Segunda esposa

giveher - Darher

decorateherself - decorarse

anythingto - algo

butshould - pero debería

most careful - el más cuidadoso

teachher - Ensenarle

childrenshe - Ninos

withmore - con más

shouldcherish - debería

kindness - amabilidad, bondad

When there are many other wives besides herself, the elder wife shouldassociate with the one who is immediately next to her in rank and age,and should instigate the wife who has recently enjoyed her husband'sfavour to quarrel with the present favourite. After this she shouldsympathize with the former, and having collected all the other wivestogether, should get them to denounce the favourite as a scheming andwicked woman, without however committing herself in any way.

shouldassociate - debería asociarse

shouldsympathize - debería simpatizar

wivestogether - vivir juntos

andwicked - wicked

If thefavourite wife happens to quarrel with the husband, then the elder wifeshould take her part and give her false encouragement, and thus causethe quarrel to be increased. If there be only a little quarrel betweenthe two, the elder wife should do all she can to work it up into a largequarrel. But if after all this she finds the husband still continues tolove his favourite wife she should then change her tactics, andendeavour to bring about a conciliation between them, so as to avoid herhusband's displeasure.

thefavourite - el favorito

wifeshould - la esposa debería

causethe - Causa

largequarrel - Grandequarrel

conciliation - conciliación

displeasure - disgusto, desazón

Thus ends the conduct of the elder wife.

The younger wife should regard the elder wife of her husband as hermother, and should not give anything away, even to her own relations,without her knowledge. She should tell her everything about herself, andnot approach her husband without her permission. Whatever is told to herby the elder wife she should not reveal to others, and she should takecare of the children of the senior even more than of her own. When alonewith her husband she should serve him well, but should not tell him ofthe pain she suffers from the existence of a rival wife. She may alsoobtain secretly from her husband some marks of his particular regard forher, and may tell him that she lives only for him, and for the regardthat he has for her.

takecare - Cuidado

alonewith - Solo

alsoobtain - Obtener también

regardthat - Respecto a eso

She should never reveal her love for her husband,nor her husband's love for her to any person, either in pride or inanger, for a wife that reveals the secrets of her husband is despised byhim. As for seeking to obtain the regard of her husband, Gonardiya says,that it should always be done in private, for fear of the elder wife. Ifthe elder wife be disliked by her husband, or be childless, she shouldsympathize with her, and should ask her husband to do the same, butshould surpass her in leading the life of a chaste woman.

byhim - Por él

childless - sin hijos

Thus ends the conduct of the younger wife towards the elder.

A widow in poor circumstances, or of a weak nature, and who alliesherself again to a man, is called a widow re-married.

alliesherself - aliados

At the time of her marriage the widow should obtain from her husband themoney to pay the cost of drinking parties, and picnics with herrelations, and of giving them and her friends kindly gifts and presents;or she may do these things at her own cost if she likes. In the same wayshe may wear either her husband's ornaments or her own. As to thepresents of affection mutually exchanged between the husband and herselfthere is no fixed rule about them.

themoney - Dinero

wayshe - Cómo está

thepresents - los regalos

mutually - mutuamente

herselfthere - ella misma

If she leaves her husband aftermarriage of her own accord, she should restore to him whatever he mayhave given her, with the exception of the mutual presents. If howevershe is driven out of the house by her husband she should not returnanything to him.

aftermarriage - después del matrimonio

howevershe - Cómo

returnanything - Devolver algo

After her marriage she should live in the house of her husband like oneof the chief members of the family, but should treat the other ladies ofthe family with kindness, the servants with generosity, and all thefriends of the house with familiarity and good temper. She should showthat she is better acquainted with the sixty-four arts than the otherladies of the house, and in any quarrels with her husband she should notrebuke him severely, but in private do everything that he wishes, andmake use of the sixty-four ways of enjoyment. She should be obliging tothe other wives of her husband, and to their children she should givepresents, behave as their mistress, and make ornaments and play thingsfor their use.

oneof - una de

generosity - generosidad

thefriends - los amigos

familiarity - intimidad, impertinencia, familiaridad

showthat - Qué

otherladies - Otras damas

andmake - y hacer

givepresents - dar regalos

thingsfor - para qué

In the friends and servants of her husband she shouldconfide more than in his other wives, and finally she should have aliking for drinking parties, going to picnics, attending fairs andfestivals, and for carrying out all kinds of games and amusements.

shouldconfide - debe confiar

Thus ends the conduct of a virgin widow re-married.

A woman who is disliked by her husband, and annoyed and distressed byhis other wives, should associate with the wife who is liked most by herhusband, and who serves him more than the others, and should teach herall the arts with which she is acquainted. She should act as the nurseof her husband's children, and having gained over his friends to herside, should through them make him acquainted of her devotion to him. Inreligious ceremonies she should be a leader, as also in vows and fasts,and should not hold too good an opinion of herself. When her husband islying on his bed she should only go near him when it is agreeable tohim, and should never rebuke him, or show obstinacy in any way.

byhis - Por esto

nurseof - Enfermera de

islying - Mentira

obstinacy - testarudez, porfía, terquedad, obstinación

If herhusband happens to quarrel with any of his other wives, she shouldreconcile them to each other, and if he desires to see any womansecretly, she should manage to bring about the meeting between them. Sheshould moreover make herself acquainted with the weak points of herhusband's character, but always keep them secret, and on the wholebehave herself in such an way as may lead him to look upon her as a goodand devoted wife.

shouldreconcile - debe reconciliarse

womansecretly - mujeres en secreto

wholebehave - Comportarse bien

goodand - Bueno

Here ends the conduct of a wife disliked by her husband.

The above sections will show how all the women of the King's seraglioare to behave, and therefore we shall now speak separately only aboutthe king.

aboutthe - sobre el

The female attendants in the harem (called severally Kanchukiyas,[54]Mahallarikas,[55] and Mahallikas,[56]) should bring flowers, ointmentsand clothes from the King's wives to the King, and he having receivedthese things should give them as presents to the servants, along withthe things worn by him the previous day. In the afternoon the King,having dressed and put on his ornaments, should interview the women ofthe harem, who should also be dressed and decorated with jewels.

severally - Separadamente

ointmentsand - ngüentosy

receivedthese - los ha recibido

Thenhaving given to each of them such a place and such respect as may suitthe occasion and as they may deserve, he should carry on with them acheerful conversation. After that he should see such of his wives as maybe virgin widows re-married, and after them the concubines and dancinggirls. All of these should be visited in their own private rooms.

suitthe - le conviene

acheerful - doloroso

concubines - oncubinas; concubina

dancinggirls - bailarinas

When the King rises from his noonday sleep, the woman whose duty it isto inform the King regarding the wife who is to spend the night with himshould come to him accompanied by the female attendants of that wifewhose turn may have arrived in the regular course, and of her who mayhave been accidentally passed over as her turn arrived, and of her whomay have been unwell at the time of her turn.

himshould - Debería

wifewhose - la esposa de quién

unwell - malestar; indispuesto

These attendants shouldplace before the King the ointments and unguents sent by each of thesewives, marked with the seal of her ring, and their names and theirreasons for sending the ointments should be told to the King. After thisthe King accepts the ointment of one of them, who then is informed thather ointment has been accepted, and that her day has been settled.[57]

shouldplace - Debería

thesewives - estas esposas

ring - anillo

theirreasons - Sus razones

thisthe - Esto

thather - Esa

At festivals, singing parties and exhibitions, all the wives of the Kingshould be treated with respect and served with drinks.

But the women of the harem should not be allowed to go out alone,neither should any women outside the harem be allowed to enter it exceptthose whose character is well known. And lastly the work which theKing's wives have to do should not be too fatiguing.

exceptthose - Excepto esos

theKing - El Rey

fatiguing - fatigante; fatiga, fatigar, acosar

Thus ends the conduct of the King towards the women of the harem, and oftheir own conduct.

oftheir - e su

A man marrying many wives should act fairly towards them all. He shouldneither disregard nor pass over their faults, and should not reveal toone wife the love, passion, bodily blemishes, and confidentialreproaches of the other. No opportunity should be given to any one ofthem of speaking to him about their rivals, and if one of them shouldbegin to speak ill of another, he should chide her and tell her that shehas exactly the same blemishes in her character. One of them he shouldplease by secret confidence, another by secret respect, and another bysecret flattery, and he should please them all by going to gardens, byamusements, by presents, by honouring their relations, by telling themsecrets, and lastly by loving unions.

shouldneither - tampoco

disregard - desprecio; descuidar, desatender, ignorar

bodily - corporal, corpóreo, corporalmente

blemishes - manchas; mancha, marca

confidentialreproaches - reproches confidenciales

shouldbegin - debe comenzar

shehas - tiene

shouldplease - debería

bysecret - secreto

flattery - halagos; adulación, peloteo, piropo, camelo, lisonja

themsecrets - Secretos

A young woman who is of a goodtemper, and who conducts herself according to the precepts of the HolyWrit, wins her husband's attachment, and obtains a superiority over herrivals.

herrivals - Sus rivales

Thus ends the conduct of a husband towards many wives.


[Footnote 54: A name given to the maid servants of the zenana of theKings in ancient times, on account of their always keeping their breastscovered with a cloth called Kanchuki. It was customary in the olden timefor the maid servants to cover their breasts with a cloth, while theQueens kept their breasts uncovered. This custom is distinctly to beseen in the Ajunta cave paintings.]

theKings - Los Reyes

breastscovered - Cubierto de pechos

customary - costumbre; acostumbrado, consuetudinario, sólito

olden - Antiguo

timefor - tiempo para

theQueens - Las Reinas

uncovered - descubierto; destapar

paintings - pinturas; cuadro, pintura, pintado, pintura

[Footnote 55: The meaning of this word is a superior woman, so it wouldseem that a Mahallarika must be a person in authority over the maidservants of the house.]

wouldseem - parecería

maidservants - sirvientas; criada, moza

[Footnote 56: This was also appertaining to the rank of women employedin the harem. In latter times this place was given to eunuchs.]

employedin - empleado en

[Footnote 57: As Kings generally had many wives, it was usual for themto enjoy their wives by turns. But as it happened sometimes that some ofthem lost their turns owing to the King's absence, or to their beingunwell, then in such cases the women whose turns had been passed over,and those whose turns had come, used to have a sort of lottery, and theointment of all the claimants were sent to the King, who accepted theointment of one of them, and thus settled the question.

themto - a ellos

beingunwell - estar mal

theointment - la cita

claimants - reclamantes; actor






The wives of other people may be resorted to on the occasions alreadydescribed in Part I., Chapter 5, of this work, but the possibility oftheir acquisition, their fitness for cohabitation, the danger to oneselfin uniting with them, and the future effect of these unions, shouldfirst of all be examined.

alreadydescribed - ya descrito

cohabitation - convivencia; cohabitación, arreglo, amancebamiento

oneselfin - uno mismo

shouldfirst - primero

A man may resort to the wife of another, forthe purpose of saving his own life, when he perceives that his love forher proceeds from one degree of intensity to another. These degrees areten in number, and are distinguished by the following marks:

areten - areten

1. Love of the eye.

2. Attachment of the mind.

3. Constant reflection.

4. Destruction of sleep.

5. Emaciation of the body.

emaciation - emaciación

6. Turning away from objects of enjoyment.

7. Removal of shame.

8. Madness.

madness - locura

9. Fainting.

Fainting - desmayos; desmayo; (faint) desmayos; desmayo

10. Death.

Ancient authors say that a man should know the disposition,truthfulness, purity, and will of a young woman, as also the intensity,or weakness of her passions, from the form of her body, and from hercharacteristic marks and signs.

hercharacteristic - Su característica

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that theforms of bodies, and the characteristic marks or signs are but erringtests of character, and that women should be judged by their conduct, bythe outward expression of their thoughts, and by the movements of theirbodies.

theforms - Los formularios

erringtests - pruebas erróneas

thoughts - pensamientos; pensamiento

theirbodies - Sus cuerpos

Now as a general rule Gonikaputra says that a woman falls in love withevery handsome man she sees, and so does every man at the sight of abeautiful woman, but frequently they do not take any further steps,owing to various considerations. In love the following circumstances arepeculiar to the woman. She loves without regard to right or wrong,[58]and does not try to gain over a man simply for the attainment of someparticular purpose. Moreover, when a man first makes up to her shenaturally shrinks from him, even though she may be willing to uniteherself with him. But when the attempts to gain her are repeated andrenewed, she at last consents.

withevery - con todos

abeautiful - Hermoso

arepeculiar - especular

attainment - ogros; logro, consecución, realización

someparticular - Algún particular

uniteherself - unirse

andrenewed - y renovado

But with a man, even though he may havebegun to love, he conquers his feelings from a regard for morality andwisdom, and although his thoughts are often on the woman, he does notyield, even though an attempt be made to gain him over. He sometimesmakes an attempt or effort to win the object of his affections, andhaving failed, he leaves her alone for the future. In the same way, whena woman is once gained, he often becomes indifferent about her. As forthe saying that a man does not care for what is easily gained, and onlydesires a thing which cannot be obtained without difficulty, it is onlya matter of talk.

havebegun - Han comenzado

andwisdom - sabiduría

sometimesmakes - a veces hace

whena - Cuándo

indifferent - indiferente

onlydesires - sólo deseos

onlya - sólo

The causes of a woman rejecting the addresses of a man are as follows:

1. Affection for her husband.

2. Desire of lawful progeny.

3. Want of opportunity.

4. Anger at being addressed by the man too familiarly.

familiarly - familiarmente

5. Difference in rank of life.

6. Want of certainty on account of the man being devoted to travelling.

7. Thinking that the man may be attached to some other person.

8. Fear of the man's not keeping his intentions secret.

9. Thinking that the man is too devoted to his friends, and has toogreat a regard for them.

toogreat - demasiado grande

10. The apprehension that he is not in earnest.

apprehension - aprehensión; arresto, aprensión

11. Bashfulness on account of his being an illustrious man.

illustrious - ilustre, ínclito

12. Fear on account of his being powerful, or possessed of too impetuouspassion, in the case of the deer woman.

impetuouspassion - pasión impetuosa

13. Bashfulness on account of his being too clever.

14. The thought of having once lived with him on friendly terms only.

15. Contempt of his want of knowledge of the world.

16. Distrust of his low character.

distrust - desconfianza, recelo, desconfiar

17. Disgust at his want of perception of her love for him.

disgust - repugnar, dar asco, asquear, asco, repugnancia

18. In the case of an elephant woman, the thought that he is a hare man,or a man of weak passion.

19. Compassion lest any thing should befall him on account of hispassion.

hispassion - Su pasión

20. Despair at her own imperfections.

despair - desesperar, desesperanzar, desesperación, desesperanza

imperfections - imperfecciones; imperfección

21. Fear of discovery.

22. Disillusion at seeing his grey hair or shabby appearance.

disillusion - desilusión; desenganar, desengano, desencanto

shabby - desalinado; raído, astroso, zarrapastroso, cutre, harapiento

23. Fear that he may be employed by her husband to test her chastity.

24. The thought that he has too much regard for morality.

Whichever of the above causes a man may detect, he should endeavour toremove it from the very beginning. Thus, the bashfulness that may arisefrom his greatness or his ability, he should remove by showing his greatlove and affection for her. The difficulty of the want of opportunity,or if his inaccessibility, he should remove by showing her some easy wayof access. The excessive respect entertained by the woman for him shouldbe removed by making himself very familiar.

whichever - cualquier, cualquiera que, el que sea

toremove - Quitar

arisefrom - De dónde surge

greatness - grandeza

greatlove - Gran amor

inaccessibility - inaccesibilidad

wayof - de qué manera

The difficulties that arisefrom his being thought a low character he should remove by showing hisvalour and his wisdom; those that come from neglect by extra attention;and those that arise from fear by giving her proper encouragement.

hisvalour - Su valor

The following are the men who generally obtain success with women.

1. Men well versed in the science of love.

2. Men skilled in telling stories.

3. Men acquainted with women from their childhood.

4. Men who have secured their confidence.

5. Men who send presents to them.

6. Men who talk well.

7. Men who do things that they like.

8. Men who have not loved other women previously.

9. Men who act as messengers.

10. Men who knew their weak points.

11. Men who are desired by good women.

12. Men who are united with their female friends.

13. Men who are good looking.

14. Men who have been brought up with them.

15. Men who are their neighbours.

16. Men who are devoted to sexual pleasures, even though these be theirown servants.

17. The lovers of the daughters of their nurse.

18. Men who have been lately married.

19. Men who like picnics and pleasure parties.

20. Men who are liberal.

21. Men who are celebrated for being very strong (Bull men).

22. Enterprising and brave men.

23. Men who surpass their husbands in learning and good looks, in goodquality, and in liberality.

goodquality - Buena calidad

liberality - liberalidad

24. Men whose dress and manner of living are magnificent.

The following are the women who are easily gained over.

1. Women who stand at the doors of their houses.

2. Women who are always looking out on the street.

3. Women who sit conversing in their neighbour's house.

4. A woman who is always staring at you.

5. A female messenger.

6. A woman who looks sideways at you.

sideways - de lado

7. A woman whose husband has taken another wife without any just cause.

8. A woman who hates her husband or who is hated by him.

9. A woman who has nobody to look after her, or keep her in check.

10. A woman who has not had any children.

11. A woman whose family or caste is not well known.

12. A woman whose children are dead.

13. A woman who is very fond of society.

14. A woman who is apparently very affectionate with her husband.

affectionate - Carinoso

15. The wife of an actor.

16. A widow.

17. A poor woman.

18. A woman fond of enjoyments.

19. The wife of a man with many younger brothers.

20. A vain woman.

vain - vanidoso, vano, vacuo

21. A woman whose husband is inferior to her in rank or abilities.

inferior - inferior

22. A woman who is proud of her skill in the arts.

23. A woman disturbed in mind by the folly of her husband.

24. A woman who has been married in her infancy to a rich man, and notliking him when she grows up, desires a man possessing a disposition,talents, and wisdom suitable to her own tastes.

notliking - No te gusta

25. A woman who is slighted by her husband without any cause.

26. A woman who is not respected by other women of the same rank orbeauty as herself.

orbeauty - belleza

27. A woman whose husband is devoted to travelling.

28. The wife of a jeweller.

jeweller - Joyero

29. A jealous woman.

jealous - celoso, encelado, envidioso, checkenvidioso

30. A covetous woman.

31. An immoral woman.

immoral - inmoral

32. A barren woman.

barren - yermo; estéril, infértil

33. A lazy woman.

34. A cowardly woman.

cowardly - cobarde, cobardemente

35. A humpbacked woman.

36. A dwarfish woman.

37. A deformed woman.

38. A vulgar woman.

vulgar - vulgar, chabacano, ramplón

39. An ill-smelling woman.

40. A sick woman.

41. An old woman.

There was also two verses on the subject as follows:

"Desire, which springs from nature, and which is increased by art, andfrom which all danger is taken away by wisdom, becomes firm and secure.A clever man, depending on his own ability, and observing carefully theideas and thoughts of women, and removing the causes of their turningaway from men, is generally successful with them."

theideas - las ideas

turningaway - Girando


[Footnote 58: On peut tout attendre et tout supposer d'une femmeamoureuse.--Balzac.]

peut - eut

tout - buscar, intentar captar

attendre - Atendre

et - y; ET

Supposer - PROVEEDOR

une - un



Ancient authors are of opinion that girls are not so easily seduced byemploying female messengers as by the efforts of the man himself, butthat the wives of others are more easily got at by the aid of femalemessengers than by the personal efforts of a man. But Vatsyayana lays itdown that whenever it is possible a man should always act himself inthese matters, and it is only when such is impracticable, or impossible,that female messengers should be employed.

seduced - seducido; seducir

byemploying - empleando

butthat - Pero qué

femalemessengers - mujeres mensajeras

inthese - En estos

As for the saying that womenwho act and talk boldly and freely are to be won by the personal effortsof the man, and that women who do not possess those qualities are to begot at by female messengers, it is only a matter of talk.

womenwho - mujeresquién

boldly - con valentía; audazmente, valientemente

effortsof - esfuerzos de

begot - engendró; engendrar, concebir

Now when a man acts himself in the matter he should first of all makethe acquaintance of the woman he loves in the following manner.

makethe - hacerlo

1st. He should arrange to be seen by the woman either on a natural orspecial opportunity. A natural opportunity is when one of them goes tothe house of the other, and a special opportunity is when they meeteither at the house of a friend, or a caste-fellow, or a minister, or aphysician, as also on the occasion of marriage ceremonies, sacrifices,festivals, funerals, and garden parties.

orspecial - o especial

meeteither - Conoce a alguno de los dos

aphysician - físico

2nd. When they do meet, the man should be careful to look at her in sucha way as to cause the state of his mind to be made known to her; heshould pull about his moustache, make a sound with his nails, cause hisown ornaments to tinkle, bite his lower lip, and make various othersigns of that description. When she is looking at him he should speakto his friends about her and other women, and should show to her hisliberality and his appreciation of enjoyments. When sitting by the sideof a female friend he should yawn and twist his body, contract hiseyebrows, speak very slowly as if he were weary, and listen to herindifferently. A conversation having two meanings should also be carriedon with a child or some other person, apparently having regard to athird person, but really having reference to the woman he loves, and inthis way his love should be made manifest under the pretext of referringto others rather than to herself.

hisown - Su propiedad

othersigns - Otros signos

speakto - Hablar

hisliberality - su liberalidad

yawn - bostezar, abrirse, bostezo

hiseyebrows - Sus cejas

herindifferently - Su indiferencia

meanings - Qué significa

carriedon - Continuó

athird - un tercio

referringto - A qué se refiere

He should make marks that havereference to her, on the earth with his nails, or with a stick, andshould embrace and kiss a child in her presence, and give it the mixtureof betel nut and betel leaves with his tongue, and press its chin withhis fingers in a caressing way. All these things should be done at theproper time and in proper places.

havereference - tiene referencia

mixtureof - Mezcla de

caressing - Caricias; (cares) Caricias

3rd. The man should fondle a child that may be sitting on her lap, andgive it something to play with, and also take the same back again.Conversation with respect to the child may also be held with her, and inthis manner he should gradually become well acquainted with her, and heshould also make himself agreeable to her relations. Afterwards, thisacquaintance should be made a pretext for visiting her house frequently,and on such occasions he should converse on the subject of love in herabsence, but within her hearing. As his intimacy with her increases heshould place in her charge some kind of deposit or trust, and take awayfrom it a small portion at a time; or he may give her some fragrantsubstances, or betel nuts to be kept for him by her. After this heshould endeavour to make her well acquainted with his own wife, and getthem to carry on confidential conversations, and to sit together inlonely places. In order to see her frequently he should arrange that thesame goldsmith, the same jeweller, the same basket maker, the same dyer,and the same washerman should be employed by the two families.

fondle - acariciar

andgive - y dar

thisacquaintance - Este conocido

herabsence - herabsencia

intimacy - intimidad

awayfrom - de dónde

fragrantsubstances - sustancias aromáticas

getthem - Conseguirlos

inlonely - solo

goldsmith - orfebre, orífice, orebce, oribe

Maker - hacedor, fabricante

dyer - tintorero, tintorera

washerman - lavandero, lavandera

And heshould also pay her long visits openly under the pretence of beingengaged with her on business, and one business should lead to another,so as to keep up the intercourse between them. Whenever she wantsanything, or is in need of money, or wishes to acquire skill in one ofthe arts, he should cause her to understand that he is willing and ableto do anything that she wants, to give her money, or teach her one ofthe arts, all these things being quite within his ability and power. Inthe same way he should hold discussions with her in company with otherpeople, and they should talk of the doings and sayings of other persons,and examine different things, like jewellery, precious stones, etc. Onsuch occasions he should show her certain things with the values ofwhich she may be unacquainted, and if she begins to dispute with himabout the things or their value, he should not contradict her, but pointout that he agrees with her in every way.

beingengaged - está comprometido

wantsanything - quiere algo

ableto - Puede

otherpeople - Otras personas

doings - Haciendo

sayings - dichos; dicho, proverbio, refrán

unacquainted - desconocido

himabout - Imabout

contradict - contradecir, contrariar

pointout - senalar

Thus ends the ways of making the acquaintance of the woman desired.

Now after a girl has become acquainted with the man as above described,and has manifested her love to him by the various outward signs; and bythe motions of her body, the man should make every effort to gain herover. But as girls are not acquainted with sexual union, they should betreated with the greatest delicacy, and the man should proceed withconsiderable caution, though in the case of other women, accustomed tosexual intercourse, this is not necessary. When the intentions of thegirl are known, and her bashfulness put aside, the man should begin tomake use of her money, and an interchange of clothes, rings, and flowersshould be made. In this the man should take particular care that thethings given by him are handsome and valuable.

betreated - Betreado

delicacy - una delicia; fineza, delicadeza, fragilidad, exquisitez

withconsiderable - onconsiderable

interchange - intercambiar, reemplazar, intercambio, intercambios, transbordo

flowersshould - flores

thethings - las cosas

He should moreoverreceive from her a mixture of betel nut and betel leaves, and when he isgoing to a party he should ask for the flower in her hair, or for theflower in her hand. If he himself gives her a flower it should be asweet smelling one, and marked with marks made by his nails or teeth.With increasing assiduity he should dispel her fears, and by degrees gether to go with him to some lonely place, and there he should embrace andkiss her. And finally at the time of giving her some betel nut, or ofreceiving the same from her, or at the time of making an exchange offlowers, he should touch and press her private parts, thus bringing hisefforts to a satisfactory conclusion.

moreoverreceive - demásrecibir

isgoing - se va

theflower - la flor

asweet - Dulce

assiduity - asiduidad

gether - Juntarse

andkiss - Y un beso

ofreceiving - Recibir

hisefforts - Sus esfuerzos

satisfactory - satisfactorio

When a man is endeavouring to seduce one woman, he should not attempt toseduce any other at the same time. But after he had succeeded with thefirst, and enjoyed her for a considerable time, he can keep heraffections by giving her presents that she likes, and then commencemaking up to another woman. When a man sees the husband of a woman goingto some place near his house, he should not enjoy the woman then, eventhough she may be easily gained over at that time.

heraffections - herafecciones

commencemaking - Comencemaking

goingto - a dónde

eventhough - aunque

A wise man having aregard for his reputation should not think of seducing a woman who isapprehensive, timid, not to be trusted, well guarded, or possessed of afather-in-law, or mother-in-law.

isapprehensive - es aprensivo

afather - Padre



When a man is trying to gain over a woman he should examine the state ofher mind, and acts as follows.

If she listens to him, but does not manifest to him in any way her ownintentions, he should then try to gain her over by means of ago-between.

ownintentions - propias intenciones

If she meets him once, and again comes to meet him better dressed thanbefore, or comes to him in some lonely place, he should be certain thatshe is capable of being enjoyed by the use of a little force.

thanbefore - ue antes

A womanwho lets a man make up to her, but does not give herself up, even aftera long time, should be considered as a trifler in love, but owing to thefickleness of the human mind, even such a woman can be conquered byalways keeping up a close acquaintance with her.

womanwho - Mujer quién

aftera - Después

trifler - trilero

thefickleness - la meticulosidad

byalways - siempre

When a woman avoids the attentions of a man, and on account of respectfor him, and pride in herself, will not meet him or approach him, shecan be gained over with difficulty, either by endeavouring to keep onfamiliar terms with her, or else by an exceedingly clever go-between.

respectfor - Respeto

onfamiliar - nfamiliar

exceedingly - excesivamente; extremadamente, sumamente, sobremanera, asaz

When a man makes up to a woman, and she reproaches him with harsh words,she should be abandoned at once.

reproaches - reproches; reproche, vergüenza, reprochar, avergonzar

When a woman reproaches a man, but at the same time acts affectionatelytowards him, she should be made love to in every way.

affectionatelytowards - con afecto

A woman who meets a man in lonely places, and puts up with the touch ofhis foot, but pretends, on account of the indecision of her mind, not tobe aware of it, should be conquered by patience, and by continuedefforts as follows:

indecision - indecisión, irresolución

continuedefforts - esfuerzos continuados

If she happens to go to sleep in his vicinity he should put his left armround her, and see when she awakes whether she repulses him in reality,or only repulses him in such a way as if she were desirous of the samething being done to her again. And what is done by the arm can also bedone by the foot. If the man succeeds in this point he should embraceher more closely, and if she will not stand the embrace and gets up, butbehaves with him as usual the next day, he should consider then that sheis not unwilling to be enjoyed by him.

vicinity - vecindad, cercanías, inmediaciones, aproximado, aproximadamente

armround - Rodear el brazo

awakes - se despierta; despertar(se)

repulses - le repugna; repulsar

desirous - deseoso

samething - algo parecido

embraceher - Abraceher

butbehaves - pero se comporta

If however she does not appearagain, the man should try to get over her by means of a go-between; andif, after having disappeared for some time she again appears, andbehaves with him as usual, the man should then consider that she wouldnot object to be united with him.

appearagain - aparecer de nuevo

andif - Y si

andbehaves - y se comporta

wouldnot - no

When a woman gives a man an opportunity, and makes her own love manifestto him, he should proceed to enjoy her. And the signs of a womanmanifesting her love are these:

manifestto - manifiesto

womanmanifesting - manifestación de la mujer

1. She calls out to a man without being addressed by him in the firstinstance.

firstinstance - primerainstancia

2. She shows herself to him in secret places.

3. She speaks to him tremblingly and inarticulately.

tremblingly - Temblando

inarticulately - Inarticuladamente

4. She has the fingers of her hand, and the toes of her feet moistenedwith perspiration, and her face blooming with delight.

moistenedwith - umedecido con.

perspiration - sudor

blooming - floreciendo; flor

5. She occupies herself with shampooing his body and pressing his head.

6. When shampooing him she works with one hand only, and with the othershe touches and embraces parts of his body.

othershe - Otra

7. She remains with both hands placed on his body motionless as if shehad been surprised by something, or was overcome by fatigue.

motionless - inmóvil, inerte, quieto, en reposo

shehad - Tenía

8. She sometimes bends down her face upon his thighs, and when asked toshampoo them does not manifest any unwillingness to do so.

9. She places one of her hands quite motionless on his body, and eventhough the man should press it between two members of his body, she doesnot remove it for a long time.

10. Lastly, when she has resisted all the efforts of the man to gain herover, she returns to him next day to shampoo his body as before.

shampoo - champú

When a woman neither gives encouragement to a man, nor avoids him, buthides herself and remains in some lonely place, she must be got at bymeans of the female servant who may be near her. If when called by theman she acts in the same way, then she should be gained over by means ofa skilful go-between. But if she will have nothing to say to the man, heshould consider well about her before he begins any further attempts togain her over.

buthides - pero se esconde

skilful - Hábil

togain - Ganar

Thus ends the examination of the state of a woman's mind.

A man should first get himself introduced to a woman, and then carry ona conversation with her. He should give her hints of his love for her,and if he finds from her replies that she receives these hintsfavourably, he should then set to work to gain her over without anyfear. A woman who shows her love by outward signs to the man at hisfirst interview should be gained over very easily. In the same way alascivious woman, who when addressed in loving words replies openly inwords expressive of her love, should be considered to have been gainedover at that very moment.

hintsfavourably - insinuacionesfavorables

anyfear - Algún miedo

hisfirst - el primero

inwords - palabras

With regard to all women, whether they bewise, simple, or confiding, this rule is laid down that those who makean open manifestation of their love are easily gained over.

bewise - no

confiding - confiar



If a woman has manifested her love or desire, either by signs or bymotions of her body, and is afterwards rarely or never seen any where,or if a woman is met for the first time, the man should get a go-betweento approach her.

bymotions - por movimientos

betweento - entre

Now the go-between, having wheedled herself into the confidence of thewoman by acting according to her disposition, should try to make herhate or despise her husband by holding artful conversations with her, bytelling her about medicines for getting children, by talking to herabout other people, by tales of various kinds, by stories about thewives of other men, and by praising her beauty, wisdom, generosity, andgood nature, and then saying to her: "It is indeed a pity that you, whoare so excellent a woman in every way, should be possessed of a husbandof this kind. Beautiful lady, he is not fit even to serve you.

wheedled - sobornada; engatusar, camelar, panish: t-needed

herhate - Hehate

despise - despreciar; desdenar

artful - inteligente; diestro, hábil, habiloso, ingenioso, astuto

bytelling - contar

herabout - qué pasa

andgood - y bien

husbandof - Marido de

Thego-between should further talk to the woman about the weakness of thepassion of her husband, his jealousy, his roguery, his ingratitude, hisaversion to enjoyments, his dullness, his meanness, and all the otherfaults that he may have, and with which she may be acquainted. Sheshould particularly harp upon that fault or that failing by which thewife may appear to be the most affected. If the wife be a deer woman,and the husband a hare man, then there would be no fault in thatdirection, but in the event of his being a hare man, and she a marewoman or elephant woman, then this fault should be pointed out to her.

thepassion - la pasión

ingratitude - ingratitud

hisaversion - suaversión

meanness - mezquindad

otherfaults - Otros fallos

harp - arpa, harpa

thewife - La esposa

thatdirection - esa dirección

marewoman - Mujer yegua

Gonikaputra is of opinion that when it is the first affair of the woman,or when her love has only been very secretly shown, the man should thensecure and send to her a go-between, with whom she may be alreadyacquainted, and in whom she confides.

thensecure - seguro

alreadyacquainted - ya está familiarizado

But to return to our subject. The go-between should tell the woman aboutthe obedience and love of the man, and as her confidence and affectionincrease, she should then explain to her the thing to be accomplished inthe following way. "Hear this, Oh beautiful lady, that this man, born ofa good family, having seen you, has gone mad on your account. The pooryoung man, who is tender by nature, has never been distressed in such away before, and it is highly probable that he will succumb under hispresent affliction, and experience the pains of death." If the womanlistens with a favourable ear, then on the following day the go-between,having observed marks of good spirits in her face, in her eyes, and inher manner of conversation, should again converse with her on thesubject of the man, and should tell her the stories of Ahalya[59] andIndra, of Sakoontala[60] and Dushyanti, and such others as may be fittedfor the occasion.

affectionincrease - aumentan los afectos

succumb - sucumbir, rendirse, ceder, morir

hispresent - su presente

womanlistens - mujerescucha

inher - heredar

andIndra - yIndra

fittedfor - ittedfor

She should also describe to her the strength of theman, his talents, his skill in the sixty-four sorts of enjoymentsmentioned by Babhravya, his good looks, and his liaison with somepraiseworthy woman, no matter whether this last ever took place or not.

enjoymentsmentioned - Disfrutado

liaison - enlace, aventura

somepraiseworthy - algo digno de elogio

In addition to this, the go-between should carefully note the behaviourof the woman, which if favourable would be as follows: She would addressher with a smiling look, would seat herself close beside her, and askher, "Where have you been? What have you been doing? Where did you dine?Where did you sleep? Where have you been sitting?" Moreover the womanwould meet the go-between in lonely places and tell her stories there,would yawn contemplatively, draw long sighs, give her presents, rememberher on occasions of festivals, dismiss her with a wish to see her again,and say to her jestingly, "Oh, well-speaking woman, why do you speakthese bad words to me?

dineWhere - enar?Dónde

behaviourof - Comportamiento

addressher - Dirección

askher - Preguntar

womanwould - ujer

contemplatively - Contemplativo

rememberher - Te acuerdas de ella

jestingly - Bromeando

speakthese - hablan estos

would discourse on the sin of her union with theman, would not tell her about any previous visits or conversations thatshe may have had with him, but wish to be asked about these, and lastlywould laugh at the man's desire, but would not reproach him in any way.

lastlywould - por último

reproach - reproche, vergüenza, reprochar, avergonzar, echar en cara algo

Thus ends the behaviour of the woman with the go-between.

The followers of Babhravya on the other hand affirm that even thoughthey be personally unacquainted, but have shown each other signs ofaffection there is an occasion for the employment of a go-between.Gonikaputra asserts that a go-between should be employed, provided theyare acquainted with each other, even though no signs of affection mayhave passed between them.

affirm - afirmar

ofaffection - de afecto

Vatsyayana however lays it down that eventhough they may not be personally acquainted with each other, and maynot have shown each other any signs of affection, still they are bothcapable of placing confidence in a go-between.

maynot - no

bothcapable - amboscapaces

Now the go-between should show the woman the presents, such as the betelnut and betel leaves, the perfumes, the flowers, and the rings which theman may have given to her for the sake of the woman, and on thesepresents should be impressed the marks of the man's teeth, and nails,and other signs. On the cloth that he may send he should draw withsaffron both his hands joined together as if in earnest entreaty.

betelnut - Nuez de betel

thesepresents - estos regalos

withsaffron - con azafrán

entreaty - suplicas; petición, solicitud, plegaria

The go-between should also show to the woman ornamental figures ofvarious kinds cut in leaves, together with ear ornaments, and chapletsmade of flowers containing love letters expressive of the desire of theman,[61] and she should cause her to send affectionate presents to theman in return. After they have mutually accepted each other's presents,then a meeting should be arranged between them on the faith of thego-between.

ornamental - ornamental

The followers of Babhravya say that this meeting should take place atthe time of going to the temple of a Deity, or on occasions of fairs,garden parties, theatrical performances, marriages, sacrifices,festivals and funerals, as also at the time of going to the river tobathe, or at times of natural calamities,[62] fear of robbers or hostileinvasions of the country.

calamities - alamidades; calamidad, panish: t-needed

robbers - ladrones; ladrón, ladrona

hostileinvasions - invasiones hostiles

Gonikaputra is of opinion however that these meetings had better bebrought about in the abodes of female friends, mendicants, astrologers,and ascetics.

meetings - reunión

astrologers - astrólogos; astrólogo, astróloga

ascetics - ascetas; ascético, asceta

But Vatsyayana decides that that place is only well suitedfor the purpose which has proper means of ingress and egress, and wherearrangements have been made to prevent any accidental occurrence, andwhen a man who has once entered the house, can also leave it at theproper time without any disagreeable encounter.

suitedfor - adecuado para

ingress - entrar; entrada, ingreso

egress - Salida

wherearrangements - Dónde

accidental - accidental, casual, imprevisto, fortuito

disagreeable - desagradable

Now go-betweens or female messengers are of the following differentkinds, viz.:

differentkinds - diferentes tipos

(1). A go-between who takes upon herself the whole burden of thebusiness.

thebusiness - el negocio

(2). A go-between who does only a limited part of the business.

(3). A go-between who is the bearer of a letter only.

bearer - portador, portadora

(4). A go-between acting on her own account.

(5). The go-between of an innocent young woman.

(6). A wife serving as a go-between.

(7). A mute go-between.

mute - silencio; mudo

(8). A go-between who acts the part of the wind.

wind - viento, aire

(1). A woman who, having observed the mutual passion of a man and woman,brings them together and arranges it by the power of her own intellect,such an one is called a go-between who takes upon herself the wholeburden of the business. This kind of go-between is chiefly employed whenthe man and the woman are already acquainted with each other, and haveconversed together, and in such cases she is sent not only by the man(as is always done in all other cases) but by the woman also.

wholeburden - Toda la carga

chiefly - principalmente, sobre todo, particularmente, especialmente

haveconversed - han hablado

-The abovename is also given to a go-between who, perceiving that the man and thewoman are suited to each other, tries to bring about a union betweenthem, even though they be not acquainted with each other.

betweenthem - entre ellos

(2). A go-between who, perceiving that some part of the affair isalready done, or that the advances on the part of the man are alreadymade, completes the rest of the business, is called a go-between whoperforms only a limited part of the business.

isalready - Ya está

alreadymade - ya está hecho

whoperforms - quién actúa

(3). A go-between, who simply carries messages between a man and awoman, who love each other, but who cannot frequently meet, is calledthe bearer of a letter or message.

This name is also given to one who is sent by either of the lovers toacquaint either the one or the other with the time and place of theirmeeting.

toacquaint - conocer

theirmeeting - Su reunión

(4). A woman who goes herself to a man, and tells him of her havingenjoyed sexual union with him in a dream, and expresses her anger at hiswife having rebuked him for calling her by the name of her rival insteadof by her own name, and gives him something bearing the marks of herteeth and nails, and informs him that she knew she was formerly desiredby him, and asks him privately whether she or his wife is the bestlooking, such a person is called a woman who is a go-between forherself.

rebuked - reprendido; reproche, reprensión, reprimenda, reprobación

insteadof - En lugar de

herteeth - Sus dientes

desiredby - deseado por

bestlooking - el más guapo

forherself - para sí mismo

Now such a woman should be met and interviewed by the man inprivate and secretly.

inprivate - en privado

The above name is also given to a woman who having made an agreementwith some other woman to act as her go-between, gains over the man toherself, by the means of making him personally acquainted with herself,and thus causes the other woman to fail. The same applies to a man who,acting as a go-between for another, and having no previous connectionwith the woman, gains her over for himself, and thus causes the failureof the other man.

agreementwith - Con quién

toherself - a sí mismo

connectionwith - Con

failureof - fracaso de

(5). A woman, who has gained the confidence of the innocent young wifeof any man, and who has learned her secrets without exercising anypressure on her mind, and found out from her how her husband behaves toher, if this woman then teaches her the art of securing his favour, anddecorates her so as to show her love, and instructs her how and when tobe angry, or to pretend to be so, and then, having herself made marks ofthe nails and teeth on the body of the wife, gets the latter to send forher husband to show these marks to him, and thus excite him forenjoyment, such is called the go-between of an innocent young woman.

wifeof - Esposa de

anypressure - alguna presión

anddecorates - decora

Insuch cases the man should send replies to his wife through the samewoman.

(6). When a man gets his wife to gain the confidence of a woman whom hewants to enjoy, and to call on her and talk to her about the wisdom andability of her husband, that wife is called a wife serving as ago-between. In this case the feelings of the woman with regard to theman should also be made known through the wife.

hewants - quiere

andability - abilidad

(7). When any man sends a girl or a female servant to any woman undersome pretext or other, and places a letter in her bouquet of flowers, orin her ear ornaments, or marks something about her with his teeth ornails, that girl or female servant is called a mute go-between. In thiscase the man should expect an answer from the woman through the sameperson.

undersome - Inferior

bouquet - ramo de flores; ramo, ramita, buqué, aroma

ornails - unas

thiscase - Este caso

sameperson - la misma persona

(8). A person, who carries a message to a woman, which has a doublemeaning, or which relates to some past transactions, or which isunintelligible to other people, is called a go-between who acts the partof the wind. In this case the reply should be asked for through the samewoman.

doublemeaning - Doble sentido

isunintelligible - es ininteligible

Thus end the different kinds of go-betweens.

A female astrologer, a female servant, a female beggar, or a femaleartist are well acquainted with the business of a go-between, and verysoon gain the confidence of other women. Any one of them can raiseenmity between any two persons if she wishes to do so, or extol theloveliness of any woman that she wishes to praise, or describe the artspractised by other women in sexual union.

astrologer - astrólogo, astróloga

femaleartist - femaleartista

verysoon - muy pronto

raiseenmity - aumentar la enemistad

theloveliness - el encanto

artspractised - artespracticadas

They can also speak highly ofthe love of a man, of his skill in sexual enjoyment, and of the desireof other women, more beautiful even than the woman they are addressing,for him, and explain the restraint under which he may be at home.

desireof - Deseo de

Lastly a go-between can, by the artfulness of her conversation unite awoman with a man, even though he may not have been thought of by her, ormay have been considered beyond his aspirations. She can also bring backa man to a woman, who, owing to some cause or other, has separatedhimself from her.

artfulness - arte

ormay - o puede

separatedhimself - se separó


[Footnote 59: The wife of the sage Gautama, she was seduced by Indra theking of the Gods.]

[Footnote 60: The heroine of one of the best, if not the best, of Hindooplays, and the best known in Sanscrit dramatic literature. It was firstbrought to notice by Sir William Jones, and has been well and poeticallytranslated by Dr. Monier Williams under the title of Sakoontala, or thelost ring, an Indian drama, translated into English prose and verse fromthe Sanscrit of Kalidasa.]

heroine - heroína

firstbrought - primera vez

poeticallytranslated - traducido poéticamente

Williams - williams; Guillermo

thelost - Perdido

prose - prosa

[Footnote 61: It is presumed that something like the following Frenchverses are intended.

Quand on a juré le plus profond hommage Voulez-vous qu'infidè le on change de langage Vous seule captive mon esprit ou mon coeur Que je puisse dans vos bras seuls goûter le bonheur; Je voudrais, mais en vain, que mon coeur en délire Couche où ce papier n'oserait vous dire. Avec soin, de ces vers lisez leur premiers mots, Vous verrez quel remède il faut à tous mes maux.

plus - lus; más, positivo

hommage - homenaje

voulez - Desea

langage - lengua

seule - eule

captive - cautivo, prisionero, preso

Bras - Sostenes; (bra) Sostenes

seuls - euls

dire - terrible; de mal agüero, portentoso, maligno

avec - Con quién

ces - es; E.C

quel - Qué

faut - aut

Or these:

Quand on vous voit, on vous aime; Quand on vous aime, oĂą vous voit-on.]

[Footnote 62: It is supposed that storms, earthquakes, famines andpestilent diseases are here alluded to.]

famines - hambres; hambruna, hambre

andpestilent - ypestilente

alluded - aludido; aludir, referirse



The head man of the village, the King's officer employed there, and theman[63] whose business it is to glean corn, can gain over femalevillagers simply by asking them. It is on this account that this classof woman are called unchaste women by voluptuaries.

glean - espigar; recoger, recopilar

femalevillagers - mujeres aldeanas

classof - clase

voluptuaries - voluptuaria

The union of the above mentioned men with this class of woman takesplace on the occasions of unpaid labour, of filling the granaries intheir houses, of taking things in and out of the house, of cleaning thehouses, of working in the fields, and of purchasing cotton, wool, flax,hemp, and thread, and at the season of the purchase, sale, and exchangeof various other articles, as well as at the time of doing various otherworks. In the same way the superintendents of cow pens enjoy the womenin the cow pens; and the officers, who have the superintendence ofwidows, of the women who are without supporters, and of women who haveleft their husbands, have sexual intercourse with these women.

above mentioned - se ha mencionado anteriormente

takesplace - tiene lugar

unpaid - Sin pagar

granaries - hórreos; granero, panish: t-needed

intheir - en su

thehouses - las casas

flax - lino, filasa

hemp - cánamo; cánamo, marihuana, panish: t-needed

exchangeof - Intercambio de

otherworks - Otras obras

superintendents - superintendentes; superintendente, director, supervisor

womenin - mujeres

superintendence - superintendencia

ofwidows - eviudas

supporters - apoyantes; soporte, tenante

haveleft - se ha ido

Theintelligent accomplish their object by wandering at night in thevillage, and while villagers also unite with the wives of their sons,being much alone with them. Lastly the superintendents of markets have agreat deal to do with the female villagers at the time of their makingpurchases in the market.

thevillage - el pueblo

villagers - aldeanos; aldeano, aldeana, lugareno

agreat - Genial

makingpurchases - realizar compras

During the festival of the eighth moon, _i.e._, during the bright halfof the month of Nargashirsha, as also during the moonlight festival ofthe month of Kartika, and the spring festival of Chaitra, the women ofcities and towns generally visit the women of the King's harem in theroyal palace. These visitors go to the several apartments of the womenof the harem, as they are acquainted with them, and pass the night inconversation, and in proper sports, and amusement, and go away in themorning. On such occasions a female attendant of the King (previouslyacquainted with the woman whom the King desires), should loiter about,and accost this woman when she sets out to go home, and induce her tocome and see the amusing things in the palace. Previous to thesefestivals even, she should have caused it to be intimated to this womanthat on the occasion of this festival she would show her all theinteresting things in the royal palace. Accordingly she should show herthe bower of the coral creeper, the garden house with its floor inlaidwith precious stones, the bower of grapes, the building on the water,the secret passages in the walls of the palace, the pictures, thesporting animals, the machines, the birds, and the cages of the lionsand the tigers. After this, when alone with her, she should tell herabout the love of the King for her, and should describe to her the goodfortune which would attend upon her union with the King, giving her atthe time a strict promise of secrecy.

halfof - A medias

ofcities - fcities

womenof - mujeresde

inconversation - conversación

previouslyacquainted - Conocido previamente

loiter - holgazanear, perder el tiempo, merodear, vagar

accost - acosar

tocome - Vienes

thesefestivals - Estos festivales

womanthat - Mujereso

theinteresting - interesante

herthe - ella

inlaidwith - con incrustaciones

grapes - uvas; uva

thesporting - el deporte

lionsand - Leones y

tigers - tigre; tigresa

goodfortune - buena suerte

secrecy - secreto, sigilo, secretismo

If the woman does not accept theoffer, she should conciliate and please her with handsome presentsbefitting the position of the King, and having accompanied her for somedistance should dismiss her with great affection.

theoffer - la oferta

conciliate - apaciguar, conciliar

presentsbefitting - resentaadecuado

somedistance - algo de distancia

(2). Or, having made the acquaintance of the husband of the woman whomthe King desires, the wives of the King should get the wife to pay thema visit in the harem, and on this occasion a female attendant of theKing, having been sent thither, should act as above described.

thema - tema

thither - por allí, hacia allá

(3). Or, one of the King's wives should get acquainted with the womanthat the King desires, by sending one of the female attendants to her,who should, on their becoming more intimate, induce her to come and seethe royal abode. Afterwards, when she has visited the harem, andacquired confidence, a female confidante of the King, sent thither,should act as before described.

seethe - hervir, cocer

andacquired - adquirido

(4). Or, the King's wife should invite the woman, whom the King desires,to come to the royal palace, so that she might see the practice of theart in which the King's wife may be skilled, and after she has come tothe harem, a female attendant of the King, sent thither, should act asbefore described.

theart - el arte

asbefore - como antes

(5). Or, a female beggar, in league with the King's wife, should say tothe woman desired by the King, and whose husband may have lost hiswealth, or may have some cause of fear from the King: "This wife of theKing has influence over him, and she is, moreover, naturallykind-hearted, we must therefore go to her in this matter. I shallarrange for your entrance into the harem, and she will do away with allcause of danger and fear from the King.

hiswealth - Su riqueza

naturallykind - Naturalmente

shallarrange - Organizar

allcause - Por qué

If the woman accepts thisoffer, the female beggar should take her two or three times to theharem, and the King's wife there should give her a promise ofprotection. After this, when the woman, delighted with her reception andpromise of protection, again goes to the harem, then a female attendantof the King, sent thither, should act as directed.

thisoffer - estaoferta

theharem - elharem

ofprotection - e protección

andpromise - ?promesa

attendantof - Asistir


What has been said above regarding the wife of one who has somecause of fear from the King applies also to the wives of those who seekservice under the King, or who are oppressed by the King's ministers, orwho are poor, or who are not satisfied with their position, or who aredesirous of gaining the King's favour, or who wish to become famousamong the people, or who are oppressed by the members of their owncaste, or who want to injure their caste fellows, or who are spies ofthe King, or who have any other object to attain.

somecause - Por qué

seekservice - Busca servicio

oppressed - primidos; oprimir

famousamong - famosos entre

(7). Lastly, if the woman desired by the King be living with some personwho is not her husband, then the King should cause her to be arrested,and having made her a slave, on account of her crime, should place herin the harem. Or the King should cause his ambassador to quarrel withthe husband of the woman desired by him, and should then imprison her asthe wife of an enemy of the King, and by this means should place her inthe harem.

personwho - a quién

Thus end the means of gaining over the wives of others secretly.

The above mentioned ways of gaining over the wives of other men arechiefly practised in the palaces of Kings. But a King should never enterthe abode of another person, for Abhira,[64] the King of the Kottas waskilled by a washerman while in the house of another, and in the same wayJayasana the King of the Kashis was slain by the commandment of hiscavalry.

arechiefly - soniefly

enterthe - entrar

waskilled - fue asesinado

wayJayasana - ayJayasana

slain - muerto; matar

commandment - mandamiento

hiscavalry - Su caballería

But according to the customs of some countries there are facilities forKings to make love to the wives of other men. Thus in the country of theAndras[65] the newly married daughters of the people thereof enter theKing's harem with some presents on the tenth day of their marriage, andhaving been enjoyed by the King are then dismissed. In the country ofthe Vatsagulmas[66] the wives of the chief ministers approach the Kingat night to serve him. In the country of the Vaidarbhas[67] thebeautiful wives of the inhabitants pass a month in the King's haremunder the pretence of affection for the King.

forKings - orKings

In the country of theAparatakas[68] the people gave their beautiful wives as presents to theministers and the Kings. And lastly in the country of theSaurashtras[69] the women of the city and the country enter the royalharem for the King's pleasure either together or separately.

theministers - los ministros

royalharem - Realharem

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The above and other ways are the means employed in different countriesby Kings with regard to the wives of other persons. But a King, who hasthe welfare of his people at heart, should not on any account put theminto practice."

countriesby - Paísesby

hasthe - tiene

theminto - en qué

"A King who has conquered the six[70] enemies of mankind, becomes themaster of the whole earth."

themaster - Master


[Footnote 63: This is a phrase used for a man who does the work ofeverybody, and who is fed by the whole village.]

ofeverybody - e todos

fed - alimentado; (feed) alimentado

[Footnote 64: The exact date of the reign of these kings is not known.It is supposed to have been about the beginning of the Christian era.]

[Footnote 65: The modern country of Tailangam, which is to the South ofRajamundry.]

ofRajamundry - eRajamundry

[Footnote 66: Supposed to be a tract of the country to the south ofMalwa.]

tract - tracto; extensión

ofMalwa - eMalwa

[Footnote 67: Now known by the name of Berar. Its capital wasKundinpura, which has been identified with the modern Oomravati.]

wasKundinpura - Kundinpura

[Footnote 68: Also called Aparantakas, being the northern and southernConcan.]

southernConcan - SouthConcan

[Footnote 69: The modern provinces of Katteeawar. Its capital was calledGirinaguda, or the modern Junagurh.]

calledGirinaguda - Se llama Girinaguda

[Footnote 70: These are Lust, Anger, Avarice, Spiritual Ignorance,Pride, and Envy.]

envy - envidia, pelusa, envidiar



The women of the royal harem cannot see or meet any men on account oftheir being strictly guarded, neither do they have their desiressatisfied, because their only husband is common to many wives. For thisreason among themselves they give pleasure to each other in various waysas now described.

desiressatisfied - Deseos satisfechos

thisreason - esta razón

give pleasure - dar placer

waysas - maneras

Having dressed the daughters of their nurses, or their female friends,or their female attendants, like men, they accomplish their object bymeans of bulbs, roots, and fruits having the form of the Lingam, or theylie down upon the statue of a male figure, in which the Lingam isvisible and erect.

bulbs - bombillas; bulbo

theylie - Ellos

isvisible - es visible

Some Kings, who are compassionate, take or apply certain medicines toenable them to enjoy many wives in one night, simply for the purpose ofsatisfying the desire of their women, though they perhaps have no desireof their own. Others enjoy with great affection only those wives thatthey particularly like, while others only take them according as theturn of each wife arrives in due course.

compassionate - compasivo

toenable - activar

ofsatisfying - e la satisfacción

theturn - la vuelta

Such are the ways of enjoymentprevalent in Eastern countries, and what is said about the means ofenjoyment of the female is also applicable to the male.

enjoymentprevalent - disfrute prevalente

By means of their female attendants the ladies of the royal haremgenerally get men into their apartments in the disguise or dress ofwomen. Their female attendants, and the daughters of their nurses, whoare acquainted with their secrets, should exert themselves to get men tocome to the harem in this way by telling them of the good fortuneattending it, and by describing the facilities of entering and leavingthe palace, the large size of the premises, the carelessness of thesentinels, and the irregularities of the attendants about the persons ofthe royal wives.

haremgenerally - En general

fortuneattending - atendiendo a la fortuna

leavingthe - dejando el

carelessness - descuido, imprudencia, negligencia, dejadez

thesentinels - losentinelas

irregularities - irregularidades; irregularidad

But these women should never induce a man to enter theharem by telling him falsehoods, for that would probably lead to hisdestruction.

falsehoods - falsedades; falsedad

hisdestruction - su destrucción

As for the man himself, he had better not enter a royal harem, eventhough it may be easily accessible, on account of the numerous disastersto which he may be exposed there. If however he wants to enter it, heshould first ascertain whether there is an easy way to get out, whetherit is closely surrounded by the pleasure garden, whether it has separateenclosures belonging to it, whether the sentinels are careless, whetherthe King has gone abroad, and then, when he is called by the women ofthe harem, he should carefully observe the localities, and enter by theway pointed out by them.

disastersto - desastres

whetherit - Si

separateenclosures - recintos separados

sentinels - centinelas; guarda, centinela

whetherthe - Si

localities - localidades; vecindario, vecindarios, localidad

theway - El camino

If he is able to manage it, he should hangabout the harem every day, and, under some pretext or other, makefriends with the sentinels, and show himself attached to the femaleattendants of the harem, who may have become acquainted with his design,and to whom he should express his regret at not being able to obtain theobject of his desire. Lastly he should cause the whole business of ago-between to be done by the woman who may have access to the harem, andhe should be careful to be able to recognize the emissaries of the King.

hangabout - pasar el rato

makefriends - hacer amigos

andhe - Y él

When a go-between has no access to the harem, then the man should standin some place where the lady, whom he loves, and whom he is anxious toenjoy, can be seen.

toenjoy - Disfrutar

If that place is occupied by the King's sentinels, he should thendisguise himself as a female attendant of the lady who comes to theplace, or passes by it. When she looks at him he should let her know hisfeelings by outward signs and gestures, and should show her pictures,things with double meanings, chaplets of flowers, and rings. He shouldcarefully mark the answer she gives, whether by word or by sign, or bygesture, and should then try and get into the harem.

thendisguise - eldisfraz

theplace - el lugar

hisfeelings - Sus sentimientos

shouldcarefully - debería

bygesture - ygesture

If he is certain ofher coming to some particular place he should conceal himself there, andat the appointed time should enter along with her as one of the guards.He may also go in and out, concealed in a folded bed, or bed covering,or with his body made invisible,[71] by means of external applications,a receipt for one of which is as follows:

appointed time - hora indicada

The heart of an ichneumon, the fruit of the long gourd (Tumbi), and theeyes of the serpent, should all be burnt without letting out the smoke,the ashes should then be ground and mixed in equal quantities withwater. By putting this mixture upon the eyes a man can go about unseen.

ichneumon - meloncillo

theeyes - los ojos

serpent - serpiente

letting out - dejar salir, soltar, liberar

withwater - con agua

unseen - No se ve

Other means of invisibility are prescribed by Duyana Brahmans andJogashiras.

invisibility - invisibilidad

andJogashiras - Jogashiras

Again the man may enter the harem during the festival of the eight moonin the month of Nargashirsha, and during the moonlight festivals whenthe female attendants of the harem are all busily occupied, or inconfusion.

moonin - oonin

busily - Ocupado

inconfusion - Inconfusión

The following principles are laid down on this subject.

The entrance of young men into harems, and their exit from them,generally take place when things are being brought into the palace, orwhen things are being taken out of it, or when drinking festivals aregoing on, or when the female attendants are in a hurry, or when theresidence of some of the royal ladies is being changed, or when theKing's wives go to gardens, or to fairs, or when they enter the palaceon their return from them; or, lastly, when the King is absent on a longpilgrimage.

harems - harenes; harén

aregoing - Vamos

theresidence - la residencia

longpilgrimage - larga peregrinación

The women of the royal harem know each other's secrets, andhaving but one object to attain, they give assistance to each other. Ayoung man, who enjoys all of them, and who is common to them all, cancontinue enjoying his union with them so long as it is kept quiet, andis not known abroad.

cancontinue - continuar

andis - ndis

Now in the country of the Aparatakas the royal ladies are not wellprotected, and consequently many young men are passed into the harem bythe women who have access to the royal palaces. The wives of the King ofthe Ahira country accomplish their objects with those sentinels in theharem who bear the name of Kashtriyas. The royal ladies in the countryof the Vatsagulmas cause such men as are suitable to enter into theharem along with their female messengers. In the country of theVaidarbhas the sons of the royal ladies enter the royal harem when theyplease, and enjoy the women, with the exception of their own mothers. Inthe Stri-rajya the wives of the King are enjoyed by his caste fellowsand relations.

wellprotected - Bien protegido

countryof - país de

theVaidarbhas - osVaidarbhas

theyplease - por favor

fellowsand - Companeros

In the Ganda country the royal wives are enjoyed byBrahmans, friends, servants, and slaves. In the Samdhava country,servants, foster children, and other persons like them enjoy the womenof the harem. In the country of the Haimavatas adventurous citizensbribe the sentinels and enter the harem. In the country of the Vanyasand the Kalmyas, Brahmans, with the knowledge of the King, enter theharem under the pretence of giving flowers to the ladies, and speak withthem from behind a curtain, and from such conversation union afterwardstakes place. Lastly, the women in the harem of the King of the Prachyasconceal one young man in the harem for every batch of nine or ten of thewomen.

byBrahmans - yBrahmans

adventurous - intrépido, aventurero, aventurado, arriesgado

citizensbribe - ciudadanobribe

afterwardstakes - después

batch - hornada; lote

thewomen - las mujeres

Thus act the wives of others.

For these reasons a man should guard his own wife.

Old authors say thata King should select for sentinels in his harem such men as have theirfreedom from carnal desires well tested. But such men, though freethemselves from carnal desire, by reason of their fear or avarice, maycause other persons to enter the harem, and therefore Gonikaputra says,that Kings should place such men in the harem as may have had theirfreedom from carnal desires, their fears, and their avarice well tested.Lastly, Vatsyayana says that under the influence of Dharma[72] peoplemight be admitted, and therefore men should be selected who are freefrom carnal desires, fear, avarice, and Dharma.[73]

theirfreedom - su libertad

carnal - carnales; carnal, sexual, concupiscente, libidinoso, terrenal

freethemselves - se liberan

maycause - puede ser

peoplemight - la gente podría

freefrom - Gratis

The followers of Babhravya say that a man should cause his wife toassociate with a young woman who would tell him the secrets of otherpeople, and thus find out from her about his wife's chastity. ButVatsyayana says, that as wicked persons are always successful withwomen, a man should not cause his innocent wife to be corrupted bybringing her into the company of a deceitful woman.

toassociate - asociarse

withwomen - con las mujeres

bybringing - por traer

The following are the causes of the destruction of a woman's chastity:

Always going into society, and sitting in company.

Absence of restraint.

The loose habits of her husband.

Want of caution in her relations with other men.

Continued and long absence of her husband.

Living in a foreign country.

Destruction of her love and feelings by her husband.

The company of loose women.

The jealousy of her husband.

There are also the following verses on the subject.

"A clever man, learning from the Shastras the ways of winning over thewives of other people, is never deceived in the case of his own wives.No one, however, should make use of these ways for seducing the wives ofothers, because they do not always succeed, and, moreover, often causedisasters, and the destruction of Dharma and Artha. This book, which isintended for the good of the people, and to teach them the ways ofguarding their own wives, should not be made use of merely for gainingover the wives of others.

deceived - enganado; enganar, decebir

causedisasters - causaron desastres

isintended - se pretende

ofguarding - e vigilancia

gainingover - Ganando


[Footnote 71: The way to make oneself invisible; the knowledge of theart of transmigration, or changing ourselves or others into any shape orform by the use of charms and spells; the power of being in two placesat once, and other occult sciences are frequently referred to in allOriental literature.]

oneself - sí mismo, uno mismo

orform - rma

placesat - Lugares

occult - oculto, ocultismo

allOriental - todoOriental

[Footnote 72: This may be considered as meaning religious influence, andalludes to persons who may be gained over by that means.]

andalludes - y aludes

[Footnote 73: It may be noted from the above remarks that eunuchs do notappear to have been employed in the King's harem in those days, thoughthey seem to have been employed for other purposes. See Part II., page43.]

notappear - no aparecer





This Part VI., about courtesans, was prepared by Vatsyayana, from atreatise on the subject, that was written by Dattaka, for the women ofPataliputra (the modern Patna), some two thousand years ago. Dattaka'swork does not appear to be extant now, but this abridgement of it isvery clever, and quite equal to any of the productions of Emile Zola,and other writers of the realistic school of to-day.

atreatise - tratar

ofPataliputra - ePataliputra

swork - Trabajar

abridgement - Abstracción

Although a great deal has been written on the subject of the courtesan,nowhere will be found a better description of her, of her belongings, ofher ideas, and of the working of her mind, than is contained in thefollowing pages.

belongings - Pertenencia

thefollowing - lo siguiente

The details of the domestic and social life of the early Hindoos wouldnot be complete without mention of the courtesan, and Part VI. isentirely devoted to this subject. The Hindoos have ever had the goodsense to recognise courtesans as a part and portion of human society,and so long as they behaved themselves with decency and propriety, theywere regarded with a certain respect.

isentirely - es verdad

goodsense - Goodense

recognise - Reconoces

decency - decencia

propriety - aptitud, propiedad

theywere - lo eran

Anyhow, they have never beentreated in the East with that brutality and contempt so common in theWest, while their education has always been of a superior kind to thatbestowed upon the rest of womankind in Oriental countries.

beentreated - Serán tratados

brutality - brutalidad

theWest - Occidente

thatbestowed - que otorgó

In the earlier days the well-educated Hindoo dancing girl and courtesandoubtless resembled the Hetera of the Greeks, and being educated andamusing, were far more acceptable as companions than the generality ofthe married or unmarried women of that period. At all times and in allcountries, there has ever been a little rivalry between the chaste andthe unchaste.

courtesandoubtless - Cortesía

andamusing - y divertido

generality - Generalidad

unmarried - soltero; (unmarry); soltero

allcountries - todos los países

rivalry - rivalidad

But while some women are born courtesans, and follow theinstincts of their nature in every class of society, it has been trulysaid by some authors that every woman has got an inkling of theprofession in her nature, and does her best, as a general rule, to makeherself agreeable to the male sex.

theinstincts - los instintos

trulysaid - De verdad

inkling - un indicio; idea, sospecha

theprofession - la profesión

makeherself - Hacerse a sí mismo

The subtlety of women, their wonderful perceptive powers, theirknowledge, and their intuitive appreciation of men and things, are allshown in the following pages, which may be looked upon as a concentratedessence that has been since worked up into detail by many writers inevery quarter of the globe.

subtlety - delicadeza, sutileza

perceptive - perceptivo; perspicaz

theirknowledge - su conocimiento

intuitive - intuitivo

allshown - Todos

concentratedessence - esencia concentrada

inevery - inevitable



By having intercourse with men courtesans obtain sexual pleasure, aswell as their own maintenance. Now when a courtesan takes up with a manfrom love, the action is natural; but when she resorts to him for thepurpose of getting money, her action is artificial or forced. Even inthe latter case, however, she should conduct herself as if her love wereindeed natural, because men repose their confidence on those women whoapparently love them.

sexual pleasure - placer sexual

wereindeed - verdad

repose - reposo

whoapparently - quién

In making known her love to the man she shouldshow an entire freedom from avarice, and for the sake of her futurecredit she should abstain from acquiring money from him by unlawfulmeans.

making known - dar a conocer

futurecredit - futurocrédito

unlawfulmeans - Ilegal

A courtesan, well dressed and wearing her ornaments, should sit or standat the door of her house, and without exposing herself too much, shouldlook on the public road so as to be seen by the passers by, she beinglike an object on view for sale.

standat - tandat

shouldlook - Debería mirar

public road - vía pública

beinglike - Ser como

[74] She should form friendships withsuch persons as would enable her to separate men from other women, andattach them to herself, and repair her own misfortunes, to acquirewealth, and to protect her from being bullied, or set upon by personswith whom she may have dealings of some kind or another.

withsuch - con eso

andattach - ?adjuntar

misfortunes - desgracias; infortunio, gafe, mala suerte, desgracia

acquirewealth - Adquirir riqueza

bullied - cosado; bravucón, abusón, matón, abusador

personswith - con quién

dealings - tratando

These persons are:

The guards of the town, or the police.

The officers of the courts of justice.


Powerful men, or men with interest.

Learned men.

Teachers of the sixty-four arts.

Pithamardas or confidants.

confidants - confidente

Vitas or parasites.

parasites - parásitos; parásito

Vidushakas or jesters.

Flower sellers.


Perfumers - perfumistas; perfumista

Vendors of spirits.

vendors - vendedores; vendedor, vendedora




And such other persons as may be found necessary for the particularobject to be acquired.

particularobject - objeto concreto

The following kinds of men may be taken up with simply for the purposeof getting their money.

purposeof - para qué

Men of independent income.

Young men.

Men who are free from any ties.

Men who hold places of authority under the King.

Men who have secured their means of livelihood without difficulty.

Men possessed of unfailing sources of income.

unfailing - infalible; indefectible, constante

Men who consider themselves handsome.

Men who are always praising themselves.

One who is an eunuch, but wishes to be thought a man.

One who hates his equals.

One who is naturally liberal.

One who has influence with the King or his ministers.

One who is always fortunate.

One who is proud of his wealth.

One who disobeys the orders of his elders.

disobeys - desobedecer, desacatar, insubordinarse, indisciplinarse

One upon whom the members of his caste keep an eye.

The only son whose father is wealthy.

An ascetic who is internally troubled with desire.

internally - internamente, interiormente

A brave man.

A physician of the King.

Previous acquaintance.

On the other hand, those who are possessed of excellent qualities are tobe resorted to for the sake of love, and fame. Such men are as follows:

Such are the good qualities of a man.

The woman also should have the following characteristics, viz.:

She should be possessed of beauty, and amiability, with auspicious bodymarks. She should have a liking for good qualities in other people, asalso a liking for wealth. She should take delight in sexual unionsresulting from love, and should be of a firm mind, and of the same classas the man with regard to sexual enjoyment.

amiability - amabilidad, afabilidad

bodymarks - marcas corporales

unionsresulting - indicatos

classas - lassas

She should always be anxious to acquire and obtain experience andknowledge, be free from avarice, and always have a liking for socialgatherings, and for the arts.

be anxious - estar ansioso

andknowledge - y el conocimiento

socialgatherings - reuniones sociales

The following are the ordinary qualities of all women, viz.:

The faults of the women are to be known by the absence of any of theabove mentioned good qualities.

The following kinds of men are not fit to be resorted to by courtesans,viz.:

Ancient authors are of opinion that the causes of a courtesan resortingto men are love, fear, money, pleasure, returning some act of enmity,curiosity, sorrow, constant intercourse, Dharma, celebrity, compassion,the desire of having a friend, shame, the likeness of the man to somebeloved person, the search after good fortune, the getting rid of thelove of somebody else, the being of the same class as the man withrespect to sexual union, living in the same place, constancy, andpoverty.

resortingto - Recurrir

likeness - semejanza; retrato, trasunto

somebeloved - alguien querido

search after - buscar después

thelove - el amor

withrespect - con respeto

constancy - constancia, constancia

andpoverty - la pobreza

But Vatsyayana decides that desire of wealth, freedom frommisfortune, and love, are the only causes that affect the union ofcourtesans with men.

frommisfortune - e la desgracia

ofcourtesans - fcourtesans

Now a courtesan should not sacrifice money to her love, because money isthe chief thing to be attended to. But in cases of fear, etc., sheshould pay regard to strength and other qualities. Moreover, even thoughshe be invited by any man to join him, she should not at once consent toan union, because men are apt to despise things which are easilyacquired. On such occasions she should first send the shampooers, andthe singers, and the jesters, who may be in her service, or, in theirabsence the Pithamardas, or confidants, and others, to find out thestate of his feelings, and the condition of his mind.

isthe - es el

thoughshe - unque ella.

apt - apto; susceptible de, propenso a

easilyacquired - se adquiere fácilmente

theirabsence - Su ausencia

thestate - el estado

By means of thesepersons she should ascertain whether the man is pure or impure,affected, or the reverse, capable of attachment, or indifferent, liberalor niggardly; and if she finds him to her liking, she should thenemploy the Vita and others to attach his mind to her.

thesepersons - estas personas

impure - impuro

niggardly - malicioso

thenemploy - emplear

Accordingly, the Pithamarda should bring the man to her house, under thepretence of seeing the fights of quails, cocks, and rams, of hearing themaina (a kind of starling) talk, or of seeing some other spectacle, orthe practice of some art; or he may take the woman to the abode of theman. After this, when the man comes to her house the woman should givehim something capable of producing curiosity, and love in his heart,such as an affectionate present, telling him that it was speciallydesigned for his use.

thepretence - la interpretación

themaina - temaina

starling - estornino

givehim - Darle

speciallydesigned - especialmente disenado

She should also amuse him for a long time bytelling him such stories, and doing such things as he may take mostdelight in. When he goes away she should frequently send to him a femaleattendant, skilled in carrying on a jesting conversation, and also asmall present at the same time. She should also sometimes go to himherself under the pretence of some business, and accompanied by thePithamarda.

mostdelight - másdelight

femaleattendant - Asistente femenina

jesting - Bromeando; (jest) Bromeando

asmall - Pequeno

himherself - Él mismo

thePithamarda - laPithamarda

Thus end the means of attaching to herself the man desired.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

"When a lover comes to her abode, a courtesan should give him a mixtureof betel leaves and betel nut, garlands of flowers, and perfumedointments, and, showing her skill in arts, should entertain him with along conversation. She should also give him some loving presents, andmake an exchange of her own things with his, and at the same time shouldshow him her skill in sexual enjoyment.

perfumedointments - perfumes

When a courtesan is thus unitedwith her lover she should always delight him by affectionate gifts, byconversation, and by the application of tender means of enjoyment."

unitedwith - unida con

byconversation - por conversación


[Footnote 74: In England the lower classes of courtesans walk thestreets; in India and other places in the East they sit at the windows,or at the doors of their houses.]

thestreets - las calles



When a courtesan is living as a wife with her lover, she should behavelike a chaste woman, and do everything to his satisfaction. Her duty inthis respect, in short, is, that she should give him pleasure, butshould not become attached to him, though behaving as if she were reallyattached.

behavelike - comportarse

reallyattached - De verdad

Now the following is the manner in which she is to conduct herself, soas to accomplish the above mentioned purpose. She should have a motherdependent on her, one who should be represented as very harsh, and wholooked upon money as her chief object in life. In the event of therebeing no mother, then an old and confidential nurse should play the samerole.

motherdependent - dependiente de la madre

wholooked - Whoolooked

therebeing - ser

The mother or nurse, on their part, should appear to be displeasedwith the lover, and forcibly take her away from him. The woman herselfshould always show pretended anger, dejection, fear, and shame on thisaccount, but should not disobey the mother or nurse at any time.

displeasedwith - Disgustado

herselfshould - debería

dejection - abatimiento, desaliento, desánimo

thisaccount - esta cuenta

disobey - desobedecer, desacatar, insubordinarse, indisciplinarse

She should make out to the mother or nurse that the man is sufferingfrom bad health, and making this a pretext for going to see him, sheshould go on that account. She is, moreover, to do the following thingsfor the purpose of gaining the man's favour, viz.:

sufferingfrom - Sufriendo

When the man sets out on a journey, she should make him swear that hewill return quickly, and in his absence should put aside her vows ofworshipping the Deity, and should wear no ornaments except those thatare lucky. If the time fixed for his return has passed, she shouldendeavour to ascertain the real time of his return from omens, from thereports of the people, and from the positions of the planets, the moonand the stars.

hewill - Lo hará

ofworshipping - e adoración

shouldendeavour - debe esforzarse

thereports - puertos

On occasions of amusement, and of auspicious dreams, sheshould say "Let me be soon united to him." If, moreover, she feelsmelancholy, or sees any inauspicious omen, she should perform some riteto appease the Deity.

feelsmelancholy - siente melancolía

appease - apaciguar, calmar, aplacar

When the man does return home she should worship the God Kama (_i.e._,the Indian Cupid), and offer oblations to other Deities, and havingcaused a pot filled with water to be brought by her friends, she shouldperform the worship in honour of the crow who eats the offerings whichwe make to the manes of deceased relations.

Cupid - Cupido

oblations - oblación

havingcaused - Haber causado

whichwe - cuál

manes - manos; crin, melena

deceased - fallecido; fallecimiento, deceso, óbito, defunción, fallecer

After the first visit isover she should ask her lover also to perform certain rites, and this hewill do if he is sufficiently attached to her.

rites - itos; rito

Now a man is said to be sufficiently attached to a woman when his loveis disinterested; when he has the same object in view as his belovedone; when he is quite free from any suspicions on her account; and whenhe is indifferent to money with regard to her.

loveis - Amor

disinterested - desinteresado; desinterés

belovedone - Querido

whenhe - Cuándo

Such is the manner of a courtesan living with a man like a wife, and setforth here for the sake of guidance from the rules of Dattaka. What isnot laid down here should be practised according to the custom of thepeople, and the nature of each individual man.

setforth - Preparado

isnot - No

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"The extent of the love of women is not known, even to those who are theobjects of their affection, on account of its subtlety, and on accountof the avarice, and natural intelligence of womankind."

theobjects - los objetos

accountof - cuentas

"Women are hardly ever known in their true light, though they may lovemen, or become indifferent towards them; may give them delight, orabandon them; or may extract from them all the wealth that they maypossess."

lovemen - amantes

orabandon - oabandonar

maypossess - puede poseer



Money is got out of a lover in two ways, viz.:

By natural or lawful means, and by artifices. Old authors are of opinionthat when a courtesan can get as much money as she wants from her lover,she should not make use of artifice. But Vatsyayana lays down thatthough she may get some money from him by natural means, yet when shemakes use of artifice he gives her doubly more, and therefore artificeshould be resorted to for the purpose of extorting money from him at allevents.

opinionthat - Opinión que

thatthough - Aunque

shemakes - hace

artificeshould - debería

extorting - extorsionando; extorsionar

allevents - allevantes

Now the artifices to be used for getting money from her lover are asfollows:

artifices - artificios; artificio

1st. Taking money from him on different occasions, for the purpose ofpurchasing various articles, such as ornaments, food, drink, flowers,perfumes and cloths, and either not buying them, or getting from himmore than their cost.

ofpurchasing - e compra

himmore - Más

2nd. Praising his intelligence to his face.

3rd. Pretending to be obliged to make gifts on occasion of festivalsconnected with vows, trees, gardens, temples, or tanks.[75]

be obliged - estar obligado

festivalsconnected - festivalesconectados

4th. Pretending that at the time of going to his house, her jewels havebeen stolen either by the King's guards, or by robbers.

5th. Alleging that her property has been destroyed by fire, by thefalling of her house, or by the carelessness of her servants.

thefalling - la caída

6th. Pretending to have lost the ornaments of her lover along with herown.

7th. Causing him to hear through other people of the expenses incurredby her in coming to see him.

incurredby - Incurrido

8th. Contracting debts for the sake of her lover.

9th. Disputing with her mother on account of some expense incurred byher for her lover, and which was not approved of by her mother.

10th. Not going to parties and festivities in the houses of her friendsfor the want of presents to make to them, she having previously informedher lover of the valuable presents given to her by these very friends.

festivities - festejos; festividad

friendsfor - Amigos

informedher - Informher

11th. Not performing certain festive rites under the pretence that shehas no money to perform them with.

12th. Engaging artists to do something for her lover.

13th. Entertaining physicians and ministers for the purpose of attainingsome object.

attainingsome - alguno

14th. Assisting friends and benefactors both on festive occasions, andin misfortune.

benefactors - enefactores; bienhechor, benefactor

misfortune - infortunio, gafe, mala suerte, desgracia

15th. Performing household rites.

16th. Having to pay the expenses of the ceremony of marriage of the sonof a female friend.

17th. Having to satisfy curious wishes during her state of pregnancy.

18th. Pretending to be ill, and charging her cost of treatment.

19th. Having to remove the troubles of a friend.

20th. Selling some of her ornaments, so as to give her lover a present.

21st. Pretending to sell some of her ornaments, furniture, or cookingutensils to a trader, who has been already tutored how to behave in thematter.

cookingutensils - utensilios de cocina

tutored - tutelado; tutor

22nd. Having to buy cooking utensils of greater value than those ofother people, so that they might be more easily distinguished, and notchanged for others of an inferior description.

utensils - utensilios; utensilio

ofother - Otro

23rd. Remembering the former favours of her lover, and causing themalways to be spoken of by her friends and followers.

themalways - siempre

24th. Informing her lover of the great gains of other courtezans.

25th. Describing before them, and in the presence of her lover, her owngreat gains, and making them out to be greater even than theirs, thoughsuch may not have been really the case.

owngreat - Genial

thoughsuch - aunque

26th. Openly opposing her mother when she endeavours to persuade her totake up with men with whom she has been formerly acquainted, on accountof the great gains to be got from them.

27th. Lastly, pointing out to her lover the liberality of his rivals.

Thus end the ways and means of getting money.

* * * * *

A woman should always know the state of the mind, of the feelings, andof the disposition of her lover towards her, from the changes of histemper, his manner, and the colour of his face.

histemper - Histémper

The behaviour of a waning lover is as follows:

waning - Disminuyendo; (wan) Disminuyendo

1st. He gives the woman either less than is wanted, or something elsethan that which is asked for.

2nd. He keeps her in hopes by promises.

3rd. He pretends to do one thing, and does something else.

4th. He does not fulfil her desires.

5th. He forgets his promises, or does something else than that which hehas promised.

hehas - tiene

6th. He speaks with his own servants in a mysterious way.

7th. He sleeps in some other house under the pretence of having to dosomething for a friend.

dosomething - Dosalgo

8th. Lastly, he speaks in private with the attendants of a woman withwhom he was formerly acquainted.

withwhom - con quién

The means of getting rid of a lover are as follows:

1st. Describing the habits and vices of the lover as disagreeable andcensurable, with the sneer of the lip, and the stamp of the foot.

andcensurable - censurable

2nd. Speaking on a subject with which he is not acquainted.

3rd. Showing no admiration for his learning, and passing a censure uponit.

admiration - admiración

censure - censura

uponit - sobre ella

4th. Putting down his pride.

5th. Seeking the company of men who are superior to him in learning andwisdom.

6th. Showing a disregard for him on all occasions.

7th. Censuring men possessed of the same faults as her lover.

censuring - censura

8th. Expressing dissatisfaction at the ways and means of enjoyment usedby him.

dissatisfaction - insatisfacción; descontento, malcontento, disgusto, malestar

usedby - usado por

9th. Not giving him her mouth to kiss.

10th. Refusing access to her Jaghana, _i.e._, the part of the bodybetween the navel and the thighs.

refusing - te niegas; negarse (a)

bodybetween - Cuerpo intermedio

11th. Showing a dislike for the wounds made by his nails and teeth.

12th. Not pressing close up against him at the time when he embracesher.

embracesher - la abraza

13th. Keeping her limbs without movement at the time of congress.

14th. Desiring him to employ her when he is fatigued.

15th. Laughing at his attachment to her.

16th. Not responding to his embraces.

17th. Turning away from him when he begins to embrace her.

18th. Pretending to be sleepy.

19th. Going out visiting, or into company, when she perceives his desireto enjoy her during the day time.

desireto - desea

20th. Mis-constructing his words.

21st. Laughing without any joke, or at the time of any joke made by him,laughing under some pretence.

22nd. Looking with side glances at her own attendants, and clapping herhands when he says anything.

side glances - Mirada de reojo, mirada furtiva

23rd. Interrupting him in the middle of his stories, and beginning totell other stories herself.

24th. Reciting his faults and his vices, and declaring them to beincurable.

reciting - Recitar

beincurable - erincurable

25th. Saying words to her female attendants calculated to cut the heartof her lover to the quick.

26th. Taking care not to look at him when he comes to her.

27th. Asking him what cannot be granted.

28th. And, after all, finally dismissing him.

There are also two verses on this subject as follows:

"The duty of a courtesan consists in forming connections with suitablemen after due and full consideration, and attaching the person with whomshe is united to herself; in obtaining wealth from the person who isattached to her, and then dismissing him after she has taken away allhis possessions."

suitablemen - adecuados

whomshe - Quién

isattached - está conectado

"A courtesan leading in this manner the life of a wife is not troubledwith too many lovers, and yet obtains abundance of wealth."

troubledwith - con problemas


[Footnote 75: On the completion of a vow a festival takes place. Sometrees such as the Peepul and Banyan trees, are invested with sacredthreads like the Brahman's, and on the occasion of this ceremony afestival is given. In the same way when gardens are made, and tanks ortemples built, then also festivals are observed.]

Banyan - panish: t-needed

sacredthreads - hilos sagrados

afestival - festival

ortemples - o templos



When a courtesan abandons her present lover after all his wealth isexhausted, she may then consider about her re-union with a former lover.But she should return to him only if he has acquired fresh wealth, or isstill wealthy, and if he is still attached to her. And if this man beliving at the time with some other women she should consider well beforeshe acts.

isexhausted - se ha agotado

beliving - Creer

beforeshe - Antes

Now such a man can only be in one of the six following conditions, viz.:

1st. He may have left the first woman of his own accord, and may evenhave left another woman since then.

evenhave - incluso tener

2nd. He may have been driven away from both women.

driven away - alejarse en coche; ahuyentar

3rd. He may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be livingwith another woman.

livingwith - Vivir con

5th. He may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the otherof his own accord.

otherof - Otro

6th. He may have been driven away by the one woman, and may be livingwith another.

(1). Now if the man has left both women of his own accord, he should notbe resorted to, on account of the fickleness of his mind, and hisindifference to the excellencies of both of them.

notbe - no

hisindifference - su indiferencia

(2). As regards the man who may have been driven away from both women,if he has been driven away from the last one because the woman could getmore money from some other man, then he should be resorted to, for ifattached to the first woman he would give her more money, through vanityand emulation to spite the other woman.

getmore - Más

ifattached - fattached

But if he has been driven awayby the woman on account of his poverty, or stinginess, he should notthen be resorted to.

awayby - Alejarse

stinginess - acanería; tacanería

notthen - entonces no

(3). In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his ownaccord, and been driven away by the other, if he agrees to return to theformer and give her plenty of money beforehand, then he should beresorted to.

ownaccord - Propiaaccord

beforehand - de antemano, anticipadamente, adelantadamente, antes


In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his ownaccord, and be living with another woman, the former (wishing to take upwith him again) should first ascertain if he left her in the firstinstance in the hope of finding some particular excellence in the otherwoman, and that not having found any such excellence, he was willing tocome back to her, and to give her much money on account of his conduct,and on account of his affection still existing for her.

upwith - con

otherwoman - Otra mujer

Or, whether, having discovered many faults in the other woman, he wouldnow see even more excellences in herself than actually exist, and wouldbe prepared to give her much money for these qualities.

wouldnow - Ahora

Or, lastly, to consider whether he was a weak man, or a man fond ofenjoying many women, or one who liked a poor woman, or one who never didanything for the woman that he was with. After maturely considering allthese things, she should resort to him or not, according tocircumstances.

ofenjoying - de disfrutar

didanything - Hiciste algo

maturely - con madurez

(5). As regards the man who may have been driven away from the onewoman, and left the other of his own accord, the former woman (wishingto re-unite with him) should first ascertain whether he still has anyaffection for her, and would consequently spend much money upon her; orwhether, being attached to her excellent qualities, he did not takedelight in any other women; or whether, being driven away from herformerly before completely satisfying his sexual desires, he wished toget back to her, so as to be revenged for the injury done to him; orwhether he wished to create confidence in her mind, and then take backfrom her the wealth which she formerly took from him, and finallydestroy her; or, lastly, whether he wished first to separate her fromher present lover, and then to break away from her himself.

onewoman - una mujer

wishingto - desea

anyaffection - Algún afecto

orwhether - O si

takedelight - tomedelight

herformerly - Anteriormente

toget - juntos

backfrom - Desde dónde

finallydestroy - Destruir por fin

fromher - De ella

If, afterconsidering all these things, she is of opinion that his intentions arereally pure and honest, she can re-unite herself with him. But if hismind be at all tainted with evil intentions, he should be avoided.

afterconsidering - después de pensarlo

arereally - De verdad

hismind - Su mente

tainted - manchada; echar a perder; contaminar

(6). In the case of the man who may have been driven away by onewoman, and be living with another, if the man makes overtures in returnto the first one, the courtesan should consider well before she acts,and while the other woman is engaged in attracting him to herself, sheshould try in her turn (through keeping herself behind the scenes) togain him over, on the grounds of any of the following considerations,viz.:

returnto - Volver a

1st. That he was driven away unjustly and for no proper reason, and nowthat he has gone to another woman, every effort must be used to bringhim back to myself.

unjustly - injustamente

nowthat - Y ahora qué

bringhim - Traerlo

2nd. That if he were once to converse with me again, he would break awayfrom the other woman.

3rd. That the pride of my present lover would be put down by means ofthe former one.

4th. That he has become wealthy, has secured a higher position, andholds a place of authority under the King.

andholds - Y los hogares

5th. That he is separate from his wife.

6th. That he is now independent.

7th. That he lives apart from his father, or brother.

8th. That by making peace with him I shall be able to get hold of a veryrich man, who is now prevented from coming to me by my present lover.

veryrich - muy rico

9th. That as he is not respected by his wife, I shall now be able toseparate him from her.

toseparate - separar

10th. That the friend of this man loves my rival, who hates mecordially; I shall, therefore, by this means separate the friend fromhis mistress.

mecordially - Mecordialmente

fromhis - De él

11th. And lastly, I shall bring discredit upon him by bringing him backto me, thus showing the fickleness of his mind.

discredit - desacreditar, descreer, descrédito

backto - Atrás

When a courtesan is resolved to take up again with a former lover, herPithamurda and other servants should tell him that his former expulsionfrom the woman's house was caused by the wickedness of her mother; thatthe woman loved him just as much as ever at that time, but could nothelp the occurrence on account of her deference to her mother's will;that she hated the union of her present lover, and disliked himexcessively.

herPithamurda - suPithamurda

expulsionfrom - expulsión de

wickedness - maldad, perversidad

nothelp - noayudar

deference - deferencia

himexcessively - excesivamente

In addition to this, they should create confidence in hismind by speaking to him of her former love for him, and should allude tothe mark of that love that she has ever remembered. This mark of herlove should be connected with some kind of pleasure that may have beenpractised by him, such as his way of kissing her, or manner of havingconnection with her.

allude - aludir, referirse

beenpractised - se ha practicado

havingconnection - tener conexión

Thus end the ways of bringing about a re-union with a former lover.

When a woman has to choose between two lovers, one of whom was formerlyunited with her, while the other is a stranger, the Acharyas (sages) areof opinion that the first one is preferable, because his disposition andcharacter being already known by previous careful observation, he can beeasily pleased and satisfied; but Vatsyayana thinks that a former lover,having already spent a great deal of his wealth, is not able or willingto give much money again, and is not, therefore, to be relied upon somuch as a stranger.

formerlyunited - antes unidos

sages - sabios; salvia

areof - reof

preferable - preferible

andcharacter - y el carácter

beeasily - con abejas

willingto - Dispuesto

somuch - Cuánto

Particular cases may, however, arise differing fromthis general rule on account of the different natures of men.

fromthis - De esto

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"Re-union with a former lover may be desirable so as to separate someparticular woman from some particular man, or some particular man fromsome particular woman, or to have a certain effect upon the presentlover."

fromsome - De algunos

presentlover - Presentador

"When a man is excessively attached to a woman, he is afraid of hercoming into contact with other men; he does not then regard or noticeher faults; and he gives her much wealth through fear of her leavinghim."

hercoming - viene

noticeher - Nother

leavinghim - dejarlo

"A courtesan should be agreeable to the man who is attached to her, anddespise the man who does not care for her. If while she is living withone man a messenger comes to her from some other man, she may eitherrefuse to listen to any negotiations on his part, or appoint a fixedtime for him to visit her, but she should not leave the man who may beliving with her and who may be attached to her."

anddespise - despise

eitherrefuse - O bien se niega

fixedtime - tiempo fijo

"A wise woman should only renew her connection with a former lover ifshe is satisfied that good fortune, gain, love, and friendship, arelikely to be the result of such a re-union."

ifshe - Si

arelikely - son probables



When a courtesan is able to realize much money every day, by reason ofmany customers, she should not confine herself to a single lover; undersuch circumstances, she should fix her rate for one night, afterconsidering the place, the season, and the condition of the people, andhaving regard to her own good qualities and good looks, and aftercomparing her rates with those of other courtesans.

customers - clientes; cliente

undersuch - en virtud de qué

aftercomparing - después de comparar

She can inform herlovers, and friends, and acquaintances about these charges. If, however,she can obtain a great gain from a single lover, she may resort to himalone, and live with him like a wife.

himalone - Él solo

Now, the Sages are of opinion that when a courtesan has the chance of anequal gain from two lovers at the same time, a preference should begiven to the one who would give her the kind of thing which she wants.But Vatsyayana says that the preference should be given to the one whogives her gold, because it cannot be taken back like some other things,it can be easily received, and is also the means of procuring anythingthat may be wished for.

anequal - igual

begiven - Perdonado

whogives - quién da

anythingthat - Algo de eso

Of such things as gold, silver, copper, bellmetal, iron, pots, furniture, beds, upper garments, under vestments,fragrant substances, vessels made of gourds, ghee, oil, corn, cattle,and other things of a like nature, the first, viz., gold, is superior toall the others.

gourds - calabazas; calabaza, calabacino, bangana

ghee - panish: t-needed

toall - Todos

When the same labour is required to gain any two lovers, or when thesame kind of thing is to be got from each of them, the choice should bemade by the advice of a friend, or it may be made from their personalqualities, or from the signs of good or bad fortune that may beconnected with them.

bemade - Hecho

personalqualities - cualidades personales

beconnected - conectarse

When there are two lovers, one of whom is generous, and the other readyto do any service for the courtesan, some Sages say that the one who isready to do the service should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is ofopinion that a man who does a service thinks that he has gained hisobject when he has done something once, but a generous man does not carefor what he has given before.

readyto - Listo

isready - Está listo

hisobject - Su objeto

Even here the choice should be guided bythe likelihood of the future good to be derived from her union witheither of them.

witheither - con ninguno de los dos

When one of the two lovers is grateful, and the other liberal, someSages say that the liberal one should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is ofopinion that the former should be chosen, because liberal men aregenerally haughty, plain spoken, and wanting in consideration towardsothers. Even though these liberal men have been on friendly terms for along time, yet if they see any fault in the courtesan, or are told liesabout her by some other women, they do not care for past services, butleave abruptly.

someSages - algunosSabios

aregenerally - generalmente

haughty - soberbio, altanero

towardsothers - hacia los demás

liesabout - Mentira

butleave - pero dejar

abruptly - de repente; abruptamente, precipitadamente

On the other hand the grateful man does not at oncebreak off from her, on account of a regard for the pains she may havetaken to please him. In this case also the choice is to be guided withrespect to what may happen in future.

havetaken - ha tomado

When an occasion for complying with the request of a friend, and achance of getting money come together, the Sages say that the chance ofgetting money should be preferred. But Vatsyayana thinks that the moneycan be obtained to-morrow as well as to-day, but if the request of afriend be not at once complied with, he may become disaffected. Evenhere, in making the choice, regard must be paid to future good fortune.

achance - Posibilidad

ofgetting - e conseguir

moneycan - oneycan

afriend - Amigo

On such an occasion, however, the courtesan might pacify her friend bypretending to have some work to do, and telling him that his requestwill be complied with next day, and in this way secure the chance ofgetting the money that has been offered her.

bypretending - pretendiendo

requestwill - Solicitarás

When the chance of getting money, and the chance of avoiding somedisaster come at the same time, the Sages are of opinion that the chanceof getting money should be preferred, but Vatsyayana says that money hasonly a limited importance, while a disaster that is once averted maynever occur again. Here, however, the choice should be guided by thegreatness or smallness of the disaster.

somedisaster - algún desastre

chanceof - oportunidad

hasonly - Sólo has

averted - evitado; apartar, evitar

maynever - nunca

thegreatness - la grandeza

smallness - pequenez; pequenez, menudencia

The gains of the wealthiest and best kind of courtesans are to be spentas follows:

spentas - pentas

Building temples, tanks, and gardens; giving a thousand cows todifferent Brahmans; carrying on the worship of the Gods, and celebratingfestivals in their honour; and, lastly, performing such vows as may bewithin their means.

celebratingfestivals - celebra festivales

bewithin - dentro

The gains of other courtesans are to be spent as follows:

Having a white dress to wear every day; getting sufficient food anddrink to satisfy hunger and thirst; eating daily a perfumed Tambula,_i.e._, a mixture of betel nut and betel leaves; and wearing ornamentsgilt with gold.

anddrink - y beber

thirst - sed, hambre, ambición, ansias, tener sed, desear

ornamentsgilt - adornos dorados

The Sages say that these represent the gains of all themiddle and lower classes of courtesans, but Vatsyayana is of opinionthat their gains cannot be calculated, or fixed in any way, as thesedepend on the influence of the place, the customs of the people, theirown appearance, and many other things.

themiddle - Medio

thesedepend - dependen

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"In considering her present gains, and her future welfare, a courtesanshould avoid such persons as have gained their means of subsistence withvery great difficulty, as also those who have become selfish andhard-hearted by becoming the favourites of Kings."

courtesanshould - debería la cortesana

subsistence - subsistencia

withvery - Con todo

Selfish - egoísta

andhard - duro

"She should make every endeavour to unite herself with prosperous andwell-to-do people, and with those whom it is dangerous to avoid, or toslight in any way. Even at some cost to herself she should becomeacquainted with energetic and liberal-minded men, who when pleased wouldgive her a large sum of money, even for very little service, or for somesmall thing."

prosperous - róspero; rico

andwell - Y bien

becomeacquainted - Conocerse

energetic - enérgico, energético

wouldgive - daría

somesmall - algo pequeno



It sometimes happens that while gains are being sought for, or expectedto be realised, that losses only are the result of our efforts, thecauses of these losses are:

expectedto - lo esperaba

realised - Te das cuenta

thecauses - las causas

Weakness of intellect.

Excessive love.

Excessive pride.

Excessive self conceit.

conceit - engreimiento, vanidad, presunción, ego

Excessive simplicity.

Excessive confidence.

Excessive anger.



recklessness - imprudencia; descuido, negligencia, temeridad, osadía

Influence of evil genius.

Accidental circumstances.

The results of these losses are:

Expense incurred without any result.

Destruction of future good fortune.

Stoppage of gains about to be realized.

stoppage - parada, paro, bloqueo

Loss of what is already obtained.

Acquisition of a sour temper.

Becoming unaimiable to every body.

unaimiable - imposible

Injury to health.

Loss of hair and other accidents.

Now gain is of three kinds, viz.: gain of wealth, gain of religiousmerit, and gain of pleasure; and similarly, loss is of three kinds,viz.: loss of wealth, loss of religious merit, and loss of pleasure. Atthe time when gains are sought for, if other gains come along with them,these are called attendant gains. When gain is uncertain, the doubt ofits being a gain is called a simple doubt. When there is a doubtwhether either of two things will happen or not, it is called a mixeddoubt.

religiousmerit - merito religioso

uncertain - incierto

ofits - de ella

doubtwhether - dudas

mixeddoubt - duda mixta

If while one thing is being done two results take place, it iscalled a combination of two results, and if several results follow fromthe same action, it is called a combination of results on every side.

We shall now give examples of the above.

As already stated, gain is of three kinds, and loss, which is opposed togain, is also of three kinds.

(a). When by living with a great man a courtesan acquires presentwealth, and in addition to this becomes acquainted with other people,and thus obtains a chance of future fortune, and an accession of wealth,and becomes desirable to all, this is called a gain of wealth attendedby other gain.

presentwealth - Actualidad

accession - adhesión; ascenso

attendedby - Asistido por

(b). When by living with a man a courtesan simply gets money, this iscalled a gain of wealth not attended by any other gain.

(c). When a courtesan receives money from other people besides herlover, the results are: the chance of the loss of future good from herpresent lover; the chance of disaffection of a man securely attached toher; the hatred of all; and the chance of a union with some low person,tending to destroy her future good. This gain is called a gain of wealthattended by losses.

herpresent - su presente

disaffection - desafección

wealthattended - iquezaatendida

(d). When a courtesan, at her own expense, and without any results inthe shape of gain, has connected with a great man, or an avariciousminister, for the sake of diverting some misfortune, or removing somecause that may be threatening the destruction of a great gain, this lossis said to be a loss of wealth attended by gains of the future goodwhich it may bring about.

avariciousminister - ministro avaricioso

lossis - ossis

goodwhich - Bueno qué

(e). When a courtesan is kind, even at her own expense, to a man who isvery stingy, or to a man proud of his looks, or to an ungrateful manskilled in gaining the heart of others, without any good resulting fromthese connections to her in the end, this loss is called a loss ofwealth not attended by any gain.

stingy - mezquino, tacano, parco, escaso

ungrateful - desagradecido, ingrato, malagradecido

manskilled - Hombre cualificado

fromthese - De estos

ofwealth - e la riqueza

(f). When a courtesan is kind to any such man as described above, butwho in addition are favourites of the King, and moreover cruel andpowerful, without any good result in the end, and with a chance of herbeing turned away at any moment, this loss is called a loss of wealthattended by other losses.

butwho - pero quién

andpowerful - poderoso

herbeing - ser ella

In this way gains and losses, and attendant gains and losses inreligious merit and pleasures may become known to the reader, andcombinations of all of them may also be made.

andcombinations - y las combinaciones

Thus end the remarks on gains and losses, and attendant gains andlosses.

andlosses - y las pérdidas

In the next place we come to doubts, which are again of three kinds,viz.: doubts about wealth, doubts about religious merit, and doubtsabout pleasures.

doubtsabout - Dudas

The following are examples.

(a). When a courtesan is not certain how much a man may give her, orspend upon her, this is called a doubt about wealth.

orspend - o gastar

(b). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she is right in entirelyabandoning a lover from whom she is unable to get money, she havingtaken all his wealth from him in the first instance, this doubt iscalled a doubt about religious merit.

entirelyabandoning - abandono total

havingtaken - Haber tomado

(c). When a courtesan is unable to get hold of a lover to her liking,and is uncertain whether she will derive any pleasure from a personsurrounded by his family, or from a low person, this is called a doubtabout pleasure.

personsurrounded - personas rodeadas

doubtabout - dudas

(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether some powerful but lowprincipled fellow would cause loss to her on account of her not beingcivil to him, this is called a doubt about the loss of wealth.

lowprincipled - de bajos principios

beingcivil - ser cívico

(e). When a courtesan feels doubtful whether she would lose religiousmerit by abandoning a man who is attached to her without giving him theslightest favour, and thereby causing him unhappiness in this world andthe next,[76] this doubt is called a doubt about the loss of a religiousmerit.

theslightest - El más ligero

unhappiness - infelicidad

(f). When a courtesan is uncertain as to whether she might createdisaffection by speaking out, and revealing her love and thus not gether desire satisfied, this is called a doubt about the loss of pleasure.

createdisaffection - ha creado un afecto

Thus end the remarks on doubts.

_Mixed Doubts_.

(a). The intercourse or connection with a stranger, whose disposition isunknown, and who may have been introduced by a lover, or by one whopossessed authority, may be productive either of gain or loss, andtherefore this is called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss ofwealth.

isunknown - se desconoce

whopossessed - QUIÉN SE LO DIJO

andtherefore - y por qué

(b). When a courtesan is requested by a friend, or is impelled by pityto have intercourse with a learned Brahman, a religious student, asacrificer, a devotee, or an ascetic who may have all fallen in lovewith her, and who may be consequently at the point of death, by doingthis she might either gain or lose religious merit, and therefore thisis called a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of religious merit.

impelled - impulsado; impeler, impulsar

asacrificer - Asacrificador

devotee - devoto

lovewith - con amor

doingthis - Haciendo esto

(c). If a courtesan relies solely upon the report of other people (_i.e._,hearsay) about a man, and goes to him without ascertaining herselfwhether he possesses good qualities or not, she may either gain or losepleasure in proportion as he may be good or bad, and therefore this iscalled a mixed doubt about the gain and loss of pleasure.

hearsay - rumores, habladurías, pruebas de oídas, testimonio de oídas

ascertaining - comprobación; averiguar, determinar, establecer, definir

herselfwhether - Si

losepleasure - Perder el placer

Uddalika has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.

(a). If, when living with a lover, a courtesan gets both wealth andpleasure from him, it is called a gain on both sides.

(b). When a courtesan lives with a lover at her own expense withoutgetting any profit out of it, and the lover even takes back from herwhat he may have formerly given her, it is called a loss on both sides.

withoutgetting - sin conseguirlo

takes back - recuperar; retira; devolver

herwhat - Qué

(c). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a new acquaintance wouldbecome attached to her, and, moreover, if he became attached to her,whether he would give her any thing, it is then called a doubt on bothsides about gains.

wouldbecome - Se convertiría

(d). When a courtesan is uncertain whether a former enemy, if made up byher at her own expense, would do her some injury on account of hisgrudge against her; or, if becoming attached to her, would take awayangrily from her any thing that he may have given to her, this is calleda doubt on both sides about loss.

hisgrudge - Su rencor

awayangrily - Enfadado

Babhravya has described the gains and losses on both sides as follows.

(a). When a courtesan can get money from a man whom she may go to see,and also money from a man whom she may not go to see, this is called again on both sides.

(b). When a courtesan has to incur further expense if she goes to see aman, and yet runs the risk of incurring an irremediable loss if she doesnot go to see him, this is called a loss on both sides.

irremediable - irremediable

(c). When a courtesan is uncertain, whether a particular man would giveher anything on her going to see him, without incurring expense on herpart, or whether on her neglecting him another man would give hersomething, this is called a doubt on both sides about gain.

herpart - Su parte

hersomething - Su algo

(d.) When a courtesan is uncertain, whether, on going at her own expenseto see an old enemy, he would take back from her what he may have givenher, or whether by her not going to see him he would cause some disasterto fall upon her, this is called a doubt on both sides about loss.

expenseto - Gastos

givenher - Le diste

disasterto - Desastre

By combining the above, the following six kinds of mixed results areproduced, viz.:

areproduced - se producen

(a). Gain on one side, and loss on the other.

(b). Gain on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.

(c). Gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.

(d). Loss on one side, and doubt of gain on the other.

(e). Doubt of gain on one side, and doubt of loss on the other.

(f). Doubt of loss on one side, and loss on the other.

A courtesan, having considered all the above things, and taken councilwith her friends, should act so as to acquire gain, the chances of greatgain, and the warding off of any great disaster. Religious merit andpleasure should also be formed into separate combinations like those ofwealth, and then all should be combined with each other, so as to formnew combinations.

councilwith - Consejo

greatgain - gran ganga

formnew - nuevo

When a courtesan consorts with men she should cause each of them to giveher money as well as pleasure. At particular times, such as the SpringFestivals, etc., she should make her mother announce to the various men,that on a certain day her daughter would remain with the man who wouldgratify such and such a desire of hers.

consorts - onsortes; consorte, consorcio

wouldgratify - gratificaría

When young men approach her with delight, she should think of what shemay accomplish through them.

shemay - puede

The combination of gains and losses on all sides are: gain on one side,and loss on all others; loss on one side and gain on all others; gain onall sides, loss on all sides.

onall - Todos

A courtesan should also consider doubts about gain and doubts about losswith reference both to wealth, religious merit, and pleasure.

losswith - pérdida

Thus ends the consideration of gain, loss, attendant gains, attendantlosses, and doubts.

attendantlosses - pérdidas concomitantes

The different kinds of courtesans are:

A bawd.

bawd - Idiota

A female attendant.

An unchaste woman.

A dancing girl.

A female artisan.

Artisan - artesano, menestral

A woman who has left her family.

A woman living on her beauty.

And, finally, a regular courtesan.

All the above kinds of courtesans are acquainted with various kinds ofmen, and should consider the ways of getting money from them, ofpleasing them, of separating themselves from them, and of re-unitingwith them. They should also take into consideration particular gains andlosses, attendant gains and losses, and doubts in accordance with theirseveral conditions.

ofpleasing - e complacer

unitingwith - unirse con

theirseveral - susvarios

Thus end the considerations of courtesans.

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

"Men want pleasure, while women want money, and therefore this Part,which treats of the means of gaining wealth, should be studied."

"There are some women who seek for love, and there are others who seekfor money; for the former the ways of love are told in previous portionsof this work, while the ways of getting money, as practised bycourtesans, are described in this Part."

seekfor - Buscar

portionsof - Porción de

bycourtesans - ycourtesans


[Footnote 76: The souls of men who die with their desires unfulfilledare said to go to the world of the Manes, and not direct to the SupremeSpirit.]

unfulfilledare - insatisfechos






When a person fails to obtain the object of his desires by any of theways previously related, he should then have recourse to other ways ofattracting others to himself.

ofattracting - e atraer

Now, good looks, good qualities, youth, and liberality are the chief andmost natural means of making a person agreeable in the eyes of others.But in the absence of these a man or a woman must have resort toartificial means, or to art, and the following are some recipes that maybe found useful.

andmost - y la mayoría

toartificial - artificial

(a). An ointment made of the tabernamontana coronaria, the costusspeciosus or arabicus, and the flacourtia cataphracta, can be used as anunguent of adornment.

cataphracta - Catafracta

anunguent - anuncio

(b). If a fine powder is made of the above plants, and applied to thewick of a lamp, which is made to burn with the oil of blue vitrol, theblack pigment or lamp black produced therefrom, when applied to theeye-lashes, has the effect of making a person look lovely.

theblack - El negro

pigment - pigmento, pigmento, pigmentar

theeye - El ojo

lashes - pestanas; pestana

(c). The oil of the hog weed, the echites putescens, the sarina plant,the yellow amaranth, and the leaf of the nymphæ, if applied to the body,has the same effect.

hog - cerdo, puerco, marrano

echites - Equitas

(d). A black pigment from the same plants produce a similar effect.

(e). By eating the powder of the nelumbrium speciosum, the blue lotus,and the mesna roxburghii, with ghee and honey, a man becomes lovely inthe eyes of others.

nelumbrium - Nelumbrio

speciosum - peciosum

roxburghii - oxburghii

honey - carino; miel, dulzura, carino, tesoro, cielo

(f). The above things, together with the tabernamontana coronaria, andthe xanthochymus pictorius, if used as an ointment, produce the sameresults.

sameresults - mismos resultados

(g). If the bone of a peacock or of an hyena be covered with gold, andtied on the right hand, it makes a man lovely in the eyes of otherpeople.

hyena - hiena

andtied - Y atado

(h). In the same way, if a bead, made of the seed of the jujube, or ofthe conch shell, be enchanted by the incantations mentioned in theAtharvana Veda, or by the incantations of those well skilled in thescience of magic, and tied on the hand, it produces the same result asdescribed above.

bead - perla; cuenta, gota

jujube - azufaifo, jinjolero, azufaifa, jínjol

conch - caracola, concha, bocina

enchanted - encantado; encantar

theAtharvana - elAtharvana

thescience - la ciencia

asdescribed - cómo se describe

(i). When a female attendant arrives at the age of puberty, her mastershould keep her secluded, and when men ardently desire her on account ofher seclusion, and on account of the difficulty of approaching her, heshould then bestow her hand on such a person as may endow her withwealth and happiness.

mastershould - debería

secluded - Aislarse

bestow - otorgar; guardar, estibar, depositar, alojar, acordar, conceder

endow - dotar, costear, financiar, ser bendecido, ser dotado

withwealth - con riqueza

This is a means of increasing the loveliness of a person in the eyes ofothers.

In the same way, when the daughter of a courtesan arrives at the age ofpuberty, the mother should get together a lot of young men of the sameage, disposition, and knowledge as her daughter, and tell them that shewould give her in marriage to the person who would give her presents ofa particular kind.

ofpuberty - de la pubertad

sameage - Igualdad

After this the daughter should be kept in seclusion as far as possible,and the mother should give her in marriage to the man who may be readyto give her the presents agreed upon. If the mother is unable to get somuch out of the man, she should show some of her own things as havingbeen given to the daughter by the bridegroom.

havingbeen - Haber estado

bridegroom - novio

Or, the mother may allow her daughter to be married to the manprivately, as if she was ignorant of the whole affair, and thenpretending that it has come to her knowledge, she may give her consentto the union.

manprivately - anprivately

thenpretending - pretendiendo

The daughter, too, should make herself attractive to the sons of wealthycitizens, unknown to her mother, and make them attached to her, and forthis purpose should meet them at the time of learning to sing, and inplaces where music is played, and at the houses of other people, andthen request her mother, through a female friend, or servant, to beallowed to unite herself to the man who is most agreeable to her.[77]

wealthycitizens - ciudadanos ricos

forthis - Esto

inplaces - lugares

beallowed - se permite

When the daughter of a courtesan is thus given to a man, the ties ofmarriage should be observed for one year, and after that she may do whatshe likes. But even after the end of the year, when otherwise engaged,if she should be now and then invited by her first husband to come andsee him, she should put aside her present gain, and go to him for thenight.

whatshe - Qué

andsee - y ver

thenight - entonces

Such is the mode of temporary marriage among courtesans, and ofincreasing their loveliness, and their value in the eyes of others. Whathas been said about them should also be understood to apply to thedaughters of dancing women, whose mothers should give them only to suchpersons as are likely to become useful to them in various ways.

ofincreasing - e aumentar

thedaughters - las hijas

suchpersons - alespersonas

Thus end the ways of making oneself lovely in the eyes of others.

(a). If a man, after anointing his lingam with a mixture of the powdersof the white thorn apple, the long pepper, and the black pepper, andhoney, engages in sexual union with a woman, he makes her subject to hiswill.

anointing - unción; ungir

powdersof - Polvos de

thorn - espina, thorn

andhoney - y la miel

hiswill - Su voluntad

(b). The application of a mixture of the leaf of the plant vatodbhranta,of the flowers thrown on a human corpse when carried out to be burnt,and the powder of the bones of the peacock, and of the jiwanjiva bird,produces the same effect.

corpse - cuerpo, cadáver

(c). The remains of a kite who has died a natural death, ground intopowder, and mixed with cowach and honey, has also the same effect.

kite - cometa

intopowder - pólvora

(d). Anointing oneself with an ointment made of the plant emblicamyrabolans has the power of subjecting women to one's will.


If a man cuts into small pieces the sprouts of the vajnasunhiplant, and dips them into a mixture of red arsenic and sulphur, and thendries them seven times, and applies this powder mixed with honey to hislingam, he can subjugate a woman to his will directly that he has hadsexual union with her, or, if, by burning these very sprouts at nightand looking at the smoke, he sees a golden moon behind, he will then besuccessful with any woman; or if he throws some of the powder of thesesame sprouts mixed with the excrement of a monkey upon a maiden, shewill not be given in marriage to any body else.

cuts into - corta en

sulphur - sulfuro; azufre

thendries - hendries

subjugate - subyugar; sojuzgar

hadsexual - adsexual

besuccessful - Tiene éxito

thesesame - Igual

excrement - excrementos; excremento

(f). If pieces of the arris root are dressed with the oil of the mango,and placed for six months in a hole made in the trunk of the sisu tree,and are then taken out and made up into an ointment, and applied to thelingam, this is said to serve as the means of subjugating women.

mango - árbol de mango


If the bone of a camel is dipped into the juice of the planteclipta prostata, and then burnt, and the black pigment produced fromits ashes is placed in a box also made of the bone of a camel, andapplied together with antimony to the eye lashes with a pencil also madeof the bone of a camel, then that pigment is said to be very pure, andwholesome for the eyes, and serves as a means of subjugating others tothe person who uses it. The same effect can be produced by black pigmentmade of the bones of hawks, vultures, and peacocks.

camel - camello

dipped into - echar un vistazo, hojear; echar mano a ahorros

fromits - De ella

andapplied - aplicado

antimony - antimonio

madeof - De qué

andwholesome - y saludable

pigmentmade - hecho con pigmentos

hawks - gavilanes; halcón

vultures - buitres; buitre, zopilote

Thus end the ways of subjugating others to one's own will.

Now the means of increasing sexual vigour are as follows:

vigour - vigor, vivacidad, vigor, lozanía, fuerza, energía

(a). A man obtains sexual vigour by drinking milk mixed with sugar, theroot of the uchchata plant, the piper chaba, and liquorice.

theroot - la raíz

uchchata - chchata

liquorice - regaliz

(b). Drinking milk mixed with sugar, and having the testicle of a ram ora goat boiled in it, is also productive of vigour.

testicle - testículo, cojón

(c). The drinking of the juice of the hedysarum gangeticum, the kuili,and the kshirika plant mixed with milk, produces the same effect.

(d). The seed of the long pepper along with the seeds of the sansevieraroxburghiana, and the hedysarum gangeticum plant, all pounded together,and mixed with milk, is productive of a similar result.

(e). According to ancient authors, if a man pounds the seeds or roots ofthe trapa bispinosa, the kasurika, the tuscan jasmine, and liquorice,together with the kshirakapoli (a kind of onion), and puts the powderinto milk mixed with sugar and ghee, and having boiled the whole mixtureon a moderate fire, drinks the paste so formed, he will be able to enjoyinnumerable women.

Tuscan - toscano, toscano, toscana

powderinto - en polvo

mixtureon - Mezclón

paste - pasta, masa, paté, budín, engrudo, cola, pegar, engrudar

enjoyinnumerable - disfrutar de innumerables

(f). In the same way, if a man mixes rice with the eggs of the sparrow,and having boiled this in milk, adds to it ghee and honey, and drinks asmuch of it as necessary, this will produce the same effect.

asmuch - tanto

(g). If a man takes the outer covering of sesamum seeds, and soaks themwith the eggs of sparrows, and then, having boiled them in milk, mixedwith sugar and ghee, along with the fruits of the trapa bispinosa andthe kasurika plant, and adding to it the flour of wheat and beans, andthen drinks this composition, he is said to be able to enjoy many women.

themwith - con ellos

sparrows - gorriones; pasérido, gorrión, pájaro

mixedwith - Mezclado con

(h). If ghee, honey, sugar, and liquorice in equal quantities, the juiceof the fennel plant, and milk are mixed together, this nectar-likecomposition is said to be holy, and provocative of sexual vigour, apreservative of life, and sweet to the taste.

juiceof - Zumo de

nectar - néctar, néctar

likecomposition - como la composición

provocative - provocador, provocativo

apreservative - apreservante

(i). The drinking of a paste composed of the asparagus racemosus, theshvadaushtra plant, the guduchi plant, the long pepper, and liquorice,boiled in milk, honey, and ghee, in the spring, is said to have the sameeffect as the above.

asparagus - espárragos; espárrago

theshvadaushtra - eshvadaushtra

sameeffect - el mismo efecto

(j). Boiling the asparagus racemosus, and the shvadaushtra plant, alongwith the pounded fruits of the premna spinosa in water, and drinking thesame, is said to act in the same way.

(k). Drinking boiled ghee, or clarified butter in the morning during thespring season, is said to be beneficial to health and strength, andagreeable to the taste.

thespring - la primavera

(l). If the powder of the seed of the shvadaushtra plant and the flowerof barley are mixed together in equal parts, and a portion of it, _i.e._,two palas in weight, is eaten every morning on getting up, it has thesame effect as the preceding recipe.

flowerof - florerof

barley - cebada

There are also verses on the subject as follows:

"The means[78] of producing love and sexual vigour should be learnt fromthe science of medicine, from the Vedas, from those who are learned inthe arts of magic, and from confidential relatives. No means should betried which are doubtful in their effects, which are likely to causeinjury to the body, which involve the death of animals, and which bringus in contact with impure things.

causeinjury - causar lesiones

bringus - ringus

Such means should only be used as areholy, acknowledged to be good, and approved of by Brahmans, andfriends."

areholy - Son santos

andfriends - y amigos


[Footnote 77: It is a custom of the courtesans of Oriental countries togive their daughters temporarily in marriage when they come of age, andafter they have received an education in the Kama Sutra and other arts.Full details are given of this at page 76 of "Early Ideas, a group ofHindoo stories, collected and collated by Anaryan. W. H. Allen and Co.,London, 1881."]

togive - Dar

ofHindoo - eHindoo

collated - cotejado; cotejar, ordenar

[Footnote 78: From the earliest times Oriental authors have occupiedthemselves about aphrodisiacs. The following note on the subject istaken from page 29 of a translation of the Hindoo Art of Love, otherwisethe Anunga Runga, alluded to in the preface of this work, Part I., pages3 and 5:--"most eastern treatises divide aphrodisiacs into two differentkinds: 1.

occupiedthemselves - se ocuparon

aphrodisiacs - afrodisíacos; afrodisíaco, afrodisíaco

istaken - está tomada

otherwisethe - e lo contrario.

most eastern - el más oriental

treatises - tratados; tratado

the mechanical or natural, such as scarification,flagellation, etc.; and 2., the medicinal or artificial. To the formerbelong the application of insects, as is practised by some savage races;and all orientalists will remember the tale of the old Brahman, whoseyoung wife insisted upon his being again stung by a wasp."]

flagellation - Flagelación

medicinal - medicinal, medicamentoso

formerbelong - antiguo

savage - salvaje

whoseyoung - de quién es joven

stung - picado; aguijón

wasp - avispa



If a man is unable to satisfy a Hastini, or elephant woman, he shouldhave recourse to various means to excite her passion. At thecommencement he should rub her yoni with his hand or fingers, and notbegin to have intercourse with her until she becomes excited, orexperiences pleasure. This is one way of exciting a woman.

shouldhave - Debería haberlo hecho

thecommencement - el comienzo

notbegin - no empezar

orexperiences - experiencias

Or, he may make use of certain Apadravyas, or things which are put on oraround the lingam to supplement its length or its thickness, so as tofit it to the yoni.

oraround - o alrededor

thickness - espesor; grosor, espesura, torpeza

In the opinion of Babhravya, these Apadravyas shouldbe made of gold, silver, copper, iron, ivory, buffalo's horn, variouskinds of wood, tin or lead, and should be soft, cool, provocative ofsexual vigour, and well fitted to serve the intended purpose.Vatsyayana, however, says that they may be made according to the naturalliking of each individual.

intended purpose - Propósito previsto

naturalliking - le gusta lo natural

The following are the different kinds of Apadravyas.

(1). "The armlet" (Valaya) should be of the same size as the lingam, andshould have its outer surface made rough with globules.

globules - glóbulos; glóbulo

(2). "The couple" (Sanghati) is formed of two armlets.

(3). "The bracelet" (Chudaka) is made by joining three or more armlets,until they come up to the required length of the lingam.

bracelet - brazalete, pulsera

(4). "The single bracelet" is formed by wrapping a single wire aroundthe lingam, according to its dimensions.

aroundthe - alrededor del

(5). The Kantuka or Jalaka is a tube open at both ends, with a holethrough it, outwardly rough and studded with soft globules, and made tofit the side of the yoni, and tied to the waist.

holethrough - A través de agujeros

outwardly - exteriormente

studded - con clavos; caballeriza

When such a thing cannot be obtained, then a tube made of the woodapple, or tubular stalk of the bottle gourd, or a reed made soft withoil and extracts of plants, and tied to the waist with strings, may bemade use of, as also a row of soft pieces of wood tied together.

tubular - tubular

stalk - tallo; palanca; acechar, acosar

reed - lengüeta; junco, cana

Row - hilera, fila

The above are the things that can be used in connection with or in theplace of the lingam.

The people of the southern countries think that true sexual pleasurecannot be obtained without perforating the lingam, and they thereforecause it to be pierced like the lobes of the ears of an infant piercedfor earrings.

pleasurecannot - el placer no puede

perforating - perforación; perforar

thereforecause - por qué

lobes - lóbulos; lóbulo

piercedfor - Perforado

earrings - pendientes; arete

Now, when a young man perforates his lingam he should pierce it with asharp instrument, and then stand in water so long as the blood continuesto flow. At night he should engage in sexual intercourse, even withvigour, so as to clean the hole. After this he should continue to washthe hole with decoctions, and increase the size by putting into it smallpieces of cane, and the wrightia antidysenterica, and thus graduallyenlarging the orifice.

perforates - perforar

pierce - perforar; atravesar, traspasar

continuesto - continúa

withvigour - con vigor

washthe - Qué

decoctions - decocciones; panish: t-needed

smallpieces - pequenas piezas

graduallyenlarging - aumentando gradualmente

orifice - orificio

It may also be washed with liquorice mixed withhoney, and the size of the hole increased by the fruit stalks of thesima-patra plant. The hole should be annointed with a small quantity ofoil.

withhoney - Con dinero

stalks - tallos; tallo

thesima - Tesima

annointed - Ungido

ofoil - De petróleo

The ways of enlarging the lingam must be now related.

When a man wishes to enlarge his lingam, he should rub it with thebristles of certain insects that live in trees, and then, after rubbingit for ten nights with oils, he should again rub it with the bristles asbefore. By continuing to do this a swelling will be gradually producedin the lingam, and he should then lie on a cot, and cause his lingam tohang down through a hole in the cot.

enlarge - ampliar, agrandar, engrandecer

thebristles - las cerdas

swelling - inflamación, hinchazón; (swell); inflamación, hinchazón

producedin - Producido en

cot - cuna

After this he should take away allthe pain from the swelling by using cool concoctions. The swelling,which is called "Suka," and is often brought about among the people ofthe Dravida country, lasts for life.

concoctions - rebajes; brebaje, poción, mejunje, cocimiento

If the lingam is rubbed with the following things, viz., the plantphysalis flexuosa, the shavara-kandaka plant, the jalasuka plant, thefruit of the egg plant, the butter of a she buffalo, the hastri-charmaplant, and the juice of the vajra-rasa plant, a swelling lasting for onemonth will be produced.

thefruit - la fruta

charmaplant - harmaplant

onemonth - un mes

By rubbing it with oil boiled in the concoctions of the above things,the same effect will be produced, but lasting for six months.

The enlargement of the lingam is also effected by rubbing it ormoistening it with oil boiled on a moderate fire along with the seeds ofthe pomegranate, and the cucumber, the juices of the valuka plant, thehasti-charma plant, and the egg-plant.

ormoistening - Humectación

pomegranate - granada, granado

valuka - valka

charma - Carma

In addition to the above, other means may be learnt from experienced andconfidential persons.

andconfidential - confidencial

The miscellaneous experiments and recipes are as follows:

(a). If a man mixes the powder of the milk hedge plant, and the kantakaplant with the excrement of a monkey, and the powdered root of thelanjalalika plant, and throws this mixture on a woman, she will not loveany body else afterwards.

hedge - cobertura; seto

thelanjalalika - lanjalalika

loveany - Amor

(b). If a man thickens the juice of the fruits of the cassia fistula,and the eugenia jambolana by mixing them with the powder of the somaplant, the vernonia anthelmintica, the eclipta prostata, and thelohopa-jihirka, and applies this composition to the yoni of a woman, andthen has sexual intercourse with her, his love for her will bedestroyed.

thickens - se espesa; espesar

cassia - casia fistula

fistula - fístula

eugenia - Eugenia

thelohopa - Ellohopa

bedestroyed - Destruido

(c). The same effect is produced if a man has connection with a womanwho has bathed in the butter-milk of a she-buffalo mixed with thepowders of the gopalika plant, the banu-padika plant, and the yellowamaranth.

thepowders - Los polvos

(d). An ointment made of the flowers of the nauclea cadamba, the hogplum, and the eugenia jambolana, and used by a woman, causes her to bedisliked by her husband.

hogplum - ogplum

bedisliked - \"bedisliked\"

(e). Garlands made of the above flowers, when worn by the woman, producethe same effect.

(f). An ointment made of the fruit of the asteracantha longifolia(kokilaksha) will contract the yoni of a Hastini or elephant woman, andthis contraction lasts for one night.

contraction - contracción, contracción

(g). An ointment made by pounding the roots of the nelumbrium speciosum,and of the blue lotus, and the powder of the plant physalis flexuosamixed with ghee and honey, will enlarge the yoni of the Mrigi or deerwoman.

physalis - fisalis; uchuva

flexuosamixed - lexuosamixed

deerwoman - Mujer ciervo

(h). An ointment made of the fruit of the emblica myrabolans soaked inthe milky juice of the milk hedge plant, of the soma plant, thecalotropis gigantea, and the juice of the fruit of the vernoniaanthelmintica, will make the hair white.

myrabolans - Mirabolas

Milky - lechoso

thecalotropis - elcalotropis

(i). The juice of the roots of the madayantaka plant, the yellowamaranth, the anjanika plant, the clitoria ternateea, and theshlakshnaparni plant, used as a lotion, will make the hair grow.

clitoria - Clítoris

theshlakshnaparni - eshlakshnaparni

lotion - loción

(j). An ointment made by boiling the above roots in oil, and rubbed in,will make the hair black, and will also gradually restore hair that hasfallen off.

(k) If lac is saturated seven times in the sweat of the testicle of awhite horse, and applied to a red lip, the lip will become white.

saturated - saturado; empapar, saturar

awhite - Blanco

(l). The colour of the lips can be regained by means of the madayantikaand other plants mentioned above under (i).

(m). A woman who hears a man playing on a reed pipe which has beendressed with the juices of the bahupadika plant, the tabernamontanacoronaria, the costus speciosus or arabicus, the pinus deodora, theeuphorbia antiquorum, the vajra and the kantaka plant, becomes hisslave.

beendressed - Estar vestido

tabernamontanacoronaria - abernamontanacoronaria

speciosus - peciosus

theeuphorbia - la euforbia

hisslave - esclavo

(n). If food be mixed with the fruit of the thorn apple (Dathura) itcauses intoxication.

itcauses - causa

(o). If water be mixed with oil and the ashes of any kind of grassexcept the kusha grass, it becomes the colour of milk.

grassexcept - Grassexcepto

(p). If yellow myrabolans, the hog plum, the shrawana plant, and thepriyangu plant be all pounded together, and applied to iron pots, thesepots become red.

plum - ciruela

thepriyangu - elpriyangu

thesepots - estas ollas

(q). If a lamp, trimmed with oil extracted from the shrawana andpriyangn plants, its wick being made of cloth and the slough of theskins of snakes, is lighted, and long pieces of wood placed near it,those pieces of wood will resemble so many snakes.

trimmed - recortado; recortar, orlar, ribetear

andpriyangn - ypriyangn

wick - mecha

slough - lodos

theskins - las pieles

(r). Drinking the milk of a white cow who has a white calf at her feetis auspicious, produces fame, and preserves life.

feetis - eetis

(s). The blessings of venerable Brahmans, well propitiated, have thesame effect.

blessings - bendiciones; bendición

There are also some verses in conclusion:

"Thus have I written in a few words the 'Science of love,'after readingthe texts of ancient authors, and following the ways of enjoymentmentioned in them."

readingthe - Leyendo el

enjoymentmentioned - Disfrutar

"He who is acquainted with the true principles of this science paysregard to Dharma, Artha, Kama, and to his own experiences, as well as tothe teachings of others, and does not act simply on the dictates of hisown desire. As for the errors in the science of love which I havementioned in this work, on my own authority as an author, I have,immediately after mentioning them, carefully censured and prohibitedthem."

paysregard - paga

teachings - ensenanzas; ensenanza

censured - censurado; censura

prohibitedthem - Los prohibió

"An act is never looked upon with indulgence for the simple reason thatit is authorised by the science, because it ought to be remembered thatit is the intention of the science, that the rules which it containsshould only be acted upon in particular cases. After reading andconsidering the works of Babhravya and other ancient authors, andthinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, the Kama Sutra wascomposed, according to the precepts of Holy Writ, for the benefit of theworld, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of a religious student, andwholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity.

indulgence - complacencia; indulgencia

thatit - eso

authorised - Autorizar

containsshould - contiene

andconsidering - considerando

andthinking - pensar

wascomposed - fue compuesto

theworld - el mundo

andwholly - ?totalmente

"This work is not intended to be used merely as an instrument forsatisfying our desires. A person, acquainted with the true principles ofthis science, and who preserves his Dharma, Artha, and Kama, and hasregard for the practices of the people, is sure to obtain the masteryover his senses."

hasregard - ha hecho caso omiso

masteryover - Dominar

"In short, an intelligent and prudent person, attending to Dharma andArtha, and attending to Kama also, without becoming the slave of hispassions, obtains success in everything that he may undertake."

Prudent - prudente, atentado

andArtha - Artha

hispassions - Sus pasiones



Thus ends, in seven parts, the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, which mightotherwise be called a treatise on men and women, their mutualrelationship, and connection with each other.

mightotherwise - podría ser de otro modo

mutualrelationship - relación mutua

It is a work that should be studied by all, both old and young; theformer will find in it real truths, gathered by experience, and alreadytested by themselves, while the latter will derive the great advantageof learning things, which some perhaps may otherwise never learn at all,or which they may only learn when it is too late ("too late" thoseimmortal words of Mirabeau) to profit by the learning.

alreadytested - Ya se ha probado

advantageof - entajas

thoseimmortal - aquellos inmortales

It can also be fairly commended to the student of social science and ofhumanity, and above all to the student of those early ideas, which havegradually filtered down through the sands of time, and which seem toprove that the human nature of to-day is much the same as the humannature of the long ago.

ofhumanity - e la humanidad

havegradually - tiene gradualmente

humannature - naturaleza humana

It has been said of Balzac [the great, if not the greatest of Frenchnovelists] that he seemed to have inherited a natural and intuitiveperception of the feelings of men and women, and has described them withan analysis worthy of a man of science. The author of the present workmust also have had a considerable knowledge of the humanities.

intuitiveperception - percepción intuitiva

withan - conan

workmust - Trabajo

Many ofhis remarks are so full of simplicity and truth, that they have stoodthe test of time, and stand out still as clear and true as when theywere first written, some eighteen hundred years ago.

stoodthe - se mantiene

As a collection of facts, told in plain and simple language, it must beremembered that in those early days there was apparently no idea ofembellishing the work, either with a literary style, a flow oflanguage, or a quantity of superfluous padding. The author tells theworld what he knows in very concise language, without any attempt toproduce an interesting story.

beremembered - Recordar

ofembellishing - e embellecimiento

oflanguage - e la lengua

superfluous - superfluo

concise - conciso, breve, sucinto, escueto

toproduce - Producir

From his facts how many novels could bewritten! Indeed much of the matter contained in parts III. IV. V. andVI., has formed the basis of many of the stories and the tales of pastcenturies.

bewritten - escrito

andVI - yVI

pastcenturies - Siglos pasados

There will be found in part VII., some curious recipes. Many of themappear to be as primitive as the book itself, but in later works of thesame nature these recipes and prescriptions appear to have increased,both as regards quality and quantity.

themappear - aparecen

primitive - primitivo

In the Anunga Runga or "The Stageof Love," mentioned at page 5 of the Preface in Part I., there are foundno less than thirty-three different subjects for which one hundred andthirty recipes and prescriptions are given.

foundno - No lo encontró

andthirty - y treinta

As the details may be interesting, these subjects are described asfollows:

1. For hastening the paroxysm of the woman.

hastening - apresurándose; correr, acelerar, precipitar, anticipar

paroxysm - paroxismo

2. For delaying the organs of the man.

3. Aphrodisiacs.

4. For thickening and enlarging the lingam, rendering it sound andstrong, hard and lusty.

thickening - engrosamiento; espesamiento, espesante; (thicken); espesar

andstrong - y fuerte

lusty - Lujurioso

5. For narrowing and contracting the yoni.

6. For perfuming the yoni.

7. For removing and destroying the hair of the body.

8. For removing the sudden stopping of the monthly ailment.

ailment - dolencia, enfermedad, achaque, alifafe

9. For abating the immoderate appearance of the monthly ailment.

abating - aminorando; disminuir, amainar

immoderate - inmoderado; desmedido, desmesurado

10. For purifying the womb.

purifying - purificar

womb - útero, matriz, cuna

11. For causing pregnancy.

12. For preventing miscarriage and other accidents.

miscarriage - aborto espontáneo, aborto natural

13. For ensuring easy labour and ready deliverance.

deliverance - entrega, salvación, liberación

14. For limiting the number of children.

15. For thickening and beautifying the hair.

beautifying - embellecimiento; embellecer

16. For obtaining a good black colour to it.

17. For whitening and bleaching it.

whitening - blanqueamiento, blanqueo; (whiten); blanquear

bleaching - blanqueo; Blanquear; (bleach) blanqueo; Blanquear

18. For renewing it.

19. For clearing the skin of the face from eruptions that break out andleave black spots upon it.

eruptions - erupciones; erupción

andleave - y marcharse

20. For removing the black colour of the epidermis.

epidermis - epidermis

21. For enlarging the breasts of women.

22. For raising and hardening pendulous breasts.

hardening - endurecimiento; (harden); endurecimiento

pendulous - colgante

23. For giving a fragrance to the skin.

24. For removing the evil savour of perspiration.

savour - saborear

25. For anointing the body after bathing.

26. For causing a pleasant smell to the breath.

27. Drugs and charms for the purposes of fascinating, overcoming, andsubduing either men or women.

andsubduing - subordinación

28. Recipes for enabling a woman to attract and preserve her husband'slove.

slove - Ilusión

29. Magical collyriums for winning love and friendship.

collyriums - Colirio

30. Prescriptions for reducing other persons to submission.

31. Philter pills, and other charms.

philter - filter; pócima, pócima de amor, poción de amor, filtro

32. Fascinating incense, or fumigation.

fumigation - fumigación

33. Magical verses which have the power of fascination.

fascination - fascinación

Of the one hundred and thirty recipes given, many of them are absurd,but not more perhaps than many of the recipes and prescriptions in usein Europe not so very long ago. Love-philters, charms, and herbalremedies have been, in early days, as freely used in Europe as in Asia,and doubtless some people believe in them still in many places.

usein - usando

philters - filtros; pócima, pócima de amor, poción de amor, filtro

herbalremedies - medicamentos a base de hierbas

Asia - Asia

doubtless - indudable, sin duda, indudablemente

And now, one word about the author of the work, the good old sageVatsyayana. It is much to be regretted that nothing can be discoveredabout his life, his belongings, and his surroundings. At the end of PartVII. he states that he wrote the work while leading the life of areligious student [probably at Benares] and while wholly engaged in thecontemplation of the Deity.

sageVatsyayana - Sabio Vatsyayana

discoveredabout - Descubierto

surroundings - alrededores; periferia, rededor, derredor, circundante

thecontemplation - la contemplación

He must have arrived at a certain age atthat time, for throughout he gives us the benefit of his experience, andof his opinions, and these bear the stamp of age rather than of youth;indeed the work could hardly have been written by a young man.

atthat - En eso

In a beautiful verse of the Vedas of the Christians it has been said ofthe peaceful dead, that they rest from their labours, and that theirworks do follow them. Yes indeed, the works of men of genius do followthem, and remain as a lasting treasure. And though there may bedisputes and discussions about the immortality of the body or the soul,nobody can deny the immortality of genius, which ever remains as abright and guiding star to the struggling humanities of succeeding ages.

Christians - cristianos; cristiano, cristiana, Cristián

theirworks - Sus obras

followthem - Seguirlos

bedisputes - disputas

immortality - inmortalidad

his work, then, which has stood the test of centuries, has placedVatsyayana among the immortals, and on This, and on Him no better elegyor eulogy can be written than the following lines:

placedVatsyayana - olocóVatsyayana

immortals - inmortales; inmortal, inmortal

eulogy - elogio, encomio

"So long as lips shall kiss, and eyes shall see, So long lives This, and This gives life to Thee."

thee - tú; vos (en Espana)

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